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Lesson 1 The verb

The basic element of a Sanskrit verb is the root. To the root endings, prefixes and other sounds (augment, thema) can be added. In this process, the root can be substantially changed. In the dictionaries, the verb can be usually found in it's root form. The verbs are divided into ten classes. Classes I., IV., VI. and X. are also called thematic classes, because they add a thematic vowel (-a or -) between the root and the ending. So, the root vad- (to speak) when conjugated in the VI. class has the following singular forms of the indicative present (root+thema+ending): 1st person singular: vad++mi (I speak), 2nd person singular: vad+a+si (you speak), 3rd person singular: vad+a+ti (he/she/it speaks).

The noun
There are masculine (m.), feminine (f.) and neuter (n.) nouns in Sanskrit. These can take one of the eight cases in three numbers: singular (Sg.), dual (Du.) and plural (Pl.). There are many types of declination (usually according to the final sound of the stem). Most usual and easiest are so called "a-stems", or nouns ending with the vowel a-. The singular nominative (Nom.), accusative (Acc.) and vocative (Voc.) case of masculine and neuter astems are: deva (m., "god") Nom. deva Acc. devam Voc. deva phala (n., "fruit") Nom. phalam Acc. phalam Voc. phalam Nominative case expresses the subject (I go, man speaks) and accusative case represents the object (I see you, man speaks the truth) or the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Vocative is the case of address (Where are you going, boy?).

Sandhi rules
In Sanskrit, there is an extensive set of rules for the changes of final sound and/or of initial sound of the following word. These rules exist also in other languages (for example: English indefinite particle "a" becomes "an" if the initial sound of the next word is a vowel; a cat, but an orange). But in no other language have these rules been classified and systemised as well as in Sanskrit. We will deal with them gradually. - as the word's final stays unchanged only at the end of the sentence or of the verse (atra vasati bla. Here dwells the boy.) and before consonants -k, -kh, -p, -ph, -, -, -s (atra bla kati. Here plows the boy.). Before all other sounds it is changed. As these are probably the most difficult of sandhi rules, we will come back to them repeatedly. In some words (like in this lesson the word punar, again) this - is in place of original -r sound. So, before these same consonants (-k, -kh, -p, -ph, -, -, -s) the final - is kept (puna patati, it falls again), but before all the other sounds the -r is restored (punar vadasi, you speak again). -m at the end of the sentence or the verse is to be written (in Devangar script) as a consonant with the virma. Before all the consonants it is replaced by the anusvra (-). Before all the vowels the final -m is connected to the initial vowel (which is reflected only in the devangar script). So we have bla vadati (he says to the boy), but blamadya vadati (or blam adya vadati, he says to the boy now).

Text (read and translate):


1. 2. 3. 4. atra jvmi | tatra jvasi | kutra jvati | kva vasasi |

5. vihaga patati | 6. kva vihaga patati | 7. nara ketra kati | 8. ketra kasi | 9. gha puna patati | 10. bhojana bla pacati | 11. bhojanamadya pacasi | 12. eva vadati buddha | 13. katriya kunta kipati | 14. nara pcchati blam | 15. punarvadasi | 16. npa sad rakati | 17. loka sad rakasi npa | 18. kutra vasasi katriya | 19. brhmaa sad yajati | 20. adhun bhojana pacmi |

Translate to Sanskrit (pay attention to the sandhi rules):


1. (He) always speaks. 2. You cook. 3. I live here. 4. There flies a bird. 5. How do you live? 6. You cultivate the field. 7. Where does the arrow fly? 8. The brahmin sacrifices there. 9. You always speak, boy. 10. He again asks the Buddha.

Vocabulary:
Note, in every lesson's vocabulary, first come the verbs in their root-form (preceded by a prefix, if any) and 3rd person singular indicative present plus respective verb class, then follow the nouns (substantives and adjectives) with their gender and at the end come the adverbs and particles. They all follow in Sanskrit alphabetical order. The English translations of Sanskrit words in every lesson are by no means exhaustive and usually cover only one (or few) possible meanings. k-, kati (I): to plow, to cultivate (field) kip-, kipati (VI): to throw jv-, jvati (I): to live pac-, pacati (I): to cook pat-, patati (I): to fall, to fly pch-, pcchati (VI): to ask yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice rak-, rakati (I): to protect vad-, vadati (I): to speak, to say vas-, vasati (I): to dwell kunta-, m.: spear, lance katriya-, m.: kshatriya, fighter ketra-, n.: field gha-, n.: house nara-, m.: man ara-, m.: arrow npa-, m.: ruler, king bla-, m.: boy, child brhmaa-, m.: brahmin buddha-, m.: Buddha bhojana-, n.: food loka-, m.: world (in Pl. means also "people") vihaga-, m.: bird

atra, adv.: here adya, adv.: today, now adhun, adv.: now evam, adv.: thus katham, adv.: how? kutra, adv.: where? kva, adv.: where? tatra, adv.: there punar, adv.: again sad, adv.: always

Lesson 2 Declination of the a-stems in the plural:


deva (m., "god") Nom. dev Acc. devn Voc. dev phala (n., "fruit") Nom. phalni Acc. phalni Voc. phalni

The plural indicative present forms of the verb vad- (VI. class):
1st person plural: vad++ma 2nd person plural: vad+a+tha 3rd person plural: vad+a+nti

Some irregularities of the verbs in the VI. and I. classes:


gam- (to go) and yam- (to give) change -m- to -cch-: gacchati, yacchati; sad- (to sit) changes -a- to --: sdati; sth- (to stand) changes the whole root to tiha: tihasi; i (to want) changes -- to -cch-: icchanti. Negative form of the verb is formed by adding a particle -na- in front of the verb. So: na gacchmi (I do not go or I am not going), na vadanti (they do not say, they are not saying). Sanskrit uses enclitics which are added after the word they belong to: ca (and), v (or), tu (but), eva (particle of emphasis, just): ketra phalni ca or ketra ca phalni ca (field and fruits), ketra phalni v or ketra v phalni v (field or fruits), bhojana tu (but the food...), buddham eva (just the Buddha, the Buddha only). In Sanskrit, the verb "to be" can be ommited in the sentence. Thus: nara kutra? (Where [is] the man?), bhojanam atra (the food [is] here).

Text (read and translate):


1. bla kaa diati | 2. kutra ka | 3. brhma sad yajanti devn | 4. kad grma gacchanti putr | 5. ghamatra tihati | 6. npa kva sdati | 7. nagaramadhun gacchma | 8. nagarameva gacchmi | 9. dnni yacchanti | 10. tatra dhvanti gaj | 11. gha na tyajati nara | 12. narndeva sjati | 13. grmamadya vima | 14. yad dhvatha tad patatha | 15. yatra ghi tatra nar |

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

deva brhma asanti | tath jvma | mrga diatha bl | jalamicchanti gaj | jala na spma | devnnamanti | bla kramicchati | dhanamicchma | adya ketri na kma | kad dnni yacchatha | kutra jalam |

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. Where are you (pl.) going? 2. Brahmins still sit there. 3. Kshatriyas don't give gifts. 4. Where are the elephants? 5. I want water. 6. We are leaving the world today. 7. Where the water does not flow, there the people do not live. 8. We praise the boys. 9. Do you want milk? 10. The man steps on (vi-) the mat. 11. Boys, you are pointing the way. 12. Where is the city, there stay the houses.

Vocabulary
i-, icchati (VI): to want, to yearn for gam-, gacchati (I): to go tyaj-, tyajati (I): to leave, to give up di-, diati (VI): to show, to point dhv-, dhvati (I): to run nam-, namati (I): to bow, to prostrate, to worship yam-, yacchati (I): to give vi-, viati (VI): to enter as-, asati (I): to praise, to extol sad-, sdati (I): to sit, to sit down sj-, sjati (VI): to create sth-, tihati (I): to stand, to stay sp-, spati (VI): to touch kaa-, m.: mat kra-, n.: milk gaja-, m.: elephant grma-, m.: village jala-, n.: water dna-, n.: gift deva-, m.: god, lord dhana-, n.: wealth, money nagara-, n.: city, town putra-, m.: son mrga-, m.: way, road eva, adv.: just, only kad, adv.: when? tath, adv.: thus, so tad, adv.: then, at that time yatra, adv.: where (relative) yad, adv.: when (relative)

Lesson 3 The Dual


The dual number is used in case we are dealing with two persons or things. It has always the same form for Nominative, Accusative and Vocative cases: m. n. Nom. Acc. devau phale Voc. Also the verb has all three persons in dual: 1. vad++va We (two) say 2. vad+a+tha You (two) say 3. vad+a+ta They (two) say

Vowel gradation:
This is their gradual strengthening by adding the vowel -a in front of the vowel in question. The "normal grade" is the vowel itself, the first grade is called gua, the second grade is vddhi. normal grade a i gua vddhi u

a e/ay o/av

ar al

ai/y au/v r l

Some verbs conjugated in the I. class change the root vowel into the gua grade: n-, nayati (to lead), ji-, jayati (to win, to conquer), ruh-, rohati (to grow), dru-, dravati (to run), bh-, bhavati (to be), v-, varati (to rain, to shower). But note some irregularities: guh-, ghati (to hide, to conceal), p-, pibati (to drink), ghr-, jighrati (III. class, to smell).

Sandhi rules:
If two identical vowels occur as word's final and word's initial (regardless if they are short or long) they combine into a long vowel: atra adya -> atrdya (now here), sdmi iha -> sdmha (I sit here). If these two vowels are different (regardless if they are short or long) change into these forms: a + i -> e: adya iha -> adyeha (now here) a + u -> o: tath ukta -> tathokta (so said) a + -> ar: tatra ka -> tatrarka (there is a bear) a + e -> ai: adhun eva -> adhunaiva (just now) a + o -> atra oadhi -> atrauadhi (here is the medicine)

Text (read and translate):


1. katriynnpa sarvatra nayati | 2. gandhamiha jighrva | 3. megha sad jala varati | 4. atraiva vasva | 5. jala pibanthv | 6. buddh sadaiva vadanti | 7. vk sarvatra na rohanti | 8. devau smarma | 9. devvadya smarma | 10. he npau jayatha | 11. kutra dravatha he bl | 12. iha phalni na bhavanti | 13. grma gajau blau nayata |

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

dahasi he anala | anila sad na vahati | kra jala ca nar pibanti | satya na vadatha | satyamadya na vadatha | blau phale khdata | atraiva gaj pibanti | avau kutra dravata | gaja katriya kva vahati | atrdhun na sdva |

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. Just today we both go to the city. 2. Where are both horses? 3. Just here are (two) horses. 4. To the forest run the (two) elephants. 5. The ruler conquers both fighters. 6. The Buddha speaks the truth. 7. Here stand (two) trees. 8. Where are you (two) going now? 9. Here we (two) do not live. 10. Where do you hide money? 11. Home (emphasized) go both boys. 12. They give money and gifts. 13. Where are you leading (those two) people?

Vocabulary:
khd-, khdati (I): to eat guh-, ghati (I): to hide, to conceal ghr-, jighrati (III): to smell j-, jayati (I): to win, to conquer dah-, dahati (I): to burn dru-, dravati (I): to run n-, nayati (I): to lead p-, pibati (I): to drink bh-, bhavati (I): to be, to become vah-, vahati (I): to carry, to blow, to flow ruh-, rohati (I): to grow v-, varati (I): to rain, to pour down, to shower sm-, smarati (I): to remember ava-, m.: horse anala-, m.: fire anila-, m.: wind gandha-, m.: scent, fragrance megha-, m.: cloud vana-, n.: forest vka-, m.: tree satya-, n.: truth iha, adv. here sarvatra, adv.: everywhere he, part.: oh!

Lesson 4
The full declension of the masculine and neuter "a-stems" is as follows: For masculine: deva (m., "god")

Sg. Nom. deva Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Gen. Loc. Voc.

Du. devau

Pl. dev devn

devam devau

devbhy devena devai m devya devt devbhy devebhya m devbhy devebhya m devnm deveu dev

devasy devayo a deve deva devayo devau

And for neuter: phala (n., "fruit") Sg. Nom. phalam Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Loc. Voc. phalam phalena phalya phalt phale phalam Du. phale phale Pl. phalni phalni

phalbhym phalai phalbhym phalebhya phalbhym phalebhya phalnm phaleu phalni phalayo phale

Gen. phalasya phalayo

Meaning of the cases:


Nominative: the subject (I go), Accusative: the object (I see you), the goal of the motion (I go to the city), Instrumental: instrumental and comitative sense (as the English "with"), the agent in a passive construction, as English "through", "by means of ", "because of", "by" (with the Buddha, by carriage), Dative: the indirect object, giving, telling (to the boy), Ablative: expresses the relationship "from"; is also used to denote reason (from anger), Genitive: possesive sense (elephant's tusk), Locative: the location, circumstances (in the city); it can also denote the goal of the motion (to the village), Vocative: the address (Who are you, man?). Some thematic verbs add a nasal consonant in front of the final consonant of the root. This additional consonant always belongs to the same group as the original one (ie. n for t, for c and j, m for p, and sibilants). For example: muc-, mucati (see Vocabulary). There is no indirect speech in Classical Sanskrit. The particle "iti" is used to denote quotation and direct speech (iha vasmi iti vadati katriya - the fighter says that he lives here).

Sandhi rules:
-a at the and of the word and before a voiced consonant becomes -o: nara gacchati -> naro gacchati (the man goes). If the following word beggins with a short a-, this gets lost and is changed into the avagraha (in transliteration the apostrophe is used): putra atra -> putro 'tra (the son is here). - at the end of the word and before a voiced consonant and all the vowels becomes -: nar atra -> nar atra (the men are here); nar gacchanti (the men go).

-i before any vowel (except for -i, -; see Lesson 3) changes into -y: tihmi atra -> tihmyatra. -u before any vowel (except for -u, -; see Lesson 3) changes into -v: na tu iha -> na tviha (but not here).

Main adverbs:
close far where when how question relative all yatra yad yata sarvatra sad sarvata sarvath

atra tatra kutra adya tad kad iti

why/where from ata tata kuta

tath katham yath

Text (read and translate):


1. dhanni gheu ghanti | 2. hastbhy kuntnsad kipma | 3. kra necchmi jala tvicchmti blo vadati | 4. putr sukheneha janakasya ghe tihanti | 5. megh jala sicanti | 6. rae katriy arnmucanti | 7. jala hastena ki spasi | 8. ketri lgalai kanti | 9. gaj kutrdhun caranti | 10. dukhttatraiva janako vadati | 11. katriyasya hastau npa kuta kntati | 12. katriy arnviea limpanti | 13. kumrya vipro dna yacchati | 14. janaka putrea mrge gacchati | 15. balena dukha na jayasi | 16. iva dvij hutairyajanti | 17. arayeu mg sarvatra caranti |

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Traveler walks on the way to the village. People want happiness, but not suffering. Trees do not grow on high mountains. From the city to the village goes the father with two sons. "I give gifts only to the poor" tells now brahmin to the boys. People do not live in forests. The water of clouds sprinkles the fields. Men with boys go to the forest.

