Business Management Study Guide

Diploma in Business Management


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Diploma in Business Management

Unit 1 Title Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules The Synoptic Approach Organisational Behaviour Financial Accounting Economic Principles and their Application to Business Quantitative Methods for Business and Management Human Resource Management Marketing Policy Planning and Communication Approaching the Examination Analysis and Decision Making Introduction Management and Skills Critical Thinking, Analysis and Argument Decisions and Decision-Making Management Decision-Making Models Interviews and Meetings Introduction Interviews Meetings – An Overview Documentation for Meetings Procedure in Meetings Written Communication Introduction The Written Word General Approach to Business Correspondence Business Correspondence – Practical Applications Reports and Reporting Writing Articles Preparing and Placing a Press Release Writing an Effective Mailshot Design and Corporate Identity Page

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Unit 5

Title Oral Communication Introduction Organising a Presentation Presentational Skills Nature and Purpose of Audio and Visual Aids Designing Audio-Visual Aids Using the Telephone Appendix 1: Six Helpful Hints on Making a Presentation Appendix 2: Checking Presentational Effectiveness Analysing and Presenting Data Introduction Pictograms Circular Diagrams Bar Charts Z Chart (Zee Chart) Lorenz Curve Ratio Scales (Semi-Log Graphs) General Rules For Graphical Presentation Electronic Communication Systems Introduction Modes of Communication The Internet The Use of IT in Business Input Devices Output Devices IT and Presenting Information Introduction Word Processing Desktop publishing Electronic or Web Publishing Information Processing Introduction Data And Information Gathering And Organising Information

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1 Unit 1 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules Contents The Synoptic Approach The Key Theories in Other Modules A. © ABE and RRC . and of Equity and Debt The Distinction between the Various Sources of Finance in the Long. D. Cross and Income Fixed and Variable Factors of Production Economies and Diseconomies of Scale Exchange Rates Quantitative Methods for Business and Management Types of Data and Collection Methods Interpretation of Summary Statistics Time Series Forecasting Break-even Analysis Page 3 4 7 7 8 9 11 13 15 15 15 19 21 24 26 26 26 28 29 31 32 32 33 34 34 35 (Continued over) B. Balance Sheets. Organisational Behaviour Goals. Cash Flows and Profit and Loss Accounts The Calculation and Interpretation of Financial and Investors Ratios The Principles and Role of the Various Types of Shares and Loans for Business. C. Expectations and Roles of Individuals Personality and Perception Job Satisfaction and Job Design Teamwork Conflict and Resolution Financial Accounting The Distinction between Capital and Revenue The Preparation and Interpretation of Income Statements. Medium and Short Term Economic Principles and their Application to Business The Concept of Opportunity Cost Elasticities – Price.

2 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules E. Human Resource Management Recruitment. Discipline and Grievance Job Rotation. Enrichment and Enlargement Motivation Theory Marketing Policy Planning and Communication The Concept of the Marketing Mix (7 Ps) Product Life Cycle Theory Segmentation Targeting and Positioning Main Drivers and Behavioural Influences on Individuals as Consumers Main Drivers and Influences on Organisations as Consumers 36 36 41 42 44 46 47 47 47 49 52 52 54 54 55 F. Approaching the Examination Examination Techniques Revision Techniques © ABE and RRC . Selection and Induction Training and Staff Development Appraisal.

Remember this carefully: In the examination. evaluate and apply key theories and concepts studied in the other compulsory subjects at the Diploma level. This advice is expected to be based on knowledge and skills acquired in the course of your studies of the other six ABE Diploma modules. you need not only to have a sound understanding of these key theories and concepts.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 3 THE SYNOPTIC APPROACH In this first unit of the Study Guide we are going to look at the requirement of this synoptic module for you to understand. for example. use this unit to review these key elements and consider how they may be brought to bear on general business problems and issues. theories. it is strongly recommended that you first complete your studies of the above modules. Thus. This unit highlights and reviews the relevant knowledge. © ABE and RRC . to business problems. set out in the form of a report to the Board. then. The vehicle used to achieve this aim in the examination is a short case study of a company in which you are a manager. The questions will highlight particular activities. the techniques and approaches to decision making. It will not be enough simply to explain the concepts identified – they will need to be applied to the situation described. bringing in. communications and business processes covered in this module. These will provide further useful approaches and skills which you can apply to the analysis of the case study and the formulation and presentation of your answers. So. business problems and activities do not fall into neat subject categories. your answers should always be set in the context of the case study provided. but also to be able to see their relevance. issues and problems of this company on which you will be asked to give managerial advice. concepts and skills from each of the six modules to which Management in Action relates:       Organisational Behaviour Financial Accounting Economic Principles and Their Application to Business Quantitative Methods for Business and Management Human Resource Management Marketing Policy Planning and Communication. but demand an ability to bring together knowledge and understanding from a variety of subject areas to the matter at hand. and to general aspects of business communication – systems and processes as well as forms of written and oral communication themselves. In the real world. you may be required to demonstrate your understanding break-even analysis in relation to particular aspects of the case study and to use this concept to formulate proposals or recommendations for action. Whilst we do set out the key theories here. too. and apply them. on their own and in combination. The later units in this Guide will introduce you to decision-making and other analytical techniques. You can.

often to persons with no accounting or financial expertise. As such. Personality and perception Job satisfaction and job design Teamwork Conflict and resolution Financial Accounting The primary concern of accounting is the measurement. and whatever the nature of the accounting report. The accounting function is central to both management within the organisation concerned or variety of interested persons outside of the organisation. the key theories which you will be required to apply in this module. cash flows and profit and loss accounts The calculation and interpretation of financial and investors ratios The principles and role of the various types of shares and loans for business. The key theories and principles that you will need to know and apply are as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)  Goals. balance sheets. The key theories and principles that you will need to know and apply are as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The distinction between capital and revenue The preparation and interpretation of income statements.  Organisational Behaviour Organisational behaviour is the study of human behaviour in the workplace. © ABE and RRC . and may also be produced to cover different periods of time from. say. medium and short term. and of equity and debt The distinction between the various sources of finance in the long. The key theories provide guidelines for understanding and appreciating the many forces that affect behaviour and help us make better decisions about how to motivate and coordinate the central resource of people to achieve organisational goals in complex business environments. hourly information up to ten year projections. financial reports are produced in a wide variety of formats covering different aspects of the finances of a business. Whatever the use. the work of the accountant is to communicate effectively a series of relevant financial messages. It is concerned with gaining an understanding of the individual and organisational factors that influence people’s behaviour. an organisation's accounts lie at the heart of all its information systems. expectations and roles of individuals. management science and social anthropology. Thus. sociology. arising from this.4 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules The Key Theories in Other Modules In this section. accounting information is organised and produced so as to match the needs of the users in any particular situation. They may also vary in the degree of accuracy which is required according to the needs of users. Thus. and as such. draws on various academic disciplines such as psychology. we briefly review the importance to business and management of the six compulsory modules at the Diploma level and. organisation and communication of financial information in order to aid decisions.

which is concerned with the way in which the organisation treats its staff and ensures that they perform appropriately in pursuit of the organisation's goals. making sense of the data available is very often a difficult task. it examines the way whole economies work and the variations they experience. seasonal variation and random variation Forecasting Break-even analysis  Human Resource Management In many organisations – particularly service organisations – staffing is the largest cost of the business. The key theories and principles that you will need to know and apply are as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The concept of opportunity cost Elasticities – price. At the business level. businesses or society as a whole. and employee development. cyclical variation. At the individual level. cross and income Fixed and variable factors of production Economies and diseconomies of scale Exchange rates  Quantitative Methods for Business and Management The success of businesses is dependent upon the quality of the decisions they make. costs and benefits of alternative courses of action. The application of the techniques and methods of quantitative analysis are crucial to interpreting numerical data and enabling the real significance of figures to be identified. it enables us to understand the ways in which we make decisions about expenditure and what influences those decisions. and even where it is not the most significant cost. societal level. which is concerned with getting the right people in the right job at the right time and for the right cost. etc. having the right level of staffing. the effectiveness of the workforce in utilising other resources is central to an organisation's success. prices. as well as the role of government in influencing their operation. as well as the availability of finance. This covers three key areas – employee resourcing. Human Resource Management is concerned with the way in organisations manage people. income.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 5  Economic Principles and Their Application to Business The fundamental issue for the discipline of economics is how we use the resources available to us. performing efficiently and effectively. As such. it explains the operations of markets. competitiveness. investment. employee relations. However. whether as individuals. Therefore. economics is concerned with some of the most important issues which affect us all – employment. which is concerned with the training and development of the workforce. At a wider. is clearly crucial. productivity and growth. © ABE and RRC . The key theories and principles that you will need to know and apply are as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Types of data and collection methods Interpretation of summary statistics such as averages and dispersal Time series – trend. evaluate and compare the outcomes. These elements describe the environment within which business operates and the perspective of economics allows businesses to understand.

discipline and grievance Job rotation. it deals with new products. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The concept of the marketing mix (7 Ps) Product life cycle theory Segmentation targeting and positioning Main drivers and behavioural influences on individuals as consumers Main drivers and influences on organisations as consumers. © ABE and RRC . packaging. By doing so. selection and induction Training and staff development Appraisal.6 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules The key theories and principles that you will need to know and apply are as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)  Recruitment. Marketing activities are designed to inform the organisation's target audience about the products available and to persuade them to purchase. This is as important to nonbusiness organisations (such as political. and retailing. As such. then. civic and charitable organisations) as it is to business organisations. wholesaling. cultural. enrichment and enlargement Motivation theory Marketing Policy Planning and Communication All organisations must sell products to survive and to grow. selling. they will generate the financial resources that can be used to develop both the existing products and the new ones which will better satisfy customers' changing needs. Marketing is not just concerned with selling. and transport and storage. marketing research. and in turn enable the firm to generate more profits. customer behaviour. it covers what should be an integrated approach across the whole range of activities from product development to putting the product in the customer's hands. Rather. advertising. church.

Mullins' summary of the functions of goals provides a useful framework for recognising their role. but expressed in terms of the product or service itself. and problems arising from them. concerned with efficiency and effectiveness in key areas) Derived goals – those which are incidental to the primary purposes of the organisation and which it may pursue as a result of its position and power.    Societal goals – the goals of an organisation in terms of the value it provides to society at large Output goals – the goals of an organisation in terms of what it produces or provides. ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Goals. and its value system. To give an indication of what the organisation is really like. reducing uncertainty in decision-making. To act as a basis for the evaluation of change and the development of the organisation. their value and functions for the organisation and the individual. To serve as a basis for the objectives and policies of the organisation. See Introductory Study Unit of the Organisational Behaviour Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. To influence the structure of the organisation and help determine the nature of the technology employed. and also has a crucial role in the review and measurement of performance. rather than the consumer or user System goals – which relate to the functioning of the organisation and how it operates (and. To help to develop commitment from individuals and groups towards the activities of the organisation.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 7 A. Note that they also reflect the way in which different stakeholders. both within and outside the organisation. by focusing on the activities of the organisation and the efforts of its members. (a) Types of goals Perrow's five categories of goals provide an insight to the multiplicity of goals that organisations may adopt and how they may be expressed. To provide a basis for planning and management control. To provide guidelines for decision-making and the justification for actions taken. both for members and the organisation's stakeholders. © ABE and RRC .   (b) Value and Functions of Goals Defining goals and objectives is a crucial element of the planning and decision-making process. both within and outside the organisation:         To provide a standard of performance. with particular reference to goal conflict. expressed in terms of their use or value to the consumer Product goals – again concerned with the outputs of the organisation. Expectations and Roles of Individuals You need to be aware of the types of goals. may view the goals of an organisation. therefore.

to predict behavioural disposition.8 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules (b) Problems with Goals Although they serve a key function in organisations. by understanding personalities in the workplace. therefore. Personality and Perception Although you will not be required to have detailed knowledge of the theories of personality. Perhaps the major problem is where there are differences between personal and organisational goals. There are two main approaches. a situation which can cause conflict and adversely affect performance. This approach tends to see personality as genetically determined and largely fixed at birth. There is a great deal of disagreement over the development. Organisations are more effective when personal and organisational goals are compatible. ambiguity. It is important. and the interpretation of personality traits – which is effectively passing judgements on people – is heavily dependent upon the approach adopted. You also need to be familiar with the process of perception and the problems that can arise within organisations through such elements as selectivity. as is the case with many public services coping with change – where there may be a reluctance to reformulate goals to reflect changing circumstances goal conflicts – between goals. perceptual sets. and a number of differing and influential approaches have been put forward over the years. can predict and take account of their implications for performance. for management to clarify organisational goals and aim to integrate personal goals with the overall objectives of the organisation. The structure of the organisation should be such that individuals can satisfy their personal goals by helping the organisation to achieve its overall goals. and gives rise to particular "types" of personality or "traits". This tends to revolve around three areas:    difficulties in formulation – particularly where outputs are difficult both to specify and to quantify. structure and dynamics of personality. it should be possible to identify personality characteristics and. goals can sometimes be problematic. from them. in interpretation and in commitment. stereotyping. (a) Personality A good starting point is Wright's definition of personality being: "those relatively stable and enduring aspects of an individual that distinguish him/her from other people and at the same time form the basis for our predictions concerning his/her behaviour" Thus. halo effect and perception distortion. This is important because it implies that management. © ABE and RRC . you need to be aware of the main approaches to describing and classifying personality and the implications of this for management action. which may broadly be associated with the two sides of the "nature versus nurture" debate:  Nomothetic – which seeks to identify and classify the characteristics of personality that individuals may share. It is important to be aware of this as the different approaches give rise to different tests and forms of analysis. See Study Unit 3 of the Organisational Behaviour Manual for full details of the main points outlined here.

There is a complex interplay between organisational efficiency and individual motivation which management cannot ignore. perception is the process. or "black box". smell. for the individual and how this can impact on performance. feel. treating them as a whole. which in turn give rise to action. but can arise from a complex and largely unconscious interaction of past and present influences. perception is a transformation process. friends and other significant people is well recognised. job dissatisfaction. Cultural factors – the wider social beliefs and values that are absorbed by an individual. The key influences on personality are seen as:     For managers. See Study Unit 6 of the Organisational Behaviour Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. whereby we learn how to behave and feel in different social settings by reference to family. There is. It is important to understand the ways in which this distortion can take place:  Problems with the initial stimulus – through a failure of the recipient's senses or the medium of transmission. Sensations (sight. The process of socialisation. that takes the inputs from the senses and turns. or distortions caused by the sender's own perception of the recipient. Genetic factors – there is significant evidence to suggest we inherit family traits Social factors – humans are social animals and so it is to be expected that social interaction will affect our personality and behaviour. into outputs. taste) are the inputs to the system. then. (b) The Process of Perception In the language of the systems approach. Whilst we may be able to identify certain personality traits in an individual. patterns and meaning. and the job done.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 9  Idiographic – which focuses on the uniqueness of the individual. touch. refer to the attitudes and feelings job-holders have towards their work. the outputs are information.  Job Satisfaction and Job Design You need to be aware of the implications of work. and guide behaviour towards that which is acceptable within a social context. or transforms them. or in two people interpreting the same situation in two completely different ways. potential for problems to occur in both the input and transformation stages which may result in the meaning originally intended not being that which the individual actually gives it. it is not perhaps as straightforward as it first seemed. and believes that personality is a function of multiple influences during the individual's upbringing and their life experience. This has a knock on effect on morale which can © ABE and RRC . Problems with the perceptual process itself – through the failure to share the same cultural values or distortions caused by an individual's relationship with others in the situation. Situational factors – the effects of specific past experiences or the expectations of situations on a person's feelings and behaviour. we also need to be aware that an individual's behaviour may not be a simple reflection of those traits. then. (a) Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction and its opposite.

the informal organisation and opportunities for interaction. Job satisfaction can be affected or increased by a careful consideration of the following factors:   The design of the jobs which people actually do. Extrinsic influences – factors which fall outside of the doing of the job. The factors which influence the level of job satisfaction which a job-holder experiences fall into two broad categories:   Intrinsic influences – those arising from the performance of the job itself such as its variety. a lack of commitment to quality.. values and beliefs. this will be considered later in the course. intelligence. education level. etc. However. work norms. marital status and work orientation. abilities. Job dissatisfaction can have harmful effects on both job-holders and the organisation. importance of the work and potential for self esteem. most individuals will be satisfied with certain aspects of their job but dissatisfied with others. working conditions.10 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules be viewed as a state of mind dependent on the degree of job satisfaction experienced by an individual or group. This may not be as clear-cut as proposed by the early human relations school of management (such as Mayo) or early motivation theorists (such as Hertzberg).  (b) Job design We can identify the two approaches to job design:  the achievement of organisational goals through efficient job performance. social and technological environments. which allow employees a degree of freedom to direct their own activities and assume new responsibilities. economic. resulting in high labour turnover. Environmental factors including any developments impacting from the political. the nature of work. leadership style. Again. Cultural factors reflecting attitudes. There is also a link between job satisfaction and job performance. in respect of the exercise of authority. range of skills required. absenteeism. relationships and systems. etc. Organisational factors including structure.. Participation and consultative management which will encourage people to direct their creative energies towards organisational objectives and give employees some voice in decisions that affect them. In practice. policies and procedures. Decentralisation and delegation of authority and responsibility. including pay and other benefits. age. Mullins considers that job satisfaction is both complex and difficult to measure in an objective fashion because it is affected by a large number of factors including:      Individual factors including personality. but there is a case for looking for ways of increasing job satisfaction. degree of control. etc. and also frustration and stress on the part of the individual. and this is characterised by the approach of scientific management in optimising production efficiency at all costs © ABE and RRC . Social factors including relationships with fellow workers.

job enlargement and job enrichment. prior to becoming fully fledged. See Study Unit 7 of the Organisational Behaviour Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. and the conditions which affect their effectiveness. Skilful stage – as team members become more confident and familiar with the problem and with working together. Of these. Task functions – those which contribute to the achievement of the group's purpose and objectives Maintenance functions – those which enable the establishment of group norms and cohesion. they start work in a more flexibly co-ordinated way. individuals throw themselves into the work with little thought about process or rules of working. usually by widening a job from a central task to include one or more related tasks. we also need to be aware of the relationships which emerge within the group and its internal organisation. and Keeping the group integrated and meeting members' social and emotional needs. effective units. content and objectives. highly disciplined way of working where rules and process take precedence over creativity. which is the approach adopted by the human relations school – particularly through the work on motivation of Maslow and Herzberg – largely as a reaction to the problems created by all-out organisational efficiency. job enlargement is seen here as having most significance. We are concerned here with teams as a particular form of group and you need to be aware of their formation and composition in terms of roles. building the team as a unit so that members can work effectively together.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 11  meeting the needs of the job-holders for satisfaction from their work. making the worker less dependent on colleagues and able to work at his or her own pace.   Schein (1969) identified two functions of formal groups:   This derives from the work of Bales (1950) who found that effective groups appeared to have two facets:   Completion of the task or tasks necessary to achieve goals. When building work units – formal groups or teams – there needs to be a similar developmental period. Teamwork Most work is carried out in groups of one sort or another. sharing ideas and developing appropriate processes to suit the circumstances. Formal stage – the team will react against the chaos by adopting a rigid. The latter approach has given rise to such methods as job rotation. (a) Building Effective Groups and Teams Groups go through a number of stages in their development. It refers to ways of introducing more variety into an individual's work. or even how to achieve a successful outcome. © ABE and RRC . Honey (1990) identified three stages through which a team develops into a fully effective operational unit:  Chaotic stage – when the team is new and has no previous experience of working on the particular task. However. Central to this is the balance of roles within the team. usually of the same type as the original task.

