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The World of Transport 1) What do transport and communications mean for advanced economies?

Transport and communications are essential elements of all advanced economies and they closely reflect changes in economy and social organization 2) What other areas do transport and communications rely on today? The development of world transport started with a wheel, but today it has become a complex system involving use of computer science, and major industrial investments. 3) What was the transport like before the appearance of professional carriers? Different firms and individuals have long transported goods for themselves and merchants were involved in maritime transport well before the era of international shipping. 4) What do transport systems have to cope with now? Transport systems now have to cope with demand for more frequent movements over greater distances, smaller shipment sizes, shorter lead times, and greater expectations in quality of service and reliability. 5) What have been the key inventions in the history of transport? The key inventions have been the steam engine (for railways and steamships), the internal combustion engine (for road and air transport) and the electric motor (for city metro systems).

Transport Communication and City Organizations 1) How has the recent revolution in telecommunications influenced firms and countries? The great impact that the recent revolution in telecommunications and transport has had on modern society confirms the idea of historical association between advances in transport and communications technologies and organization of society, economy and space 2) How is the existence of the city related to transport and communications? The existence of the city can be understood as the spatial response to the severe limitations upon the movement of people, goods and information before and during the early industrial era. 3) How did the industrial revolution and the development of the railways affect the development of the city? The emergence of national railway networks in the second half of the nineteenth century made travelling easier and enabled the explosive growth of industrialization and the industrial city 4) What is Fordism? mass production brought economic, social and geographical changes known as Fordism. 5) How did Fordism affect the development of the city? The most obvious change in spatial organization was a considerable expansion and extension of the huge cities.

WALL-E 50) Do you think that the future portrayed in WALL-E is possible? Explain your opinion in 3-4 sentencesI think that the future potrayed in WALL-E is quite possible due to mass waste accumulation. In the far future or even sooner than we think there would be no more room for waste disposal. When we consider the fact of population growth trend it is obvious that more population will mean more waste. 49) Describe the main characters of WALL-E.The main characters are WALL-E, Eve, Captain and Auto.WALL-E is a garbage compactor robot that developed sense for emotions over the years. EVE is a high tech robot from a spaceship with human population with a directive of finding signs of life on Earth.Captain is actually a pseudo captain because the spaceship is actually under the command of Auto who is given a directive of keeping a human race in space indefinetly. 48) Retell the plot of WALL-E in short. WALL-E is a story about a last garbage compactor robot on Earth who encounters high tech robot EVE from a spaceship with humans. Earth is full of trash and waste and is no longer habitable.Everything changes when WALL-E and EVE go on a spaceship with a seedling plant.Axiom brings back the ship with human race on Earth where they begin the work to restore the Earth. 47) What are the main messages of WALL-E?The main messages of WALL-E are preserving the Earth of waste disposals because of its accumulation and overcoming the bad sides of consumerism. 46) What is WALL-E?WALL-E is a garbage compactor robot given a directive to clean up the waste contaminated Earth. Postal Service in the USA 45) Post offices offer some special services; explain what express mail, special delivery and special handling mean. Express mail is a delivery that enables next-day delivery for heavier pieces od first-class mail, while special delivery is a rapid delivery though not as fast nor expensive as express mail. Special handling means a quicker delivery of third and fourth-class mail. 44) Post offices offer some special services; explain what registered mail, certified mail and COD mean.Registered mail is valuable mail that is insured and carefully controled, while certified mail means that the customer was given a receipt that proves that the mail was delivered.COD stands for Collect on delivery. It means that the person pays for the mail when it is delivered. 43) What is postage and how is it charged?Postage is the charge for mailing an item. First-class mail is charged depending on its weight, while other three classes are paid depending both on weight and the distance. 42) How is mail classified in the USA?In the USA mail is classified in four classes. First, second, third and the fourth-class. 41) What is the purpose of the postal service?The purpose of the postal service is enabling the worldwide transmitting of packages and letters.

XD Croatian First Electric Car 1) Describe the XD concept car. The small three-seat electric city concept got its name from the "X" shaped rear lights and "D" beginning letter of the company's name. 2) What makes XD a sports car, a city car and a green car? attractive features of a city carthe small lenght (2.8 meters), comfortable interior (width 1.7 meters, height 1.6 meters and the performance of a compact sports vehiclevehicle (0100 km/hr in 7,7 seconds). with zero CO2 emissions. The XD has a LiFePO4 battery lasting up to 250 kilometers per charge, and a number of impressive safety features 3) Name some features of XD. Other features include 360 degree airbags, butterfly doors, an integrated safety system for electric stability, ABS brakes and power steering. Currently, the only planned non-Croatian part will be the 32 kWh battery which can go for 200-250 kilometers with a charge time of between three and eight hours. Some of the design features include butterfly doors, a Mclaren F1-style seating position and 'x' shaped tail lights 4) What makes the design process of XD special? XD.The interesting part is that it was designed completely on a PC at home of one designer named Igor Jurkid. He designed XD all by himself on his personal computer 5) What investment options is the company considering? Foreign Investment will pay for employment of 200-300 Croatian workers and upgrading of production facilities for mass production. If DOK-ING cannot find a European investor(s), DOK-ING will look for a Chinese investor, and production will be moved to China. If a Chinese investor is not found either, DOK-ING will build the cars on order.