Vocabulary:
kt-, kntati (VI): to cut car-, carati (I): to walk, to roam, to practise muc-, mucati (VI): to free, to discharge yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice lip-, limpati (VI): to smear sic-, sicati (VI): to sprinkle, to discharge araya-, n.: forest kumra-, m.: prince, young man

janaka-, m.: father dukha-, n.: suffering dvija-, m.: "twice-born", brahmin pathika-, m.: traveler parvata-, m.: mountain, hill bala-, n,: power, force, strength mga-, m.: deer raa-, m./n.: battle rma-, m.: Rama (personal name) lgala-, n.: plough vipra-, m.: brahmin via-, n.: poison iva-, m.: Shiva sukha-, n.: happiness hasta-, m.: hand huta-, n.: oblation, offering ucca-, adj.: high iti, part.: so kim, adv.: what?, why? kuta, adv.: where from?, why? tu, part.: but

Lesson 5 The declension of the masculine and neuter "i-stems":


agni- (m., fire) Sg. Nom. agni Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Du. agn Pl. agnaya agnn

agnim agn agnin

agnibhy agnibhi m

agnay agnibhy agnibhya e m agne agnibhy agnibhya m agnnm agniu agnaya

Gen. agne agnyo Loc. agnau agnyo Voc. agne agn vri- (n., water): Sg. Nom. vri Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Gen. Loc. vri vri vrie Du. vri vri vribhy m vribhy m

Pl. vri vri vribhi vribhya vribhya vrm vriu

vria vribhy m vria vrio vrii vrio

Voc.

vri

vri

vri

Negating prefix:
We can negate some substantive and adjective nouns by adding a prefix a- (in case the word begins with a consonant) or an- (if it begins with a vowel). For example: sukha-, happines; asukha, unhappiness, sorrow; rya, noble; anrya, "unnoble".

Sandhi rules:
- at the end of the word and following any other vowel then -a or - is before voiced consonants and all vowels changed into -r (agni atra -> agniratra, the fire is here; agni dahati -> agnirdahati, fire burns). But if the following word begins with -r, final - disappears and the vowel that precedes it is lengthened (kavibhi rma gacchati -> kavibh rmo gacchati, Rama goes with the poets). But this rule does not apply to the vowel - (kavi im vadati -> kaviri vadati, poet tells to the seer). -n is changed into - if it is preceded by -, -r or -r and if there is no palatal (c, ch, j, jh, ), retroflex (, h, , h, ) or dental (t, th, d, dh, n) between them (so, nominative plural of vri is vri). - preceded by a vowel is often changed into -r (iti i -> itiri). If the vowel is -i or -u it it can be changed into -y, -v and - can be retained (iti i -> ityi).

Text (read and translate):


1. blau kuto rodata | 2. sad dev jannmucanti ppt | 3. skteu varua eva vria pati | 4. irdukhtputra rakati | 5. npo 'sinre p kntati | 6. kavayo hari asanti | 7. satya sad vadantirayo na tvasatyam | 8. arayo jann dhana lumpanti | 9. jala gire patati | 10. vk girau rohanti | 11. asinaiva nrpatirarerdeha tudati | 12. kavayo 'dya kvynha pahanti | 13. yo putrau tatra mrge tihanti | 14. npati kavibhyo dnni yacchati | 15. ibh rmo vaneu vasati | 16. agninr ghi np dahanti | 17. hari krea yajata | 18. dso blebhyo 'nna yacchati | 19. agnirnarasya hasta dahati | 20. npatirarimasin jayati |

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. We live happily here in the mountains. Fighters burn the houses and enemies' sons weep. "You don't speak the truth", says the brahmin to the poet. From sin there is always suffering, but from the Law [there is] happiness. "O, poet, why don't you recite poetry?", asks the king. Where people burn the forests, no elephants live. "Enemies rob the houses here", weep the boys. Even today people remember Rama. Hari's horse is standing just here.

Vocabulary:
tud-, tudati (VI): to strike, to pierce pah-, pahati (I): to read, to recite rud-, rodati (I): to weep lup-, lumpati (VI): to steal, to rob agni-, m.: fire anna-, n.: food ari-, m.: enemy asatya-, n.: "un-truth", lie asi-, m.: sword i-, m.: seer kavi-, m.: poet kvya-, n.: poetry giri-, m.: mountain jana-, m.: person dsa-, m.: servant, slave deha-, mn.: body dharma-, m.: law, righteousness, Law, Buddhism npati-, m.: king, ruler pati-, m.: Lord, master, husband pi-, m.: hand, palm ppa-, n.: sin varua-, m.: (Vedic god) Varuna vri-, n.: water skta-, n.: Vedic hymn hari-, m.: personal name api-, part. also, even, even though

Lesson 6
The verbs of the IV. class are thematic verbs. Between the root (in normal grade) and thematic vowel they add -y-: kup-, kupyati (to be angry). The verb d- (to see) is irregular and defective. Only passive is constructed from this root, indicative uses different root (pa-). Therefore: d-, payati (to see, to look).

The declension of the masculine "u-stems":


atru-, m. (enemy) Sg. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Du. Pl. atrava atrn Nom. atru atr atrum atr

atru atrubhy atrubhi m atrave atro atrubhy atrubhya m atrubhy atrubhya m atrm atruu atrava

Gen. atro atrvo Loc. Voc. atrau atrvo atro atr

Masculine adjectives ending in -u use the same declension.

Prefixes:
Sanskrit words often use prefixes to alter or completely change the meaning. For example means roughly "from away to here": gacchati (to come), nayati (to bring). But if is used

separately as a preposition, it means "all the way to" or "only from": vanam (all the way to the forest), vant (only from the forest).

Sandhi rules:
-a before any other vowel then -a is changed into -a: nara gacchati -> nara gacchati (a man comes). - after any vowel and before c-, ch- is changed into -: deva ca -> devaca (and the god), agni ca -> agnica (and the fire). - after any vowel and before t-, th- is changed into -s: npati tatra -> npatistatra (the king is there), atru tihati atra -> atrustihatyatra (the enemy stands here).

Text (read and translate):


1. kavayo dhane lubhyanti | 2. gur iyayo krudhyata | 3. np aribhya kupyanti | 4. paraun vknkntatha | 5. janasya bindavo gire patanti | 6. iyai saha guravastatrodadhi payanti | 7. vipro hutamagnvasyati | 8. viumiryajati npya | 9. naro 'vamrohati | 10. ketreu jala uyati | 11. gurava iy snihyanti | 12. np ripavo 'sin nayanti | 13. blo gurave pattra likhati | 14. jan man rnicchanti | 15. girervk rohanti | 16. bhubhy jala narstaranti | 17. blau ghe hvayati nara | 18. kave putr grmasya mrge gaja payanti | 19. npo nagara katriynhvayati | 20. guru iyaca kutra sdata | 21. atrubhiradya katriy yudhyanti | 22. kimnayasti gururbla pcchati |

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Birds fly from the clouds and sit on the tree. "There stands father's house," says the boy to the traveler. The king with fighters comes to the city. By the power of [your] arms you win, oh king. We do not live here, but father lives here. "What are you writing now," asks teacher the student. In teacher's house students sit on mats and read treatises. The fighter mounts the horse and comes to the city.

Vocabulary:
as-, asyati (IV): to throw kup-, kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. or Dat.) krudh-, krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. or Dat.) +gam-, gacchati (I): to come t-, tarati (I): to cross over na-, nayati (IV): to be lost, to perish d-, payati (IV): to see, to look

yudh-, yudhyati (IV): to fight +ruh-, rohati (I): to ascend, to mount likh-, likhati (VI): to write lubh-, lubhyati (IV): to long for, to desire (with Dat. or Loc.) u-, uyati (IV): to dry out snih-, snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. or Loc.) h-, hvayati (IV): to call +h-, hvayati (IV): to call here, to call in udadhi-, m.: ocean guru-, m.: teacher, guru pattra-, n.: leaf, letter parau-, m.: axe pda-, m.: foot, footprint bhu-, m.: arm bindu-, m.: drop mai-, m.: gem, precious stone ratna-, n.: jewel, precious stone ri-, m.: heap, mass, quantity ripu-, m.: enemy viu-, m.: Hindu god Vishnu vihaga-, m.: bird atru-, m.: enemy stra-, n.: treatise, law-book iya-, m.: student, pupil saha, prep. or postp.: with (with Inst.)

Lesson 7
Some verbs with roots ending in -am lengthen the vowel in the root: bhram-, bhrmyati (to wander), kram-, krmati (to walk), mad-, mdyati (to be intoxicated); the root vyadh- is changed into vidh-: vyadh-, vidhyati (to pierce).

The declension of the neuter "u-stems":


Sg. Nom. madhu Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Gen. Loc. Voc. madhu madhun madhune Du. madhun madhun Pl. madhni madhni

madhubhy madhubhi m madhubhy madhubhya m

madhuna madhubhy madhubhya m madhuna madhuno madhuni madhu madhuno madhun madhnm madhuu madhni

Sandhi rules:
An unvoiced consonant is before all voiced consonant and vowels changed into a voiced consonant: grmt adya -> grmdadya (now from the village), meght vri -> meghdvri (water from the clouds). A final -n is before -j and - changed into -: atrn jayati -> atrjayati (he conquers enemies), devn asmi -> buddhn asmi (I praise buddhas). Before -l it is changed into l: tn lokn -> tllokn (those worlds). Before unvoiced -c and -t an appropriate vowel is inserted: tn ca -> tca (and those), tn tath -> tstath (them thus).

Text (read and translate):


1. nar putrstatrnayanti | 2. k madhune lubhyanti | 3. npate krodha ki na myatyadhun | 4. vro rae bahatrnkuntena vidhyati | 5. iradhun pin jalamcmati | 6. np akaistatra dvyanti | 7. alaya pup madhun mdyanti | 8. nar viesllimpanti | 9. rma katriynparaunkrmati | 10. guriyctra payma | 11. arayo jann ghebhyo vasni haranti | 12. manuy mtyumcchanti na tu dev | 13. blasya netrbhymari patanti | 14. jalengni myati | 15. guru iyasya ppttmyati | 16. gaj nagare bhrmyanti | 17. madhun krea ca blstuyanti | 18. guro pdau iy spanti | 19. atra vane kuto bhrmyasi |

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Fighters play for money (Ins.). Birds are flying to the tree. Tears are flowing on boy's face. Death conquers even unrighteousness. There are many things in the houses. When teacher's anger is pacified students rejoice. Bees wander around flowers of the trees. A king always shares a part of unrighteousness.

Vocabulary:
-, cchati (I): to get, to obtain, to share +kram-, kramati (I): to attack +cam-, cmati (I): to sip, to rinse tam-, tmyati (IV): to be disturbed, to grieve (Abl.) tu-, tuyati (IV): to rejoice, to be satisfied (Ins.) dv-, dvyati (IV): to play +n-, nayati (I): to bring bhram-, bhrmyati (IV): to wander about mad-, mdyati (IV): to be intoxicated vyadh-, vidhyati (IV): to pierce am-, myati (IV): to be pacified, to be finished ram-, rmyati (IV): to become tired h-, harati (I): to take, to take away, to carry aka-, n.: eye, dice adharma-, m.: unrighteousness ali-, m.: bee aru-, n.: tear ka-, m.: bear kopa-, m.: anger krodha-, m.: anger netra- n.: eye pupa-, n.: flower bhga-, m.: part

madhu-, n.: honey manuya-, m.: person mukha-, n.: face, mouth mtyu-, m.: death vasu-, n.: thing, wealth vra-, m.: hero bahu-, adj.: numerous, abundant, many

Lesson 8
Verbs of the X. class add -aya- instead of just -a- to the root (usually strengthened): cur-, corayati (to steal), vid-, vedayati (to make known); but: p-, payati (to torture). If the root ends in a vowel, it is strengthened into vddhi grade: dh-, dhrayati (to hold), bh-, bhyayati (to cause fear). The vowel -a- between consonants is sometimes lengthened and sometimes not: kal-, klayati (to wash); jan-, janayati (to give birth, to generate).

Sandhi rules:
-t at as a word's final is changed into -d before voiced consonants (except for palatals, - and -l) and vowels: meght atra -> meghdatra (here from the cloud). Before palatals, -l and -n this final -t becomes assimilated: meght ca -> meghcca (and from the cloud), lokt jana -> lokjjana (from the world people), ppt loka -> pplloka (from the sin the world), ght nara -> ghnnara (a man from the house). Before - it is changed into -ch: npt atru -> npccahtru (from the king an enemy).

Text (read and translate):


1. stena suvara npasya ghccorayati | 2. gururdaena iystayati | 3. bhty npya navnni vastryharanti | 4. pure devn vttntni pahma | 5. drasya gha brhmao na viati | 6. stre manuyasya dharma | 7. sto 'vnpayati | 8. irjalena p klayati | 9. grmjjannnagaramnayanti | 10. narau rpaki gaayata | 11. rmasya putrau rmyaa kathayata | 12. suvara pibhy tolayma | 13. janaka putrnkopddaayati | 14. ghllok gacchanti | 15. puyena sdhurdukhni prayati | 16. devniva npatlloka pjayati | 17. navna vttnta kuto na kathayasti jan pcchanti |

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Boys (Du.) wash their faces. Father tells son about fruits of sins. Merit protects from grief. Shudras are not (sth-) among twice-borns. Old stories are like trees with a lot of fruit. King counts fighters and shows [them] the way with a sword. "Why do you beat me," asks the servant the king. Why does the charioteer torture the horse? I want new clothes.

Vocabulary:
kath-, kathayati (X): to tell, to narrate kal-, klayati (X): to wash ga-, gaayati (X): to count cur-, corayati (X): to steal ta-, tayati (X): to beat tul-, tolayati (X): to lift up, to weigh da-, daayati (X): to beat, to punish p-, payati (X): to torture, to hurt pj-, pjayati (X): to honour, to worship, to revere p-, prayati (X): to overcome +h-, harati (I): to bring daa-, m.: stick, punishment puya-, n.: merit pura-, n.: old story, Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) bhtya-, m.: servant rmyaa-, n.: epos Ramayana rpaka-, n.: coin vastra-, n.: clothing vttnta-, n.: story dra-, m.: Shudra (low-caste) sdhu-, m.: holy man suvara-, n.: gold sta-, m.: charioteer stena-, m.: thief, robber navna-, adj.: new iva, part.: as, like, as if mm: me (Acc.)

Lesson 9
The verb forms we have so far learned are those of the active voice (parasmaipada, "word for another"). But in Sanskrit, besides active and passive voices there exists a third set of forms, so called tmanepada ("word for oneself"). Sometimes it is called the middle or medium voice. The distinction between parasmaipada and tmanepada is roughly described by their Sanskrit names. Thus yajati means: "he sacrifices for the sake of somebody else" and yajate "he sacrifices for himself". But this distinction between "for somebody" X "for oneself" was gradually lost and is preserved only in case of the above mentioned example. Some verbs can use both forms (without a change in meaning) whereas in case of some verbs only one of them is possible. labh-, labhate (to get, to obtain) A: Sg. 1. labhe Du. Pl. labhvahe labhmahe labhante

2. labhase labhethe labhadhve 3. labhate labhete

Sandhi rules:
-e, -o at the end of the word and before a- is unchanged. But this initial a- is lost and changed into apostrophe: vane atra -> vane 'tra (here in the forest). Before other vowels a final -e, -o is changed into -a: vane iha -> vana iha (here in the forest). But Dual endings -, -e, - are never submitted to the Sandhi changes. Also the particles of address "he" and "re" are not changed: he agne (o, fire; o, god Agni).