These are as follows:   Co-ordinator – whose role is ensure participation and action by controlling activities and objectives. promotes identification with the group and increases satisfaction. he meant the way one individual interacts with another. that the task is completed. © ABE and RRC . to this extent. developments and ideas that may affect the group. (In reality. (Note that the roles are not mutually exclusive and one individual may fulfil roles in both areas. the use of good communication techniques and to generate and maintain esprit de corps Completer-finisher – whose role is to ensure that attention is paid to detail. Thus. and these members tend to be the most influential. but may join just to provide professional support. On the other hand. Others tend to be more involved in the social/emotional aspects of group performance. that mistakes are not made and that the group maintains its sense of urgency when dealing with tasks. Members of relatively cohesive groups tend to work better with and support each other. highly cohesive groups can be very protective of themselves and their interests. particularly where co-operation is required. and then leave. particularly in relation to the degree of interaction and involvement. monitoring and deploying resources Implementer – whose role is to ensure the organisation's interests and goals are represented by interpreting plans and procedures into workable objectives and ensuring that they are adhered to and carried out Shaper – whose role is to influence the direction of the group by argument and example in group activities and discussions and to advise on the application of team effort to achieving tasks Plant – whose role is to generate new strategies and ideas within the group's remit Resource investigator – whose role is to investigate and report on new concepts. which can make them relatively closed (restricting opportunities to join) and difficult to deal with by outsiders. the specialist may not be a member of the group. there are group members who help in getting things done. which involves making external contacts and negotiating with them for the good of the group Monitor/evaluator – whose role is to assess the effectiveness of activities and contributions.) (b) Team Roles and Effectiveness Belbin (1981) identified what he called eight team roles (later revised to nine) that need to be present in groups. Thus.12 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules Each facet of the group spawns a number of roles. By "team role". with the leader often being expected to operate in this way. and to facilitate the decision-making process by analysing problems. and these members tend to be the most liked.)        (c) Group Cohesion and Effectiveness Group cohesion is characterised by the norms or belief systems that the group develops during its life cycle. It is the outcome of the "norming" stage of group development and provides a togetherness can make the group a strong working unit. in order that the team can become cohesive and effective. cohesion can be seen as positive. evaluating generated ideas and presiding over suggested solutions Team worker – whose role is to facilitate the use of the group's strengths. This. and the extent to which the group is meeting its objectives. Specialist – whose role is to provide expert advice when it is needed.

this can be a substantial block to new developments.  Effective groups are those which encourage discussion on points on which they disagree and use healthy conflict to introduce creativity and change in ideas before reaching a consensus. whereas less cohesive groups are likely to have a wider range of individual performance levels and standards. The degree of group cohesion can also affect the ability of the organisation to instigate change. Whether the leader is weak or strong. The effectiveness of the level and standard of performance in terms of the organisation's goals will depend on the extent to which the group's performance norms support those goals. but with little effort to win round the minority who vote against the idea and avoidance of assessing and discussing its progress and performance. and particularly where its norms. values or even existence are threatened. a group must be effective. Clearly conflict needs to be managed and you need to know both the strategic and procedural methods that organisations may employ to constrain it.  Conflict and Resolution You need to be aware of the causes of conflict between groups and individuals in organisations and of the benefits as well as the problems which may arise. Infiltration by individuals from other groups and/or the threat of competition from other formal groups. Ineffective groups are those which establish an agreed viewpoint quickly and defend it against any new or original idea. Members of cohesive groups tend to perform to a similar level and standard in conforming to their established group norms. to be successful. if there is opposition from such a group. consultative or authoritarian. The size of the group. there is no guarantee that their effectiveness will be in relation to the goals of the organisation. etc. experience. (d) Effective and Ineffective Teams McGregor argued that the mere presence of workgroups or teams in an organisation does not ensure success. Whether incentives are offered for tasks well done or completed to schedule. © ABE and RRC . Where a highly cohesive group supports change in general or a particular innovation or development. using situational leadership. such as gender. They are characterised by a lack of agreed objectives and an atmosphere full of tensions. Whether individuals have something in common with each other. pursuing common goals. decision-making through voting. it will be relatively easy to introduce the change. See Study Unit 7 of the Organisational Behaviour Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. and assessing and consciously improving its own performance. Whilst cohesive groups tend to be more effective. This may mean that they achieve task-completion quickly. On the other hand.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 13 Cole (1996) identified a series of factors that can affect the development of group cohesion:       The motivation and desire of the individuals involved to work together. qualifications. but are unable to deal with multiple or complex tasks. They are characterised by open discussion. reaching decisions by a process of logical argument.

either for reasons of time. there is often competition for rewards within and between groups – rewards of power and prestige.e. etc. disaffection. with both parties giving up certain desired outcomes to achieve the satisfaction of others. It can enhance group cohesion and co-operation where the group itself is in conflict with other groups. collective bargaining whereby the potentially conflicting interests of employees and employers are dealt with in a formal group. cost or acceptability. desirable – but not too much! On the other hand. but can limit the damaging consequences and allow normal relations and performance to continue in the short term whilst an acceptable permanent solution is found. lack of communication. (c) Managing Conflict – Strategies There are two main strategies for resolving conflict:  Changing the situation from which the conflict arises – this offers a permanent solution to the problem. delays. a lack of conflict may indicate that problems are being suppressed and innovation and change stifled. complete with its own norms of attitudes and behaviours. © ABE and RRC . A degree of conflict is. In particular. but is not always practical. Most organisations and groups have structures within which conflict can be contained and dealt with.  There are a range of other strategies for handling conflict which can be deployed by management on both an interpersonal level and/or in dealing with more major group conflicts:     Avoidance – ignoring or suppressing the problem Accommodation – allowing the other party to win and have his or her own way Competition – battling the conflict out in an attempt to win it (with the risk that you may lose) Compromise – seeking a middle way by bargaining. and of appropriate slices of the fruits of labour (i. The main ones are:   grievance and disciplinary procedures which exist to consider problems between individuals or of individuals transgressing the norms of behaviour. therefore. We tend to think of conflict as being negative and there are clearly many destructive outcomes from it – poor working relationships. there is the potential for opposition. or where different rights and expectations are identified with (and by) different groups. conflict can also be positive. However. It can disclose problems and lead to innovation and change in the pursuit of effective means of resolution. In any situation which allocates different roles and attendant powers to individuals. Deflecting conflict by refocusing the goals of the conflicting parties – this is unlikely to bring about a permanent resolution to the problem. resistance and conflict. This approach involves getting the parties to subjugate their conflict to the pursuit of some other common goal which is identified as important to them (as individuals or groups). (b) Managing Conflict – Structures All conflict has the potential to be damaging and there needs to be some constructive effort to limit it so that the destructive impact is minimised.14 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules (a) Groups and Conflict Conflicts within and between groups is quite common. profit or the total remuneration package offered by the organisation).

© ABE and RRC . You will not be required. telephone charges for the sales department. motor vehicles. revenue expenditure relates to the day-to-day running of the business – for example. Revenue Expenditure A key issue in management is that of organising finance so that it is appropriate for the purpose.6 of the Financial Accounting Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. are bought. See Study Unit 1 of the Financial Accounting Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. As such you need to be thoroughly familiar with their purpose. plant and machinery. bad debts. Capital v. etc. In doing so. labour. legal costs. Balance Sheets. and expenditure on them is known as capital expenditure. and you should be prepared to use the information provided to assess whether an organisation can afford certain expenditure and whether it has the collateral to borrow money. Accounting statements are often used in the analysis of investment feasibility. while revenue is spent on activities directly involved in the creation of profit. so they prepare statements of income and expenditure. construction and interpretation. etc. to a trial balance).Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 15 B. Remember that capital is spent to buy fixed assets which are used to create profits. (a) Income Statements Many organisations – including clubs. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING The Distinction between Capital and Revenue This distinction is very important in accounting and you need to be clear about the definitions of each and the implications for both reporting such expenditure in the financial statements and raising the required finance. such as carriage. Fixed assets help to create profit. The term includes expenditure incurred in all aspects of the acquisition of the asset. What is needed is a sound understanding of their format and the ability to interpret the information that that they provide. they are purchased not for resale but for use in running the business. here. societies. In order to do this it is important the revenue and capital are not confused. So you would need to comment on patterns and trends in the performance. It is inappropriate for such organisations to produce profit and loss accounts. tools. etc. This may be comparing the accounts of two businesses in a similar trade or the accounts of the same business over more than one accounting period. The following is an example of an Income and Expenditure account for the ABE Hockey Club. depreciation etc. petrol for the delivery vans. to construct these statements from data (nor make adjustments to them in the sense of the application of accruals and prepayments. Cash Flows and Profit and Loss Accounts These are the main documents used by organisations to report on their financial performance. The emphasis here is on using the information as the basis for decision-making and you may be asked to comment on the performance of an organisation by looking at more than one set of accounts. you may need to apply certain ratios (see below). See Study Units 3 . By contrast. The Preparation and Interpretation of Income Statements. charities and certain public sector bodies – are known as "not-for-profit" organisations. This type of asset is known as a fixed or non-current asset. When assets such as buildings.

such as the brand of an organisation which we know has a value but which cannot be calculated that its possession and use are of continuing relevant to the business being carried out – essentially that the asset is used to generate income that it is actually owned by the organisation. It is a statement of the assets of. Balance – excess of expenditure over income Subscription Game fees Annual social less Expenses 256 204 52 638 106 744 £ £ 296 290 (b) Balance Sheets A balance sheet is a statement of the financial position of the organisation at a point in time. Fixed or non-current assets are those held by the organisation to earn profit (or surplus income) and are not held primarily for the purposes of reselling Current assets are those which form the basis of trading – they circulate and change in the long run (as with debtors.16 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules ABE Hockey Club Income and Expenditure Account for the Year Ended 31 May 2007 £ Rent Printing and stationery Affiliation fees Captain's and secretary's expenses Refreshments Depreciation 432 42 24 82 120 44 744 You may note the different treatment of certain items for non-profit making organisations:   “subscriptions” are sometimes treated on a cash basis in a receipts and expenditure account where there are small trading activities – for example. cash and stock).  that it should possess a value capable of being calculated – although this can be controversial in reality because some assets of a business do not appear on the balance sheet. that the claim exists at the time of the balance sheet date that there is a reasonable expectation that the claim will have to be met. a club bar – any excess of income over expenditure (effectively a profit. a business. and claims against (liabilities). You could think of this as taking a photograph of the business finances – it only relevant at the point in time.) © ABE and RRC . partnership. but it is not called that) is added to the balance sheet. (Note that the main differences between the sole trader.     Note the difference between fixed and current assets: The characteristics of a liability are:   The following is an example of a balance sheet for Ramsey Limited – a limited company. limited company and not-for-profit organisation exist in the capital structuring – but the principles remain the same.

Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 17 Ramsay Ltd.902 Cost 74.940 8.962 109.630 6.630 74.000 3.000 27.270 £ © ABE and RRC .270 77.000 26.900 83. Balance Sheet at 31 December 2005 £ Fixed assets: Freehold land and buildings Motor vehicles Current Assets Stock Debtors and prepayments Cash at bank and In hand Creditors amounts falling due within one year: Creditors Proposed dividends Represented by: Share capital: Ordinary shares of £1 each.536 67.232 (c) Cash Flow The cash flow statement is the primary financial statement that complements the profit and loss account and balance sheet.366 23.232 109.232 18. The following is an example of a cash flow statement: 80.900 £ Dep'n 6.000 35.940 31. It is concerned with identifying where cash came from and went to during the accounting period.000 9. fully paid Reserves Profit and loss account 29. It differs significantly from the balance sheet because the balance sheet only shows the cash situation at a moment in time.

The account shows the profit or loss that has been made in the accounting period – of course. a business cannot make both a profit and a loss at the same time! The following is an example of the format of a profit and loss account. In a profit and loss account the relevant revenues are matched against the relevant expenses over a stated time period. 400 200 (500) 100 900 (30) (290) 20 (300) 800 20 (200) 40 (260) (400) (500) £’000 2. The profit represents the difference between revenues and expenses when the revenues exceed the expenses. A loss represents the difference between revenues and expenses when the expenses exceed the revenues.000 © ABE and RRC .18 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules Cash Flow Statement for the Year Ended 31 December 2007 £’000 Net cash inflow from operating activities Returns on investments and servicing of finance: Interest received Interest paid Dividends received Dividends paid Net cash outflow from returns on investments and servicing of finance Taxation Investing activities: Payments to acquire intangible fixed assets Payments to acquire tangible fixed assets Receipts from sales of tangible fixed assets Net cash outflow from investing activities Net cash inflow before financing Financing: Issue of ordinary share capital Issue of debenture stock Redemption of preference shares Net cash inflow from financing Increase in cash and cash equivalents (e) Profit and Loss Account The measurement of profit is probably the most important function of financial accounting. There are lots of stakeholders who are interested in seeing how an organisation is performing. Note that the title "profit and loss account" is misleading.

Profit and Loss Account for the Year Ended 31 December 2007 £ Sales Opening stock Purchases less Closing stock Cost of Sales Gross Profit less Expenses: Rent Salaries Motoring expenses Office consumables Directors salaries Depreciation (vehicles) Depreciation (fixtures and fittings) Bad debts Profit before interest Interest Profit before tax Tax Profit after tax Dividends – paid Dividends .588 533.600 42.000 100. 2007 Retained profit at Dec 31.872 66.712 97. You will need to select appropriate ratios and apply them to given financial information to draw conclusions. 2007 20.856 23.904 155.proposed Retained profit for year Retained profit at Jan 1.000 180. efficiency.416 200. © ABE and RRC .864 119.000 105. liquidity.416 614.132 145.640 The Calculation and Interpretation of Financial and Investors Ratios You will need to be thoroughly familiar with the common accounting ratios in respect of profitability.960 137. See Study Unit 8 of the Financial Accounting Manual for full details of the main points outlined here.000 80. capital structure and investment.504 459.400 734.252 48.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 19 Kanawa Ltd Trading.824 42.388 265.000 37. capital employed and asset valuation when using these ratios.824 20.193.240 £ 1. (a) Profitability Ratios Note the need to clarify exactly which figures are being used for profit.864 227.656 3.488 495.

ROCE) – the primary ratio Net Profit : Sales (Net Profit Margin or Percentage) Sales : Capital Employed Expense Ratios The main ratio here is:  Non-current Asset Turnover Ratio: Sales Fixed assets (c) Liquidity Ratios The main ratios here are as follows:   Working Capital or Current Ratio (Current Assets : Current Liabilities) Quick Asset or Acid Test Ratio (Current Assets less Inventory : Current Liabilities) (d) Efficiency Ratios The main ratios here are as follows:     Inventory Ratios (Closing inventory : Cost of Sales per Day) Inventory Turnover: Debtors Ratio: Creditors ratio: Sales at cost price Average of opening and closing stock Debtors Average credit sales per day Creditors Average credit purchases per day (e) Capital Structure Ratios The main ratios here are as follows:    Shareholders' Funds : Total Indebtedness (the Proprietorship Ratio) Shareholders' Funds : Non-current Assets Capital Gearing Ratio: Fixed-interest capital (i.20 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules The main ratios here are as follows:    (b) Profit : Capital Employed (or return on capital employed. preference shares and debentures) Ordinary share capital (f) Investment Ratios The main ratios here are as follows:    Ordinary Dividend Cover: Earnings per Share: Dividend Yield Ratio: Profit after tax less Preference dividend Ordinary dividend Profits after tax less Preference dividends Number of ordinary shares Nominal value of share  Dividend % Market value © ABE and RRC .e.

Each share has a stated nominal (sometimes called par) value. registered or nominal Issued (allotted) or subscribed capital Called-up capital Paid-up capital Uncalled capital or called-up share capital not paid. Types of Capital The capital of an enterprise may be classified in a umber of ways in respect of the extent to which the full amount of its authorised capital has been issued and the extent to which the capital issued has been fully paid:      Authorised. each of which having different rights as to. In the case of a partnership. See Study Unit 2 of the Financial Accounting Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. Once share capital has been introduced into a company. entitlement to dividends or voting at company meetings:      (c) Ordinary shares Preference shares – divided into cumulative and non-cumulative preference shares Redeemable shares Participating preference shares Deferred. © ABE and RRC . for example. the partners contribute capital up to agreed amounts. up to the amount it is authorised to issue. (a) Capital of an Enterprise Virtually every enterprise must have capital subscribed by its proprietors to enable it to operate. and the implications for the company in terms of its gearing. whilst a limited company obtains its capital. (b) Types of Share There are five types of share issuable. from its members in the form of shares. founders or management shares. which is regarded as the lowest price at which the share can be issued. it generally cannot be repaid to the shareholders (although the shares may change hands). An exception to this is redeemable shares. and of Equity and Debt You will need to know the various options for a company to raise finance through the issue of shares and the taking out of loans. This includes the relative merits and demerits of the different forms of each.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 21  Price : Earnings Ratio: or Market price per share Earnings per share Total market value of issued share capital Profits after corporation tax and preference dividends   Preference Dividend Cover: Debenture Interest Cover: Profit after tax Preference dividend Net profit + Debenture interest Rate of interest  Loans outstandin g The Principles and Role of the Various Types of Shares and Loans for Business.

one for ten) although here there is no obligation on the part of the existing shareholder to take advantage of the offer.22 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules (d) Share Issues In addition to a general issue of shares. Note that they are not part of the capital of a company. is only paid a dividend on his investment if the company makes a profit. and such a dividend. usually where there are substantial undistributed profits. is an appropriation of profit.) Note that the gearing of a company is the ratio of fixed-interest and fixed-dividend capital (i. Rights Issues are a useful method of raising fresh capital by an offer of new shares to existing shareholders. which carries a fixed rate of interest. each with their own form of security. as with a bonus issue (e. An entitlement to be repaid on expiry of the terms of the debenture as fixed by deed. at something less than the current market price of the share (provided that this is higher than the nominal value). as follows:      Simple or Naked Debentures Mortgage or Fully Secured Debentures Floating Debentures An entitlement to payment of interest at the agreed rate.  (e) Dividends The shareholder of a company gets a reward for providing the company with funds in the form of a share of the profits – a dividend. Cash is not involved and it adds nothing to the net assets of the company – it simply divides the real capital into a larger number of shares. (f) Debentures A debenture is written acknowledgement of a loan to a company. as follows:    Preference dividends Ordinary dividends Interim dividends. Debenture holders have the following rights: © ABE and RRC . There are a number of different types of debenture. a financial expense. There are several types of dividend. as debenture interest must be paid regardless of profitability. there are two main means by which additional shares are offered:  Bonus Issues are used to bring the capital employed in the business into line with the issued capital. This can have important repercussions. if paid. (Interest payable to debenture holders must be paid as a matter of right and is therefore classified as loan interest. It is normally based on number of shares held. in the profit and loss account.e.g. debentures plus preference shares) to ordinary (equity) share capital plus reserves. A shareholder. on the other hand.

If the economic situation changes and the difference between costs and benefits is squeezed (say by increased costs of financing) the company will become less profitable. Every business needs:   Fixed capital – to finance fixed assets.or short-term purposes) Leasing and hire purchase arranged on a short-term basis.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 23 (g) Types and Sources of Finance The assets of a business are financed by its liabilities. The long-term funds available to a company are as follows      Owners' capital Loans – where there are a number of different forms available. The type of business organisation influences the capital structure. In a small business the financial structure tends to be relatively straightforward. For example. The general level of interest rates is a very important factor in financial planning. Ultimately. with the large public company an extremely complicated capital structure may be present. every business must consider the reasons for needing these funds and the use to which they will be put. it is not likely that share capital would be raised to solve a short-term liquidity problem. On the other hand. Shorter-term finance may be raised through      (h) Trade credit Overdrafts Grants (which can be for long. In determining the types of funds to be raised. but short-term borrowings may be used to cover temporary lulls in trade in order to maintain the return on capital employed. trade receivables and cash – must be carefully managed so that it is adequate but not excessive. mortgage loans and debentures Venture capital Leasing (longer-term) Hire purchase (longer-term) When considering a loan or other financial arrangement. Factoring Sources of External Finance There are a variety of organisations which provide or help provide funds. all assets must be supported by the long-term capital base. the benefits deriving from what that borrowing finances need to be set against its forecast costs. Working capital – inventories. as shown in the balance sheet.        Clearing banks Merchant banks Specialist institutions Foreign banks Insurance companies Pension funds Share issues through the Stock Exchange © ABE and RRC . such as secured and unsecured loans. Working capital – to finance current assets.

See Study Unit 9 of the Financial Accounting Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. and the use of this form of capital instrument will help to ensure that the running yield will be as he or she would expect. The acronym CREEPS illustrates the potentially flexible nature of investment capital once the company has built up an acceptable credit rating:     Cumulative – dividends accrue to the provider of funds. Participating – the investor has a cumulative and participating dividend. (a) Investment Capital Most investment in a growing business will involve the issue of preference shares with special rights. the capital © ABE and RRC .24 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules   (i) Local authorities Central government and the European Union Equity and Debt The following table summarises the main features of both forms of finance. Redeemable – at an agreed date (or possibly a range of dates) in order to give the investor an exit route Convertible – to equity if the company should fail to achieve its planned profit targets or to pay dividends over time. Often a venture capital provider will be invited to participate. In recent years. or the owners may not wish to accept the partial loss of control resulting from the issue of further share capital. to redeem the capital by the agreed dates or otherwise default on its obligations to the investor. Equity Usually permanent Holders receive dividends Holders have a stake in the business Increased equity can improve the financial base It is a permanent cost Can be costly and complicated to arrange Debt Repayable in due course Interest must be paid Holders are creditors Increased debt can have an adverse effect It is a temporary cost Usually quick and easy to arrange The Distinction between the Various Sources of Finance in the Long. typically expressed as a percentage of pre-tax profit. (b) Short-term Finance A business may not always wish to commit to long-term. but the company is not contracted to make payment until the finances are adequate. Medium and Short Term Here you need to be familiar with the different sources of finance and how they may be applied to the needs of a company for funds over different periods of time. fixed-rate debt capital which involves an increased risk.