Navigation Devices 40) Describe the characteristics and the use of the Doppler Navigator system.The Doppler Navigator system is used in addition to the Loran system which means that it is used by aircrafts.It measures the change in frequency of a microwave reflected form the ground to obtain the information on speed, position, time, distance etc. 39) Describe the characteristics and the use of the Omega system.Omega system is used by submarines beacuse Omega system uses lower frequencies which penetrate underwater. 38) Describe the characteristics and the use of the Decca Navigator system.Decca Navigator system is used by helicopters and planes on shorter routes because it provides higher accuracy but has a smaller range. 37) Describe the characteristics and the use of the Loran system.The Loran system is used by aircrafts on long-distance routes. (It has lower accuracy but a bigger range than Decca Navigator). 36) What kinds of navigation equipment can be used on aircrafts and how does it work?On aircrafts can be used entirely self-contained navigation equipment or groundbased equipment such as radio beacons and radio navigation systems.It can also be coupled to the automatic pilot to fly the plane.Navigation equipment works by measuring time or phase differences between radio stations that radiate radio signal patterns. In that way aircrafts determine their position.

Transportation Technology Trends in Europe 1) What determines the evolution of the transport system today? The evolution of the transport system is determined by high-speed trains, high service frequencies, hub-and-spoke system, highway safety improvement, and automated urban transport systems 2) What made the future of railways uncertain and what changed this? Not long ago, the railway seemed to be losing against airline and private car competition until the amazing success of the TGV (high speed train). 3) What are the advantages of high-speed trains? High-speed trains are more acceptable than air and road travel in terms of economy, safety, service quality and environmental protection 4) Explain how TGV influenced the future of railways? The recognized success of the South-East TGV was the basis for construction of more high-speed infrastructures. 5) What is the engineers dream in railways design and how can it be realized? engineers dream of eliminating friction between moving parts

Telecommunications of Today and Tomorrow 35) What are the advantages of digitization and what makes it possible?Digitization is made possible by ISDN system . It connects telephone, computer, TV and FAX by a single telephone wire to a terminal adapter which replaces the modem and enables multiple simultaneous connections and greater quality. 34) How can channel capacity be increased?Channel capacity can be increased with the use of micorwaves and light waves (fiber optics) which have greater frequencies than radio waves. 33) Describe the two types of signals and the difference between them.There are analog and digital signals.Analog signal is a wave that varies in shape, while digital signal is a series of ones and zeros, on- off signals that does not suffer from loss of quality over distance. 32) Describe the process of transferring the signal from the transmitter to the receiver.The transmitter generates and modulates a steady electromagnetic carrier-signal and receivers demodulates the signal. The signal is carried to the reciever by the channel which can be air, wire or a satellite. 31) What equipment has been used throughout the history of communications and today?Communication in the history was enabled through the use of smoke signals, drums, light beacons and semaphores, while today communication is enabled through the use of electronic equipment such as radio, television, telephone and telegraphs.

Britain's Earliest Roads 1) What made the construction of roads in Britain difficult? bog, hills and rivers made it difficult to build roads in Britain. 2) What were the earliest British roads like and what was their purpose? The earliest road was probably of the nature of tracks for trading purposes. 3) What were the roads like in Roman times and what was their purpose? The Romans built a complete system of permanent roads to connect their military posts and trading towns. Along these roads they constructed camps to protect industrial centers and roads leading to them 4) What made Roman roads remarkable? because they represented an art which was to disappear with the conquerors themselves, but, also, because they had been directly created, and controlled, by a central authority as the outcome of a State road policy itself fated in turn to disappear no less effectually 5) What has happened to the British roads since the departure of the Romans? Unfortunately, the almost invariable practice in Great Britain since the departure of the Romans has been for the State, instead of following the Roman example, to leave the burden and responsibility of making such provision to individual citizens, to philanthropic effort, to private enterprise, or to local authorities

The History of Railways 1) Describe the development of railways in short. Railways consist of parallel tracks supported transversely by other bars to evenly spread the load. Various materials have been used such as metal, wood and stone. Such tracks were used in mining tramways in Europe during the Middle Ages, and came to England in the 16th 2) Describe the first public steam railway. The 1825 Stockton and Darlington railway, the first public steam railway in the world, used stationary steam engines on steep parts and horse traction on the rest of the track. 3) What caused the railways to be so successful? advantages of railways in transporting heavy loads and passengers were obvious and railway system kept expanding. 4) Describe how track gauges were standardized. In the 19th century Britain presented the world with a complete system for constructing and operating railways. The 1846 Gauge of Railways Act requiring standard gauge on all tracks resolved the inconvenience of different track widths 5) Where are narrower gauges mostly found and why? Narrower tracks also meant cheaper construction and maintenance of the railway. The first American train ran from Chicago in 1848, and the city became one of the worlds largest rail centers Building motorways 55) How can the costs of building motorways be reduced? The costs of building motorways can be reduced by using computer optimization. Specially designed computer programs choose the cheapest possibility from over 1000 possible alignments.The cheapest alignment is the alignment that has the lowest construction costs which are specified by the route of the alignment itself. 54) How are computer programs applied in motorway design? Computer programs are used in calculation of expenses and creating of an optimal design of a motorway. 53) What is spoil and what is borrow?Spoil is the excess and unsuitable material, while borrow is the material that needs to be brought from pits and quarries. 52) What represents the greatest part of the costs in building motorways?The greatest part of the costs in building motorways is represented by earthworks.The earth moving required for preserving road safety is the most expensive part in construction of motorways. 51) What is the optimal vertical design of a motorway? Optimal vertical design of a motorway is a design in which can be achieved the greater savings of money without any loss on quality or efficiency.