Text (read and translate):


1. vyorbalena tarava kampante | 2. asindyrayo mriyanta ityatra npo bhate | 3. vasn rnnpatnkavayo 'rthayante | 4. stre adhun ikmaha iti pattre harirlikhati | 5. ppddukha jyate | 6. iy vinaya udyogaca gurubhyo rocete | 7. adharmya na dharmya yatethe | 8. vio skte labhete | 9. atrarirbhnu vandate | 10. agn kate bla | 11. dhanena pallabhadhve yajya | 12. sad guro pdau bl sevante | 13. phale atra manuyasya pyostihata | 14. sahete anartha sdh | 15. vanevihark vasanti | 16. katriy sevante | 17. yad sdhavo mriyante tad moka labhante | 18. kimkase |

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The house is shaking thanks to the power of ocean's waves. The father is looking at son's face. Children ask the father for food. Why the king does not strive after people's benefit? In the forest there fight an elephant and a bear. Boys like fruit. Holy men (Du.) begin with a sacrifice. Father likes sons' discipline.

Vocabulary:
arth-, arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc.) k-, kate (I): to look at, to stare kamp-, kampate (I): to shake, to tremble jan-, jyate (IV): to be born bh-, bhate (I): to speak, to say m-, mriyate (IV): to die yat-, yatate (I): to strive for (Dat.) +rabh-, rabhate (I): to begin with (Acc.) ruc-, rocate (I): to like (Dat., Gen.) labh-, labhate (I): to get, to obtain vand-, vandate (I): to praise, to pay homage ik-, ikate (I): to learn sah-, sahate (I): to bear, to endure sev-, sevate (I): to serve, to honour (Acc.) anartha-, m.: poverty udyoga-, m.: exertion, perseverance kalya-, n.: benefit, goodness taru-, m.: tree dvijti-, m.: "twice-born", member of a high caste dhairya-, n.: patience, courage, firmness pau-, m.: sacrificial animal, cattle bhnu-, m.: sun moka-, m.: deliverance yaja-, m.: sacrifice

vyu-, m.: wind vci-, m.: wave vinaya-, m.: discipline iu-, m.: child samudra-, m.: ocean, sea

Lesosn 10 The declension of the feminine "a-stems":


sen (f., army) Sg. Nom. sen Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. senm senay senyai seny Du. sene sene Pl. sen sen

senbhy senbhi m senbhy senbhya m senbhy senbhya m sennm sensu sen

Gen. seny senayo Loc. Voc. seny m sene senayo sene

Some often used Sanskrit verbal prefixes:


anu- (after, following): anu+gacchati (to go after, to follow) ava- (down): ava+tarati (to descend) ud- (up): ut+patati (to take off) upa- (towards, down): upa+viati (to sit down) ni- (down): ni+dati (to sit down) ni- (out): nir+gacchati (to go out) par- (completely): par+krmati (to overcome) pari- (around): pari+ayati (to marry) pra- (strengthening): pra+viati (to enter) sam- (together): sa+gacchate (to come together)

Sandhi rules:
-s- is changed into -- after a prefix ending in -i or -u: ni+sevate -> nievate (to serve, to honour). -n- is changed into -- after a prefix containing -r- only if the meaning of the word is thus changed: parinayati (to lead around) but pariayati (to lead around the sacrificial fire -> to marry).

Text (read and translate):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ratna ratnena sagacchate | yad vihag vydha payanti tad sahasotpatanti | satya hdayeu mgayanta aya | hare kany rma pariayati | viorhareca bhrye kanybhi sahgacchata | rmo viuca devaraa prapadyete | yad jan gagy mriyante tad svarga labhante |

8. anna kanyyai yacchatirerbhry | 9. vana kevinmucanti vydh kau ca mriyete | 10. dvijtn bh dr nvagacchanti | 11. he iy nagarasya rathysu sdhn bhrybhyo 'dya bhik labhadhve | 12. chyymatra prabht vihagstihanti | 13. katriyasya blvirupanayati | 14. npati senay saha nagarnnirgacchati | 15. vihag ketre 'tra sapatanti |

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The student asks householder's wife for alms. In Prayaga come together Ganga and Yamuna. Sinful people do not obtain heaven. The king conquers enemies in the battle. Here on the street kings (Du.) descend from black horses. We sacrifice to gods [for ourselves] but we do not sacrifice for Hari. Student sits down by teacher's feet and studies Vedas. Many trees grow on the mountain.

Vocabulary:
ava+gam-, avagacchati: to understand upa+n-, upanayati: to initiate pari+n-, pariayati: to marry ud+pat-, utpatati: to take off ava+ruh-, avarohati: to descend par+ji-, parjayati: completely conquer pra+pad-, prapadyate (IV): to go to, to take refuge in (Acc.) bhik-, bhikate (I): to beg mg-, mgayate (X): to search for sam+ga-, sagacchate: to come together iu-, m.: arrow kany-, f.: girl, daughter gag-, f.: the river Ganga ghastha-, m.: householder chy-, f.: shadow, shade prayga-, m.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) bhaya-, n.: fear bhry-, f,: wife bh-, f.: language bhik-, f.: alms yamun-, f.: the river Yamuna ratna-, f,: gem rathy-, f.: street vidy-, f.: knowledge, wisdom vydha-, m.: hunter araa-, n.: refuge svarga-, n.: heaven hdaya-, n.: heart ka-, black ppa-, adj.: bad, sinful prabhta-, adj.: manifold, many sahas, adv.: suddenly

Lesson 11 The Passive


The passive is created by adding -y- to the root (usually in the weak grade) and using the Atmanepada endings. The nasal added to the root is dropped: muc-, mucati, pass. mucyate. -i and -u in the root is usually lenghtened: ji-, jyate, stu-, styate (to praise). Final -a is usually changed into -i: d-, pass. dyate (to give). Verbs of the X class drop -aya- but the stem usually retains the form it had in the active: cur-, corayati. pass. coryate. Final - is usually changed into -ri: k-, pass. kriyate (to do) but after two vowels is changed into -ar: sm-, smaryate (to remember), sometimes even into -r or -r: tr-, tryate; pr-, pryate (to fill). The consonant -v- is changed into -u- in these roots: vac-, ucyate (to say); vap-, upyate (to sow); vas-, uyate (to dwell); vah-, uhyate (to carry); vad-, udyate (to say); svap-, supyate (to sleep). The passive is used very often in classical Sanskrit. It is used with the instrumental case.

Text (read and translate):


1. ramea putrvadyopanyete iti ryate | 2. irnpea dharma pcchyate | 3. ghaau ghtena pryete | 4. vihag pairbadhyante | 5. janairnagara gamyate | 6. he isy guruhyadhve | 7. narai ka kriyante | 8. kavibhirnph sad styante | 9. prabht bhik ghasthasya bhryay bhikubhyo dyate | 10. kanybhy gita gyate | 11. stenairlokn vasu coryate | 12. iubh rae 'rayo npatin jyante | 13. he devau sdhubhi sad smaryethe | 14. daena iava iyante | 15. prabhtah kh bhro nareohyate | 16. avena jala pyate | 17. dharmea rjya isyate npea | 18. sarpea dayete narau | 19. stenvastyate | 20. guru mokasya mrgo diyate | 21. sdhubhi sad satyamucyate |

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Girls bind garlands (pass). Hari is again praised by Rama. Vishnu drinks water from his hand (pass). "In the shade is comfortably slept," is said by people. Grain is sown in the fields. It is played with dices. Holy man always speaks truth (pass). Jars are being filled with grain.

Vocabulary:
k-, pass. kriyate: to do

g-, gyati (IV): to sing da-, daati (I): to bite d-, pass. dyate: to give p-, pass. pryate: to fill badh-, pass. badhyate: to bind vap-, vapati (I): to sow s-, pass. iyate: to rule, to punish ru-, pass. ryate: to hear j-, f.: order kha-, n.: wood gta-, n.: song ghaa-, m.: pot, jar ghta-, n.: clarified butter, ghee dhnya-, n.: grain pa-, m.: snare, trap bhra-, m.: burden, load bhiku-, m.: Buddhist monk, mendicant, beggar ml-, f.: garland rjya-, n.: kingdom iu-, m.: child sarpa-, m.: snake, serpent

Lesson 12 Imperfect
The active (Parasmaipada) imperfect (meaning of this form is simple past) adds an augment (always a vowel -a) in front of the root. It has special endings:

Sg. 1. 2. 3.

Du.

Pl.

a+vad+a+ a+vad++v a+vad++m m a a a+vad+a+ a+vad+a+ta a+vad+a+t m a a+vad+a+ a+vad+a+t a+vad+an t m

If the root begins in a vowel, the augment makes it to change into vddhi grade: icch-, impf. aicchat (he wanted). If the verb is prefixed, the augment is inserted just before a verb (according to usual sandhi rules): pari+n-, impf. paryaayat.

Sandhi rules:
-n at the end of the word is before a vowel and following a short vowel always doubled: gacchan atra -> gacchannatra (they came here).

Text (read and translate):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. npatirnagara senayjayat | kavaya sabhy kvynyapahan | sdhorbhryay bhikave rpaki dyante | sgare matsynapayma | pustaka putryyacchajjanaka | grmasya rathysvavvabhrmyatm |

7. taro prabht vihag udapatan | 8. bhrybhirnar nagaramgacchan | 9. yad ivo viuca granthamapahat tadrtha nvggachma | 10. iy gurorgha prviannupviaca kaayo | 11. parvatasya ikhare sdhava sryasya stotramagyan | 12. irudatihatprsdnniragacchacca | 13. jayasy ntyajam | 14. vkcchkh nara paraunvkntat | 15. indro devn senaysurnparkramat | 16. prea ghyuhyante |

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. When you were ("stood") in trouble, you asked the king for protection. Brahmins (Du.) sang the praise of Rama. In the Ganga there is (vt-) flood. The teacher hit the student out of the anger. Servants brought water in jars. He cut the branch with an axe. Deers came to the Ganga and drank water. Men sat down on mats.

Vocabulary:
ava+kt-, avakntati (VI): to cut off ni+gam-, nirgacchati (I): to go out upa+vi-, upaviati (VI): to sit down pra+vi-, praviati (VI): to enter vt-, vartate (I): to be, to exist ud+sth-, uttihati (I): to get up, to stand up artha-, m.: meaning, prosperity, wealth asura-, m.: demon -, f.: hope indra-, m.: Hindu god Indra sgara-, m.: sea grantha-, m.: composition, book (text) jaya-, m.: victory, glory pustaka-, n.: book (manuscript) pra-, m.: flood, stream prsda-, m.: palace matsya-, m.: fish rakaa-, n.: protection kh-, f.: branch ikhara-, m.: summit, top sabh-, f.: congregation, meeting, assembly srya-, m.: sun, the god of the Sun stotra-, n.: ode, a hymn of praise

Lesson 13 The declension of the feminine "-stems":


nad (f., river) Sg. Nom. nad Acc. nadm Du. nadyau nadyau Pl. nadya nad

Ins. Dat. Abl.

nady nadyai nady

nadbhy nadbhi m nadbhy nadbhya m nadbhy nadbhya m nadnm nadu nadya

Gen. nady nadyo Loc. Voc. nadym nadyo nadi nadyau

Text (read and translate):


1. dsyo 'nnamnayan | 2. devrdevca harirapjayat | 3. patny sahgacchanmahrja | 4. nadystre sdhavo yogamcaran | 5. nagary rathysu bahavo jan samgacchan | 6. ivya samagry pthivy pataye nama | 7. bhani putryai jananyayacchat | 8. indry patny sahendro nandane vasati | 9. sabhy nr sundarybharanyapayma | 10. vpu pavitra jala na vartate | 11. satyameva jayate | 12. sainikai saha kumro vaneu vyghrnmgayate | 13. akaistatrodyane katriy advyan | 14. mahrjasya patnyeva mahryucyate | 15. nadn jala samudra prati dravati manuyasya jvana tu mtyu prati |

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Queen's female servants brought ornaments and gems. We bring water from the pond. Cities stand on the rivers' banks. Children played in the garden and climbed trees. Even the king came with the soldiers. Rivers come together with rivers or with the sea. Daughter is always loved by the father and the mother. The fighter married great king's daughter and became a ruler.

Vocabulary:
prati+gam-, pratigacchati (I): to come back, to go back, to return +car-, carati (I): to do, to perform, to practise mg-, mgayate (X): to search for, to hunt for vac-, pass. ucyate: is called vt-, vartate (I): to live on bharaa-, n.: robe, decoration indr-, f.: Indrani, Indra's wife udyna-, n.: garden janan-, f.: mother tra-, n.: shore, bank ds-, f.: female servant, female slave dev-, f.: goddess, mistress nagar-, f.: city nad-, f.: river

nandana-, n.: Indra's paradise nr-, f.: woman patn-, f.: wife putr-, f.: daughter pthiv-, f.: earth bhaa-, n.: ornament mahrja-, m.: great king mahr-, f.: queen yoga-, m.: yoga vp-, f.: pond, pool vyghra-, m.: tiger sainika-, m.: soldier pavitra-, adj.: clean, holy samagra-, adj.: complete, whole sundara-, adj.: beautiful namas-, adv.: hail!, glory! (Dat.)

Lesson 14 Declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems:


The declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems is identical (only -i- alternating with -u- and -y- with -v-). The dative, ablative, genitive and locative cases can sometimes take the forms of "-stems". mati- (f., idea): Sg. Nom. mati Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. matim maty mataye| matyai mate|maty Du. mat mat matibhy m matibhy m matibhy Pl. mataya mat matibhi matibhya matibhya matnm matiu mataya

Gen. mate|maty matyo Loc. Voc. dhenu- (f., cow): Sg. Nom. dhenu Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Gen. Loc. dhenum dhenv dhenave| dhenvai dheno| dhenv dheno| dhenv dhenau| dhenvm Du. dhen dhen matau| matym mate matyo mat

Pl. dhenava dhenava

dhenubhy dhenubhi m dhenubhy dhenubhya m dhenubhy dhenubhya m dhenvo dhenvo dhennm dhenuu

Voc.

dheno

dhen

dhenava

Feminine forms of masculine adjectives ending in -u are created by adding a suffix -v: pthu-, f. pthv- (broad); guru-, f. gurv- (serious, heavy); bahu-, f. bahv- (abundant, many).

Text (read and translate):


1. ntyaraya iha obhante | 2. rutau bahvu smtiu ca dharma upadiyate | 3. rtry svapna na labhmahe | 4. bahv krti dhtyvindannpati | 5. puyena mukti labhadhve | 6. bahninrae 'rivakipannpati | 7. paur kalaho 'dya prbhavat | 8. npaterbuddhy katriy kalaho 'myat | 9. dr jtayo nc gayante | 10. dvijtn jtiu brhma mukhy | 11. dharmo bhtyai kalpate | 12. jty katriyau vartethe | 13. bhmerbhga brhmayyacchatprthiva | 14. av armyanbhmvapataca | 15. rtrau steno niragacchaddhanamacorayacca | 16. makik vraamicchanti dhanamicchanti prthiv | nc kalahamicchanti ntamicchanti sdhava ||

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Vishnu is satisfied with devotion of holy women. People of many castes lived in villages. Cowherds protected cows in the forest. I worship Shiva for prosperity. Rama shines amongst boys by wisdom and courage. At the end of the forest was ("flowed") a broad river. "By the power of wisdom you overcome enemies," said a citizen to the king. It is said ("heard") that wealth of the country is in the people not in the things.