    Working capital and liquidity management Cash management Surplus funds management Exposure management in relation to both exchange rate and interest rate risk. (d) The London Money Market The London money market in its broadest sense covers a wide range of UK institutions. the efficient and effective management of their finances is increasingly important in maximising the potential of the funds available to them. and there has been an increased concentration on the short. short-term and flexible finance at floating rates.or medium-term floating rate sector. Treasury Management For large companies. There are now many ways in which this may be achieved. Other means of raising short-term finance are as follows:    (c) Alternative investment market (AIM) Insurance companies and mortgages Sale and leaseback of real property. A major development has been the arrival of the note issuance facility and the similarly rapid growth of the related short-term Euronote (the Euro-commercial paper market) supplying UK businesses with a means of raising cheap. among them:               The Bank of England Merchant banks Discount houses Finance houses Pension funds Unit trusts Parallel markets Local authority market Inter-bank market Certificate of deposit (CD) market Finance house market Inter-company market Eurocurrency market Foreign exchange market.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 25 markets have recognised this need in the growing company.       Clearing banks Other banks The Stock Exchange Insurance companies Investment trusts Building societies The parallel markets consist of the following: © ABE and RRC .

the key point is whether buyers are likely to pay much attention to the price when deciding whether to buy. the choice of any one of these involves sacrificing the others. Understanding this is crucial to decision-making in many different areas and you need to take into account the concept of elasticity when considering possible outcomes from decisions. Toothbrushes. hospital or housing estate all on the same piece of land. (a) Pr1ce Elasticity Price elasticity relates a proportional change in the quantity demanded to the proportional change in the price of the product. or if other influences are more important. Since human wants are unlimited but resources scarce. Awareness of opportunity cost forces us to take account of what we are sacrificing when we use our available resources for any one particular purpose. It is relevant to almost every decision that people have to make. in some cases such as tobacco smoking) or the need to buy in order to achieve some other desired objective. ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES AND THEIR APPLICATION TO BUSINESS The Concept of Opportunity Cost You need to be aware of the concept of opportunity cost and how it may be applied when considering alternative courses of action. Opportunity Cost Opportunity Cost is defined as the cost of using resources in one activity measured in terms of the lost opportunity of using them to produce the best alternative that had to be forgone. Here. strong habits (even addiction. then price is likely to be less important than the other influences affecting demand. It is therefore logical to say that the housing estate is the opportunity cost of using the land for a hospital. Suppose the community's priorities for these three options are (in order) hospital. See Study Unit 3 of the Economic Principles and their Application to Business Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. This awareness helps us to make the best use of these resources by guiding us to choose those activities. housing estate and then school. Thus. goods and services which we perceive as providing the greatest benefits compared with the opportunities we are sacrificing Elasticities – Price. which is thus likely to be price inelastic. matches. If it is not possible to have a school.26 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules C. It is also one of the most valuable contributions that economists have made to the related disciplines of business management and politics. If it chooses to build the hospital it sacrifices the opportunity for having its next most favoured option – the housing estate. such as buying petrol in order to drive to work. Opportunity cost is one of the most important concepts in economics. See Study Unit 1 of the Economic Principles and their Application to Business Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. price elasticity measures the change in demand for a good or service when the price changes. and shoe polish are all examples of products likely to be price inelastic. high relative price changes at © ABE and RRC . choices have to be made. When considering price elasticity. If the product price is only a relatively small amount compared with normal income. These influences may include current fashion or social attitudes. Cross and Income Elasticities are measures of the sensitivity of one variable to a change in another.

then demand can increase only when an income rise makes this possible. then people may be ready to buy more of these when income increases make this possible. The following influences are likely to increase a product's income elasticity of demand:  A high price in relation to income. Thus. If a period of saving is required before purchase is possible. In the same way. assuming that I do not think one is superior in quality to the other.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 27 normal price levels are unlikely to weigh heavily with consumers. Association with a higher living standard than that currently enjoyed is likely to lead to rising demand when incomes do rise. © ABE and RRC . My decision whether or not to buy household soap is not likely to be greatly influenced by a 10 per cent rise in its price. we can expect a rise in price of one to lead to a rise in demand for the other. Beef and pork are in this position. For people in England. We must also be careful to distinguish between the demand elasticity for the class of product and that for a particular brand of the product. very similar comments apply to income reductions. the intensity of negative cross elasticity depends on how closely products are associated with each other. demand for a product can be price inelastic. but we are much more ready to switch to a competing brand when there is a rise in the price of the brand we normally buy. etc. the more highly-priced durable goods (household machines. are likely to be much more important. If two products are substitutes for each other. smoking decline. the move away from coal fires (matches).) and services are more likely to be income elastic than the staple items of food and clothing. We do not usually buy twice as much of these if we receive double our former income. motor vehicles. However when I am actually making my purchase. (b) Income Elasticity of Demand Income elasticity of demand relates to proportional change in quantity demanded to the proportional change in disposable income of customers for the product. Other influences. social attitudes (toothbrushes). Increased spending on motor transport is also associated with rising incomes. However if the two products are linked together. petrol and motor car tyres. the more likely it is to react to changes in price of any of those substitutes. On the other hand. or if consumers have to borrow money to obtain a product. whereas demand for a specific brand of the product can be price elastic. e. and development of non-leather shoes (polish). the demand for suntan lotion is likely to rise if the price of air travel and holidays in the sun falls. or meat and fish. Although we have been considering income rises. I am quite likely to compare the prices of two brands and choose the cheaper.g. If goods are preferred to "inferior" substitutes. Brands of goods are normally much more cross elastic with each other than the good itself is with other goods. Holidays and motor cars are often the first things to be sacrificed in the face of a sudden drop in income. The more close substitutes a product has. We are not unduly influenced by other price movements when we decide how much soap to buy. (c) Cross Elasticity of Demand Cross elasticity of demand relates the proportional change in demand of one product to the proportional change in price of another. our spending on holidays may increase by far more than double. because annual spending on these items is only a very small part of total income. e. then a rise in price in one leads to a fall in demand for the other.   In general.g.

The payments made to the owners of production factors in return for their use in the process of production are. when at least one significant production factor is usually fixed. a government wishing to increase its tax revenue will tend to choose goods for which the demand is price inelastic – tobacco for example. If they do not. i. and the impact that these have when considering total costs. If governments wish to influence consumer demand by price changes. They may wish to support any tax changes by changes in the law.e. in very general terms. For instance. Some factors can be regarded as fixed and others variable. and the long run when all factors can be varied. See Study Unit 4 of the Economic Principles and their Application to Business Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. then he or she needs to be reminded that this is far from being true. If a business manager thinks that a price rise will always increase sales revenue. the availability and demand for unleaded petrol must be encouraged. regard capital as the major fixed production factor and labour as the variable factor. and this distinction helps to provide us with the important distinction between the short run. of course. then their predictions about the results of the tax change are likely to prove badly out of line with reality. However if it goes on increasing the tax. The total fixed costs for a given range of output can be illustrated by a simple graph: © ABE and RRC . and vehicle engines must be capable of easy and cheap conversion to unleaded petrol. those elements which are not being increased as production or output is being raised. A price rise when demand is price elastic will reduce total sales revenue. This may be an important factor in assessing price. Anyone who wishes to predict accurately the effect of changes in price or income on revenue and on quantities bought needs to have a clear idea of elasticity and its calculation. Fixed and Variable Factors of Production You need to know the difference between fixed and variable costs. to reduce consumption of leaded petrol. Any further increase will result in a reduction in sales revenue and a fall in tax receipts.28 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules (d) The Importance of Elasticity The calculation of elasticities is not just of academic interest. interest to the owners of capital and wages to the providers of labour. initially. perhaps requiring all new vehicles to be adapted to use unleaded fuel. the costs of production which the production organisation (firm) has to pay in order to produce goods and services. the time will eventually come when demand becomes price elastic. sales and profitability. (b) Fixed Costs These are the costs of the fixed factors. Governments making changes in income or expenditure taxes must be able to calculate their effects on demand. (a) Production Factors and Costs Total production is invariably an amalgamation of the three individual factors of production – land. labour and capital. These factor payments. are rent to the owners of land. they are likely to try to make demand more price elastic by ensuring that suitable substitutes are available for the target product. or petrol. Disregarding land for the sake of using very simple models we can. Thus.

This is likely to be at higher production levels. They include the costs of basic materials. the rental charge for a telephone. of some labour – e. we refer to this being the stage of constant returns. All these costs can change. in the long run. and the fee for a licence to make use of another company’s patent. See Study Unit 4 of the Economic Principles and their Application to Business Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. then costs are increasing less than proportionally to the rise in output. rates. engineering machinists paid on “piece rates” (according to the amount produced) – petrol for delivery vehicles. but the point is they do not change as production level changes. Where variable costs rise faster than production. and then diminishing marginal returns. Where variable costs rise in the same proportion as output. whatever the level of output and sales. (c) Variable Costs These are the costs of inputs which increase as output increases. we reach the level of diminishing returns. then constant. The cost has to be met. This is because each extra unit of input is adding more to production than it is to cost. The behaviour of variable costs depends on the pattern of production returns:  If production is rising faster than the rise in input of variable elements.g.   Economies and Diseconomies of Scale Economies of scale are a key factor in the growth of businesses and you need to know the ways in which increasing size and volume of production can result in a proportional decrease in costs. all factors can be © ABE and RRC . the salary of a manager. This is usually the case at lower levels of production. and so on. However. (a) Returns to Scale Increasing inputs of one variable factor of production when at least one other production factor is held constant is likely to bring about increasing.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 29 Examples of fixed costs include rent for land or buildings.

g. © ABE and RRC .      (c) Diseconomies of Scale Diseconomies of scale are usually associated with the problems rising out of the management and control of large organisations. When all factors are being increased:  If a given proportional increase in factors results in a larger proportional increase in output.   (b) Economies of Scale Real scale economies. or diseconomies of scale. Real economies – the genuine efficiencies in the use of production factors resulting from growth in the scale of activities – can be identified in the following main areas. however. then the firm is enjoying increasing returns. If the proportional increase in output is the same as the proportional increase in factor inputs – e. a 15% increase in factor inputs produces less than a 15% increase in output – only 10%. for example. or economies of scale. building up the power of their own department – at the expense of efficiency and profitability. should be distinguished from purely pecuniary or monetary economies which do not represent a more efficient use of factors but which are the result of the superior bargaining power of the large firm in the market.g. as defined above. Whereas the manager of a small organisation can see what is going on around him in the course of his daily work.  Labour economies – resulting from greater opportunities for the division of labour which increase with the skills of the work-force. if a 10% increase in factor inputs produced a 20% increase in production output. the manager of a large firm may have to establish an inspection system to obtain equivalent information – which is unlikely to be as reliable.30 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules increased. If. Formal communication systems are necessary but are expensive to maintain. and there is the possibility of economies of scale resulting for the continued growth in size of the firm. save time and allow greater mechanisation Technical economies – resulting chiefly from the use of specialised capital equipment. say – then the firm is suffering decreasing returns. These managers may then pursue their own private objectives – e. This would be the case. when a 15% increase in factors produces a 15% increase in output – then the firm is experiencing constant returns. Marketing economies – resulting from large-scale advertising and skilled marketing specialists Financial economies – resulting obtaining finance from markets that are denied to small firms Distribution and Transport economies – resulting from more efficient planned use of vehicles and storage space Managerial economies – resulting from the employment of specialised managers and managerial techniques. There can also be a loss of control over managers at the lower levels of the “managerial pyramid”.

(a) What Are Exchange Rates? The exchange rate is the rate at which one national currency can be exchanged for the currencies of other countries – effectively. A fall in the value of one currency against another will make exports to that country cheaper in the currency which has fallen in value.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 31 Exchange Rates You need to be aware of the determinants of currency exchange rates and the impact of these on decisions about finance. Thus the balance of payments between two countries is an important factor. We can see that if. for example. then. the exchange rate for the US$ against the GB£ is $2 = £1. it is formed. its price. Changes in exchange rates are of great significance for international trade. in turn. The greater the interest rate differential between two countries. then the cost of buying $200 is £100.   © ABE and RRC . will cause movements in the exchange rate. ultimately. through the balance of payments (value of total exports set against total imports). See Study Unit 17 of the Economic Principles and their Application to Business Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. in turn. Conversely.26. Interest rates – the interest earned by holding one currency as against another will affect demand for that currency. The country with the higher relative interest rate will experience an exchange rate appreciation while the other country will experience an exchange rate depreciation. (b) Influences on Exchange Rates It is generally accepted that there are three main determinants of exchange rates:  Volume of trade between countries – as the exchange rate represents the price of a national currency. then the cost of buying the same amount of $ rises to £105. the price of imports will rise. These. Should the exchange rate change to $1. it will also impact on the national economies. by the forces of supply and demand. are the result of the trade flows of imports and exports. Not only does this have an impact on the trading activities of individual businesses.9 = £1. the greater will be the flow of capital between them and this. Inflation rates – this is the " Purchasing-power Parity Theory" whereby changes in currency values reflect changes in the purchasing power of the various national currencies.

The over-riding principle to keep in mind when designing a set of questions is that. Secondary data is that which has been collected for some purpose other than that for which it is being used. which means looking at the original sources to find out how it was collected and the exact definition and method of compilation of any figures produced. as a multi-page questionnaire will probably be put on one side and either forgotten or returned late. Overall a questionnaire form should not look too overpowering: good layout can improve response considerably. This includes most of the data used in compiling business statistics since its source is the accounting. Questions must always be tested on someone who was not involved in setting them. it will be. Equally questionnaires should be kept as short as possible (unless there is a legal compulsion to fill it in. the collection of data. Many problems can be avoided by careful design. and preferably on a small sample of the people they will be sent to. consistent with getting the right results. Secondary data must be used with great care – as the data was collected for another purpose. as with many government surveys). if all the responses are aligned down one side of the sheet it is a great deal easier to read them off than if they are scattered around the sheet. QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT Types of Data and Collection Methods You need to be familiar with the processes involved in. interviews and personal observations.  (b) Questionnaires We are concerned here with self-completion questionnaires. The principles to observe when designing a questionnaire are:   Keep it as short as possible. In particular you should understand and be able to use the principles of good questionnaire design. if a question can be misread. © ABE and RRC . you must make sure that it provides the information that you require. (a) Types of Data There is a basic distinction between primary and secondary data:  Primary data is that collected for a specific purpose – examples include the UK Census of Population taken every ten years. particularly where the information on the questionnaire has to be transferred to analysis sheets or entered into a computer. by email or by directing potential respondents to a website. They may be administered by post. For example. Explain the purpose of the investigation so as to encourage people to give answers. sales and other records compiled by companies for administration and management purposes. questionnaires. costing. which are those designed to be completed by the respondents with no help from an interviewer. and the viewing figures used to rank the most popular television programmes. and the use of published statistics. The design of a questionnaire will reflect the way in which it is to be used. See Study Unit 1 of the Quantitative Methods for Business and Management Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. and the relative merits of the methods used for.32 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules D. Testing a new questionnaire on a small sample of potential respondents is sometimes referred to as a pilot study.

Interpretation of Summary Statistics You will need to be able to use measures of location – the mean. in a set of observations. Where possible. the median is the value of the middle observation. and leading questions should be avoided.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 33        Individual questions should be as short and simple as possible. This value can be found by ordering the observations or inspecting the simple frequency distribution or its histogram. when to use the different measures and the formulae for calculating them. if n is odd. (a) Mean The arithmetic mean of a set of observations is the total sum of the observations divided by the number of observations. The respondent should be assured that the answers will be treated confidentially and not be used to his or her detriment. If possible. Note that they are principles and not rigid rules – often you may have to break some of them in order to get the right information. No calculations should be required of the respondent. (b) Mode If. "No" or a number of some sort should be called for. if n is even. If the variables are continuous. and you should understand them well enough to be able to remember them all if you are asked for them in an examination question. you should follow them as far as practicable in order to make the questionnaire as easy and simple to complete as possible – otherwise you will receive no replies. This is the most commonly used measure of location and it is often simply referred to as "the mean". the mode is located in the class interval with the largest frequency. (d) Range The range of a distribution is the difference between the largest and the smallest values in the set of data. See Study Units 4 and 5 of the Quantitative Methods for Business and Management Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. use the "alternative answer" system in which the respondent has to choose between several specified answers. (b) Median If a set of n observations is arranged in order of size then. However. median and mode – and measures of dispersion – range and standard deviation – when describing the data presented in the case study. Make sure you know the definitions of each measure. You should always apply these principles when designing a questionnaire. the mode is that value of the variable which occurs most frequently. Questions should be capable of only one interpretation. © ABE and RRC . the median is the value of the arithmetic mean of the two middle observations. the variables are discrete. and its value must be estimated. only short and definite answers like "Yes". The questions should be asked in a logical sequence.

It describes the extent to which the observations are distributed around the mean. and thus estimate the movement of the time series. © ABE and RRC . (b) Seasonal Variations These are variations which are repeated over relatively short periods of time – the most frequently observed being those associated with the seasons of the year. A trend is defined as a clear tendency for the time series data to travel in a particular direction in spite of other large and small fluctuations. primarily concerned with the short term because of the likelihood that the assumptions mentioned above will break down gradually for periods of longer than about a year. It is defined as the positive square root of the mean of the squares of the differences between all the observations and their mean. See Study Unit 9 of the Quantitative Methods for Business and Management Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. and irregular or random fluctuations. seasonal variations. and as such is relatively simple to understand and use. Any forecast does. This will involve both plotting the observations on a scattergram to provide a visual guide to the changes. using the moving average method. (c) Cyclical Fluctuations These are long-term but fairly regular variations. (a) Assumptions in forecasting The reason for isolating the trend within a time series is to be able to make a prediction of its future values.34 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules (e) Standard Deviation The standard deviation is one of the measures used to describe the extent of variability in a set of observations. however. need to be made with two assumptions:   That conditions remain stable That extra factors will not arise Forecasting is. See Study Unit 9 of the Quantitative Methods for Business and Management Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. cyclical fluctuations. Time Series You need to be able to interpret sets of values observed at regular intervals over a period of time – time series. therefore. They are difficult to observe unless you have access to data over an extensive period of time during which external conditions have remained relatively constant (d) Irregular or Random Fluctuations Other relatively small irregularities which cannot be otherwise accounted for and do not seem to have any easily seen pattern are called irregular or random fluctuations. They may be due to errors in the observations or to some one-off external influence which is difficult to isolate or predict. and understand the limitations of forecasting methods in general. Forecasting You need to be able to predict future values from a time series. and considering the data shown in terms of the four factor components – trend. (a) Trend This is the change in general level over the whole time period and is often referred to as the secular trend.

like all others. for a certain level of sales. this forecast. with the key element being the point at which. To the right of this (where the revenues are higher than the costs) a profit is made. and thus the forecast. this may not be true. See Study Unit 16 of the Quantitative Methods for Business and Management Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. the line may be curved and.  © ABE and RRC . thus. Alternatively this can be interpreted as the minimum volume of sales necessary for the business to be viable. The break-even point is the point at which total revenue = total cost. neither a profit nor a loss is being made. To the left of this (where the costs are higher than the revenue) a loss is made. must be treated with caution. Variable costs are invariably shown as a straight line whereas. whereas in reality. costs and profit. so will total costs. (b) The Break-even Chart The chart plots costs against sales revenue in order to show profit at different levels of sales. The trend line is extended by assuming that the gradient remains the same as that calculated from the data.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 35 (b) Moving Averages Method This frequently used method involves extending the moving average trend line drawn on the graph of the time series. Since economies of scale may be gained by increased production. break-even analysis does have a number of limitations. this is not necessarily true. again in reality and particularly over the long term. This form of analysis looks at profit in relation to sales. You should also be aware of the limitations of the technique. (c) Limitations Whilst of great value. These arise from the following assumptions:   Costs are related to production and output. and particularly over the long term. considerably. the more unreliable becomes the forecast. Although fairly easy to calculate. It assumes that fixed costs remain fixed at all levels of output. (a) The Role of Break-even Analysis One of the most basic questions facing a business is how profitable is it? Perhaps the most commonly used tool to investigate this is break-even analysis. whereas the chart measures costs against sales revenue. The assumption is that all output is sold. You should be able to calculate a break-even point from given data and construct and use a break-even chart. Break-even Analysis You need to have a sound understanding of the role of break-even analysis in determining sales levels and explaining the relationship between revenue. The line for fixed costs actually rises in steps and fixed costs are only fixed within their relevant range. so if this happens to be an especially high or low value then it would influence the trend. Total costs are made up of fixed and variable costs. because it is based on the value of the trend calculated for just one period of time. The further forward you extend it.


Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules

Recruitment, Selection and Induction
People are the key resource of any business and the recruitment and selection procedure is central to ensuring that an organisation has the right people for the job. You need to understand in detail the stages of this procedure – from confirmation of the vacancy and specification of the job right through to the appointment of, hopefully, the right person. You should also be aware of the need for induction into the organisation and the job itself. See Study Unit 4 of the Human Resource Management Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. (a) The Recruitment Process Recruitment comprises a number of stages, each of which needs to be completed for the process to be a success. Determine the vacancy Complete the job analysis Write the job description Draft the personnel specification Advertise in suitable sources of recruitment Receive applications and pre-select candidates Hold interviews (and/or other selection method) Make a job offer Implement an induction programme (b) Job Analysis Job analysis is the process of collecting and analysing information about the tasks, responsibilities and the context of jobs. The objective is to provide the information on which the job description and person specification will be based. It is, therefore, a key part of the process of matching individuals to jobs. The following checklist summarises the information required.



Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules


Summary of data to be collected in job analysis Title of Job Outline title of job in unambiguous terms. Organisational Context Should include: location of job, department or division; chain of command (if appropriate); reporting relationships. Summary of Job This should provide a breakdown of the purpose of the job. Content of the Job Should include a detailed description of the duties and responsibilities of the job, and its importance in relation to other jobs it may relate to. Physical Working Environment This should include the working conditions (office or shop floor); hours of work; salary/wages; associated benefits and incentives. Other Information Outline whether the job is open to “advancement” i.e. promotion; give an indication of the education and training requirements (if any). Performance Standards Indicate the systems that will be implemented to monitor performance (e.g. appraisals or professional development interviews) and state the review periods (whether quarterly or half-yearly). Human Requirements Describe the profile of the individual who must meet the job specification. This will be detailed in the personnel specification. (c) The Job Description This describes the job in terms of its main duties, responsibilities and purpose, setting out the parameters of the job, by covering all of its requirements – the who, what, where, when and why. The key elements are:        The job title To whom the job-holder reports (possibly including an organisation chart to show where the job fits in) Primary objective or overview – the job’s main purpose Key tasks How the responsibilities are to be carried out Extent of responsibility Key contacts and basic conditions of work.




Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules

Job descriptions provide essential information to both the organisation and the potential employee:  To the individual – providing information to the potential employee/job applicant so that they can determine whether or not the job is suitable, and giving the jobholder the opportunity to set individual goals, objectives and targets. To the organisation – enabling the person specification to be written, providing an in-depth overview of the job, and forming the basis training needs analysis and performance appraisal.


The Person Specification This is used in the recruitment process to provide recruiters with an “ideal” profile of the candidate the company wishes to attract. In its simplest form, it is a blueprint of the knowledge, skills, qualifications and experience required to enable the job to be carried out efficiently and effectively. A person specification is often split into essential and desirable characteristics. The essential criteria are what a candidate must possess if they are to be considered for the post. The desirable criteria are the abilities, above the basics, which will enable the successful candidate to perform beyond the basic minimum standard required.


Recruitment Advertising The two most important decisions when advertising a position are where to place the advertisements, and what to put in them. If advertisements are wrongly placed or badly worded they can be costly and ineffective at attracting the right candidates. You also want to avoid receiving a flood of replies from unsuitable candidates due to an advertisement being misplaced or a misunderstanding of the job’s requirements. The style of the advert is most important – it needs to stand out from the crowd of other job adverts, display the company's identity clearly, have some unique selling point about the job and provide the required information clearly and unambiguously in as small a number of words as possible., The following list gives the essential information that a good recruitment advertisement should include:          Job title Job content – main duties and responsibilities (and working hours) Location Name and description of the organisation Minimum qualifications and experience needed for the job. Any unique elements to this particular job, e.g. travel, wider responsibilities, etc. Rewards and prospects (if any) Clear instructions how to apply and whom to contact Reference – so that records can be kept of response rates, etc.


The Form of Application There are basically two possibilities:   By a curriculum vitae (CV) By an application form.

Submission may be by post or, increasingly, via e-mail or completing a form on-line.



Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules


There are advantages and disadvantages to each type of application format, and in many cases the type of job will condition the type of application used. However, many organisations prefer to use application forms in order to standardise responses and avoid discrimination. (g) The Selection Process – Interviews Probably the most frequently used selection method is the job interview although there are many methods. The following checklist sets out the key elements in conducting a successful interview: INTERVIEW CHECKLIST Do:    Introduce yourself. Say what position you hold and how it is relevant to the position for which you are interviewing. Explain the format of the interview. Listen. Listen to what the candidate is not saying as well as to what he/she is saying. Encourage the candidate by your body language: look interested, nod, etc. Ask open-ended questions, keeping them short and specific. Offer the chance to ask questions and take notes. Explain that you will be taking notes during the interview. Press the interviewee for a specific answer if he/she appears to be avoiding a question. Pause. If there is a gap after an answer, don’t rush to fill it. If you remain silent the candidate will often go on to offer further information that may not otherwise come to light. Ask “Yes/No” questions. Take notes immediately after the candidate has made a slip up. It is best to put your pen down if you are being told about something difficult or personal. You may wish to note it later. Ask for information that is on the CV unless you need the candidate to expand on it. Make assumptions or guess answers. Patronise the interviewee. Ask leading questions. Criticise. Be aggressive; you will rarely see the best side of a candidate by being aggressive. Ask overtly complicated or gimmicky questions.

    

Don’t:  

      

Remember the 80:20 rule A good interviewer will be listening for 80% and talking for 20% of the time.



priorities and methods Explanation of general administrative and management procedures. This should include the following details that will be needed to prepare the employee for a successful first day at a new workplace. including essential health and safety measures Provision of general information about all aspects of the organisation – its goals and objectives. Provision of support throughout the first few weeks in respect of both the requirements of the job and orientation to the environment of the organisation. history and achievements. such as transport arrangements and appearance (dress) codes Package details – including salary details. catering arrangements. to make a swift contribution to the company in his/her new position. it is necessary to send a letter giving all the details that are required by the new employee. © ABE and RRC .40 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules (h) The Selection Process – Assessment Tests Interviews are not the only method of selection and many organisations mow use a variety of tests.  Note that induction can be seen as a process which begins at the first selection event and continues for several months after appointment. key personnel. The following elements will form part of such a programme:      Initial introduction to other employees and physical aspects of the workplace Detailed introduction to work procedures relevant to the employee's job Review of key elements of the job and planning of work objectives.   (j) Employee Induction A good induction programme will enable a new employee to settle quickly into the new environment and. The most common forms of assessment tests used in selection are:     Intelligence tests Personality tests Aptitude tests Proficiency tests. such as the possible need to have a medical.  Starting Instructions – including starting date and time. etc. These are usually used in conjunction with some form of interview. etc. (i) Starting a New Employee Once an offer has been made and the successful candidate has accepted the position. place. overtime arrangements (if applicable). any required documents and other general information needed. depending on the type of job. leave allowance and arrangements. structure and organisation. and details of any other benefits Other requirements. safety policies. values. thereby.

See Study Unit 8 of the Human Resource Management Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. The result of the match is identification of a training gap. Present and future needs HUMAN RESOURCE PLAN Present resources Business plan IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING GAP Human resource stock take TRAINING PLAN AIMED AT BRIDGING GAP © ABE and RRC . and be able to identify appropriate strategies for resolving performance problems through training.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 41 Training and Staff Development You need to be aware of the role that learning and development plays for both the individual and the organisation. as shown in the following figure. An organisation’s training plan should be based upon the assessment of training needs and their prioritisation. There are two approaches towards the identification of training needs:   assessing the needs of the individual. These are not mutually exclusive and most organisations will have procedures in place to assess the needs from both perspectives. and/or assessing the needs of the organisation. (a) The Importance of Training Needs Analysis There needs to be effective identification of training needs for the following reasons:    Training can be expensive and a faulty analysis of what is required can result in a significant waste of the organisation’s resources An accurate training analysis enables limited training budgets to be directed towards activities which will achieve optimum benefits for the organisation Accurate information about training needs is essential to the specification of learning outcomes and the design of appropriate training programmes. (b) Corporate Training Plans Training programmes should be implemented under a human resources plan that has identified both present and future needs on the demand side and matched them to resources on the supply side. The training gap is the difference between what is actually happening and what should be happening. which has to be bridged through a mixture of training existing staff and the recruitment of new staff with the necessary skills.

Engage in informal discussion first. and identification of strategies for meeting them The assessment of potential for promotion and development of succession planning The assessment of individual progress and assistance with career planning decisions The enhancement of motivation and communication The assessment of present salary levels and setting of new levels and/or relation of performance to pay. reorganise it where possible. etc. (a) The Role and Purposes of Appraisal A competent manager will constantly monitor staff performance and make realistic and considered interventions on a day-to-day basis to assist and develop their effectiveness. with employee performance. such as pay. reasonable goals and set date to review performance. If this does not work.42 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules Appraisal. behaviour and conflict. If problem is with work or job. Arrange appropriate training and development (on the job). The following table summarises some of these. working conditions. more specific purposes and outcomes are as follows:       (b) The assessment of past effectiveness and setting of new performance targets The assessment of training and development needs. Discipline and Grievance You need to be familiar with organisational procedures for dealing. Link work and training. reviewing past performance and planning for the future. Reconcile any areas of dissatisfaction. Enlist help of agencies such as counselling services if poor/problem performance is the result of personal problems. Within this. The appraisal interview or meeting provides a snapshot of progress and achievement as seen at a particular time. on an individual level. © ABE and RRC . See Study Units 7 and 11 of the Human Resource Management Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. Strategies for Dealing with Problem Performers It is important to note that there are a variety of strategies for dealing with poor performance in the workplace before resorting to disciplinary action. invoke formal procedures. Improve communication and leadership styles. Staff appraisal schemes are concerned with taking stock of the present situation. with ideas about improvement and development for the coming period. Staff appraisal schemes seek to formally encapsulate the essence of that relationship and record the process from both sides at regular meetings. Strategy Goal-setting Training Dissatisfaction Discipline Reorganising Management Outside Agencies Criteria Mutually agree achievable.

the growing body of case law on unfair dismissal – based on the rulings of appeal bodies – has been providing further guidance as to standards of practice. Specify to whom they apply. Note the need for rules and procedures:    Rules are necessary in order to promote fairness in the treatment of individuals and in the conduct of industrial relations. ranging from oral reprimands © ABE and RRC . ensuring that immediate supervisors do not have the power to dismiss without reference to senior management. (b) Disciplinary Procedures Since the 1970s there has been a recognised set of standards for dealing with the procedural aspects of disciplinary matters. if appropriate. Provide a right of appeal. Ensure that individuals are given an explanation for any penalty imposed. in dismissal procedures. and to be given an opportunity to state their case before decisions are reached. provision for progressive warnings to be prescribed for dealing with complaints which would not merit summary (instant) dismissal. no employees are dismissed for a first breach of discipline. In addition. Ensure that. Conciliation and Arbitration Service).       It is common to find. ACAS advises that procedures which are designed to encourage improvement in individual conduct should conform to the following rules. It is important that employees know what standards of conduct are expected from them. Provide for matters to be dealt with quickly. Give individuals the right to be accompanied by a trade union representative or by a fellow employee of their choice. and provide a fair method of dealing with alleged failures to observe them. They set standards of conduct at work. Ensure that disciplinary action is not taken until the case has been carefully investigated. Specify the levels of management which have authority to take the various forms of disciplinary action.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 43 Strategy The Job Peer Pressure Criteria Transfer the problem performer to another job. Try not to put the problem performer with peers who will put pressure on him/her to change his/her attitude or behaviour. Indicate the disciplinary actions which may be taken. except for gross misconduct. Procedures help to ensure that standards are adhered to. This may lead to conflict. or redesign the job. and specify the procedure to be followed. Two or three stages of warning are common. Provide for individuals to be informed of the complaints against them. They should:      Be in writing. These standards are specified in a Code of Practice published by ACAS (Advisory.

If the problem is not resolved. Even though the jobs are of similar level of skills.44 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules to written warnings. Department manager – at this and the next stage the employee may be accompanied by his/her employee representative or a colleague if he/she wishes. the variety of tasks provides for a change of routine and offer the opportunity to develop more flexible forms of working and cover for absences. A right of appeal should be in place that allows for petition to the highest manager of the organisation after the process stages have been followed. The stages of a grievance procedure usually follow the pattern outlined below. It is also relatively cheap and simple to implement. and you need to be aware of these three. From the HRM perspective. Be simple to understand. with a maximum time lapse between each stage being clearly stated:  The employee takes up the grievance with his/her immediate or first line supervisor.   The results of meetings at all stages should be put in writing and copies issued to all the parties concerned. Senior manager. It allows the airing of discontents on an individual rather than a collective basis and should be seen as a means of regulating relationships within the organisation. However. there are a number of strategies available within job design to improve satisfaction and motivation. e. An effective procedure should:     Ensure fairness and consistency. complaints or dissatisfaction with their own managers. Final warnings should be in writing. it can be taken through to the next stage. and should refer to the risk of dismissal if conduct does not improve. methods and relationships of jobs in order to satisfy technological and organisational requirements as well as the social and personal requirements of the job holder.g. Ensure speed in dealing with problems before they develop into larger ones which will be more difficult to rectify. there are a number of problems associated with job rotation:  Imposed job rotation may be resisted if it interferes with the development and functioning of the work group © ABE and RRC . Operate in a climate of good communications which fosters open criticism and honesty. (a) Job Rotation Job rotation is the simplest form of job restructuring or design and involves moving workers from one job to another. Job Rotation. See Study Unit 6 of the Human Resource Management Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. Enrichment and Enlargement Job design has been defined as the specification of the contents. (c) Grievance Procedures A grievance procedure is a method of enabling employees to take up grievances which are of concern to them.

if not to the individual. meaningful modules of work. This is the difference between job enrichment and job enlargement. with some findings indicating gains in satisfaction. Job enrichment may well expand the job to include supervisory or managerial functions and elements of decision-making. incorporating the ideas of job enlargement but going much further in changing the nature of jobs to include such elements as:   Freedom to decide their own methods and pace of work. for example.    In general. they are less dependent on colleagues and can work at their own pace. and the added tasks are often of a different nature to the ones already performed. This usually involves widening a job from a central task to include one or more related tasks.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 45    (b) Some individuals may prefer to be excellent at one task. For management. The results of research into job enlargement are inconclusive. performance and output. Job enlargement is often criticised on the basis that the enlarged job tends to consist of multiples of the original task and nothing of any significance is added that will improve job satisfaction or motivation. space and training. usually of the same type as the original task. staff may quickly become familiar with the additional tasks and the motivational effects may wear off. job enlargement may require additional equipment. the worker is allowed to complete a whole or much larger part of a job. whilst others show a preference among workers for repetition and more restrictive jobs. rather than good at several tasks The training required is likely to be more complex and extensive and therefore more expensive The changeover situation may cause problems. and it is argued higher morale will bring gains in performance that outweigh any loss of production from making the work less specialised. Some workers prefer stability and may feel threatened by ideas of making their jobs more interesting. (c) Job Enrichment This is a more ambitious technique. at least to a work group Allowing employees to feel responsible for their own work performance. © ABE and RRC . consultation on possible changes and more direct communication instead of going through formal channels Delegated “control” whereby the operative performs their own inspection function on what they make Allocation of natural. as the member of staff is doing a wider range of tasks. This means that. Job Enlargement Job enlargement refers to ways of making a job less boring and repetitious by introducing more variety. Problems and limitations associated with job enrichment schemes include::     Some jobs are limited by the technology used to perform them Increased costs may be associated with redesigned jobs Trade unions may oppose changes which dilute strict trade and demarcation lines between jobs. so long as the job is done well Participation in decision making through.

A person’s motives may be clear to themselves but quite puzzling to others. Motivation Theory You will be expected to know the main theories of motivation – including those of Maslow. both the person concerned and those around them understand what their motives are. © ABE and RRC . as well as expectancy theory – and be able to apply them in formulating proposals to resolve problems. there are many positive views emerging on job design and enrichment. As the following formula shows.46 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules Despite these problems. (b) Motivations Theories There are many theories of motivation and. this is one of the most heavily researched areas of management. A “motive” is a need or a driving force within a person. It is important for people in management and supervisory positions to understand such alternatives and to adapt their leadership style accordingly. On other occasions. goals can be tangible – such as higher earnings – or intangible – such as personal reputation or prestige. McGregor and Ouchi. these theories can be grouped into two main areas:   Content theories – those which concentrate on the satisfaction of needs as the basis for action Process theories – those which seek to explore the way in which individuals weigh up different outcomes in deciding on a course of action. Motives or needs Selected behaviour Goals or desired ends (tangible or intangible) Understanding human behaviour can be a complex matter. Herzberg. even though these may be perfectly clear to a trained observer. The process of motivation involves choosing between alternative forms of action in order to achieve some desired end or goal. indeed. a person may not understand their own motives. McClelland. (a) What is Motivation? Motivation is concerned with WHY people do (or refrain from doing) things. On the other hand. See Study Unit 5 of the Human Resource Management Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. Broadly speaking.

but this has been extended to cover areas which were initially seen as being primarily relevant to service industries. Product Life Cycle Theory You will need to be thoroughly familiar with the stages of the product life cycle and the various influences upon the shape of the life cycle curve over time. (b) Kotler's Seven Cs This approach to describing the marketing mix views the same areas as the 7 Ps from the customers' and consumers' perspective and considers their needs. See Study Unit 7 of the Marketing Policy Planning and Communication Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. MARKETING POLICY PLANNING AND COMMUNICATION The Concept of the Marketing Mix (7 Ps) You need to be thoroughly familiar with the seven Ps and the corresponding Cs of the marketing mix as a means of describing the scope of the marketing – the ways in which organisations conduct their dealings with customers.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 47 F. (a) The Seven Ps The term "marketing mix" covers the seven controllable variables of:        Product Price Place Promotion People Processes Physical evidence.        Customer value Cost Convenience Communication Consideration Co-ordination and concern Confirmation One key outcome from this approach is that it makes it clear that marketers should produce as Ps only what customers and consumers value as Cs. The mix was originally seen as just the first four factors. © ABE and RRC . You should also be able to explain the limitations of the theory as a forecasting tool. See Study Unit 2 of the Marketing Policy Planning and Communication Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. but are now acknowledged as increasingly important to adding and creating competitive advantage.

it masks considerable variations in the behaviour of the life cycle curve:  Different products have widely differing shaped curves depending on such things as the complexity of the product and the costs involved in development. when costs are high and no earned revenue (and thus it does not register as a stage on the life cycle diagram). Introduction – another expensive stage with intensive promotion. Typical Product Life Cycle Model The five stages in the life cycle are as follows. Maturity/Saturation – competition will be at its maximum and profit levels may begin to fall as market share is lost or the market becomes saturated. and costs may be incurred in resolving problems with the initial product and its marketing. the product moves through a number of stages. the speed of take up of the product and the extent of competition. each of which has its own implications for the management of a product.  Development – a protracted stage involving activities such as design. Promotion will be aimed at keeping the product visible.   © ABE and RRC .48 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules (a) Stages in the Product Life Cycle The concept is best illustrated by a diagram of the "life" of a product covering the time from when it is introduced onto a market until it is deleted or phased out of a product range. general economic conditions. the product may need to be withdrawn if new markets/uses cannot be found or if adaptations to the mix are not effective in increasing sales. although it is likely there will now be competition and promotion will continue to be intensive. overcoming the competition and extending the life cycle. Growth – this stage will produce the greatest increase in sales and profit. Over the course of its life. test marketing. etc. costing. possible high support costs and new/replacement products under development.     (b) Influences on the Product Life Cycle Whilst the above description of the four stages is simple and straightforward. customer buying behaviour. planning. The variables used in the model are Time and Sales Revenue (or Profit). External influences on the market may affect sales – such as legal pressures. The life cycle of specific products or brands within a general category can be very different. Decline – with the market falling and reducing profits. market education and the establishment of a distribution network.

rationalise Competitor reaction Pricing plan Competition declines Price cutting rises for niches Segmented. less product distinctiveness. early adopters. seize shelf space Push for awareness Promotional plan Withdraw Cease Segmentation Targeting and Positioning You will need to know the purpose of market segmentation and positioning. together with the difficulty of identifying. basic – developing No reaction High skimming Growth Increasing Peaking Moderate Mass market Market penetration High – declining Expand for early & late majority. See Study Unit 2 of the Marketing Policy Planning and Communication Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. where a product is in the cycle. the different criteria used for different forms of segmentation.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 49 These. Characteristics Sales Profits Cash flow Customers Strategic focus Marketing expenditure Product plan Introduction Low Loss Negative Innovative Expanding market High Market to innovators.. less competition. at any particular time. rationalise brand. You should be familiar with the bases of segmentation. it does have a value in clarifying the spread of marketing activities across the life of a product. and some of the methods used. fragmented. and localised Distribution plan Unstable pattern – widen channels. high product failure rate. © ABE and RRC . and its importance to marketing. as shown in the following table. differentiate Marginal competitors exit Lowest – competitive Control passing to fewer firms Decline Declining Low to zero Low Laggards Productivity Low Niche marketing. reinforce brand loyalty. These need to be understood in relation to different types of product. However. improve models Maximum new entrants – high Differentiated for each segment Increasing pattern – competitor activity increasing Create "pull" Maturity Slowing Declining High Mass market Defensive marketing Falling Widen product lines. You also need to understand the way in which target marketing and the concept of positioning is built onto segmentation. make the theory less practical for detailed activity planning.

A segment must be:         Identifiable Recognisable Substantial Profitable Accessible Measurable Reliable or Stable Sustainable © ABE and RRC . This is done by segmentation. Social class (or grade or status) is also used as a base." (Adapted from Kotler) Segmentation can be defined as: (b) Bases for Segmentation The main bases are:       Geographic Demographic Psychographic Occasions – when the product is used Benefits – those sought by the consumer Usage – heavy users are of more value than light. This means that there must be some way of "splitting up" the overall market into smaller.50 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules (a) Segmentation All products have a market. (c) Criteria for segmentation The rules for segmentation are simply common sense. but they must be applied with an understanding of the product and the need to seek sales and profits. Targeting and positioning then follow and these affect all aspects of the marketing mix but in particular the communications elements. The purpose of segmentation and positioning is:   To establish which segments of the total market your product or service is selling to and how efficient it is To ensure that the product's position in those segments is how you are seen in the minds of the target market. more manageable portions. but it is impossible for one organisation to reach and serve every potential customer. "The act of dividing the market into specific groups of consumers/buyers who share common needs and who might require separate products and/or marketing mixes. as is age and lifestyle. Other bases derive from behavioural issues such as: Particular use is made of "geodemographic" segmentation whereby demographic data about particular areas can be matched with post codes to build up databases of information about specific sections of the market.

so must target audiences. but the limited size of organisational markets still enable segmentation:           Using the Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) of the UK census of production By the technology of the industry By size of organisation By seasonal purchasing trends By geographic location By the type of product needed. Positioning can be aided by the use of positioning maps which locate a particular offer in relation to the competition against selected key market characteristics. ("Audience" has traditionally been used in advertising. (f) Positioning Positioning is the act of designing an offer so that it occupies a distinct and valued place in the minds of the target customers (Kotler). This is most easily understood in terms of the product where design is tailored to segment needs. Benefits sought Title/position of key decision-makers The degree of formality in the buying organisation The type of people involved in the buying decision. Note that products are not positioned – the term "product positioning" is incorrect. "public" in public relations)." There are five patterns of target-market selection:      Single-segment concentration Multi-segment coverage Product specialisation in several segments Market-specialisation Full market coverage The appeal to different segments is based on differentiation. Positioning refers exclusively to a mental concept. The package that comprises the offer has to be positioned – remember that consumers do not want products. Each segment of the market contains a target audience or target public. both in the minds of customers and as an influence on their own internal activities and operations. they want what products do for them. However.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 51 (d) Organisational Segmentation The segmentation techniques available to those marketing to individuals are not available to the organisational marketer. differentiation also applies to image and branding. Alternatives based on behavioural traits in the market include: (e) Targeting This has been defined by Kotler as: "The act of developing measures of segment attractiveness and selecting one or more of the market segments to enter. Positioning statements are also used to cement a company's position. Just as segments must be specifically identified. © ABE and RRC .

(a) Wants and Needs Behaviour stems from:   Needs (requirements) which can be basic (physical) or higher (psychological). See Study Unit 6 of the Marketing Policy Planning and Communication Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. for a number of reasons. including the making of profits. what influences those wants and what turns those wants into a positive decision to purchase a product. such as age. and beliefs and attitudes. reducing costs. (b) Behavioural Influences What different people need and want. life style. and legal and social restraints A lot of people may be involved in the purchasing decision Buying patterns may be formally set by the organisation The value of the purchase is often high Influences on Organisational Buying The influencing factors on buying will vary from organisation to organisation and it would be an impossible task to produce a comprehensive list of all of the variables that might influence industrial purchasing. perception. Personal – those factors which relate to the individual.and Wants (desires). derives from a number of influences:  Culture – in respect of the broad ideas. such as clubs and interest societies. factors might include: © ABE and RRC .52 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules Main Drivers and Behavioural Influences on Individuals as Consumers You need to understand the ways in which individual consumers make their buying decisions – what they want.    Main Drivers and Influences on Organisations as Consumers You need to appreciate the difference between the buying behaviour of individuals and that of organisations. learning. but the influences on their behaviour are also quite different. occupation. and the way in which they prioritise them. beliefs and values of the society as a whole. and those associated with particular sub-cultures to which they belong and other groupings such as social class Social – the influence of family and friends or other reference groups. However. wealth and character Psychological – including motivation. It has been said that today's wants are tomorrow's needs and a great deal of marketing effort is put into trying to make this the case where buyers are concerned. See Study Unit 6 of the Marketing Policy Planning and Communication Manual for full details of the main points outlined here. The influence from peer groups and opinion leaders is very strong indeed – particularly among the young. (a) The Differences from Individual Consumers Organisations buy differently from individual consumers. Not only do they buy different things. meeting the needs of employees.     (b) They have multiple objectives/needs.

policies regarding trading/not trading with other parties. internal conflicts and politics. legal aspects. the nature of the DMU (few or many people) Personal – status and power. the availability of resources.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 53   Market – the availability and choice of products.  © ABE and RRC . general economic conditions Organisational – the attitude to risk. competitive position. knowledge or lack of it. individual morality and ethics.