Vocabulary:
kp-, kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat.) upa+di-, upadiati (VI): to teach, to instruct, to admonish pl-, playati (X): to protect pra+bh-, prabhavati (I): to arise, to appear vid-, vindati (VI): to get, to acquire ubh-, obhate (I): to shine anta-, m.: end kalaha-, m.: quarrel, fight krti-, f.: fame gopa-, m.: cowherd jti-, f.: birth, caste dhti-, f.: courage, firmness prthiva-, m.: ruler paura-, m.: citizen buddhi-, f.: wisdom bhakti-, f.: devotion bhti-, f.: well-being, prosperity bhmi-, f.: earth, land, ground makik-, f.: fly

mukti-, f.: deliverance rami-, f.: ray vraa-, n.: wound, sore nti-, f.: peace, silence ruti-, f.: Vedic scripture smti-, f.: tradition, Hindu non-vedic scripture svapna-, m.: sleep, dream nca-, adj.: low mukhya-, adj.: main, foremost sdhu-, adj.: holy, righteous

Lesson 15 Declension of monosyllabic feminine -stems:


The declension of monosyllabic feminine "-stems" (again, Dat., Abl., Gen. and Loc. Sg. can take also the forms of standard "-stems". In addition, this can also happen in Gen.Pl.): dh- (f., thought): Sg. Nom. dh Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Gen. Loc. Voc. dhiyam dhiy dhiye|dhiyai dhiya| dhiy dhiya| dhiy dh Du. dhiyau dhiyau dhbhy m dhbhy m dhbhy m dhiyo Pl. dhiya dhiya dhbhi dhbhya dhbhya dhiym|dhnm dhu dhiya

dhiyi|dhiym dhiyo dhiyau

Imperfect of Atmanepada:
Sg. 1. alabhe 2. Du. Pl. alabhvahi alabhmahi

alabhath alabheth alabhadhvam m alabhetm alabhanta

3. alabhata

The passive imperfect is created in the same way (adyanta, they were seen).

Some more verbal prefixes:


ati-, completely, wholly: ati+kram-, atikrmati, completely overcome adhi-, above, on: adhi+sth-, adhitihati, to govern, to rule apa-, away: apa+n-, apanyati, to lead away, to carry away prati-, against, back: prati+gam-, pratigacchati; to go back, to return vi-, apart: vi+d-, pass. vidryate, to split apart If the first sound of a verbal root is a consonant s- following a vowel -i or -u of a verbal prefix, it is changed into - and retains this form even in the imperfect: ni+sad-, nidati, impf. nyadat. If the prefix ends in -i or -u it is before k-, kh-, p-, ph- changed into -i, -u: ni+pad-, nipadyate (to arise). But it is not retained in the imperfect: nirapadyata.

Text (read and translate):


1. ktsn pthiv rakasti prthiva muni pratyabhata | 2. npatiri pptpratyaidhyata | 3. harerbhryy crava putr ajyanta | 4. dhra purua riya sad nievante | 5. prthivasyj atr atyakrametm | 6. padma riy vasati | 7. dhiyo balena puru dukhni prayanti | 8. ratho 'dhyahyata rmea | 9. kavergha riyobhata | 10. i hyeth janany | 11. bhnumaikatari | 12. guroranujay kae iyvupvietm | 13. munirvarasya si dhyyati | 14. ketreu dhnya nipadyate | 15. guravo granthnracayanti iyca pustakni likhanti | 16. bhryay saha rrghamnyateti nareaucyata | 17. lobhtkrodha prabhavati lobhtkma prajyate | lobhnmohaca naca lobha ppasya kraam ||

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. [The goddes] Shri was born from the ocean. Where did you get white cows? Many tigers, elephants and bears were seen there. Rama's father was always remembered by people. Mother called (pass.) girls home from the garden. When the king talked with brahmins, he returned to the city. When was the king's son born? Many arrows were shot on the tiger.

Vocabulary:
ati+kram-, atikrmati (I): to cross over, to transgress pra+jan-, prajyate (IV): to be born dhy-, dhyyati (IV): to think, to meditate ni+pad-, nipadyate (IV): to originate, to appear prati+bh-, pratibhate (I): to answer rac-, racayati (X): to compose prati+sidh-, pratiedhate (I): to prevent, to restrain ni+sev-, nievate (I): to serve adhi+sth-, adhitihati (I): to govern, to rule, to drive anuj-, f.: agreement vara-, m.: lord, master, god kma-, m.: pleasure, desire kraa-, n.: cause dh-, f.: thought, reason na-, m.: destruction, annihilation padma-, n.: lotus purua-, m.: man muni-, m.: sage, saint moha-, m.: delusion ratha-, m.: chariot lobha-, m.: greed vasati-, f.: dwelling r-, f.: luck, beauty, wealth si-, f.: creation

ktsna-, adj.: whole cru-, adj.: beautiful dhra-, adj.: wise, firm veta-, adj.: white

Lesson 16 Active (parasmaipada) imperativ of thematic verbs:


Sg. Du. vadata m vadat m Pl. vadma vadata vadantu

1. vadni vadva 2. vada 3. vadatu

Negative imperative never uses the particle "na" but substitutes it with a special particle "m": m vada (do not say), m gacchatu (let him not go).

Text (read and translate):


1. jayatu mahrjacira ca praj rakatu | 2. k paliputra v gacchata sukhena ca tatra nivasatam | 3. gurava saneu nidantu iystu bhmau | 4. he katriy kuntnkipatenmucata duatrndaayateti krodhnnpatirdiet | 5. atithi pcchatu kutra rtrau nyavasa iti | 6. phasybhysya iyvgacchatmiti gurordea | 7. mokasya mrga blya gururdiatu | 8. devasya murterdaranya grmebhyo bahavo jan gacchan | 9. he vaiy viprnsarvata pjayata | 10. paya katha tatra rae bahavo jan mriyante | 11. gurave iy anta m vadantu | 12. anna yaccha he janani | 13. dharma carata mdharma satya vadata mntam | drgha payata m hrasva para payata mparam ||

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. "Study the treatises and speak the truth," orders students the tradition. Let charioteers do not torture horses. Let women ascend to the summit and women stay downstairs. "Give me food, daddy," asked the boy father. "Come today, daughter," said the father. Let the children show the traveler the way. Let the men dig a pond.

Vocabulary:
abhi++as-, abhysyati (IV): to study, to learn +di-, diati (VI): to order ni+vas-, nivasati (I):to dwell ni+sad-, nidati (I): to sit down khan-, khanati (I): to dig atithi-, m.: guest anta-, n.: lie, untruth

abhysa-, m.: repeating, studying dea-, m.: order sana-, m.: seat, position k-, f.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) tta-, m.: daddy darana-, n.: seeing, meeting, audience paliputra-, n.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) pha-, m.: lesson, study praj-, f.: subject, people mrti-, f.: image, form, statue vaiya-, m.: a member of Vaishya caste apara-, adj.: different, lower drgha-, adj.: long, far dua-, adj.: bad, rotten para-, adj.: highest, different adhastt, adv.: down, under (Gen.) ciram, adv.: for the long time sarvata, adv.: everywhere, thoroughly, by all means hrasvam, adv.: near, close, in proximity v: or

Lesson 17 The declension of standard and monosyllabic feminine "stems":


vadh- (f., woman): Sg. Nom. vadh Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Du. vadhvau Pl. vadhva vadh

vadhm vadhvau vadhv vadhvai vadhv

vadhbhy vadhbhi m vadhbhy vadhbhya m vadhbhy vadhbhya m vadhnm vadhu vadhv

Gen. vadhv vadhvo Loc. Voc. bh- (f., earth): Sg. Nom. bh Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. bhuva m bhuv bhuve bhuva Du. bhuvau bhuvau bhbhy m bhbhy m bhbhy m Pl. vadhv m vadhu vadhvo vadhvau

bhuva bhuva bhbhi bhbhya bhbhya bhuvm|

Gen. bhuva bhuvo

bhnm Loc. Voc. bhuvi bh bhuvo bhuvau bhu bhuva

Text (read and translate):


1. sundary bhruvau vakre dyete | 2. snubhi saha var kalaha prvartata | 3. varv kopcchocati snu | 4. vadhv snihyatu pati | 5. juhvgnau ghta prsyma | 6. he vadhu kpjjalamnaya | 7. bhruvoradhastnnetre vartete | 8. bhuvi m sdateti janan indiat | 9. durgy stutrnryo 'gyan | 10. guaireva jann hdayni vindata na tu dhanai | 11. ratnnynayeti ds rjydiyata | 12. cryasya niveanamgacchatu iya | 13. girvagnayo 'dyanta | 14. nar nagaramgacchantviti npatindiyata | 15. bhuvo bhgo brhmaydyata | 16. prthivn gu kavibhi styante |

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. People live on earth and gods in heaven. Do not look at daughter-in-law! "Take away nice clothes," ordered the householder. Let the student not argue with the teacher. Let us live there, where [is] the dwelling of [the goddess] Shri. The eyebrows of beauties are always black. There is no water in the well. Who protects the earth is called a ruler.

Vocabulary:
pra+as-, prsyati (IV): to throw d-, pas. dyate: to look (like), to seem vi+vad-, vivadati (I): to argue pra+vt-, pravartate (I): to become, to arise uc-, ocate (I): to regret (Abl.) apa+har-, apaharati (I): to take away, to steal kaa-, m.: moment gua-, m.: quality crya-, m.: teacher juh-, f.: sacrificial ladle durg-, f.: the goddess Durga niveana-, n.: dwelling bh-, f.: land, earth, ground bhr-, f.: eyebrow rj-, f.: queen lakm-, f.: the goddess Lakshmi kpa-, m.: well bhpla-, m.: ruler vadh-, f.: woman, wife var-, f.: mother-in-law

sundar-, f.: beauty stuti-, f.: praise snu-, f.: daughter-in-law vakra-, adj.: curved, twisted yvat-tvat: when... then... as far as ya-, rel. pron.: which

Lesson 18 Imperative of the Atmanepada:


Sg. 1. labhai 2. labhasva 3. labhat m Du. Pl.

labhvaha labhmahai i labheth m labhadhvam

labhetm labhantm

Imperative of the passive is created in the same way. This form is widely used especially in 3. person: kriyatm (let [it] be done), nyantm (let [them] be brought). Some verbs, otherwise active, often take Atmanepada terminations: vadasva replaces vada (say!).

Text (read and translate):


1. mahiya ghso dyatm | 2. crya labhasva pryacitta samcareti ppa dvijtaya dianti | 3. kvyni racayma krti vindma npatnraymahai riya labhmah iti kavn nicaya | 4. dharmya devnyajvah arthya krtaye ca sabhsu paitai saha vivdvah iti brhmaasya putrau bhaata | 5. bhojanasya kla pratkasva | 6. klidsasya nakamadyaivbhinyatm | 7. idn devlaye pjcarytm | 8. gurava iyai sarvatrnugamyant samyaksevyant ca | 9. satya sadocyatm | 10. viprasya kany vipreaiva pariyatm | 11. durjanasya ca sarpasya vara sarpo na durjana | sarpo daati klena durjanastu pade pade ||

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Let brahmins not cross the sea (pass). Do not neglect illnesses. Let a twice-born marry a twice-born's daughter (act). Let it be thus! Let an ascetic not converse with women. Let a king never neglects the protection of subjects. Let hymns of praise to Shiva be sung. Let women and children are not killed in the war.

Vocabulary:
prati+k-, pratkate (I): to await, to expect upa+k-, upekate (I): to neglect anu+gam-, anugacchati (I): to follow sam++car-, samcarati (I): to perform abhi+n-, abhinayati (I): to conduct, to act bha-, bhaati (I): to say sam+bh-, sabhate (I): to converse, to talk with (Ins.) +ri-, rayate (I): to depend on, to seek refuge in han-, caus. ghtayati: to kill kla-, m.: time, death klidsa-, m.: the poet Kalidasa ghsa-, m.: grass, pasture durjana-, m.: bad man, villain devlaya-, m.: temple naka-, n.: play, drama nicaya-, m.: decision paita-, m.: scholar, learned man pada-, n.: step, place pj-, f.: worship, homage pryacitta-, n.: expiation, atonement bhojana-, n.: food mahia-, m.: buffalo yati-, m.: ascetic yuddha-, m.: war roga-, m.: illness vara-, adj.: better, best idnm, adv.: now klena, adv.: sometimes samyak, adv.: well, rightly

Lesson 19 Declension of "-stems":


The declension of "-stems" is of two types: 1) agent nouns, 2) nouns of relationship. They differ only in Acc.Sg., Nom.Du., Acc.Du. and Nom.Pl. where agent nouns (and words svas-, sister and napt-, grandson) have - but the nouns of relationship (with the above two exceptions) have -a. kart- (m., agent, maker): Sg. Nom. kart Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. kartra m kartr kartre kartu Du. kartrau kartrau kartbhy m kartbhy m kartbhy m kartro kartro kartrau Pl. kartra kartn kartbhi kartbhya kartbhya kartfm kartu kartra

Gen. kartu Loc. Voc. pit- (m., father): kartari kartar

Sg. Nom. pit Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. pitara m pitr pitre pitu

Du. pitarau pitarau pitbhy m pitbhy m pitbhy m pitro pitro pitarau

Pl. pitara pitn pitbhi pitbhya pitbhya pitm pitu pitara

Gen. pitu Loc. Voc. mt- (f., mother): Sg. Nom. mt Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. mtara m mtr mtre mtu pitari pitar

Du. mtarau mtarau mtbhy m mtbhy m mtbhy m mtro mtro mtarau

Pl. mtara mt mtbhi mtbhya mtbhya mtm mtu mtara

Gen. mtu Loc. Voc. mtari mtar

Note that feminine stems differ from masculine ones in Acc.Pl.

Text (read and translate):


1. svasurghe kanye nyavasatm | 2. muktaya vara se kart manuyairbhakty sevyatm | 3. npataya prajn rakitro durjann ca stro vartanta-m | 4. strasya kartre pinaye nama | 5. jvanasya dtra iva namma | 6. bhartra bhartuca pitara mtara ca patn devniva pjayatu | 7. pitbhyo mse mse rddha yacchanti | 8. duhiturbhart jmtocyate | 9. bhrtnadyhvayateti pitdiat | 10. daridr dukhitn ca rakaena puya bhavati | 11. pitrorghe sukhena vasma | 12. pitara tteti putro vadati | 13. bhrtara svasraca vivda mcarantu | 14. pit mt ca pitarviti |

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. Let the boy meet the sister by the river. 2. The world was created by a creator.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Let servants always serve [their] masters. Grandfather delighted in looking at his many grandsons' faces. Indra is the leader of the gods in the war. Let the son-in-law think about the father-in-law as [his] own father. Givers of gifts and protectors of the unhappy are always praised. Brothers' houses were burned down.

Vocabulary:
man-, manyate (IV): to think, to suppose mud-, modate (I): to delight in (Ins.) jmt-, m.: son-in-law jvana-, n.: life dt-, m.: giver duhit-, f.: daughter napt-, m.: grandson net- ,m.: leader pini-, m.: the grammarian Panini pit-, otec; Du. parents, Pl. ancestors pitmaha-, m.: grandfather bhart-, m.: husband vivda-, m.: disputation, argument bhrt-, m.: brother msa-, m.: month rakaa-, n.: protection rakit-, m.: protector st-, m.: ruler, "punisher" rddha-, m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives, oblation for them vaura-, m.: father-in-law sevaka-, m.: servant sra-, m.: creator svas-, f.: sister daridra-, adj.: poor dukhita- ,adj.: unhappy, distressed nija-, adj.: one's, own

Lesson 20 The optative Parasmaipada:


Sg. 1. vadeya m Du. Pl.

vadeva vadema vadeta m vadet m vadeta vadeyu

2. vade 3. vadet

The meaning of optative is usually potential, what may happen in the future. Sometimes it also expresses wish. It can be also used in place of future and imperative. For negation it always uses the particle -na-.

The declension of the word go- (m., f., bull, cow):


Sg. Du. Pl.

Nom. gau gvau Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. gm gvau gav gave go gobhy m gobhy m gobhy m

gva g gobhi gobhya gobhya gavm gou gva

Gen. go gavo Loc. Voc. gavi gavo gau gvau

Text (read and translate):


1. g rakedgav rakaena puya labhyata iti dvijtayo manyante | 2. yad prayga gaccheva tad pitre pattra likheva | 3. grmamadya gacchetamiti mtarau putrvabhetm | 4. go krea iavo modantm | 5. duhitara pitarau raket svasra bhrtarau mt putrca rakeyu | 6. yadi stramabhyasyeya tad guravastuyeyu | 7. bhubhy nad na taret | 8. ivo viuca prthiva raketmiti npa nryavadat | 9. nar ketri keyu | 10. ppa netra nnugacche | 11. kavirnavna kvya racayediti patindiyata | 12. adhunaiva grma gacchema | 13. sdhurdhanya na lubhyet | 14. nar nryaca devlaye ivasya patn nameyu |

Translate to Sanskrit (use optative when possible):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Let the ruler give gifts and protect the land. Give mother's ornaments to the sister. Let the charioteer bring grass to cows and horses. May you live happily! Let cows do not roam in the forest. When I write the poem, I will read it in the assembly. Let the servants bring water to the house. Let the girls live in the house of parents and women [in the house of] husbands.

Vocabulary:
No new words in this lesson.

Lesson 21 Optative of the Atmanepada:


Sg. 1. labheya Du. labhevahi Pl. labhemahi

2. labheth labheyth labhedhvam

3. labheta

m labheytm labheran

The optative of the passive is conjugated in the same way (kriyeta, let it be done).

The declension of the word nau- (f., boat):


Sg. Nom. nau Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Du. nvau naubhy m naubhy m naubhy m navo navo nvau Pl. nva nva naubhi naubhya naubhya navm nauu nva

nvam nvau nav nave nau

Gen. nau Loc. Voc. navi nau

As you have probably noticed, Sanskrit sentences do not necessarily contain a verb or a noun. Thus: ava ghra means "the horse [is] swift"; g raket means "let [one] protect cows"; gacchati "[he/she] goes".

Text (read and translate):


1. bhrtari sten arnamucan | 2. yadi nar rute smteca vidhnanutiheyustad sdhubhi asyeran | 3. vaiy ky vijyena puplyena v varteran | 4. sadigdh nva nrohet | 5. yadi gagy vrii mriyedhva tad svarga labhedhvam | 6. jmtara vaurnsnu varrduhitaraca putrca pitarau severan | 7. brhmaairnvodadhirna tryeta | 8. atrubhirna parjyeth iti npa praj vadanti | 9. nauu yuddhamabhavat | 10. blvudyne rameytm | 11. putrasya gurave navna kaa kriyeta | 12. nbhinandeta maraa nbhinandeta jvitam | klameva pratketa nidea bhtako yath ||

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. May the friends be always remembered! Let students greet teachers with devotion (passive). Even out of fear do not say lie ("un-truth") (opt. pass.). Let women and children be taken away to the city. Let new poems be written! Let the sacrifice be even today performed in the temple. Let the brahmin not plough and serve for a living - this we read in the treatises. Let men abandon fear and fight with the enemy.

Vocabulary:

anu+sth-, anutihati (I): to follow, to carry out, to perform apa+n-, apanayati (I): to take away abhi+nand-, abhinandate (I): to rejoice at, to welcome (Acc.) abhi+vad-, abhivadati (I): to salute ram-, ramate (I): to play vi+ram-, viramate (I): to give up, to abandon (Abl.) udyna-, n.: garden ki-, f.: agriculture jvita-, n.: life nidea-, m.: order sev-, f.: service puplya-, n.: the breeding of cattle bhaya-, m.: fear bhtaka-, m.: servant maraa-, n.: death mitra-, n.: friend vijya-, n.: business, trade vidhi-, m.: way, mode; rule, direction sama-, adj.: same, equal, even sadigdha-, adj.: doubtful, questionable yath, adv.: how, as (relative)

Lesson 22 Causative
Is created from the basic verb by its conjugation in the 10 th class, that is using the augment -aya-: jan- (to be born), janayati (to give birth, to beget); gam- (to go), gamayati (to let go, to make somebody to go). Majority of the verbs ending in - add -p- between the root and -aya-: j- (to know), jpayati (to make known, to proclaim); g- (to sing), gpayati (to let sing). And also adhi+i- (to learn), adhypayati (to teach). But the causative of p(to drink) is pyayati (to make drink, to water). If the root ends in any other vowel, it is usually changed into vddhi grade: bh- (to be), bhvayati (to make something happen); k- (to do), krayati (to cause to be done). The vowel -a- between consonants in the root is sometimes lengthened but sometimes not: pat- (to fall, to fly), ptayati (to make to fall or to fly) but jan-, janayati (see above). When translating the causative, we often have to use fantasy and use appropriate verbs. So rvayati (literally "to cause to be heard") we can - according to the context - translate as "to recite", "to sing", "to tell", "to report" etc. The causative is used with two accusatives (to cause somebody to do something) or an accusative of the subject and a instrumental of the object (to make something to be done by somebody).

Text (read and translate):


1. sta | adhun sthpaya ratham | yathjpayati deva || 2. daarathacrnputrnajanayat | 3. vaiynkarndpayennpa | 4. upanayane blnnavnni vastri paridhpayeyu | 5. vyorbalena taravo 'ptyanta | 6. katriy yuddhe 'rnmrayanti | 7. ntyarthe dta prasthpayetprthiva | 8. vka vane pit putrydarayat | 9. npasya kany str madhye rpeobhata | 10. sto 'vnnadymapyayat | 11. dev loknplayeyurnpasya rjya vardhayeyuceti vipro 'vadat | 12. kumro vknakartayannavna ghamasthpayacca | 13. dvijo dvijasya putr pariayetputra ca janayet |

14. atithi gha praveayedghastha |

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. A servant reported to the king the coming of both ascetics. Let the Brahmins teach the shastras. Show (sg.) the father the books. They let the children go to the city because of (their) protection. They watered horses with water from the river. Let the householder return home. Let them allow the guests to enter. Let (pl.) the cows come into the cowshed.

Vocabulary:
adhi+i-, caus. adhypayati: to teach +gam-, caus. gamayati: to let come +j-, caus. jpayati: to order d-, caus. dpayati: to let give pari+dh-, caus. paridhpayati: to wear d-, caus. darayati: to show apa+n-, caus. apanyayati: to lead away pat-, caus. ptayati: to knock down m-, caus. mrayti: to kill vid-, caus. vedayati: to announce, to make known vdh-, caus. vardhayati: to make bigger, to enlarge p-, playati: to protect pra+sth-, pratihati: to go away pra+sth-, caus. prasthpayati: to send gamana-, n.: coming kara-, m.: hand, elephant's trunk, tax dta-, m.: messenger goha-, m.: cowshed manoratha-, m.: desire vka-, m.: wolf rpa-, m.: form, beauty str-, f.: woman madhye, postp.: between, amongst (with genitive) arthe, postp.: for the sake of vth, adv.: in vain, to no avail

Lesson 23 Pronominal declension


Pronominal declension is fairly different from the nominal one. All pronouns as well as some adjectives are declined according to this pattern. Typical for this declension is a variability of stems in personal pronouns (as in English: "I" but "me"). Personal pronoun of the first person: aham (I): Sg. (I) Nom. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. aham mm/m may mahyam/me mat Du. (we [two]) vm vm/nau vbhym vbhym Pl. (we) vayam asmn/na asmbhi asmat

vbhym/nau asmabhyam/na

Gen. Loc.

mama/me mayi

vayo/nau vayo

asmkam/na asmsu

Personal pronoun of the second person: tvam (you): Sg. (you) Nom. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Gen. tvam tvm/tv tvay tubhyam/te tvat tava/te Du. (you [two]) yuvm yuvm/vm yuvbhym yuvbhym yuvayo/vm Pl. (you) yyam yumn/va yumbhi yumat yumkam/va

yuvbhym/vm yumabhyam/va

Loc. tvayi yuvayo yumsu The abridged forms (m, me, nau, na, tv, te, vm and va) can not be used at the beginning of the sentence or a verse.

Text (read and translate):


1. bhrtaro 'smnnagara prsthpayan | 2. svasra gacchantti mahya nyavedayata | 3. kavayo 'smka gunprathayeyu krti ca vardhayeyuriti prthivairiyate | 4. aha prayge nivasmi tva tu takailym | 5. grantho 'smbh racyate pustaka rmea lekhayma | 6. amaro kvyni na rvaye | 7. yumka loknamtamiva pibmo he kavaya | 8. bhadra te | 9. anta vadeccennarake vaset | 10. mamrama vieti vnaprastho vydhamavadat | 11. mayi tvayi ca pitarau snihyata | 12. yumnaparddhasya no npatirna kameta | 13. varamadya kapota vo mayrt | 14. ardha bhry manuyasya | 15. satoa eva puruasya para nidhnam | 16. dardur yatra vaktrastatra mauna obhanam | 17. yath vkastath phalam |

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I did not steal your gold (passive). Elephants do not live in our country. I do not want your (Dual) money. Tell me the story of Urvashi, begged the boy mother. Let the gods protect your life! Mother gives food to both you and me. Let your father go with me. Our (Dual) parents died.

Vocabulary:
pra+arth-, prrthayate: to ask, to beg kam-, kamate: to forgive (what - Acc., to whom - Dat. or Gen.) prath-, caus. prathayati: to propagate, to disseminate, to spread ni+vid-, caus. nivedayati: to announce, to report ru-, caus. rvayati: to tell ("to make hear")

aparddha-, n.: transgression, offence amaru-, m.: the poet Amaru amta-, n.: nectar (the drink of immortality) ardha-, n.: half rama-, m.: hermitage urva-, f.: the nymph Urvashi kath-, f.: story kapota-, m.: pigeon takail-, f.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) dardura-, m.: frog dea-, m.: country naraka-, m.: hell nidhna-, n.: treasure pra-, m.: breath, Pl. life bhadra-, n.: bliss, happiness, prosperity mayra-, m.: peacock mauna-, n.: silence vakt-, m.: speaker vnaprasta-, m.: hermit, recluse obhana-, n.: ornament, virtue loka-, m.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anuubh) satoa-, m.: satisfaction, contentedness ca - ca: both - and cet, postposition: if vas, adv.: tomorrow

Lesson 24 Personal pronoun of the third person and demonstrative pronoun tad
he (sa, this) Sg. Nom. sa Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. tam tena tasmai tasmt Du. tau tau tbhy m tbhy m tbhy m tayo tau Pl. te te tai tebhya tebhya tem teu te

Gen. tasya Loc. Voc. she (s, this) Sg. Nom. s Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. tm tay tasyai tasy sa

tasmin tayo

Du. te te tbhy m tbhy m tbhy m

Pl. t t tbhi tbhya tbhya

Gen. tasy tayo Loc. Voc. it (tad, this) Sg. Nom. tad Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. tad tena tasmai tasmt Du. te te tbhy m tbhy m tbhy m tayo te tasym tayo s te

tsm tsu t

Pl. tni tni tai tebhya tebhya tem teu tni

Gen. tasya Loc. Voc. tad

tasmin tayo

The following pronouns also follow the same declension pattern: ea m./ e f./ etad n. (this one) ya m./ y f./ yad n. (relative pronoun which) katama m./ katam f./ katamad n. (which one [of many]) katara m./ katar f./ katarad n. (which one [of two]) anya m./ any f./ anyad n. (different) itara m./ itar f./ itarad n. (other) The following words also follow this declension, except for nominative and accusative of neuter, where they use the ending -m: sarva m./ sarv f./ sarvam n. (all) viva m./ viv f./ vivam n. (all) eka m./ eka f./ ekam n. (one) ubhaya m./ ubhay f./ ubhayam n. (both) Sandhi: The pronouns sa- and ea- follow irregular sandhi pattern. They loose the final - before all consonants and before all vowels except a. Here they change to -o and the following -a is lost. Examples: sa purua (this man), sa iu (this arrow), so 'vadat (he said).

Text (read and translate):


1. sdhava puyai saha svarga labhante na tvitare jan | 2. yya pitrddhai prayatha vaya jalena | 3. vive devs tv playeyu | 4. anye kvyairea kavi krtimasdhayat | 5. etatsarva tavaiveti bhart bhrymavadat | 6. tasminkvye 'nekni doi dyante | 7. sarv nadya samudra prati dhvanti | 8. yuvmubhayau kimekasminghe vasatha | 9. yatra dharmastatra jaya | 10. sukhasynta sad dukha dukhasynta sad sukham | 11. ava ko 'pi obhyai puo 'pi na puna khara | 12. vttena bhavatyryo na dhanena na vidyay | 13. na lobhdadhiko doo na dndadhiko gua | 14. na gardabho gyati ikito 'pi | 15. upadeo mrkhn kopya na ntaye |

Translate to Sanskrit:
1. I don't want these books.

2. In these rivers there are many fish. 3. Husbands of these women went to war. 4. In this forest I saw a lion. 5. "May I conquer [my] enemy with these heroes," said the general. 6. Poor people live in the houses. 7. Only kings are born with these signs! 8. I don't like your behavior. 9. Other people than you won't accomplish this. 10. Not everybody speaks truth (note: translate 'not all speak truth')

Vocabulary:
pr-, caus. prayati: to please, to delight sidh-, caus. sdhayati: to accomplish anta-, m./n.: end rya-, Adj./m.: noble upadea-, m.: advice, instruction khara-, m.: donkey gardabha-, m.: donkey lakaa-, n.: mark, characteristic, sign vra-, m.: hero vtta-, n.: behavior doa-, m.: fault, offense obh-, f.: splendor, brilliance, beauty siha-, m.: lion senpati-, m.: general, army leader adhika-, Adj.: bigger than (with Abl.) aneka-, Adj.: many, much, not one ka-, Adj.: thin, emaciated pua-, Adj.: fat mrkha-, Adj.: foolish ikita-, Adj.: learned prati: towards (with Acc.)