Lay out your answers neatly paying particular attention to your handwriting and use of grammar. It is unlikely in these situations that the candidate has gained enough marks to pass. If you simply reproduce your learning notes it is not enough. Keep it relevant! For this examination you are required to analyse problems. Read the case study fully at first and then read the questions that you need to answer and then reread the case study. Every year some candidates either answer too few or too many questions.  A frequent occurrence is poor presentation of the answers. You may wish to answer your best question first to boost your confidence but don’t spend too much of your allocated time on one question. apply your knowledge. The examiner cannot award any marks at all if the writing is illegible. Make a note of your allocated time. Read the instructions on the front of the paper indicating how many questions to answer.54 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules APPROACHING THE EXAMINATION Examination Techniques The following tips are of general application to all examinations. Don’t be afraid to draw a diagram if it is appropriate. Use subheadings if this improves the structure of your answer. You should write as clearly as you can. Choose your questions carefully. Examiners can become frustrated when they have to read through quantities of irrelevant information in order to get to the quality elements. Try to relax. If you should get stuck then leave a space and carry on with the rest of your answer elsewhere. This causes poor structure. A lot of time is lost when candidates get bogged down on something that is not really the main aspect of their answer.              © ABE and RRC . How are you going to structure your answer so that the examiner is looking at a logical presentation? It is not a good feeling to realise that you should have mentioned something much earlier in your answer. Answer the question! Often candidates wish to demonstrate their extensive knowledge on a particular theory that doesn’t answer the question. A diagram could save you a thousand words! Show your workings for any numerical aspects. Showing that you have a memory does not necessarily show that you understand the issues. Although this is easier said than done. This applies to examinations too. you think more clearly when you are not in a panic. Diagrams should be labelled correctly. You can come back to this later. Think about your answer before you commit pen to paper. This is particularly important when addressing an issue presented in the case study. Pre-rehearsed answers are easily spotted and usually don’t score highly. In management you are expected to present your work as a professional. A marker pen may be useful. make decisions and reach logical conclusions. Be concise in your answer – don’t pad it out. At what time should you be moving on to the next question? Don’t go over this time – treat all your answers equally. but some are of particular importance when tackling a case study and bringing a variety of techniques to bear on the answer. You have a choice so make the most of it.

Make sure you prioritise the important subject matter from the less important.            Organise your notes to make connections between different topics. rather than just aiming to cover a whole subject at one go.Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules 55 Revision Techniques Again. Think of ways of introducing variety into the revision programme. © ABE and RRC . Don’t spend a lot of time memorising a pre-rehearsed answer to a question that may not appear. theories and approaches. you may need to practice your handwriting for neatness and speed. Motivate yourself by setting intermediate targets. It is much harder to digest fresh information if you are bored. Be aware of distractions and allow time for them. Makes copious notes and read them often. the following tips are of general application to all examinations. Work in short spells and then test yourself. Don’t work until you are bored. subjects. If you have been using a word processor a lot. Have a practice with past examination papers. but some are of particular importance when bringing a variety of techniques together as is required for this module. You can look for patterns of recurring questions too! Devise a revision schedule by working out how much time you have until the examinations and how much time you need to allocate per day.

56 Synoptic Studies: Applying the Key Theories and Concepts from Other Modules © ABE and RRC .

57 Unit 2 Analysis and Decision Making Contents Introduction A. © ABE and RRC . D. Analysis and Argument Critical Thinking Evidence Analysis Argument Decisions and Decision-Making Four Preconditions for Decision-Making Classifying Problems and Decisions Objectives and Decision-Making Management Decision-Making Models Rational Decision-Making Model The Limits of Rationality Alternatives to Rationality Page 58 58 58 59 61 61 62 62 63 65 65 66 67 68 68 70 70 B. C. Management and Skills The Need for a Range of Skills Evaluating Your Own Skills Critical Thinking.

Conceptual skills are especially important for decision-making. An organisation's most valuable resource is the people who work for it. So. Technical Skills – to be able to undertake specialist tasks themselves. These types of skills may be defined as specific methods and techniques used in a specialist field. MANAGEMENT AND SKILLS The Need for a Range of Skills According to Katz. They are also applicable to studying at higher levels where you need to take a more critical view of concepts and theories and start to develop your own ideas and approaches. interpersonal skills are a fundamental part of every manager’s job regardless of the function that is worked in – they are as important to the accountant as they are to the marketer. an accountant has specific technical skills related to accountancy. and formulating appropriate solutions and courses of action. for example. independent of whether the management is of a small scale enterprise or a global organisation. Managers are also concerned with developing and improving the skills of the workforce for which they are responsible. These skills are often difficult to develop in the manager as the person possessing them generally needs to have a good overview of the organisation at all levels. orally and. © ABE and RRC . by listening – and need to able to communicate not only factual information effectively. They are crucial to management and their development is very important if you wish to progress to a senior management role. but also feelings. They need:  Communication Skills – to be able to send and receive information as the basis of all aspects of work. managers need to employ four types of skill in order to perform their tasks successfully. Interpersonal Skills – to be able to lead. A. This unit introduces some of the key skills which underpin this approach. we should get you to start thinking about your own skills. Conceptual Skills – to be able to diagnose and assess the various different types of issues and problems they face on a day-to-day basis. Managers spend most of their time communicating in one form or another – in writing. but are applicable in virtually all areas of business. crucially. there is nothing. the marketer has specific skills related to marketing and the computer programmer has specific skills for computing and so on. thoughts and attitudes. but also to manage the technical work of others. motivate and work with others. These skills are often called "transferable" skills because they are not rooted in one particular subject or technical area.    It is the area of conceptual skills that we are most concerned with here – the ability to bring critical analysis to bear on issues and problems – but before we move on to look at some of the underlying techniques and approaches for this. the business as a whole and its context in society generally.58 Analysis and Decision Making INTRODUCTION A significant feature of the Management in Action module is the focus on demonstrating a critical awareness of business issues and problems. So. Without their commitment and effective performance. Charles Handy referred to a “helicopter factor” which he described as the ability of the manager to rise up above the business and observe the interrelationships of various factors both within the organisation and between the organisation and its environment.

Management Skill Managing deadlines Perseverance with difficult tasks Confidence to attempt task and express my own views Researching (using different sources to find information) Sorting out what is relevant from that which is irrelevant when reading text Assessing the criteria used in arguments in order to arrive at a judgement Using my own words to express myself and my opinions Being persuasive in being able to argue my point of view Now produce your own individual action plan. The following table sets out a number of management skills which are relevant to the approaches we shall be discussing here. those skills you feel you are best at and those which you do not rate very highly at the moment – and then think about what you need to do to build upon those strengths and address those weaknesses.Analysis and Decision Making 59 Evaluating Your Own Skills Complete the following self assessment of the skills you currently possess. in the next table. You may want to come back to this self assessment at some point later in your studies and see how well you have fared. based on the format of a SWOT analysis.e. Summarise your current strengths and weaknesses – i. Rating © ABE and RRC . Be honest with yourself and consider how strong (or weak) you feel you are at the moment in relation to each – then put in a rating on a scale of 1 to 5 (where 1 is very weak and 5 is very strong).

60 Analysis and Decision Making Personal Skills Development Action Plan My current strengths: What I need to work on: What I am going to do and how: © ABE and RRC .

clear. ANALYSIS AND ARGUMENT If you carried out the above exercise honestly.Analysis and Decision Making 61 B. In the above exercise you looked at your own abilities critically in relation to a number specific skills and this should have enabled you to draw certain conclusions. © ABE and RRC . CRITICAL THINKING. therefore. whether it is undertaking an academic assignment or solving a business problem – and these are both brought together in the Management in Action examination. This approach holds for all types of critical analysis. We can apply the same approach to looking at any business issue or problem – evaluating it against particular criteria and drawing conclusions which form the basis of future action. in her book Critical Thinking Skills (2005) summarises the process of critical thinking in relation to studying and constructing answers to questions (in examinations or otherwise) as follows:       Finding out where the best evidence lies for the subject you are discussing Evaluating the strength of the evidence to support different arguments Coming to an interim conclusion about where the available evidence appears to lead Constructing a line of reasoning to guide your audience through the evidence and lead them towards your conclusion Selecting the best examples Providing evidence to illustrate your argument. He emphasised the following aspects:   Persistence – meaning to consider the issue thoroughly and in depth. Critical thinking is. well-reasoned way that convinces others. Stella Cottrell. which you set out in the action plan. arguments and conclusions Evaluating the evidence for alternative points of view Weighing up opposing arguments and evidence fairly Being able to read between the lines and identify false or unfair assumptions Recognising techniques used to make certain positions more appealing than others such as persuasive devices and false logic Reflecting on issues in a structured way Drawing conclusions about whether arguments are based on good evidence and sensible assumptions Presenting a point of view in a structured. a complex process of deliberation involving a range of skills including:         Identifying other peoples positions. Critical Thinking Edward Glaser (1941) defined critical thinking as follows: “Critical thinking calls for a persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports it and the further conclusions to which it tends”. you will have demonstrated one of the key skills we are concerned with here – critical awareness. Implications – meaning to consider where the evidence leads. This is all about considering an issue and evaluating it according to a set of key points.

you need to make judgements about the evidence you have collected so that. how you are going to judge the evidence. However. in a situation where the sole concern is to maximise profit. In doing so. The specified criteria is the basis of your analysis – on what basis are you going to make your decision? This may be quite simple as. For example. If you are comparing two items you express the similarities and differences of the two items. analyse. You will need to weigh up the competing bases as much as you weigh up the evidence. putting parts together to form a whole. the effect on the environment. Analysis When you have identified the relevant information about the issue. therefore. in academic terms. you need to weigh up the evidence against specified criteria.e. Synthesis is the process of building a structure or pattern from diverse elements. In doing so. Contrast on the other hand means to find the points of difference only between the two items. The important thing here is that the information must be relevant to the issue – evidence is the grounds upon which build your case to establish the truth (as in a criminal trial) or. and the organisational implications. you can draw some conclusions. you need to assess its strengths and weaknesses. of an argument. ultimately. There are a number of points to bear in mind in doing this:  Be aware of the differences between compare and contrast. the argument you want to put forward to support your proposal for action. but another is crucial. An important aspect of this is that it distinguishes between facts and inferences. Thus. most decisions have many facets and it is important to be clear about what they are and. So.  © ABE and RRC . in our concern here. for example. synthesise and evaluate.    Selecting evidence Analysing the evidence to draw conclusions Constructing an argument to present those conclusions. Evidence The first step is to look at the information related to the issue or problem. This may be provided (as in the case of the Management in Action case study scenario) or you may have to investigate to find the relevant information – i.62 Analysis and Decision Making We can boil this process down further to identify three key elements. (a) Comparing means find the points of similarity and the points of difference. you are forming an opinion and you have to show that this is based on the analysis of the evidence considered. with the emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure Evaluation is the process of making judgments about the value of ideas or materials (b) (c) (d)  To evaluate literally means to put a value on something and this is taken to mean the worth of evidence or. you may consider that one thing doesn’t really matter. in a business context may need to consider such diverse elements as the availability of resources (finance and appropriate staff). Analysis separates information or concepts into its constituent parts so that its structure examined. undertake some research.

brick by brick. As you work through it:      Identify and evaluate the reasoning in the case Consider where the evidence is in the text that supports the reasoning in the case Assess whether the evidence has validity Look for any hidden agendas or hidden assumptions Consider the conclusions in the scenario and whether you agree with them – what does the evidence support? © ABE and RRC .Analysis and Decision Making 63 Argument An argument is the way in which you present your case for a particular point of view or. Be clear about these bases Some level of descriptiveness is helpful as it sets the scene and provides the background information necessary for the reader to understand the analysis of significant features Keep to the point and do not deviate from what is relevant to the issue Always provide evidence to support your view and acknowledge any counter arguments. Finally. Arguments contain both facts and opinions and are the reasons for which you arrive at a point of view. The essence of an argument is that there is a clear line of reasoning set out to support your view. your recommendations or proposals for action. Build the case for your point of view piece by piece. When you express an opinion. and you need to support it by justification. remember the process of critical thinking. in business terms. Present your argument sequentially if possible so that its development is logical. Where appropriate use facts – these are true statements that can be checked against evidence. here.       On the next page we set out a possible framework for organising and presenting an argument. A number of important implications flow from this:  You need to ensure that the reader or listener has sufficient detail to know what you are talking about – do not assume too much and always ensure that the argument is complete. as in building a wall. Organise and structure the case you are building using the criteria you have selected as the basis of the argument. remember that it is personal and subjective. when approaching the case study in the examination. taking the reader through the evidence and the analysis to arrive at the conclusion.

2. 3. Evidence and supporting examples against your proposal: 1. Conclusions: © ABE and RRC . 2. 3. Arguments against your proposal: 1. 3. 2. 2. Evidence and supporting examples in favour of your proposal: 1. 2.64 Analysis and Decision Making The Framework for an Argumentative Communication Main Proposal: Arguments in favour of your proposal: 1. 3. 3. Reasons why the arguments for the proposal are stronger than those against: 1.

In order to be able to carry out these functions. the level within the organisation. the ABE qualified manager might see an advertisement for a position in a magazine and the salary offered for an equivalent post is 20% more than is currently being received. This is significant and is likely to increase dissatisfaction. On an organisational level. the more likely it is that good decisions will be made.Analysis and Decision Making 65 C. (b) Awareness of the significance of the gap In reality. if the advertisement only shows a 5% difference to her current salary. etc. there is often a difference between the way things are and the way we would like them to be. we could envisage a situation where the manager of a section becomes aware that production is running a day late against the planned schedule – again. the importance attached to the decision. a sense of dissatisfaction is likely to occur. managers need to determine what needs to be done in each activity. If a person considers the actual state of things at the moment and compares this what he/she thinks they should be like. on a personal level. consideration should be given to four preconditions:     (a) Presence of a gap between the actual state and the desired state Awareness of the significance of that gap Motivation to act to remove or close the gap Resource availability The presence of a gap This is a concept that is widely used in many branches of the social sciences (particularly psychology) and has great importance to management. she may feel that the gap is insufficient to worry about and. depending on the situation. whilst still being dissatisfied. where there is a difference between the two. does not merit taking action. a gap exists which is causing dissatisfaction. there is a gap between the reality and the desired state. an ABE-qualified manager with four years postqualification experience feels that with her qualifications and experience she should be paid more than is currently the case. DECISIONS AND DECISION-MAKING The functions of management are often summarised as planning. However. controlling. it has to be of sufficient significance. For example. We shall consider each of these in turn. Clearly. though. This will be as true on a personal level as on an organisational level within a business. Therefore. If we are going to do anything about this gap. what can always be said is that the better the quality of the decision-making process. organising and leading. This unit is concerned with the decision-making process and looks at general rules and techniques which can be applied to it in order to enhance that quality. However. but whatever the circumstances. there are always a number of common elements which underpin them. the range of decisions needing to be made will vary greatly. Four Preconditions for Decision-Making For meaningful decisions to take place. Decisions may be conscious or unconscious. Using our examples from above. The process of making that determination is decisionmaking. © ABE and RRC .

However. © ABE and RRC . the section head may feel that the problem does not merit action because this particular schedule is to be revised in two weeks time and there is little to be gained from tackling it now. thereby. and there cannot just be a single decision-making method. For example:  Problem – issuing annual free bus passes to elderly people is taking too long and there are complaints about them not being received before the old one has run out. attitudes of other senior staff. (c) Motivation to act The significance of the gap will be a major factor in whether or not to take action. whereas on the latter schedule is most certainly is. and therefore their solution can be based on known and well defined actions. – for the situation to improve. etc.   Problem – there are not enough women in senior management positions in the organisation. The solutions will also be many and varied. The following model. but other factors also come into play. in order to get the salary level she feels is appropriate. 1984) uses this distinction to classify decisions as being routine. In our production office. – may be prohibitive. new machinery. it is possible to classify problems and. adaptive or innovative. This is usually a matter of cost. Solution – the cause should be simple to identify (such as renewals coming in too late to process or insufficient staff to cope at certain times of the year) and the solution may be to change the procedure in some way.66 Analysis and Decision Making Where the production is running a day late. (d) Resource availability The final question here is whether there are the resources available to tackle the problem. it may depend on whether the late running is a "one-off" or is something which has occurred before or even occurs regularly. our ABE manager may feel that the cost of changing job – relocation. such as requiring renewals to be submitted earlier (and requests for the renewal to be sent out earlier) or making renewals automatic. this could be on a schedule which lasts six months or one week – in the first instance. increased travel. Classifying Problems and Decisions Clearly there are many types of decisions for many types of situations. Thus. etc. This may or may not deter her from pursuing an application for a new position which does offer the required salary. In our production office. even though she is motivated to make the change. These are concerned with the expectation or otherwise that the effort involved in closing the gap is worthwhile. the question is what resources would need to be made available – for example. often complex and take some time to implement. our ABE qualified manager may realise that. new staff. seek to resolve similar problems with similar types of solution. such as insufficient applications from women. training. Also. Thus. it is perhaps not significant. A common framework for this is consider the extent to which problems are known and welldefined. based on Boulton (Business Policy: The Art of Strategic Management. and may even be outside of management control. it would mean relocating to a different area and leaving friends and family behind. Solution – not easy! There may be many causes. lack of opportunities for women to acquire the knowledge and skills required.

ranging from goals at the very top through aims and objectives to targets. You should be very familiar with the role of objectives in organisations. Adaptive decisions are often made having reviewed and modified routine decisions.Analysis and Decision Making 67 Unusual and ambiguous Type of Problem Innovative decisions Adaptive decisions Known and well-defined Routine decisions Known and well-defined Type of Solution Untried and ambiguous  Routine decisions are made in response to well-defined. but we highlight here two key elements as they relate to decision-making:  There is often a hierarchy of "desirable outcomes" within an organisation. therefore.  © ABE and RRC . They involve a combination of unusual and partially known problems and alternative solutions that are modifications of other known and well-defined solutions. Managers tend to establish rules. strategic decisions will be taken in furtherance of strategic aims. they also provide a yardstick against which achievements may be measured. managerial and operational levels. operating principles and/or computer programs. Innovative decisions have their own characteristics: (a) (b) (c) they may be a series of mini decisions of a period of months or years. They are. creative and novel alternative solutions to the discovery of unusual and ambiguous problems. they often have input from a number of people rather than be made by individuals (but not exclusively).   Objectives and Decision-Making Setting objectives are key to the success of decision-making at both the operational and at the strategic level. Objectives may be thought of as “results yet to be attained”. a measure of the success or otherwise of the decisions made. Clearly stated objectives not only define the desired outcome. Innovative decisions require unique. These usually mirror the strategic. balancing a cash drawer and making travel arrangements. well-known problems. Decisions taken at these different levels will reflect the objectives relevant to that level – thus. they are often unstructured and not based on logic. and as such will define the outcome which the decision is designed to achieve. Examples of routine decisions are processing payroll. whereas operational decisions will be taken to achieve specified objectives or targets.

as shown in the following diagram. 1 Problem awareness and diagnosis 7 Follow-up and control 2 Set Objectives 6 Implement the solution selected 3 Search for alternative solutions 5 Choose among alternative solutions 4 Compare and evaluate solutions Stage 1 Problem awareness and diagnosis Problem recognition comes in two ways – through the emergence of difficulties which are preventing. and the identification of potential problems. for a variety of reasons (some good and some not so good).68 Analysis and Decision Making D. However. Managers must habitually monitor the both current performance and environmental forces to recognise where the threats and problems lie. alternative courses of action are proposed and evaluated before the best solution is selected and then implemented. The process is circular in that review and evaluation may feed back into the definition of the problem. now. and finally there is a review and evaluation of achievements. MANAGEMENT DECISION-MAKING MODELS Ideally we would like to think of all decisions as being completely rational and by that we mean decisions which are logical. Rational Decision-Making Model The rational decision-making model “rationalises” the decision maker and the decision to be made into a sequence of seven logical steps through which problems are identified. in reality this is not always achievable. the achievement of objectives. based on the available information and made with good reasoning. and alternative approaches have been developed. © ABE and RRC .

it needs to be communicated properly to all concerned. Allocating resources is about ensuring that the right people are in the right positions at the right time and with the right materials and equipment in order to achieve the desired ends. roles and relationships needed to put the decision into operation. managers must evaluate each solution.the establishment of a structure of functions. and possibly outside interests such as shareholders. given that a systematic appraisal of alternatives has resulted in the “best” available solution being selected. This step is particularly difficult when the problem is complex and involves high degrees of uncertainty (and therefore risk). The optimum method should be to generate a number of different ways of resolving the problems. senior management may have to agree and allocate the necessary funds. it is simply a matter of identifying effective solutions (ones that actually resolve the problem) and then choosing the most efficient one. such as political imperatives or abilities of staff). allocating resources and directing. Once the decision has been approved.Analysis and Decision Making 69 It is not enough simply to note their existence – they must also be understood and evaluated and the manager needs vision to see how problems may impact upon the organisation. nor should management be about just picking one and living with it. Stage 2 Set objectives The setting of objectives in respect of problem resolution is essential. Organising is the allocation of responsibilities and authority . Stage 4 Compare and evaluate alternative solutions Once a number of possible solutions have been found. On the face of it. staff (and their representatives) who will be affected by the changes proposed. Further. Note that setting objectives is not necessarily the same as applying existing objectives. Stage 6 Implement the solution selected It may be thought that this is relatively straightforward. However. This must also involve ensuring the appropriate funding is available and that sufficient time has been allocated to enable © ABE and RRC . life is rarely that easy! In reality. It may be that the current objectives are inappropriate and that is one of the reasons for the problem. Managers must know exactly what they are trying to achieve before they can formulate appropriate courses of action. others have invariably to be convinced of that as well – for example. there will have to be some compromise between effectiveness and efficiency (usually cost efficiency. This can be the most difficult activity. Stage 5 Choose among alternative solutions Often the consequences of a solution to a problem are wide reaching. but having a range to evaluate will certainly help to clarify the “best” solution and probably assist in its acceptance. compare them and assess the likely consequences (especially the costs) of each solution before choosing the "best". government and the public. but other constraints may also apply. external change can make objectives out-of-date and mean that they have to be reconsidered before a more appropriate course of action can be determined. There are obvious limits to how far management can go in searching for alternatives (particularly in terms of the time/cost implications). Stage 3 Search for alternative solutions There is rarely just one solution to a problem. Implementation then involves the management activities of organising. However.

they seek to achieve a satisfactory solution from a limited range of plausible alternatives.70 Analysis and Decision Making the work to be done. but within the limits of available information. directing is the business of appropriately leading. Stage 7 Follow-up and control Continual monitoring of the solution that has been implemented has to take place and assessed against the desired objective. There are also arguments about the reality of being able to define problems and goals with any certainty. The model also assumes a certainty in the information upon which decision making is based. In particular. There are two main views of this:   (a) bounded rationality and satisficing incrementalism. Alternatives to Rationality Given that the rational model is flawed in its practical application. Bounded rationality and satisficing This approach asserts that decision makers seek to achieve rationality. motivating and supervising the work of the members of the organisation. and especially in ways which allow the effectiveness of the decision to be measured against them. cost and time constraints. or that they possess the necessary skills and understanding to do so. are manifestly not followed. however admirable they may be.e. in an entirely rational way as proposed by the model. but have to recognise the limitations as described above. Sometimes the problem has to be redefined and/or corrective action taken. decision makers cannot achieve the optimum solution as projected by unfettered rationality.    The simple fact is that the rational model is a statement of what the policy making process should be rather than what it actually is. Finally. Organisations. Working to the same principles. Decisions are invariably made in the light of some tradition or history of the way in which the same or similar or related decisions and policies have been made in the past. The Limits of Rationality Whilst there is much merit in this approach as a description on the various elements which go to make up the ideal way of developing policy and making decisions. or are capable of acting. In particular. Management Accountants spend a lot of time calculating “variances” which is a measure of how far away from the objective the process has become. one that © ABE and RRC . Instead. a level of certainty which is highly unlikely in the rapidly changing environment of business today. are naturally affected by it and their structures and particular processes are established over time and are not easily changed to meet the demands of the model. It describes a set of principles which. in terms of both time and finance. constitutes what is termed “bounded rationality” and under these conditions. the application of the model in practice is extremely limited. particular consideration has been given by theorists to alternative approaches which better represent the reality of decision making. Sometimes the entire decision-making process is repeated i. they demand a level of information and analysis that is simply beyond the resources of most organisations. The totality of the requirements are excessive and impractical. it is rarely the case that decision makers have access to complete knowledge and information in order to make rational choices. it is necessary to start all over again. if not necessarily prisoners of their past. It can be criticised on a number of bases:  It is not necessarily the case that those who make decisions act.