Sanskrit-English Dictionary
+cam-, cmati (I): to sip, to rinse +car-, carati (I): to do, to perform, to practise +di-, diati (VI): to order +gam-, gacchati (I): to come +gam-, caus. gamayati: to let come +h-, harati (I): to bring +h-, hvayati (IV): to call here, to call in +j-, caus. jpayati: to order +kram-, kramati (I): to attack +n+, nayati (I): to bring +rabh-, rabhate (I): to begin with (Acc.) +ruh-, rohati (I): to ascend, to mount +ri-, rayate (I): to depend on, to seek refuge in bharaa-, n.: robe, decoration abhi++as-, abhysyati (IV): to study, to learn abhi+nand-, abhinandate (I): to rejoice at, to welcome (Acc.) abhi+n-, abhinayati (I): to conduct, to act abhi+vad-, abhivadati (I): to salute abhysa-, m.: repeating, studying crya-, m.: teacher dea-, m.: order adharma-, m.: unrighteousness adhastt, adv.: down, under (Gen.) adhi+i-, caus. adhypayati: to teach adhi+sth-, adhitihati (I): to govern, to rule, to drive adhika-, Adj.: bigger than (with Abl.)

adhun, adv.: now adya, adv.: today, now gamana-, n.: coming agni-, m.: fire j-, f.: order aka-, n.: eye, dice ali-, m.: bee amaru-, m.: the poet Amaru amta-, n.: nectar (the drink of immortality) anala-, m.: fire anartha-, m.: poverty aneka-, Adj.: many, much, not one anila-, m.: wind anna-, n.: food anta-, n.: lie, untruth anta-, m./n.: end anta-, m.: end anu+gam-, anugacchati (I): to follow anu+sth-, anutihati (I): to follow, to carry out, to perform anuj-, f.: agreement apa+har-, apaharati (I): to take away, to steal apa+n-, apanayati (I): to take away apa+n-, caus. apanyayati: to lead away apara-, adj.: different, lower aparddha-, n.: transgression, offence api-, part. also, even, even though araya-, n.: forest ardha-, n.: half ari-, m.: enemy arth-, arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc.) artha-, m.: meaning, prosperity, wealth arthe, postp.: for the sake of rya-, Adj./m.: noble as-, asyati (IV): to throw sana-, m.: seat, position asatya-, n.: "un-truth", lie asi-, m.: sword asura-, m.: demon ati+kram-, atikrmati (I): to cross over, to transgress atithi-, m.: guest atra, adv.: here ava+gam-, avagacchati: to understand ava+kt-, avakntati (VI): to cut off ava+ruh-, avarohati: to descend -, f.: hope rama-, m.: hermitage aru-, n.: tear ava-, m.: horse badh-, pass. badhyate: to bind bahu-, adj.: numerous, abundant, many bhu-, m.: arm bla-, m.: boy, child bala-, n,: power, force, strength bhadra-, n.: bliss, happiness, prosperity bhga-, m.: part bhakti-, f.: devotion bha-, bhaati (I): to say bhnu-, m.: sun bhra-, m.: burden, load bhart-, m.: husband bhry-, f,: wife bh-, bhate (I): to speak, to say

bh-, f.: language bhaya-, m.: fear bhaya-, n.: fear bhik-, bhikate (I): to beg bhik-, f.: alms bhiku-, m.: Buddhist monk, mendicant, beggar bhojana-, n.: food bhojana-, n.: food bhram-, bhrmyati (IV): to wander about bhrt-, m.: brother bhtaka-, m.: servant bhtya-, m.: servant bhr-, f.: eyebrow bh-, bhavati (I): to be, to become bh-, f.: land, earth, ground bhmi-, f.: earth, land, ground bhpla-, m.: ruler bhaa-, n.: ornament bhti-, f.: well-being, prosperity bindu-, m.: drop brhmaa-, m.: brahmin buddha-, m.: Buddha buddhi-, f.: wisdom ca - ca: both - and car-, carati (I): to walk, to roam, to practise cru-, adj.: beautiful cet, postposition: if chy-, f.: shadow, shade ciram, adv.: for the long time cur-, corayati (X): to steal d-, caus. dpayati: to let give d-, pass. dyate: to give dah-, dahati (I): to burn dna, n.: gift da-, daayati (X): to beat, to punish daa-, m.: stick, punishment dardura-, m.: frog daridra-, adj.: poor darana-, n.: seeing, meeting, audience dsa-, m.: servant, slave ds-, f.: female servant, female slave dt-, m.: giver da-, daati (I): to bite deha-, m.: body deva, m.: god, lord devlaya-, m.: temple dev-, f.: goddess, mistress dea-, m.: country dhairya-, n.: patience, courage, firmness dhana, n.: wealth, money dhnya-, n.: grain dharma-, m.: law, righteousness, Law, Buddhism dhv-, dhvati (I): to run dh-, f.: thought, reason dhra-, adj.: wise, firm dhti-, f.: courage, firmness dhy-, dhyyati (IV): to think, to meditate drgha-, adj.: long, far dv-, d-vyati (IV): to play di-, diati (VI): to show, to point doa-, m.: fault, offense dru-, dravati (I): to run

d-, caus. darayati: to show d-, pas. dyate: to look (like), to seem d-, payati (IV): to see, to look duhit-, f.: daughter dukha-, n.: suffering dukhita- ,adj.: unhappy, distressed durg-, f.: the goddess Durga durjana-, m.: bad man, villain dua-, adj.: bad, rotten dta-, m.: messenger dvija-, m.: "twice-born", brahmin dvijti-, m.: "twice-born", member of a high caste eva, adv.: just, only evam, adv.: thus g-, gyati (IV): to sing gaja-, m.: elephant gam-, gacchati (I): to go ga-, gaayati (X): to count gandha-, m.: scent, fragrance gardabha-, m.: donkey gag-, f.: the river Ganga ghsa-, m.: grass, pasture ghaa-, m.: pot, jar ghr-, jighrati (III): to smell ghta-, n.: clarified butter, ghee giri-, m.: mountain gta-, n.: song gopa-, m.: cowherd goha-, m.: cowshed grma, m.: village grantha-, m.: composition, book (text) gha-, n.: house ghastha-, m.: householder guh-, ghati (I): to hide, to conceal gua-, m.: quality guru-, m.: teacher, guru han-, caus. ghtayati: to kill hari-, m.: personal name hasta-, m.: hand he, part.: oh! h-, harati (I): to take, to take away, to carry hrasvam, adv.: near, close, in proximity hdaya-, n.: heart h-, hvayati (IV): to call huta-, n.: oblation, offering idnm, adv.: now iha, adv. here k-, kate (I): to look at, to stare indra-, m.: Hindu god Indra indr-, f.: Indrani, Indra's wife i-, icchati (VI): to want, to yearn for iu-, m.: arrow iti, part.: so iva, part.: as, like, as if vara-, m.: lord, master, god jala, n.: water jmt-, m.: son-in-law jan-, jyate (IV): to be born jana-, m.: person janaka-, m.: father janan-, f.: mother jti-, f.: birth, caste

jaya-, m.: victory, glory j-, jayati (I): to win, to conquer jv-, jvati (I): to live jvana-, n.: life jvita-, n.: life juh-, f.: sacrificial ladle kad, adv.: when? kla-, m.: time, death kalaha-, m.: quarrel, fight klena, adv.: sometimes klidsa-, m.: the poet Kalidasa kalya-, n.: benefit, goodness kma-, m.: pleasure, desire kamp-, kampate (I): to shake, to tremble kany-, f.: girl, daughter kapota-, m.: pigeon kara-, m.: hand, elephant's trunk, tax kraa-, n.: cause kha-, n.: wood kaa-, m.: mat kath-, kathayati (X): to tell, to narrate kath-, f.: story katham, adv.: how? kavi-, m.: poet kvya-, n.: poetry k-, f.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) khd-, khdati (I): to eat khan-, khanati (I): to dig khara-, m.: donkey kim, adv.: what?, why? krti-, f.: fame kp-, kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat.) kopa-, m.: anger k-, pass. kriyate: to do krodha-, m.: anger k-, kati (I): to plow, to cultivate (field) ki-, f.: agriculture ka-, black kt-, kntati (VI): to cut ktsna-, adj.: whole krudh-, krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. or Dat.) ka-, Adj.: thin, emaciated kal-, klayati (X): to wash kam-, kamate: to forgive (what - Acc., to whom - Dat. or Gen.) kaa-, m.: moment katriya-, m.: kshatriya, fighter ketra-, n.: field kip-, kipati (VI): to throw kra-, n.: milk kumra-, m.: prince, young man kunta-, m.: spear, lance kup-, kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. or Dat.) kpa-, m.: well kuta, adv.: where from? why? kutra, adv.: where? kva, adv.: where? labh-, labhate (I): to get, to obtain lakaa-, n.: mark, characteristic, sign lakm-, f.: the goddess Lakshmi lgala-, n.: plough likh-, likhati (VI): to write lip-, limpati (VI): to smear

lobha-, m.: greed loka-, m.: world (in Pl. means also "people") lubh-, lubhyati (IV): to long for, to desire (with Dat. or Loc.) lup-, lumpati (VI): to steal, to rob mad-, mdyati (IV): to be intoxicated madhu-, n.: honey madhye, postp.: between, amongst (with genitive) mahrja-, m.: great king mahr-, f.: queen mahia-, m.: buffalo makik-, f.: fly ml-, f.: garland mm: me (Acc.) man-, manyate (IV): to think, to suppose mai-, m.: gem, precious stone manoratha-, m.: desire manuya-, m.: person maraa-, n.: death mrga, m.: way, road msa-, m.: month matsya-, m.: fish mauna-, n.: silence mayra-, m.: peacock megha-, m.: cloud mitra-, n.: friend moha-, m.: delusion moka-, m.: deliverance m-, caus. mrayti: to kill m-, mriyate (IV): to die mg-, mgayate (X): to search for mg-, mgayate (X): to search for, to hunt for mga-, m.: deer mtyu-, m.: death muc-, mucati (VI): to free, to discharge mud-, modate (I): to delight in (Ins.) mukha-, n.: face, mouth mukhya-, adj.: main, foremost mukti-, f.: deliverance muni-, m.: sage, saint mrkha-, Adj.: foolish mrti-, f.: image, form, statue nad-, f.: river nagara, n.: city, town nagar-, f.: city nam-, namati (I): to bow, to prostrate, to worship namas-, adv.: hail!, glory! (Dat.) nandana-, n.: Indra's paradise napt-, m.: grandson nara-, m.: man naraka-, m.: hell nr-, f.: woman naka-, n.: play, drama navna-, adj.: new na-, nayati (IV): to be lost, to perish na-, m.: destruction, annihilation net- ,m.: leader netra- n.: eye n-, nayati (I): to lead ni+sad-, nidati (I): to sit down ni+sev-, nievate (I): to serve ni+vas-, nivasati (I):to dwell ni+vid-, caus. nivedayati: to announce, to report

nca-, adj.: low nidea-, m.: order nidhna-, n.: treasure ni+gam-, nirgacchati (I): to go out ni+pad-, nipadyate (IV): to originate, to appear nija-, adj.: one's, own niveana-, n.: dwelling nicaya-, m.: decision npa-, m.: ruler, king npati-, m.: king, ruler p-, playati: to protect p-, pibati (I): to drink pac-, pacati (I): to cook pda-, m.: foot, footprint pada-, n.: step, place padma-, n.: lotus pl-, playati (X): to protect paita-, m.: scholar, learned man pi-, m.: hand, palm pini-, m.: the grammarian Panini ppa-, adj.: bad, sinful ppa-, n.: sin para-, adj.: highest, different par+ji-, parjayati: completely conquer parau-, m.: axe pari+dh-, caus. paridhpayati: to wear pari+n-, pariayati: to marry prthiva-, m.: ruler parvata-, m.: mountain, hill pat-, caus. ptayati: to knock down pat-, patati (I): to fall, to fly paliputra-, n.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) pah-, pahati (I): to read, to recite pha-, m.: lesson, study pathika-, m.: traveler pati-, m.: Lord, master, husband patn-, f.: wife pattra-, n.: leaf, letter paura-, m.: citizen pavitra-, adj.: clean, holy pa-, m.: snare, trap pau-, m.: sacrificial animal, cattle puplya-, n.: the breeding of cattle p-, payati (X): to torture, to hurt pitmaha-, m.: grandfather pit-, otec; Du. parents, Pl. ancestors p-, prayati (X): to overcome p-, pass. pryate: to fill pr.ch-, pcchati (VI): to ask pra+arth-, prrthayate: to ask, to beg pra+as-, prsyati (IV): to throw pra+bh-, prabhavati (I): to arise, to appear pra+jan-, prajyate (IV): to be born pra+pad-, prapadyate (IV): to go to, to take refuge in (Acc.) pra+sth-, caus. prasthpayati: to send pra+sth-, pratihati: to go away pra+vi-, praviati (VI): to enter pra+vt-, pravartate (I): to become, to arise prabhta-, adj.: manifold, many praj-, f.: subject, people pra-, m.: breath, Pl. life prsda-, m.: palace

prath-, caus. prathayati: to propagate, to disseminate, to spread prati: towards (with Acc.) prati+bh-, pratibhate (I): to answer prati+gam-, pratigacchati (I): to come back, to go back, to return prati+k-, pratkate (I): to await, to expect prati+sidh-, pratiedhate (I): to prevent, to restrain prayga-, m.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) pryacitta-, n.: expiation, atonement pr-, caus. prayati: to please, to delight pthiv-, f.: earth pj-, pjayati (X): to honour, to worship, to revere pj-, f.: worship, homage punar, adv.: again puya-, n.: merit pra-, m.: flood, stream pura-, n.: old story, Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) purua-, m.: man pupa-, n.: flower pua-, Adj.: fat pustaka-, n.: book (manuscript) putra, m.: son putr-, f.: daughter -, cchati (I): to get, to obtain, to share rac-, racayati (X): to compose rj-, f.: queen rjya-, n.: kingdom rak-, rakati (I): to protect rakaa-, n.: protection rakaa-, n.: protection rakit-, m.: protector ram-, ramate (I): to play rma-, m.: Rama (personal name) rmyaa-, n.: epos Ramayana raa-, m.: battle ratha-, m.: chariot rathy-, f.: street ratna-, f,: gem ratna-, n.: jewel, precious stone ri-, m.: heap, mass, quantity rami-, f.: ray ripu-, m.: enemy ka-, m.: bear roga-, m.: illness i-, m.: seer ruc-, rocate (I): to like (Dat., Gen.) rud-, rodati (I): to weep ruh-, rohati (I): to grow rpa-, m.: form, beauty rpaka-, n.: coin sabh-, f.: congregation, meeting, assembly sad-, sdati (I): to sit, to sit down sad, adv.: always sdhu-, adj.: holy, righteous sdhu-, m.: holy man sgara-, m.: sea sah-, sahate (I): to bear, to endure saha, prep. or postp.: with (with Inst.) sahas, adv.: suddenly sainika-, m.: soldier sadigdha-, adj.: doubtful, questionable satoa-, m.: satisfaction, contentedness sam++car-, samcarati (I): to perform

sam+bh-, sabhate (I): to converse, to talk with (Ins.) sam+ga-, sagacchate: to come together sama-, adj.: same, equal, even samagra-, adj.: complete, whole samudra-, m.: ocean, sea samyak, adv.: well, rightly sarpa-, m.: snake, serpent sarvata, adv.: everywhere, thoroughly, by all means sarvatra, adv.: everywhere satya-, n.: truth senpati-, m.: general, army leader sev-, sevate (I): to serve, to honour (Acc.) sev-, f.: service sevaka-, m.: servant sic-, sicati (VI): to sprinkle, to discharge sidh-, caus. sdhayati: to accomplish siha-, m.: lion sm-, smarati (I): to remember smti-, f.: tradition, Hindu non-vedic scripture snih-, snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. or Loc.) snu-, f.: daughter-n-law sp-, spati (VI): to touch sra-, m.: creator sj-, sjati (VI): to create si-, f.: creation stena-, m.: thief, robber sth-, tihati (I): to stand, to stay stotra-, n.: ode, a hymn of praise str-, f.: woman stuti-, f.: praise sukha-, n.: happiness skta-, n.: Vedic hymn sundara-, adj.: beautiful sundar-, f.: beauty srya-, m.: sun, the god of the Sun sta-, m.: charioteer suvara-, n.: gold svapna-, m.: sleep, dream svarga-, n.: heaven svas-, f.: sister ta-, tayati (X): to beat tad, adv.: then, at that time takail-, f.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) tam-, tmyati (IV): to be disturbed, to grieve (Abl.) taru-, m.: tree tta-, m.: daddy tath, adv.: thus, so tatra, adv.: there tra-, n.: shore, bank t-, tarati (I): to cross over tu, part.: but tud-, tudati (VI): to strike, to pierce tul-, tolayati (X): to lift up, to weigh tu-, tuyati (IV): to rejoice, to be satisfied (Ins.) tyaj-, tyajati (I): to leave, to give up ucca-, adj.: high ud+pat-, utpatati: to take off ud+sth-, uttihati (I): to get up, to stand up udadhi-, m.: ocean udyna-, n.: garden udyna-, n.: garden udyoga-, m.: exertion, perseverance