The key elements of incrementalism may be summarised as follows:     options differ only slightly from the existing situation instead of developing resources to meet predefined ends. However. important decisions being more likely to be made using the rational model. There are advantages to it. (b) Incrementalism Incrementalism is considered to be a more common approach. rather than simply a negative reaction to the limitations of rationality. problems are not solved by the decision. and ultimately as effective.Analysis and Decision Making 71 meets at least some of the identified goals and resolves some of the key problems. In between.  There is little debate about one aspect of incrementalism – that it is a reasonably accurate description of what actually happens. not least in the “softly. the persuasiveness of the rational model is such that there remains dissatisfaction with the seeming inevitability of the prevalence of incrementalism. there is a tendency towards a bit of rational analysis and a lot of incremental analysis. involving progressive adaptation of the existing situation in small steps to meet the demands of the problem faced at the lowest level. whereas small relatively unimportant decisions tend to be wholly incremental. the desired ends are chosen in the light of the available means. and where the nature of the problem and/or the means of dealing with it have changed significantly. a relatively small number of alternative strategies are considered and compared. way of moving forward with the support of all interested parties. softly” approach to change which may turn out to be a more acceptable. This approach is known as “satisficing” and includes the necessity to compromise on both goals and means in order to get any sort of decision made. There are two significant criticisms of incrementalism:  That it is not appropriate to situations where the present situation is known to be grossly unsatisfactory. © ABE and RRC . an approach he termed “mixed scanning”. That the type of approach varies with the type of decision – bigger. but are "attacked". Incrementalism can be seen as a positive approach.

72 Analysis and Decision Making © ABE and RRC .

© ABE and RRC . D.73 Unit 3 Interviews and Meetings Contents Introduction A. Interviews Types of Interview Principles and Practice of Interviewing Meetings – An Overview The Role of Meetings Constitution The Organisation of Meetings Documentation for Meetings The Agenda Minutes Procedure in Meetings Constitution and Standing Orders Roles Within Meetings General Rules of Procedure Effectiveness in Meetings Page 74 74 74 76 78 78 78 79 80 80 83 85 85 86 86 87 B. C.

The objectives of any selection interview are to:   find out whether the candidate is suitable for the job and the organisation. the interviewer has to provide the scope within the interview to allow the candidate the opportunity to explore his/her concerns. The second objective is less well acknowledged. and there is a responsibility on him/her to ensure that the process allows both parties to meet their objectives. However. and are the one type of which you will almost certainly have experience – either as an interviewer or as an interviewee. The first objective is well understood and forms the basis of most questioning. and find out whether the job and the organisation are suitable for the candidate. we shall look at the different types of interview which are common in organisations. thereby distinguishing the particulars of each.74 Interviews and Meetings INTRODUCTION If you were asked to identify the various work situations involving the conscious exercise of oral communication. © ABE and RRC . A. the purpose of an interaction is crucial to determining the communication which takes place. The second part of the unit presents an overview of the role of meetings in business and of the way in which they function. have the potential to become the opposite of their purpose. INTERVIEWS Types of Interview As we have emphasised throughout this course. but should be clear if you consider the interview from the perspective of the candidate – he/she will not only want to show the capability to do the job effectively. whilst interviews generally represent examples of one-to-one interaction. However. and then go on to examine some of the principles and practices involved in interviewing. boards or committees – as a means of expediting business in many organisations brings with it its own particular forms of communication. Note also that. designed to allow the candidate the opportunity to demonstrate his/her abilities in relation to the requirements of the post. and at their underlying processes. at the outset. the purpose must be considered from both sides. if the objectives are not clearly stated. It is important to remember. We can see this in respect of a number of different types of formal interview. in most circumstances. irrespective of the particular side you are on at the time. it is likely that you would include interviews in your list. The existence of formal meetings – for example. it is by no means uncommon for the interviewer side to comprise a panel. (b) Appraisal interviews Appraisal interviews are less well-understood and. (a) Selection interviews Recruitment and promotion interviews are the most common perception of the interview. it is always the case that the interviewer has "control" of the process. but also to find out more about it and assess whether he/she does actually want it. the interaction that takes place continues to be one-to-one. Here. before going on to consider the requirements for effective communication in respect of both the procedures and documentation. that there are two parties to any interview – the interviewer and the interviewee – and that. in essence. As a result.

having said that. They should leave with at least the feeling that they received a fair hearing and consideration. as far as possible. therefore. the appraisal interview can be a positive experience. the aim of the interview is to resolve the grievance. On the face of it. The most important point is that the interview must aim to establish the truth about what has occurred. but rather must be a twoway process to tease out the facts of the situation.Interviews and Meetings 75 The intention of appraisal interviews is to provide a focus for employee development. because it was arrived at only after bitter argument. and will be of benefit to the individual and the organisation. This indicates that the way in which the grievance is handled is every bit as important as the solution itself. it should be the culmination of a process which has included a thorough and impartial investigation of all the issues. it is usually the case that the interviewee is able to be accompanied by a representative or "friend" – to advise. therefore. Often the way in which the solution is arrived at can be just as important – even an ideal solution may be ineffective if it leaves the participants still feeling aggrieved (for example. If conducted in a careful and sensitive way. it cannot be regarded as one-sided. The aim. The interview is not. The principles of natural justice demand that the employee concerned must have the opportunity to put his/her case properly. in handling a grievance interview is to arrive at a solution through a discussion which. usually in accordance with the organisation's disciplinary procedure. but one of a series between the employee and his/her manager (or other designated appraiser). The purpose is two-fold:   to review past and current performance in the job. accusation and counteraccusation). provides a satisfactory conclusion to all parties. from both the appraiser and appraisee's points of view. © ABE and RRC . The need for careful preparation is paramount in this situation. a positive focus which should condition the interview process. it isn't necessarily the solution which is the most important outcome. appropriate to this central focus. It has. and to plan the future development of the individual. This can have very serious consequences. to be clear about the objectives of the formal interaction. as well as acting as a witness to the proceedings. therefore. (c) Disciplinary interviews Disciplinary interviews are held to consider whether disciplinary action should be taken against an employee. As such. therefore. support and possibly speak on his/her behalf. It is crucial. usually as part of an on-going system which includes the provision of development opportunities. and issues of personal prejudice and partiality have to be very carefully dealt with. (d) Grievance interviews These interviews also form part of a broader procedure – the organisation's grievance procedure – which structures the way in which an employee may raise complaints about his/her treatment at work (by the organisation in general or by an individual member of it) and the steps which are to be taken to deal with the complaint. In particular. a one-off event. However. In disciplinary interviews. Employees arrive at grievance interviews with a sense of injustice.

Thus. The principles and practice of interviewing derive directly from the basic two-stage process we considered earlier – preparation and delivery. warnings to prevent interruptions. the particulars of an individual case will condition the approach in a grievance interview. (a) Preparation Each type of interview has its own general aims. Arranging the venue and setting means getting the administration of the process right – notification of times (and keeping to them). look at them in the same way when it comes to understanding the way in which interviews are conducted. with no distractions in or around it. which should be common to all candidates. Thus. for selection interviews. there should be a comfortable. for the participants to sit at right angles to each other. – and establishing an environment for the interview itself which will be supportive of the objectives and help. although some people find that a complete lack of formality makes them feel somewhat exposed. These can be used develop the general lines of questioning in respect of the job description and person specification. into specific questions appropriate to each individual. together with some indication of experience and skills. the interaction.76 Interviews and Meetings Principles and Practice of Interviewing Although the contexts for these interview situations are different. the job requirements. this process is essential so that all participants are aware of the proposed procedure. In preparing for a specific interview. it is important to identify the particular objectives which apply within these. most good interviewers – even very experienced ones – generally run through what they are going to say. the details of the disciplinary or grievance case. Gathering and organising relevant information means ensuring you are fully conversant with the subject area of the interview – for example. the candidates' application forms will provide details of education and employment background. This may mean arranging for phone calls to be re-directed. with no barriers between the interviewer and the interviewee (such as an imposing desk). acknowledgement of the objectives of both parties to the process. rather than hinder. where there is a panel of interviewers (i. reception arrangements if necessary. or an appraisal interview planned around the employee's recent work experience and development activities. We can work this through in respect of the particular requirements of interviewing. Thus. such that the interview itself can be tailored to him or her in particular. Finally. in respect of a job interview. It necessitates considering the background information available about the interviewee to form a picture of the specific person. etc. It is surprising how often interviewers do not really inform themselves about the person or persons they are interviewing. more than one). the employee's appraisal records and employment history. the particulars of the job itself – and the knowledge.e. The physical layout needs some thought – it is usual to make the setting informal. a selection interview can be built around the details of the job description and person specification. This can take the form of actually rehearsing questions. etc. Similarly. or simply talking through the planned structure with a colleague to ensure that it is correct. Thus. particularly in respect of the style and intonation used. as we saw above. skills and attitudes required for it – will inform the framing of the desired outcomes and the structuring of the interview to achieve them. private room available. Picking out the salient points is likely to provide the structure for the interview. It is often felt that it is best. © ABE and RRC . we have established a number of common themes to them all – the need for the process to be two-way. Clearly. in one-to-one interviews. etc. then. We can.

particularly in the case of the interviewer (the interviewer should only do 20 – 30% of the talking). listening to. explaining. All such interviews should also be carried out in near identical conditions. characterised by the acronym WASP. Parting – ending the interaction on a positive and cordial note. and any other data created during the interview process. explaining the purpose of the interview and outlining the way in which it will be structured. what and how any action arising from the interview will be communicated. providing assurances about confidentiality. identifying when. and probing the interviewee's responses.   A Ask – the process of questioning whereby information is sought from the other party in relation to the objectives of the interview. Particular points include:   summarising conclusions. W Welcome – greetings and introductions. if necessary. according to their objectives. being reasonably concise. This requires that you ask the same questions to each interviewee. or at least structure the interview around the same set of questions. We shall be considering questioning techniques in detail in the next unit. Particular points include:   putting the interviewee at ease. where appropriate. each party to the other. with the objective of establishing rapport and relaxing the participants. including letting participants know what will happen to them. S Supply – providing full and honest responses to questions which will show the respondent in the best possible light. © ABE and RRC .    If you have a series of interviews to undertake – for example. The interview itself can be seen as a four-part event. using open questions (which encourage developed responses and further discussion). after the event. but other points include:  using questions prepared in advance. Remember too that the interviewer is responsible for conducting the process and ensuring its successful outcome. about taking notes. based on the general aims and specific objectives of the interview and the particular circumstances of the interviewee. as when seeing several candidates for a job – it is essential that you treat all those being interviewed in fair and equal manner. with a clear idea of what has happened and what will happen next. be systematic in your note-taking – although don't be note-tied and lose eye contact with the participants for too long. Particular points include:   P backing up assertions with examples wherever possible. working from relatively general and easy ones to more specific and difficult ones.Interviews and Meetings 77 (b) Conduct of the interview It is important for the interview to be structured in order to keep the process focused on the key points and to avoid irrelevant discussion and time wasting. making it clear what you expect from participants and what will happen. if appropriate.

a company AGM will be an annual event. which spells out in detail all these issues. When drawing conclusions about an interviewee. while the interview is still fresh in your mind. allowing the exchange of information. There are. but the general purpose is the same. within and outside business organisations. if not immediately. sub-committees. so for example.  All bodies holding meetings have a constitution of some sort. Constitution The particulars of the meetings of a body are determined by the nature of the body itself and this will be laid down in its constitution. However. clearly. be objective and keep personality out any assessment (as you should during the interview itself). and what it must do). length of service. the principles apply generally to most types of meeting. In addition. all sorts of different groups. but not actually to commit the financial resources of the organisation. it may have the power to make proposals and suggestions. timing and frequency of meetings – this will vary according to the functions and purposes of individual bodies. so for example.. but a school governing body may meet once a term. numbers. sometimes governed by legal regulations. B. and company boards and governmental bodies. etc. even informal groups will have an implicit understanding of these matters – whether they are discussed and agreed among the members or simply taken for granted. The Role of Meetings The main functions of any of these meetings may be summarised as:     providing for a dialogue between members. so that candidates can be compared easily. Thus. views and opinions. © ABE and RRC . terms of reference – the powers and duties of the body (what it can and cannot do. generating ideas or solutions to problems. monitoring and evaluating performance or progress.78 Interviews and Meetings After the interview it is important to write up any notes as soon as possible. or a finance committee may meet every six weeks. It may be helpful to organise notes into themes in relation to the objectives of the interview. a school's parent-teacher association. it may be said that all organisations have a committee or meetings structure of some sort. These general functions hold true for the meetings of informal working groups. differences in scale and the issues considered. making policy and other decisions. steering groups and working groups are widely used in both public and private sector organisations. The constitution of a body will cover such fundamental matters as:   membership – who is entitled to be a member and how membership may be determined. whilst the discussion here will be mainly focused on committees or other formal meetings. hold formal or informal meetings on a regular or ad hoc basis. MEETINGS – AN OVERVIEW Formal meetings of committees and boards. Formal committees will certainly have a written constitution. Note that.

at the meeting – the conduct of business during the course of the meeting itself. perhaps the first step is to determine if the meeting is really necessary! Many of us will have felt the frustration of spending two or three hours in a meeting where no progress has been made. Two of these roles are particularly important:   the chairperson. Meetings are an expensive way of using staff time and effort. will © ABE and RRC . This is fundamental to any meeting as it sets out. neutral referee of proceedings. The secretary's role is to ensure the effective administration of the meeting. or there was nothing of substance to discuss. or as a consequence of holding a particular post in the organisation. At the meeting itself. not only the statement of what the meeting will consider – its content – but also defines its structure. There are a number of specific roles within all meetings. setting the tone and style of the meeting and generally ensuring that the business of the meeting is efficiently and effectively conducted. Some of these are implicitly agreed. The structure is partly provided by the agenda. and then go on to look at specific aspects of the procedures and documentation in the next two sections. This is the key role in any meeting. including all work before and after the proceedings. This is a key role and. (a) Preparation for meetings Meetings have to be planned. a local government committee. Therefore. It provides. Again. or even where it was evident that decisions had already been taken elsewhere. but the way in which the discussion is conducted is governed by rules of procedure. giving the holder the ability to control what is discussed and how that discussion progresses. so they need to be cost-effective. However. usually codified and written down as standing orders. for formal committees and boards. We shall review these in very general terms now. and after the meeting – wrapping up the proceedings by producing the record of the meeting and following up on the issues discussed and decisions made. and to advise the meeting on the application of the rules of business. the business to be transacted. if it is not a required meeting of a formal committee. Efficient undertaking of the necessary work prior to any meeting – whether it is for the AGM of a public company. then.Interviews and Meetings 79 The Organisation of Meetings Meetings don't just happen – they have to be organised. formal bodies will have very specific rules of procedure. or a work group – will invariably smooth the conduct of business at the meeting itself. prior to that. but even informal groups will have some generally understood rules about how the meeting will be conducted. The starting point is the preparation of an agenda. but more often there is a deliberate appointment to these positions – either by election. This can be considered in three stages:    before the meeting – the planning of what will happen. It is invariably a very powerful position. However. this role is not simply one of a passive. in order. (b) The conduct of business The proceedings of a meeting may be considered as a sort of structured discussion. its appropriateness or necessity should be questioned and alternatives considered for achieving the desired outcomes. and the committee secretary/clerk. it is the chairperson who actually controls the meeting.

preparation of the agenda may be the sole responsibility of the person who will chair the meeting. all is required is:   a record of all essential information. As such. apologies for absence. and for consideration of matters arising from them (where the issues are not included as items elsewhere on the agenda). provision for confirmation of the minutes of any previous meeting. He/she will have a close working relationship with the chairperson to ensure that the proceedings go smoothly and the desired outcomes are achieved. but advice may be sought on what items of business should be included. In informal meetings it is often the case that the secretary and chairperson's role are held by the same person.80 Interviews and Meetings be fulfilled by a senior officer of the organisation. The particular requirements of the formal minutes of proceedings go much further than the recording needs for most business meetings. They then form a key participative element in the decision making and operating processes of the organisation. The clerk's role is essentially that of carrying out the work of agenda preparation and writing the minutes. rather than a distraction. if they are to have any meaning. including (of necessity) taking notes of proceedings at the meeting itself. it is worth noting that meetings exist to facilitate the execution of work. to direct the recipient's attention to the relevant items in what may often be very large reports or minutes. the business to be transacted at the meeting. particularly what has been decided. it will usually be the subject of some discussion between a number of interested parties – the committee chairperson. It is helpful. However. senior officers and the committee secretary. but have no relevance after the event. though. They are specialised and very important positions in relation to meetings specifically. (c) Work after meetings This breaks down into two areas – the preparation of the record of the meeting. and ensuring that decisions taken at the meeting are subsequently implemented. An agenda should normally include the following elements:    the time and place of the meeting. a statement of who has to take what action. the discussions and decisions must be followed up and put into effect. It is important to remember that the information must reach all those who need to know – either for general awareness or because action is required – rather than just those who were present. This preserves a record of salient information and can be circulated to all participants and others involved or interested. It is sometimes tempting to think of them as talking shops which have to be serviced. In essence. provision for the reporting and consideration of any correspondence received (where the issues are not covered by items elsewhere on the agenda). For other types of meeting. C. in order. It is worth pointing out that these roles – committee secretary and clerk – should not be confused with the general office positions of secretary and clerk.  © ABE and RRC . Finally. this work is actually carried out by the secretary. DOCUMENTATION FOR MEETINGS The Agenda The main purpose of the agenda is to set out. for formal committees and boards. In many smaller bodies.

notice of the meeting and the agenda may be combined.     © ABE and RRC . final item to determine the date of the next meeting.   For most formal committee or board meetings. have a statutory duty to have the agenda and relevant reports. members will need time to familiarise themselves with the agenda and any supporting papers. In others. Agenda may appear in a variety of formats. Items 7 and 8 are also fixed. In some organisations. depending on the conventions of the organisation in question. so that apologies for absence can be sent.. for example. notice of the meeting may be sent out separately – prior to the agenda itself. The first four items are usually fixed for all regular meetings and generally appear in this order. These items may be derived from:     correspondence received.Interviews and Meetings 81  a subject heading for each item of business to be transacted. perhaps also with the involvement of the chairperson. He/she will usually maintain a file of items which may potentially require the committee's attention. If the agenda was sent on its own. and place of the meeting are clearly set out. The date. time. The example in Figure 6. Although it is usual for items for formal committees to be submitted in writing. The required notice of business to be transacted may be formally stated in the constitution or standing orders of some formal bodies. and the agenda contains all the usual necessary elements. in practice there will often be the need for discussion between the secretary and individual members. if a meeting is to be effective in its deliberations and decision-making. and a final. if necessary (often by reference to attached reports. a final item of "any other business" to allow for discussion of any issue which has arisen since the production of the agenda. etc. and discussion about items of urgent business can take place. matters referred by other committees.). Here. available for public perusal three clear days before the date of the meeting. circulars and directives from other bodies (particularly government).1 combines the notice of the meeting with the agenda. The prior notice provided by the date of dispatch of the agenda – in this case. etc. this would need to be included at the top of the agenda. almost four weeks. correspondence. to clarify how items will be presented on the agenda. You should note the following points about this example:  The headed paper gives clearly the contact number for the secretary.. however the post is termed) to prepare the agenda. Members are specifically reminded about considering "any other business" in advance of the meeting. Local authority committees. together with a brief explanatory comment. It is important to remember that. This means that the agenda must be sent out some time prior to the actual date of the meeting. When exactly will vary. they are included in the letter which gives notice of the meeting. matters – usually policy issues and usually in the form of "motions" – referred by members or officers for discussion and/or resolution. etc. it is the job of the committee secretary (or administrator or clerk.