upa+di-, upadiati (VI): to teach, to instruct, to admonish upa+k-, upekate (I): to neglect upa+n-, upanayati: to initiate upa+vi-, upaviati (VI): to sit down upadea-, m.: advice, instruction urva-, f.: the nymph Urvashi v: or vac-, pass. ucyate: is called vad-, vadati (I): to speak, to say vadh-, f.: woman, wife vah-, vahati (I): to carry, to blow, to flow vaiya-, m.: a member of Vaishya caste vakra-, adj.: curved, twisted vakt-, m.: speaker vana-, n.: forest vnaprasta-, m.: hermit, recluse vand-, vandate (I): to praise, to pay homage vijya-, n.: business, trade vap-, vapati (I): to sow vp-, f.: pond, pool vara-, adj.: better, best vri-, n.: water varua-, m.: (Vedic god) Varuna vas-, vasati (I): to dwell vasati-, f.: dwelling vastra-, n.: clothing vasu-, n.: thing, wealth vyu-, m.: wind vi+ram-, viramate (I): to give up, to abandon (Abl.) vi+vad-, vivadati (I): to argue vci-, m.: wave vid-, caus. vedayati: to announce, to make known vid-, vindati (VI): to get, to acquire vidhi-, m.: way, mode; rule, direction vidy-, f.: knowledge, wisdom vihaga-, m.: bird vihaga-, m.: bird vinaya-, m.: discipline vipra-, m.: brahmin vra-, m.: hero vra-, m.: hero viu-, m.: Hindu god Vishnu vivda-, m.: disputation, argument vi-, viati (VI): to enter via-, n.: poison vraa-, n.: wound, sore vdh-, caus. vardhayati: to make bigger, to enlarge vka-, m.: wolf vka-, m.: tree v-, varati (I): to rain, to pour down, to shower vt-, vartate (I): to be, to exist vt-, vartate (I): to live on vth, adv.: in vain, to no avail vtta-, n.: behavior vttnta-, n.: story vyadh-, vidhyati (IV): to pierce vydha-, m.: hunter vyghra-, m.: tiger as-, asati (I): to praise, to extol kh-, f.: branch am-, myati (IV): to be pacified, to be finished nti-, f.: peace, silence

ara-, m.: arrow araa-, n.: refuge s-, pass. iyate: to rule, to punish st-, m.: ruler, "punisher" stra-, n.: treatise, law-book atru-, m.: enemy ikhara-, m.: summit, top ik-, ikate (I): to learn ikita-, Adj.: learned iya-, m.: student, pupil iva-, m.: Shiva iu-, m.: child iu-, m.: child loka-, m.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anuubh) obh-, f.: splendor, brilliance, beauty obhana-, n.: ornament, virtue rddha-, m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives, oblation for them ram-, rmyati (IV): to become tired r-, f.: luck, beauty, wealth ru-, caus. rvayati: to tell ("to make hear") ru-, pass. ryate: to hear ruti-, f.: Vedic scripture ubh-, obhate (I): to shine uc-, ocate (I): to regret (Abl.) dra-, m.: Shudra (low-caste) u-, uyati (IV): to dry out vas, adv.: tomorrow var-, f.: mother-in-law vaura-, m.: father-in-law veta-, adj.: white ya-, rel. pron.: which yad, adv.: when (relative) yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice yaja-, m.: sacrifice yam-, yacchati (I): to give yamun-, f.: the river Yamuna yat-, yatate (I): to strive for (Dat.) yath, adv.: how, as (relative) yati-, m.: ascetic yatra, adv.: where (relative) yvat-tvat: when then, as far as yoga-, m.: yoga yuddha-, m.: war yudh-, yudhyati (IV): to fight

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 1):


1. I live here. 2. You live there. 3. Where does he live? 4. Where do you dwell? 5. The bird flies. 6. Where does the bird fly? 7. Man cultivates the field. 8. You cultivate the field. 9. The house falls again. 10. The boy cooks food. 11. You cook food today. 12. Thus says the Buddha. 13. The fighter throws a spear. 14. The man asks the boy.

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

You speak again. The ruler always protects. You always protect the world, ruler. Where do you dwell, fighter? The brahmin always sacrifices. Now I cook food.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 1):


1. sad vadati | 2. pacasi | 3. atra jvmi | 4. tatra vihaga patati | 5. katha jvasi | 6. ketra kasi | 7. kva ara patati | 8. tatra yajati brhmaa | 9. sad vadasi bla | 10. punarbuddha pcchati |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 2):


1. The boy points to the mat. 2. Where are the mats? 3. Brahmins always sacrifice to the gods. 4. When are the sons going to the village? 5. Here stands a house. 6. Where sits the ruler? 7. Now we are going to the city. 8. I go just to the city. 9. They give gifts. 10. There are running the elephants. 11. The man does not leave the house. 12. The god creates people. 13. Today we enter the village. 14. When you (pl.) run, you fall. 15. Where there are houses, there are people. 16. Brahmins praise the god. 17. Thus we live. 18. Boys, you are pointing the way. 19. Elephants want water. 20. We do not touch water. 21. They worship gods. 22. The boy wants milk. 23. We want wealth. 24. Today we do not cultivate fields. 25. When are you giving gifts? 26. Where is water?

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 2):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. kutra gacchatha | brhma sad tatra sdanti | dnni na yacchanti katriy | kutra gaj | jalamicchmi | adya loka tyajma | yatra jala na dhvati tatra na vasanti nar | blnasma | kramicchatha |

10. nara kaa viati | 11. mrga diatha bl | 12. yatra nagara tatra ghi tihanti |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 3):


1. The king leads fighters everywhere. 2. We (two) smell the scent here. 3. The cloud always pours down water. 4. Just here we (two) live. 5. The horses drink water here. 6. The Buddhas always say so. 7. Trees do not grow everywhere. 8. We remember (two) gods. 9. Today we remember (two) gods. 10. Oh, (two) rulers, you conquer. 11. Where are you running, boys? 12. Here there are no fruits. 13. (Two) boys lead (two) elephants to the village. 14. You burn, oh fire. 15. The wind does not always blow. 16. People drink milk and water. 17. You (two) are not saying the truth. 18. Now you are not saying the truth. 19. (Two) boys are eating (two) fruits. 20. The elephants drink just here. 21. Where are the (two) horses running? 22. Where does the elephant carry the fighter? 23. Now we (two) are not sitting here.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 3):


1. adyaiva nagara gacchva | 2. kutrvau | 3. atraivvau | 4. gajau vana dravata | 5. npa katriyau jayati | 6. buddha satya vadati | 7. iha vkau tihata | 8. kvdhun gacchata | 9. atra na vasva | 10. kutra dhana ghasi | 11. ghameva blau gacchata | 12. dhana dnni ca yacchanti | 13. kutra narau nayatha |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 4):


1. They hide treasures in the houses. 2. We always throw spears with both hands. 3. I do not want milk but I want water, says the boy. 4. The sons here happily live in the father's house. 5. The clouds discharge water. 6. Fighters in the battle discharge arrows. 7. Why do you touch the water with the hand? 8. They cultivate fields with ploughs. 9. Where do the elephants walk today? 10. The father thus speaks there out of anger. 11. Why does the king cut fighter's hands? 12. Fighters smear the arrows with poison.

13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Brahmin gives gifts to the prince. The father with son goes on the road. You (can) not overpower suffering by force. Twice-borns sacrifice oblations to Shiva. Everywhere in the forests roam deers.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 4):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. pathiko mrge grma gacchati | nar sukhamicchanti na tu dukham | ucceu parvateu vk na rohanti | grma nagartputrbhy janako gacchati | daridryaiva dnni yacchmtyadhun vipro blebhyo vadati | ihrayeu nar na vasanti | meghn jala ketri sicati | vana gacchanti nar blai |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 5):


1. Why do boys (Du.) weep? 2. Gods always free people from the sin. 3. Just Varuna is in the Vedic hymns the Lord of Water. 4. The seer protects the son from suffering. 5. The king cuts enemy's hands (Du.) with a sword. 6. Poets praise Hari (another name of Vishnu, a Hindu god). 7. Seers always speak the truth, not a lie. 8. Enemies rob people's wealth. 9. Water falls from the mountain. 10. Trees grow on the mountain. 11. The king pierces enemy's body with a sword. 12. Poets here recite poetry (Pl.) today. 13. Seers' (Du.) sons (Du.) are standing there on the road. 14. The king gives gifts to poets. 15. Rama lives in forests with seers. 16. Kings burn enemies' houses with fire. 17. They sacrifice (Du.) milk to Hari (Vishnu). 18. The servant gives food to the boys. 19. Fire burns man's hand. 20. The king conquers the enemy with a sword.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 5):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. giriviha sukhena jvma | katriy ghi dahantyar putr rodanti ca | satya na vadasti kavaye brhmao vadati | pptsad dukha bhavati dharmttu sukham | he kave kvya kuto na pahasti npati pcchati | yatra jan vanni dahanti tatra gaj na jvanti | arayo 'tra ghi lumpantti bl rodanti | adypi jan rma smaranti | hareravo 'traiva tihati |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 6):


1. Poets desire wealth. 2. Teachers (Du.) are angry with students (Du.) 3. Kings are angry with enemies.

4. You cut the trees with an axe. 5. Drops of water fall from the mountain. 6. Teachers with students are looking at the ocean there. 7. Brahmin throws an oblation to the fire. 8. The seer sacrifices to Vishnu for the king. 9. The man mounts the horse. 10. Water on the fields dries out. 11. Teachers like students. 12. Enemies of kings perish by sword. 13. The boy writes a letter to the teacher. 14. People desire heaps of gems. 15. Trees grow only from the mountain. 16. People cross over the water by [means of] arms (Du.). 17. The man calls boys (Du.) to the house. 18. Poet's sons see an elephant on the road to the village. 19. The king calls fighters to the city. 20. Where do teacher and student sit? 21. The fighters today fight with enemies. 22. "What are you bringing," asks teacher the boy.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise (Lesson 6):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. meghebhyo vihag patanti vkeu sdanti ca | tatra janakasya gha tihatti bla pathika vadati | katriyairnpo nagaramgacchati | bhvorbalena jayasi he npa | atra na vasmo janakastvatra vasati | kimadhun likhasti iya guru pcchati | gurorghe iy kueu sdanti stri pahanti ca | katriyo 'vamrohati nagaramgacchati ca |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 7):


1. Men bring sons there. 2. Bears desire honey. 3. Why is king's anger not pacified today? 4. A hero in the battle pierce many enemies with a spear. 5. The seer now sips water with a hand. 6. Kings play a dice (Pl.) there. 7. Bees are intoxicated by honey of flowers. 8. Men smear swords with poison. 9. Rama attacks fighters with an axe. 10. We see teachers and students here. 11. Enemies take away things from people's houses. 12. People obtain death, but not gods. 13. From boy's eyes fall tears. 14. Fire is extinguished by water. 15. Teacher grieve student's sin. 16. Elephants wander about in the city. 17. Boys are satisfied with honey and milk. 18. Students touch teacher's feet. 19. Why do you wander about here in the forest?

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 7):


1. katriy dhanena dvyanti | 2. vihag vrkampatanti |

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

blasya mukhe 'ri vahanti | mtyuradharmamapi jayati | gheu bahni vastni | yad guro krodha myati tad iystuyanti | vk pupevalayo bhrmyanti | adharmasya bhga npa sadacchati |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 8):


1. A robber steals gold from king's house. 2. The teacher beats students with a stick. 3. Servants bring the king new clothes. 4. In the Purana we read stories of the gods. 5. A Brahmin doesn't enter Shudra's house. 6. In the law-book is person's law. 7. The charioteer tortures the horses. 8. The seer washes [his] hands (Du.) with water. 9. They bring people from the village to the city. 10. Men (Du.) count coins. 11. Rama's sons (Du.) narrate the Ramayana. 12. We weigh the gold with hands (Du.). 13. The father out of anger punishes his sons. 14. People are coming out of the house. 15. The holy man overcomes suffering (Pl.) with merit. 16. The world worships kings like gods. 17. "Why don't you tell a new story," ask people.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 8):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. blau mukhe klayata | ppn phalni janaka putrya kathayanti | puyni dukhdrakanti | dr dvijeu na tihanti | purni bahubhi phalairvk iva | npati katriyngaayatyasin mrga diati ca | kuto m tayasti bhtyo npa pcchati | kuta sto 'vnpayati | navnni vastrcchmi |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 9):


1. Trees are shaking thanks to the power of the wind. 2. "Enemies today die by sword," says the king. 3. Poets ask the king for heaps of things. 4. "Now we study two treatises," writes Hari in the letter (note that stre is not a Loc.Sg., but Nom.Du., because there are no Sandhi changes). 5. From sin, grief is born. 6. Teachers like discipline and perseverance of students. 7. You (Du.) strive for unrighteousness not for the law. 8. Seers (Du.) are getting hymns (Du.) from Vishnu. 9. A seer here pays homage to the sun. 10. The boy looks at the fires (Du.). 11. For the money you obtain animals for the sacrifice. 12. The boys always honour teacher's feet. 13. Here on person's palms (Du.) are fruits (Du.). 14. Holy men (Du.) endure poverty. 15. Here in forests live bears.

16. Fighters honour the seers (Du.). 17. When holy men die, they obtain deliverance. 18. What are you looking at?

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 9):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. udadhervcn balena gha kampate | putrasya mukha janaka kate | iavo janakamannamarthayante | kuto npatirjanasya kalyya na yatate | tatra vane gaja kaca yudhyete | blebhyo phani rocante | sdh yajamrabhete | putr vinayo janakya rocate |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 10):


1. A gem comes together with a gem. 2. When the birds see a hunter they suddenly take off. 3. Seers search for the truth in the hearts. 4. Rama marries Hari's daughter. 5. The wives (Du.) of Vishnu and Hari are coming with daughters. 6. Rama and Vishnu take refuge in the gods. 7. When people die in the Ganga they obtain heaven. 8. Seer's wife gives food to the daughter. 9. Hunters in the forest discharge arrows on bears and two black ones die. 10. Shudras do not understand the language of twice-borns. 11. Students, today you obtain alms in the city streets from the wives of the holy men. 12. Here in the shade there are many birds. 13. The seer initiates fighter's sons (Du.). 14. King with the army goes out of the city. 15. Here on the field the birds fly together.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 10):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. iyo ghasthasya bhry bhikmarthayate | prayge gag yamun ca sagacchete | pp manuy svarga na labhante | rae npa atrnparjayati | atra rathyy npau kbhymavbhymavarohata | devnyajmahe na tu haraye yajma | guro pdayo iyo nidati vedikate ca | girau bahavo vk rohanti |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 11):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. It is said ("heard") that Rama initiates (pass.) his sons (Du.) today. The king asks (pass.) a seer about Dharma. Jars (Du.) are being filled with ghee. Birds are being bidden by snares. People go to the city (pass.). Students, you are called by the teacher. Men make mats (pass.). Rulers are always praised by poets. Householder's wife gives (pass.) many alms to the monks.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Girls (Du.) sing a song (pass.). Thieves steal people's wealth. In the battle enemies are defeated by the king with arrows. Gods (Du.), holy men always remember you (pass.). Children are being punished by a stick. Big load of wood is being carried by a man. A horse drinks water (pass.). The king rules (pass.) the kingdom righteously. Men (Du.) are being bitten by a snake. The charioteer beats the horse (pass.). The road to the deliverance is being shown by the teacher. Holy men always speak the truth (pass.).