3.82 Interviews and Meetings  The items which form the variable subject matter of any meeting should have sufficient detail to enable members to understand the nature of the item.Tobey Bragdale Farmhouse Bragdale Road Feversham LX53 8XY Tel: 01878 555555 Hon Sec. Minutes of the last meeting. The next meeting of the Salem Area Committee will be held on Monday March 2nd 200X. 2. HAMSHIRE ASSOCIATION OF PARISH COUNCILS SALEM AREA COMMITTEE Chairman: Mr. Date and topic for next meeting. Yours sincerely. Settingly. If you have items for inclusion under "any other business". The agenda and supporting papers are appended. Figure 6. 5.: Mrs J Pride 16. 7. Reports from representatives on: (a) Police Consultative Committee (b) Executive Committee Rural Lanes Survey – Report AB/123 refers Any other business. at 7. Apologies for absence. there should be a reference to any relevant documentation. J Pride Secretary AGENDA 1. Matters arising. 4. High Street Lower Allwood Settingly LX95 7DY Tel: 01878 888888 7 February 200X Dear Sir/Madam. Correspondence.1: Example of an agenda © ABE and RRC . Salem House.00 pm on Friday 27 February. they should be with the Secretary no later than 5.J. Where appropriate. 8.30 pm in the Council Chamber. 6.

but not specifically referred to on the agenda or supporting papers – as in the case of reports or discussion about matters arising from the previous minutes. It is also sometimes necessary to record details about the voting on particular motions – either as totals "for" and "against". there are a number of general principles which can be identified. Minutes are the factual record of the proceedings and resolutions of a meeting. The proceedings of such meetings are recorded by the minutes. in addition to decisions taken by the meeting. it is normal for the minutes to record events in respect of each item on the agenda. a record of what transpired at the meeting is made. together with brief details of discussion and the subsequent vote. including the proposing of. The situation with regard to formal meetings of a committee or board is rather different. the only important point is the final decision at which the meeting arrived. it is quite possible that the minutes will record all motions and amendments put to the meeting (with their proposer and seconder). Finally. (a) The format of minutes The way in which the events at a meeting are recorded in the minutes is likely to vary between organisations. The prime function of minutes is to place on record the proceedings of a meeting as the basis for subsequent action. This may mask considerable debate about the issue. brief notes about items or issues introduced to the meeting. Thus. at the simplest level. this may be necessary since. This may be in the form of a few hand-written notes. the primary purpose of the minutes is to provide authorisation for actions to be taken. For example: Resolved: That the Treasurer's Report (ref. FD. or even the way individual members voted. it is often the case that they need to go further than this in order to accurately convey the sense and meaning of a meeting. However. subject to the assumed Government funding becoming available for development of the new site by the end of the financial year. after any meeting.045) be adopted. the minutes may be cited as legal evidence. Indeed. including:    those members present. The minutes constitute the authorisation for such action to be taken. agreement about the minutes of the previous meeting(s). in the event of a dispute as to what transpired or was agreed. Whilst this is the essential element of minutes. possibly with notes for action. correspondence and any other business. However. The appropriate form will vary with the type of meeting and the importance of what took place. Each has its own particular conventions about what should be recorded and how they are set out. a note for filing or a report of some kind. As noted above. © ABE and RRC . together with absences for which apologies were made at the time. using the exact words of the motions as voted on. the key element which must be recorded is the decisions taken at the meeting. then. a memorandum. They constitute a true and impartial record of the events. As such. various motions and amendments. together with any changes made to them. with abstentions.Interviews and Meetings 83 Minutes It is generally the case that. This may be done by simply stating the motions passed by the meeting. and voting on.

using "he/she". Minute writing requires accurate and concise language. and your memory of a certain discussion grow cloudy. They are designed. involving objectivity and the absence of ambiguity. etc. they are not the same as a report. a condensed statement – of the proceedings at a meeting. It is surprising how quickly your understanding of your own notes can fade. this should not become unwieldy and over-long.2) of an extract from the minutes of a meeting illustrates many of the points made above. they need to be sufficiently detailed and complete to convey what transpired at the meeting and to provide clear instructions and authorisations for action. It is important to emphasise the word "factual" in the definition above. They should be simple statement of fact. as follows. There are a number of points of good practice in minute writing." This should be expressed as: "There was unanimous agreement to accept the Treasurer's report. but state precisely what the decision was. in some detail. using the exact wording on which voting took place. "them".e. Thus. The minutes should be written in third person – i. to record the decisions taken. the discussions which take place. and then to translate these into a coherent and comprehensible written statement. It should not obscure the central point about the decisions made."  Minutes should be completed as soon as possible after the meeting. "they". basically. it would be wrong to write: "The Treasurer displayed such excellent persuasive skill in putting forward her argument that she took all the members with her. Where it is accepted practice that minutes should record. free from ambiguity and capable of standing on their own.84 Interviews and Meetings (b) Minute writing The production of clear and accurate minutes is an exercise requiring many of the communication skills we have considered previously. Minutes must not express opinions or give interpretations of what has been said. and that is all. On the other hand. resolutions should not merely say "resolved accordingly" or "resolved as agreed". The minutes – as a whole and in each individual statement – should be positive.e.  The essence of minutes is that they are a brief note – i. For example. © ABE and RRC . to take accurate notes. As such.      The following example (Figure 6. – and in the past tense. It is important to listen effectively and consistently. It is normal practice in many organisations for the accuracy of the minutes to be checked with the chairperson before circulation.

Interviews and Meetings 85 SALEM PARISH COUNCIL GENERAL PURPOSES COMMITTEE Minutes of the meeting held on 9 January 200X. Black. as we have seen. and the motion that the questionnaire be produced and circulated was then passed unanimously. D. Black. This was passed by six votes to three. – which states what it is allowed to do – and written rules of procedure. which may lay down specific requirements. The constitution of the body. Members present: Councillor Green (in the chair). White that the opinions of all employees be sought by means of a questionnaire. The issues for discussion. 4. is fundamental. Red and seconded by Cllr. Maroon. etc. Cyan. it was proposed by Cllr. The constitution also sets out the framework of meetings in terms of their timing and frequency and also. Cyan and seconded by Cllr. Red. are structured by the agenda. and their order. possibly.00 pm in the Assembly Room at Salem House 1.00 pm and 9. Standing orders are concerned specifically with the way in which meetings are run. These rules are essential if meetings are to be conducted properly since they cover such matters as:   the number of members who must be present in order for the meeting and its decisions to be valid (the quorum). usually known as standing orders. in that it defines the terms of reference of any meeting and. the establishment of certain roles. © ABE and RRC . 3. An amendment that the questionnaire should also ask if employees would prefer a oneoff or staged arrangement was proposed by Cllr. how and when questions may be put. but the way in which the discussion itself and general interaction of the participants is conducted is structured by the various rules of procedure. thus. Purple. Figure 6. The constitution and procedural rules of some bodies are governed by legal regulations. PROCEDURE IN MEETINGS The proceedings of a meeting may be considered as a sort of structured discussion. Tan and White. Grey. conditions what powers and duties may or must be exercised. Apologies were received from Councillor Jones The minutes of the meeting held on 12 December 200V were approved and signed as a true record. Councillors Brown.2: Example of minutes (extract) 2. between 7. Pay rise After a full discussion. Constitution and Standing Orders The proceedings of any formal meeting are generally governed by the constitution of the committee or board.

has no voting rights or any formal role in discussions. to take the business in the order that it appears on the agenda (unless the committee determines otherwise). therefore. recording the proceedings accurately. the methods of voting.  In all these matters. there are a number of specific roles within all meetings. In many meetings. the secretary is not a formal member of the body itself and. Here we have a very clear example of the inter-relationship between the written and spoken word.86 Interviews and Meetings     how motions and amendments may be moved. resources required). He/she is likely to be a senior officer in the organisation and will be responsible for:    advance notice of the meeting. This is certainly not the same as an office secretary. This is the key role in any meeting. his/her contribution is likely to be sought (or provided) on the issues involved in agenda items and the implications of proposals and decisions. etc. agenda preparation. This requires a commitment to the work of the committee and careful preparation by all concerned so that each member is knowledgeable about the topics under discussion.. Thus. control over the behaviour of members. as a senior officer. by opening the discussion and guiding the debate such that all those who wish to speak may do so. Written standing orders exist to promote the effectiveness of oral communication. setting its tone and style and generally ensuring that the business of the meeting is efficiently and effectively conducted. it is the chairperson who actually controls the proceedings. the length of debates. the chairperson is assisted by the committee secretary. including: © ABE and RRC . However. distributing the minutes and following-up any decisions after the meeting. to ascertain the sense of the meeting at the conclusion of the discussion on an item (by reaching common agreement or by voting on a specific motion) and ensure that the decision reached is properly recorded. Roles Within Meetings As we have seen. order is not just the responsibility of the chairperson – it resides in all participants! In order to ensure that chaos does not reign. His/her role can be summarised as being:    to ensure that the meeting is properly constituted and that there is a quorum. General Rules of Procedure All members have a general responsibility to participate actively in the proceedings of the body. and general housekeeping and administration (room bookings. to control the meeting in accordance with the standing orders and any other legal requirements that apply. At the meeting itself. advising on the application of standing orders and any legal matters (such as statutory provisions and common law requirements) during the course of the meeting. It also means that each member has a responsibility to other members to allow contributions to be heard and to enable discussion to flow freely and positively. there are a number of conventions – general rules of behaviour – which need to be followed.

And there will always be someone responsible for planning the meeting and recording the proceedings. before the meeting itself.). so it is essential that there is clarity about what needs to be covered. and the best way of achieving it. Although the procedures followed for meetings and committees will vary from one organisation to another. the existence of these "rules". to seek clarification through a "point of order" or to seek to give a "point of information". other officers. keeping to the point – avoiding digression or pursuing one's own particular agenda to the detriment of consideration of the items before the meeting. There will always be a chairperson with a role to ensure the proper conduct of the meeting in accordance with the points outlined above. speaking through the chair – waiting for permission to speak. (a) Planning We have seen that the start point for any meeting is the preparation of the agenda and its circulation to members. These pre-meeting briefings do not. However. Effectiveness in Meetings Let us now take a little more time to consider how these general rules and conventions actually apply within meetings. interrupting other speakers only for procedural reasons – for example. However. and minimising the risk of personality clashes which would be counter-productive. the principles discussed here apply to all meetings. however. there is invariably some kind of prior consideration of the agenda by the chairperson.Interviews and Meetings 87   acknowledging that the chairperson is in charge. as well as covering any particular administrative arrangements (such as time constraints. This will concentrate on identifying the various issues involved in each item of business. a middle and an end. or they may need to be considered and determined during its course – as may be the case with informal meetings of work groups. and always addressing remarks to the chairperson. the participants involved and the information required. and how it should go about it. not directly to other members (although this may not be so necessary in less formal. it is advisable to prepare carefully beforehand – considering the objectives of the interaction. Such rules may be extant and clear to all participants (or may be clarified in the course of the meeting). will go a long way towards ensuring that the business is conducted in a coherent and professional way. whilst this sets out the structure of items for discussion. in whatever form. © ABE and RRC . This process of considering how best to handle the discussion and to achieve objectives is always useful for any type of meeting. This is very much the responsibility of the chairperson. smaller meetings). take decisions about the outcomes of agenda items. etc.   Obviously. As a structured interaction. meetings can be held to conform to the same basic principles as any other form of structured communication – they need to be properly planned and should have a beginning. using time and resources efficiently. together with the secretary and. it does not constitute a detailed plan for the way in which the meeting may go. possibly. Time for most meetings is likely to be restricted. the degree of regulation of formal committee or board meetings is far in excess of that applying to most other types of meeting. (b) Opening the meeting The introductory phase of any meeting should outline the business to be conducted and set the proceedings in the context of previous meetings. together with any desired outcome. Accordingly. As with all forms of interaction. There will always be some formal or informal rules about what the meeting is competent either to discuss or to decide.

This is of particular importance if the minutes have legal significance. Rather. according to the agenda.  Discussion of the item by members It is likely that a good many members of the meeting will have points to make in respect of the issue under consideration. usually from the secretary. Apologies are normally read out by the secretary and will be recorded in the minutes. The purpose of the procedural rules is to facilitate them doing so.  Introduction to the item This will be done by the chairperson. It is not appropriate to read verbatim from the report or other paper(s). where they are not specifically covered elsewhere on the agenda. The minutes of the last meeting need to be approved as a true and accurate record. Adjustments can then be made before the minutes are signed. Even if certain members were not present at the original discussion. the responsibility lies with every member to have checked the minutes. and to be prepared to speak up to correct any inaccuracies. and the level of detail does not need to be that great where the material has been circulated in advance. At this stage. © ABE and RRC . in order to direct the following discussion. the meeting can move on to the substantive business before it. or that there will be issues arising from the discussion then which need clarification in the light of present circumstances. expanding and clarifying them as necessary. It is likely that action will have been taken on the basis of decisions made at the previous meeting. The chairperson needs to ensure that there is no duplication here – the purpose is not to go over old ground. The requirements of this are the same as have been covered extensively above – careful and detailed preparation and delivery. middle and end structure we have seen in all forms of communication. The first agenda item to be taken will be "Apologies for absence" to establish a formal record of attendance. to ensure that everyone present is giving full attention. in order to complete the picture presented by the minutes. may seek information. but merely to clarify any issues arising subsequently. on which the discussion should focus. The chairperson him/herself.88 Interviews and Meetings The chairperson will first call the meeting to order. one of the members. or an officer or other person attending specifically to provide information about the particular item. It is customary for the report's author to introduce it by means of a short presentation. Discussion of each item generally follows a set pattern – again reflecting the beginning. This requires some degree of formality and order to the discussion. and will formally declare the meeting open. the introduction should concentrate on the key issues and pick out specific points. and signed by the chairperson. A check may be made that everyone has received the agenda and any supporting papers. and is clear about the business to be conducted and any administrative arrangements. usually stating the time of the start of business. It is often the case that agenda items are supported by reports or other documents which provide background information. is provided by the agenda item "Matters arising from the minutes". such that they can put their thoughts to the meeting and have them heard and considered. or any other member. The opportunity to consider such matters. the temptation to allow them to ask a lot of questions should be resisted! (c) Main business of the meeting Having completed the introductory phase. The intention is to focus attention on the key issues about the subject.

As a sanction to maintain order in the face of members flouting the rules and conventions of discussion. sanctioned by the meeting." On a motion being put to the meeting. the following amendment to the above motion would be acceptable: © ABE and RRC . as it may establish policy or commit resources. and it should. or their own particular viewpoint. and following appropriate discussion. It is open for any member to put forward amendments to a motion.Interviews and Meetings 89 It is the chairperson's duty to take control and impose such order. even such a summary constitutes a decision of sorts in that it is likely to form the basis of further action. the chairperson has the power explicitly to exclude individuals from speaking – ruling their contribution "out of order" – or even to banish them from the meeting. to be clear and unambiguous. all comments should be addressed through the chairperson. means that the chairperson must be aware of members' intentions at all times. be exercised fairly and even-handedly. therefore. therefore. Formal decisions taken within a meeting need to be based on a motion proposed by one member and supported ("seconded") by another member. or it may simply be a matter of the chairperson summarising the key points of agreement. potentially acrimonious. In order to make a contribution to the discussion.  Conclusion of the discussion by means of taking a decision The purpose of discussing a particular item is to come to some sort of conclusion about it which reflects the views of the meeting. to some degree. for example. based either on a perceived consensus of opinion at the meeting. Discussion of many items in formal meetings often takes place around specified proposals to be adopted as decisions of the meeting. Amendments which negate the intention of the original motion are not allowed – the same effect may be had by simply voting against it. or they may be detailed suggested courses of action put forward at the time by a member (including the chairperson). It can be a source of friction where members feel excluded. They need. the meaning of the proposal. particularly if their views are opposed to the chairperson's. This. the following would meet this requirement: "That the committee authorise the expenditure of £5. However. the chairperson will take a vote among those present as to whether it should be agreed and become a decision of the body. For example. This means that individual members do not address each other directly and get involved in personal. So. Normally. We shall consider the details of this below. It also helps to ensure that only one person is speaking at a time. debates across the meeting. and they are likely to include provision for the chairperson's "casting vote" – a second vote available for the chairperson to use in the event of a tie between those for and those against the motion. Such motions may be simply to adopt the recommendations set out in a report. An amendment is a suggested change in the wording which will alter. The rules about voting are normally set out in the standing orders. The power to bring individual members into the discussion can allow the chairperson to exercise considerable control over the discussion.000 to G. in turn. Gnomes & Co. to carry out landscaping work on the HQ grounds in accordance with the proposals made in their tender document. The wording of a motion can be very important. members need to attract the attention of the chairperson and signal their desire to speak. This may take the form of adopting a specific decision.

Any amendments also need to have a formal proposer and seconder. after which the chairperson declares the meeting closed." be inserted at the end of the proposal.90 Interviews and Meetings that the additional sentence "Payment to be made in two equal instalments. this is put on the agenda as "Any other urgent business". There is always an item of "Any other business" on the agenda in which members can raise issues of significance which are not covered elsewhere. Members should usually clarify with the secretary or the chairperson in advance if they have items they wish to raise here.  Conclusion of the meeting The final phase of the meeting is entered when all the substantive items on the agenda have been considered. and the chairperson may need to take a decision about what can and cannot be accepted. © ABE and RRC . and this is really the key to this item. perhaps suggesting a full discussion at the next meeting instead. if carried. Sometimes. noting the exact time of closure. and should be voted on before the initial motion. The last element is to agree the date and time of the next meeting. the revised motion can then be considered and voted on. based on completion of works on the front and rear of the premises. However. so that. It is not intended that important and substantial new business should be brought up at this stage of the proceedings. the following amendment would be ruled out of order: that the word "not" be inserted before the word "authorise". All decisions made by a meeting need to be recorded precisely by the committee secretary and included in the minutes.

D. The Written Word Written Compared with Oral Communication Purpose of Written Communications Forms of Written Communication General Approach to Business Correspondence Letters – First Impressions Purpose of Letters Format of Letters Hand-written Letters Sending a Fax The Use of Electronic Mail (Email) Keep It Straightforward and Simple (KISS) Style Use Business Correspondence to IMPRESS Business Correspondence – Practical Applications Standard Letter Format Letters of Recommendation Dealing with Complaints Letters of Application – Standard Format Internal Communications – Memoranda Briefs Reports and Reporting The Reporting System Classification of Reports Business Report Formats Writing a Report Reading a Report Sample Reports Page 93 93 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 99 99 100 100 101 101 101 102 103 104 104 106 106 106 107 108 109 110 110 (Continued over) B. © ABE and RRC .91 Unit 4 Written Communication Contents Introduction A. C.

H. Writing Articles Preparing and Placing a Press Release Writing a Press Release Placing a Press Release Typical Press Release Layout An Article from a Press Release Example Writing an Effective Mailshot Example Design and Corporate Identity Lettering Reading and Interpreting Signs and Colours Corporate Image The Basis of Corporate Identity Case Study: MCCormick Group of Companies 114 114 114 115 116 116 117 119 119 121 121 122 123 124 125 G.92 Written Communication E. © ABE and RRC . F.

Words are tangible. We attach an enormously high value to written text. team briefings and project management. selected. THE WRITTEN WORD Written Compared with Oral Communication Written correspondence within or between organisations may take many forms. Oral communication will be the basis for almost all negotiations. but written communication will be viewed as an endorsement of oral statements. This is followed by a consideration of several types of reports. tone and appearance of the speaker. We start by discussing how to approach business correspondence in general – concentrating on letters. The crucial difference between oral and written communications will be the importance attributed to each.Written Communication 93 INTRODUCTION In this unit we are going to look at the importance of written communication. deliberate. © ABE and RRC . Written text makes information immediately available to an almost unlimited audience simply by dint of reproduction. as these are the basic forms of communication in the business context – and the particular requirements of matters such as letters of recommendation and complaints. written communication has the scope to elaborate. words are themselves pinned down. Once written down. representative. When we write to confirm arrangements. liaison. It is no wonder that copyright law and libel are major issues of our time. Finally. and may not remember all the words spoken but gain an overall impression of the success of the communication and have noted the key points. Written communication can be used as evidence of previous discussions and arrangements. It justifies an activity and provides back-up and proof. including appropriate formats. It provides the history of a project or collaboration. we have an opportunity to rephrase and reinterpret meetings or oral communications in a way which we feel is most suitable. it has a real permanence that a joke or throw-away comment could never have. as having a permanence and contractual status. If we consider graffiti. for example. The act of writing renders words "true". independent of their authors. and look at some of the design considerations within public relations. beginning by considering the reporting system in general and the various types of business report. Whereas oral communication needs to be succinct and clear of purpose. memos and briefs. permanent and important in their own right in a way that effective oral communication can never be. to justify and to manipulate information deliberately into particular phrases so that many versions are available. A. There is a distance between the act of speaking and the act of writing. its purpose and the forms it can take. in responding to oral communications we have been influenced by body language. We pay more attention to even poorly expressed words in textual form than we would ever give if they were spoken to us. before considering the different skills required to write articles. Similarly. A written communication is bereft of those interpersonal skills and allows us to judge and interpret the actual words in order to make a considered response. Photocopying or printing processes can bring news media into our homes every day which can be referred to again and again. we consider how to place and construct communications for public relations and direct marketing purposes using press releases and mailshots. We then go on to look at report writing.

Present information/data independently of interpersonal skills. Access a wider audience. Provide a source of historical data. Forms of Written Communication There is a whole range of formats where information is written down:                  Memoranda Letters Notes Magazine and newspaper articles Instructions Labelling Databases Books Directories (including telephone directories) Pamphlets Wills and legal documents Company literature Postcards Signs Briefs Reports Business plans There is a notion of "inter-textuality" where behind every text is another text. understanding.94 Written Communication Purpose of Written Communications We use written communications most frequently to:              Summarise key issues. Indicate our intent that the communication be viewed as relevant/important. Lend credibility to our utterances. Record the process of the communication. Ensure the accuracy of the message to all parties concerned. Invite a response. visions. Respond to other written/oral communications. © ABE and RRC . Express corporate strategy and ideology. Share goals. Establish a formal basis for the communication. and that there is no such thing as an original word or article or idea as everything has already been phrased in some way before.