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 11):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. ml kanybhirbadhyante | punarhar rmea vandyate | pin jala viun pyate | sukhena chyy supyata iti janairucyate | dhnya ketrepyate | akairdvyate | sdhun sad satyamucyate | gha dhnyena pryante |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 12):


1. The king with army conquered the city. 2. Poets recited poetry in the assembly. 3. The wife of the holy man gives (pass.) coins to the beggar. 4. In the sea we saw fish (pl.). 5. The father gave the son a book. 6. In the village streets wandered horses (Du.). 7. Many birds took off the tree. 8. Men with wives came to the city. 9. When Shiva and Vishnu recited the book we did not understand the meaning. 10. Students entered teacher's house and sat down on the mats (Du.). 11. On the summit of the mountain holy men sang praise of the Sun. 12. Seer got up and went out of the palace. 13. We did not give up a hope of victory. 14. Man cut off the branch from the tree with an axe. 15. Indra with an army of gods overcame demons. 16. The houses are carried away by the flood.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 12):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. yadnarthe 'tihata tad npasya rakaamaicchata | brhmaau rmasya stotramagyatm | gagy pro vartate | guru krodhcchiyamatayat | ds ghaeu jalamnayat | paraun khmavkntat | mg gagymgacchajalamapibaca | nar kaepvian |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 13):


1. Female servants brought food. 2. Hari worshipped goddesses and gods. 3. The great king came with the wife. 4. On the river's bank holy men practised yoga. 5. On the city streets assembled many people. 6. Glory to Shiva, the Lord of the whole earth. 7. Mother gave ornaments to the daughter. 8. Indra with [his] wife Indrani live in Nandana. 9. In the assembly we saw many beautiful robes of women. 10. In ponds there is no clean water. 11. Truth prevails. 12. The prince with soldiers hunts for deers in forests. 13. Fighters played dice in the garden there. 14. Great king's wife is called queen. 15. The water of rivers runs towards the sea, but the life of human towards death.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 13):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. mahry dsyo bhani ratnni charan | vpy jalamnayma | nagari nadn treu ti.thanti | bl udyne 'dvyanvknrohaca | sainikai saha mahrjo 'pygacchat | nadyo nadbhi samudrea v sagacchante | putr sad janakena janany ca snihyate | katriyo mahrjasya putr paryaayannpatirabhavacca |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 14):


1. The seers here shine with peace. 2. In the Vedas and many scriptures righteousness is being taught. 3. In the night we did not get sleep. 4. The king acquired much fame through courage. 5. You (Pl.) obtain deliverance by merit. 6. The king in the battle threw many arrows on enemies. 7. Today there was a quarrel amongst citizens. 8. By the king's wisdom, the quarrel of fighters was pacified. 9. The castes of Shudras are counted as low. 10. Amongst the castes of twice-borns, the brahmins are foremost. 11. The Dharma leads to well-being. 12. You (Du.) are fighters by birth. 13. The king gave to the brahmin a part of the land. 14. The horses got tired and fell to the ground. 15. In the night, a robber came and stole money. 16. Flies want wounds, kings want wealth, low ones want quarrel, righteous ones want peace.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 14):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. sdhvn nr bhakty viustuyati | bahvn jtn nar grmevavasan | gop vaneu dhenraplayan | bhtaye iva nammi | bleu rmo buddhy ca dhty ca obhate |

6. vanasynte pthv nadyavahat | 7. buddherbalena atrjayasti pauro npatimavadat | 8. pthivy dhana janeu na tu vasviti ryate |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 15):


1. "You protect the whole earth," replied the sage to the king. 2. The king was restrained from a sin by the seer. 3. Hari's wife gave birth to beautiful sons. 4. Luck (Pl.) always serves to a wise man. 5. Enemies (Du.) transgressed king's order. 6. Lotus is the dwelling of [goddess] Shri. 7. Men overcome suffering by the power of reason. 8. The chariot is driven by Rama. 9. Poet's house shines by wealth. 10. Children (Du.), you are called by the mother. 11. The seer stared at the sun. 12. With teacher's permission, students (Du.) sat down on the mat. 13. The sage meditates upon Lord's creation. 14. In the fields grows ("appears") grain. 15. Teachers compose books and students write manuscripts. 16. "With the wife, [the goddess] Shri was led into the house," said (pass.) the man. 17. From greed arises anger, from greed desire is born, from greed [there is] delusion and destruction, greed is the cause of sin.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 15):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. rrudadherajyata | vet dhen kuto 'labhadhvam | bahavo vyghr gaj kca tatrdyanta | rmasya janako janai sadsmaryata | kany udynjjananyhyanta | yad npo brhmaai samabhata tad nagara pratyagacchat | kad npate putro 'jyata | vyghre bahava ar amucyanta |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 16):


1. Let the king win and protect subjects for a long time. 2. Go (Du.) to Kashi or Pataliputra and dwell there happily. 3. Teachers let sit on chairs, but students on the floor. 4. "Fighters, throw spears, discharge arrows and punish the bad enemies," orders the ruler angrily. 5. Let him ask the guest where did he spend the night. 6. "Let students (Du.) come to repeat the lesson," is teacher's order. 7. Let teacher show the boy the road to deliverance. 8. Many people came from the villages to see god's statue. 9. Vaishyas, by all means respect the brahmins. 10. Look, how many people die there in the battle. 11. Let the students say no lie to the teacher. 12. Give [me] food, mother. 13. Practise the law, not unrighteousness, speak truth, not lie, look far, not close, look at the highest, not at the lower.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 16):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. stryabhysyata satya vadata ceti ruti iyndiati | st avnm payantu | nar ikharamrohantu nryacdhyastttihantu | anna yaccha tteti blo janakamrthayata | adyaivgaccha he putrti janako 'vadat | iava pathikya mrga diantu | nar vp khanantu |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 17):


1. Eyebrows (Du.) of beauties look curved. 2. There arose an argument of mothers-in-law with daughters-in-law. 3. The daughter-in law regrets anger of the mother-in-law. 4. Let the husband love the wife. 5. Let us throw ghee into the fire with the ladle. 6. Wife, bring water from the well. 7. Under the eyebrows (Du.) are eyes (Du.). 8. "do not sit on the ground," ordered mother the children. 9. Women sang praises of Durga. 10. Win ("acquire") people's hearts only by qualities, not by money. 11. "Bring gems," ordered the queen the female servant (passive construction). 12. Let the student come to the teacher's dwelling. 13. On the mountain were seen fires. 14. "Let the men come to the city," ordered the king (passive construction). 15. Part of the land was given to the brahmin. 16. Qualities of rulers are praised by poets.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 17):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. jan bhuvi devstu svarge vasanti | snu m paya | sundari vastryapahareti ghastha diat | guru saha iyo m vivadatu | yatra riyo vasatistatra vasma | sundar bhruvau sad kau | kpe jala na vartate | yo bhuva playati bhpla ucyate |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 18):


1. Let the buffalo be given grass. 2. Find a teacher and perform an expiation," order the twice-borns to a sinner. 3. "Let us compose poetry, let us get fame and let us seek refuge in kings," is the decision of poets. 4. "For the sake of the righteousness let us sacrifice to the gods and for the sake of wealth and fame let us converse with scholars in assemblies," say brahmin's sons (Du.). 5. Await the time for food. 6. Let the Kalidasa's play be performed even today. 7. Let the sacrifice be now performed in the temple. 8. Le teachers be everywhere followed by students and well served to. 9. Let the truth be always spoken. 10. Let brahmin's daughter be married only to a brahmin. 11. Between a bad man and a snake, a bad man is worse, not a snake; a snake bites only sometimes, but a bad man on every step.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 18):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. brhmaai samudro mtikramyatm | rognmopekadhvam | dvijo dvijasya kany pariayatu | eva bhavatu | yatirnrbhi saha m sabhatm | npati sad prajn rakaa mopekatm | ivasya stotri gyantm | nrya iavaca yuddhe m ghtyantm |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 19):


1. Girls (Du.) lived in the father-in-law's house. 2. Let the lord, creator of the creation, be for the sake of deliverance devotedly honored by people. 3. Let the rulers be protectors of the subjects and "punishers" of bad people. 4. Glory to Panini, the author of the treatise. 5. We worship Shiva, the giver of life. 6. Let the wife revere the husband and husband's father and mother as gods. 7. Every month they bring an oblation to the ancestors. 8. Daughter's husband is called the son-in-law. 9. "Call the brothers now," ordered the father. 10. By protection of poor (Pl.) and unhappy (Pl.) there is merit. 11. We happily dwell in parents' house. 12. The son calls the father daddy. 13. Let the brothers and sisters not argue. 14. The father and mother are the parents.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 19):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. svasr saha blo nady sagacchatm | loka srarsjyata | sevak sad patnsevantm | pitmaho bahn napt mukhn daranenmodata | indro yuddhe devan net | jmt vaura nija pitara manyatm | dnn dtro dukhitn rakitraca sad vandyante | bhrt ghyadahyanta |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 20):


1. Let one protect cows, through protection of cows merit is obtained - so think the twiceborn ones. 2. When we will come (Du.) to Prayaga, we will write a letter to the parents. 3. "Go (Du.) to the village today," said mothers (Du.) to the sons (Du.). 4. Let the children delight in milk of the cow. 5. Let the parents protect the daughter, brothers the sister and let the sons protect mothers. 6. If I would study the treatise, teachers would be satisfied. 7. Let one not cross the river by swimming ("by arms"). 8. "Let Shiva and Vishnu protect the ruler," said the woman to the king. 9. Let men cultivate fields. 10. Do not follow a bad leader.

11. 12. 13. 14.

"Let the poet compose a new poem," was ordered by the master. Let us go to the village even today. Let the holy man not long for possession. Let men and women worship Shiva's wife in the temple.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 20):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. prthivo dnni yacchetpthiv playecca | mturbhani svasre yacche | gobhyo 'vebhyaca sto ghsamnayet | sukhena jveta | gvo vane na careyu | yad kvya likheya tad sabhy paheyam | bhty gha jalamnayeyu | pitrorghe kany bhart ca bhry vaseyu |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 21):


1. Robbers shot arrows at the brother. 2. If people would follow rules of the scriptures and the tradition, they would be praised by holy men. 3. Vaishyas let make their living by agriculture, trade or cattle-breeding. 4. Let one not board a questionable boat. 5. If you die in Ganga's water then you obtain heaven. 6. Sons-in-law let serve fathers-in-law, daughters-in-law [let serve] mothers-in-law, daughters and sons [let serve] parents. 7. Brahmins let not cross the sea on ship (pass.). 8. "Be not conquered by enemies," say the people to the king. 9. There arose fight on the boats. 10. Let boys (Du.) play in the garden. 11. Let a new mat for son's teacher be done! 12. Do not rejoice at death, do not rejoice at life, just await the time like a servant the order.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 21):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. mitri sad smaryeran | bhakty guru iyairabhyudyeta | bhaydapyanta nodyeta | nrya iavaca nagaramnyeran | navnni kvyni racyeran | adyaiva devlaye pjcaryeta | brhma ky sevay ca na varteranniti streu pahyate | nar bhaydviramerannaribhiryudhyeyuca |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 22):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. "Oh, charioteer. Stop the chariot now!" "As master commands!" Dasharatha begot nice sons. May the ruler let vaishyas pay the taxes. May they let the boys to wear new clothes during the initiation. The trees were knocked down by the power of the wind. Fighters kill enemies in the battle. Let the king send a messenger for the sake of peace.

8. Father showed the son a wolf in the forest. 9. Amongst women, king's daughter excelled by beauty. 10. The charioteer watered the horses in the river. 11. "May the gods protect the worlds and extend king's realm," said the Brahmin. 12. The prince caused the trees to be cut and a new house to be built. 13. Let a twice-born marry a daughter of a twice-born and beget a child. 14. Let the householder show the guest into the house.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 22):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. yatyorgamana bhtyo npamavedayat | brhma stryadhypayeyu | pustakni pitre daraya | rakarthe innagaramagamayan | nady jalenvnapyayan | ghastho gha pratigacchet | atithaya praveyeran | g gohamadhungamayata |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 23):


1. The brothers sent us to the city. 2. It was reported to me, that the sisters are coming. 3. "Let the poets propagate our qualities and enlarge our glory", the rulers wish. 4. I live in Prayaga, but you in Takshashila. 5. We create the book, we let Rama write the manuscript. 6. Recite us Amaru's verses! 7. Poets, we drink your verses like a nectar. 8. Happiness unto you! 9. If a person will lie, he will dwell in the hell. 10. Do not enter my hermitage, said the hermit to the hunter. 11. Parents love me and you. 12. May our ruler not forgive your transgression. 13. A pigeon today is better than a peacock tomorrow. 14. A wife is a man's half. 15. Contentedness is the man's best treasure. 16. Where the frogs are speakers, is silence an ornament. 17. As the tree, so the fruit.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 23):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. tava suvara may ncoryata | asmka dee gaj na jvanti | yuvayordhana necchmi | urvay kath m kathayeti blo mtara prrthayata | devste jvana rakeyu | tubhya ca mahya ca mtnna yacchati | tava pit may saha gacchatu | vayo pitarvamriyatm |

The Sanskrit-English Exercise Key (Lesson 24):


1. Holy men reach the heaven with their merits, but not other people. 2. You please the ancestors with oblations, we [please them] with water. 3. May all gods protect you!

4. This poet reached glory by poems of others. 5. "This all is yours," said the husband to the wife. 6. In this poem there are (lit. can be seen) many faults. 7. All rivers run towards the sea. 8. Do you both live in one house? 9. Where there is Dharma, there is victory. 10. The end of happiness is always suffering; the end of suffering is always happiness. 11. A horse, even thin, is beautiful (lit. for brilliance), but not a donkey, even fat. 12. A person is noble by behavior, not by riches or knowledge. 13. There is no bigger fault than greed, there is no bigger quality than giving. 14. A donkey won't sing, even if being taught (lit. learned). 15. An advice to fools is for anger, not for peace.

The English-Sanskrit Exercise Key (Lesson 24):


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. tni pustakni necchmi | etsu nadu bahavo matsy | ets nr bhartaro yuddhamagacchan | etasminvane sihamapayam | etairvryai saha atru parkrameyamiti senpatiravadat | etairlakaai saha np eva jyante | tava vtta na me rocate | tvadanye janstanna sdhayanti | sarve satya na vadanti |