Written Communication 95 Certainly every time you write a report. Or. What is it? Usually. sheets of paper presented within a paper or card envelope. the correspondence. however: (a) Paper Quality The weight. It is worth first considering the actuality or physicality of a letter. B. Is it folded to fit the envelope or does it appear to be shoved in? (b) Envelope     Does the envelope match the letter? Does it have a window? Was it franked or stamped? Is the sender's address printed on the back of the envelope? © ABE and RRC . memos and briefs are the most frequent form of written correspondence/communication within or between organisations. GENERAL APPROACH TO BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE In the next two sections we will concentrate on the design. As letters. implementation and evaluation of business correspondence. and Reports. poor quality. colour and texture of the paper used will make a statement about the person or organisation who sent the letter and how they view the recipient. Briefs. make notes or send a memo. or commitment to. For example. It is a physical document and will be judged by the recipient as such. the forms that you need to make best use of are: (a) (b) (c) (d) Letters. letter. Memoranda (plus notes). we shall start by examining these formats. you will have made reference to previous written correspondence. Note the following. more simply:         What information should be included? How should it be presented most effectively? What is the purpose of the communication? Who else needs access to it? When should it be sent? How should it be sent? What type of response do we expect? What is the most appropriate format? Letters – First Impressions A letter is much more than the text it contains. dirty or even coloured paper will reflect a lack of interest in. For the purpose of written communications within the business context.

96 Written Communication Bills and invoices are more likely to arrive in envelopes with the sender's address on the reverse. letterheads should legibly display the following details in order to meet the requirements of the Companies Act 1985 and the European Communities Act 1972:    The company's status as a limited company (if appropriate) A list of its directors if founded after 23 November 1916 The company's trading name © ABE and RRC . (c) (d) Logos and Corporate Image Is the company logo represented on the letter and envelope? Typeface Is the typeface easy to read? Is the letter hand-written? Is the signature hand-written? (e) General Impressions       Does the letter appear to be one of thousands? Is it correctly addressed? Are names and places spelt correctly? What is the postmark? Was the letter sent first. although this effect will be lost if the address is not displayed accurately because the letter has been incorrectly folded. relevant media articles. white window envelopes indicate a seriousness of purpose. dinner/function invitations. perhaps including possible agendas Updating or mini progress reports Job applications Format of Letters Many organisations are introducing a standard template which determines the spacing and layout of all letters. Moreover. A brown window envelope always used to signify a tax demand. it is important that text can actually be reproduced on the page. With the increase in more complicated and varied stationery and logos. questionnaires Responding to complaints Summarising key or salient points made at a previous meeting Arranging future meetings.or second-class? Is the envelope addressed in the appropriate language for the recipient? Purpose of Letters In what circumstances are letters most used as a form of business correspondence? I would suggest that they are used for:         External communications Introductions/prospecting to new clients or potential clients Describing the purpose of other enclosures within the correspondence such as product launches.

It is worth noting here that FREEPOST operates on a licence basis. a photocopied signature is sloppy and lacks care for the recipient. the Post Office have strict guidelines as to presentation. incidentally. If you are using FREEPOST or prepaid envelopes. not for every FREEPOST envelope you have printed. the signature needs to be hand-written each time it appears.Written Communication 97  The registered office address. legible and within the frame of the letter spacing.1 There are no rules about letter layout except to state that layout should be consistent. Where time is an issue. then the envelope should be too. and need to approve your envelope design. however. Do not. to a letter of complaint or to congratulate a colleague on the success of a joint venture. it is important to consider how hand-written text could be advantageous. Thereafter you pay for FREEPOST envelopes made use of. Envelope layout is more straightforward. The Post Office will deduct the correct sums from your account (either first or second class) and instruct you to keep a reserve sum to cover the costs of these transactions. The style and phrasing of a letter must always be appropriate to its content and context irrespective of the typeface or ink used! It is perfectly permissible. or that it allows less restrained and planned language than a typed letter. for a letter of application to be hand-written. If the letter is typed. Hand-written Letters Whilst it is commonly perceived to be more acceptable to send typed or word-processed letters in business correspondence. be lulled into thinking that a hand-written letter is a less formal document than a typed letter simply because it may be received more favourably. If you feel that you need to convey additional warmth in response. Firstly. Even historical ideas about positioning the address have changed – there are many variations nowadays. where you open a FREEPOST account having received authorisation/licence on payment of a small fee and envelope design approval. number and location of registration An example is shown in Figure 4. for example a mail shot to potential or actual customers. The Post Office Guide indicates Post Office Preferred envelope sizes and address layout. use window envelopes. perhaps. Clearly they will advice you to use the relevant postcode to aid speedy delivery of your correspondence. © ABE and RRC . a hand-written letter may be appropriate.

98 Written Communication ABC BUSINESS TRAINING 62 George Street. England (No. London SW21 4DX.1: ABC Letterhead (Mythical company) – Reduced © ABE and RRC . London SW21 4DX Tel: 0208 666 5565 Fax: 0208 555 6656 e-mail: Chairman: Gary Davies BA FCA  Managing Director: Julie Gill ABC-DEF PUBLICATIONS LTD Registered office: 62 George Street. 123454321) Figure 4.

even if your fax machine can reproduce colour logos and uses letter quality paper.5 cm margin around the entire text on each page. Information can be sent. cheaply and efficiently over any geographical distances. What they receive may be a blurred logo and complicated document or important letter on shiny. then the following points are worth considering: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Is your logo/letterhead fax-friendly. will it reproduce well in black and white? Do you ensure that you send your faxes on headed paper and continuation sheets? Do you number all pages of the correspondence? Is your fax number clearly printed on your letterhead? Have you "blocked" the correspondence so that all text will be faxed and you won't lose the top/bottom or words on the right or left? Try to leave at least a 1. The cost is very inexpensive especially if computers are to be used in the office in any case. (f) (g) How urgent is the correspondence? Would it be better to send a good copy by post or even to hand-deliver it? Keep your copy: (i) (ii) (h) As a record of the correspondence as you would all other correspondence. Note that the way in which the fax finally appears may actually be out of your control – for example. the recipients of your faxes may not have such machines. job descriptions and presentation details. Fax is often overlooked in these days of e-mail.Written Communication 99 Sending a Fax Modern technology allows us to communicate world-wide in a matter of minutes either by email. but it continues to be used. such as for estimates and confirmations of orders or bookings. Productivity is increased as traditional intercompany and interoffice communication are reduced. The Use of Electronic Mail (Email) The methods of communication available to managers and employees are rapidly changing with the advent of new technologies such as electronic mail. returned and recalled in a matter of seconds. The advantages brought about by the use of Electronic Mail are:     The speed of communication. flimsy fax paper. It is good for the environment as paper handling is reduced. i. There is no need to use a physical posting system. Electronic Mail uses computer text-editing to transmit written information quickly. most especially where written paper documentation is required. and For amendments over the telephone which can occur in design briefs. Also. the quality of fax paper used by the recipient can be the determining factor as to its reception. If faxes are to be as effective as letters/posted or hand-delivered written communications. The need for secretarial support in an office is declining as individuals can send their own messages and if desired. telephone or fax. a message can be transmitted in seconds and read at the receiver's convenience. and sending out price lists.e. keep a hard copy. © ABE and RRC . although this is not frequently necessary. advertising layout. or short brochures. At the sender's convenience. Remember that it's impossible to make notes or corrections on the flimsy fax paper – you may have to go to the trouble of photocopying it first onto better quality paper or rewriting/typing.

It requires the same care in its response. A carefully worded letter of complaint cannot be answered by a hasty fax or telephone call. Hence all information received and transmitted must be planned. Be viewed as an opportunity to re-establish good relations with the correspondent and his or her organisation.100 Written Communication Keep It Straightforward and Simple (KISS) Dealing with written correspondence is often an underrated function in organisations. Be recorded as part of the ongoing evaluation process and internal market research. Letters of enquiry or complaint need to be dealt with even more sensitively and should reflect internal communication procedures for dealing with all information received by the organisation. Responding to complaints should: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)        Be as a result of careful investigation as to the facts/events which form the background or basis for the complaint. whether the complaint is justified and if there are any legal ramifications for either or both parties involved. not reactive. Be recorded for the purpose of external market research. reflecting the content and context of the correspondence. Involve checking the accuracy of statements made and potential responses. yet in a marketing-oriented organisation it is recognised as crucial for effective and ongoing relationships with actual and potential customers. Sometimes you may be in the position to make the letter of complaint and you must be very clear why you are complaining. Be proactive. Marketing correspondence is not just about carefully phrased mail shots or sales literature. Be viewed as an important function of the business communications process. Style You should use the most effective words in the most appropriate order. Letters of praise are wonderful to receive and may require an acknowledgement to the sender and careful internal communications to those praised and those not praised. Consider the following examples: © ABE and RRC . Product issues Internal communication difficulties External communication difficulties Distribution problems Personnel and staff development requirements Re-evaluation of customer perception and later focus An improved system for dealing with external communications Using letters of complaint (or telephone calls) in this way can identify: The key to the written response to the complaint is to KISS your customer! KEEP IT STRAIGHTFORWARD AND SIMPLE. evaluated and stored appropriately. but what responses are made to customers.

In view of our recent reorganisation and increase in labour costs. I regret that I am unable to attend our meeting scheduled for Tuesday 12 July 19. Recipient – to whom are you sending this letter? Emphasis – what tone do you want to adopt? Use appropriate language to achieve this. As a result of our recent successful interface I feel that we can embrace the concept of partnership and mutual development.. Dear Dr Smith. I'm going to visit my mother.. payable on orders under £6 to cover postage and packing. Use Business Correspondence to IMPRESS Idea – what is the purpose of the correspondence? Method – plan and structure your main points. I felt that our meeting was most successful and would like to pursue the possibility of joint ventures. C. "Yours" etc. Would it be possible to rearrange it for 19 July 19. A 10% surcharge is. A 10% increase in prices – a 100% increase in quality. puts the message into a context. Style – KISS the recipient. states action needed. Sorry I can't see you on Tuesday. BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE – PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Standard Letter Format The following apply to all types of letter: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Appropriate greeting – Opening paragraph – Middle paragraph(s) – Closing paragraph – Appropriate ending – "Dear Sir".Written Communication 101 Dear Sir.? The goods you ordered will be delivered by 22 April 19. Safety – check for errors. We are unable to deliver the goods you ordered before mid-April.. a surcharge is to be levied on all goods from 1 April 19. regrettably.... © ABE and RRC . Paragraphs – open and close your letter. etc.. omissions or even legal ramifications/requirements. develop(s) the detailed message.

“With best wishes”.. They know you are writing to them. skills and experience necessary for the position. maiden name. e. Keep these paragraphs short and simple. what they want to know is why. to agree the meeting or to discuss why he or she cannot attend or does not feel the meeting to be appropriate." The recipient has to respond to fix an alternative meeting. Facts or information relevant to the position or benefit sought. the writer should avoid over-lengthy descriptions and stick to the key facts. a telephone call may first be necessary to the organisation making the request. ends “Yours sincerely”. If that is the case. but may be kept on a personnel file for future reference if the person recommended is employed. Don't worry about one-sentence paragraphs.102 Written Communication Remember that: "Dear Sir" "Dear Madam" "Dear Madam/Sir" "Dear Sir/Madam" "Dear Mr Smith" "Dear Mr Jones" also: "Dear Caroline" "Dear Alasdair" may end. at 10. One full side (typed) of A4 or equivalent is usually sufficient for most correspondence of this nature. don't introduce it now! This is a summary of what has gone before – don't introduce new ideas or proposals. © ABE and RRC . ends “Yours faithfully”. The closing paragraph is crucial. Letters of Recommendation The purpose of a letter of recommendation is to persuade the reader or readers that the person recommended has the background. often they have a greater impact and illustrate the sequence better. Anglicised name). For example: "I should like to meet you on Tuesday 2 January 19.g. unless there are particular circumstances which warrant more detail. also the position of the writer. or explain the purpose of the letter.m. at your premises to discuss these matters further. An effective way of eliciting future correspondence or a meeting is to use a closed question or sentence. Such letters are usually confidential and sent out at the request of an organisation. The writer's overall evaluation of the candidate's suitability for the job or benefit sought. The opening paragraph may refer to previous correspondence.00 a. Whether the writer is answering a request or taking the initiative. Middle paragraphs will describe in sequence events or ideas relating to the opening paragraph. How long and in what context the writer has known the candidate. acknowledgement of a telephone call or request. The job or benefit the candidate is seeking. A letter of recommendation should include:       The full name of the candidate (and occasionally other names by which the candidate may be known. Please avoid "I am writing to you" whenever possible. As with all correspondence. If you have avoided waffle prior to this stage.

Dear Mrs Brown... Please don't hesitate to contact me should you require more information.m. Brown (b) Response 28 June 20. I have had to take three days' holiday to date to await delivery of the aforesaid wardrobe. Green © ABE and RRC . – non-delivery of wardrobe It would seem that you have been unable to trace my wardrobe in your warehouse as a further three days have elapsed since our last telephone conversation and my wardrobe has not arrived.. Thank you for your letter dated 27 June 20. Dear Mr Green.. Your wardrobe will.Written Communication 103 Dealing with Complaints (Note that we are considering the text. I'm happy to say. I enclose a gift voucher for £30 for use in any of our stores. At this stage I would like a guaranteed date of delivery and recompense for the inconvenience you have caused me. I would appreciate your earliest attention to this matter.00 a. not layout. Mrs J. Re: telephone conversation Wednesday 24 June 19.. be delivered on Tuesday 7 July 20. at 10. Obviously these would be produced on appropriate letterheads.) (a) Letter 27 June 20. Mr W. Unfortunately there was a design fault and the manufacturers recalled all existing wardrobes until this fault could be rectified. would have preferred to cancel my order. I have now waited for six weeks and frankly. in these instances. Yours sincerely. Yours sincerely. were it not for the fact that it forms part of a fully fitted (matching) bedroom.

© ABE and RRC . If the letter is in place of an application form. Internal Communications – Memoranda (a) Formats Memoranda do not require an inside address. Here is an example of a memorandum sent to staff in one company located on two different sites. application form). If it is a covering letter. salutation. and you have been sent a detailed job description. A reference (Ref) or subject heading may not always be used. indicate your availability for interview. From. dated. curriculum vitae. Finally.104 Written Communication Letters of Application – Standard Format A letter of application should: (a) (b) (c) (d) Be correctly addressed. Acknowledge the source of the advertisement. answer the points in the job description in turn. such as "Yours sincerely". Although organisations often have preprinted memoranda stationery. showing how you are the appropriate candidate for this position. qualifications and personal qualities which you feel appropriate for the position. etc. Link the advertised position with your own current position and aspirations. and Date is standard but the order in which these items appear can vary. Make a formal application statement and refer to relevant enclosures (e. Ideally they should relate to one topic only. such as "Dear Bill". outline your experience.g. The format using To. you should remember to use the MEMORANDUM heading for any memo that you draft for examination purposes. or a complimentary close. Memoranda should not be long and should be written in a concise style.

Subject: Fire Drill Procedure From: Last week's fire drill was not carried out successfully. in other forms of correspondence. Close all windows and the last person leaving a work area should close doors as they vacate the area. Not use the lifts. the purpose of the memo and action required. the sender's name. The correct procedure must be adhered to and any member of staff who does not comply with this instruction will be disciplined. They must always include the date sent. In fact many staff ignored it and carried on with their work.2 (b) Purpose Memos are ideal for interdepartmental correspondence where a formal response needs to be noted and acted upon. Not only is it a legal requirement that all organisations carry out regular fire drills. regarding such and such a matter. it is perfectly acceptable to refer to memos. or may issue orders or changes in procedures. Leave the building quickly and calmly through the nearest fire exit. As a formal channel. name(s) of the recipient(s).Written Communication 105 MILESTONE MARKETING MEMORANDUM To: All Staff Chris Weber Managing Director Date: 19 May 199. Usually they are requests for information required in a short time period. © ABE and RRC . but it is also an essential safety procedure organised to ensure the safety of staff in the event of fire. Figure 4. dated such and such. The next fire drill will take place on Monday 20 June and on hearing the continuous bell staff must: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Stop work immediately. It is imperative that all employees follow these instructions and familiarise themselves with the fire procedure notices in their section which identify fire exits and meeting points. Congregate at the designated meeting points outside the building.

careful. management consultant. External: Brief to external designer. Brief to architect. The commission and production of reports is crucial to the achievement of the objectives which organisations set themselves. Unlike a report. For example. © ABE and RRC . External briefs may often spend some time describing corporate strategy and ideology. REPORTS AND REPORTING The Reporting System Much internal business communication will be characterised by its reporting procedures as determined by the channels within the organisation and the type of organisational structure used. Every employee will have to report to someone whether it is:         A section head A department head A senior manager A colleague An auditor Team briefings Presentations Meetings with shareholders. A sloppy brief will result in sloppy information or results. information. D. An internal graphic designer may well be asked to produce a document/illustration for an internal department in a brief where corporate issues are not discussed. builder. style. It is still reliant on clear. a brief is designed to elicit. not informal. often depending on the size/function of the organisation. One thing is certain – few briefs are brief! In 1994 British Airways commissioned a 40-page brief to designers for the design for their new uniforms and corporate identity.106 Written Communication Briefs A brief can be an internal or external communication. whereas internal briefs will be more task-specific and less conceptual. not give. where several external agencies receive the brief and submit their responses and costings. A brief should be a document which is carefully structured and purposeful. an external designer will need to know something about the organisation and the purpose and function of his or her designs. Here are some examples: Internal: Brief to graphics department. Advertising agencies are a good example of this. IT consultant. Sometimes the cost is agreed on a tendering basis. researched information. Task-based to employee. directors or the chief executive There are also occasions requiring reporting such as: The business report is the document used for the formal dissemination of specialist. designed to meet clearly specified objectives in a designated time-scale and at an agreed cost. concise language and will reflect a formal.

Classification of Reports Reports can be classified in the following ways: (a) Regular and Routine These include:        Health and safety Maintenance Progress Staff appraisal Sales Production targets Financial They are characterised by a standard format to allow comparison between the current and previous reports. and standard procedures for implementation and evaluation.g. Not all reports arrive on your desk the size of the Yellow Pages and just as interesting.Written Communication 107 Reports are likely to reflect issues which affect personnel. managing the business or external political or economic factors which could determine changes for running the business effectively. Often these will be legal requirements and need to be stored in a particular way and only authenticated by designated personnel. There must be an evaluatory mechanism for dealing with any recommendations which are made. The success of a report is reliant on the report writer being given a clear remit and brief for the context and content. (c) Specially Commissioned Reports These could include:     Market research Personnel Investigatory Policy changing © ABE and RRC . production. Reports are not always written – sometimes brief oral reports or summaries of meetings are all that is required as the reporting mechanism. (b) Occasional Reports Examples of these might be:     Accident Disciplinary Local authority Financing body Again there are most likely to be standard forms (not even formats) to be completed. Some of these reports will go to monthly meetings where recommendations or problem areas (e. finance. marketing. sales targets not being met) will be discussed. There has to be an agreed process for the dissemination and evaluation of the report once it has been written.

For very lengthy reports. an executive summary may be circulated with the report. It is often the basis for an oral presentation of the report and allows for discussion as to its main features and recommendations rather than wading through every page. A short formal report is usually three-part and probably no longer than 20 pages. background. main recommendations. It will include:    Introduction – aims. methodology and findings. © ABE and RRC . objectives. Business Report Formats The usual format of a business report is as set out Figure 3. prior to the report or as an alternative to the final report. The executive summary would contain an outline only of the following elements:    title. We shall concentrate here on specially commissioned reports.3 following. Findings – sources. Conclusions and recommendations.108 Written Communication      Market forecasting Production Investment in new equipment IT strategy Special interest These especially commissioned reports will form the basis for company policy and will include recommendations as to how best to implement company strategic development objectives. author and aims of the report.

A report "comes into being" on its presentation as a live document. 2. pagination. 10. 7. Conclusions. 3. 4. 6. Table of contents. Prior to that date it is a draft or work in progress. Bibliography. One of the ways in which objectivity is seen to be employed is by referring to the process. a summary of the main findings and realistic recommendations. 6. Footnotes (if appropriate). Appendices (including copies of questionnaires. 2. otherwise the findings of the research are irrelevant and inappropriate. Recommendations. Author (name. statistical data. "I found out that" becomes "It became evident that". 5. Background/history/introduction/terms of reference/aims and objectives. Acknowledgements.) 5. © ABE and RRC .Written Communication 109 (Introduction) 1. Circulation list (this may also appear at the end of the Introduction section depending on the status of the report). 4. etc. Figure 4. This must be carried out without bias or prejudice. Prejudice or emotional responses to the findings or research are inappropriate. findings or recommendations in the third person – hence. 3. Many reports require some primary as well as secondary research. purposeful research. status as necessary). 9. factual and objective style. e. Status. Index. confidential. Identity of the person who commissioned the report.3 Writing a Report Report writing lends itself to a more formal. Date report presented. title. 7. 11. It is an analysis of a situation characterised by clear. Findings. Key summary.g. etc. standard letters.). (The date it is commissioned or the date it was actually completed will not be the same as the published or presented date. (Main Body of Report) 1. Methodology/procedure. 8. Title.

but you will also be expected to read. or does a request for additional funding need to be made? Is it a formal document? Will it be published to external organisations? What language will be appropriate? How important will technical words and phrases be to the understanding of the report's purpose and intent? Is there a required format for the production of the report? Will an executive summary be required? What assistance. then it is easier to use appropriate tone and style from its inception. will be available from others within the organisation? Will there be a requirement for progress reports or a draft report before presentation or publication? Will the author be required to present the report? When? To whom?          Reading a Report Not only will you have to write business reports.110 Written Communication If the writer has received a proper brief as to the purpose. if any. © ABE and RRC . You will use reports as the basis for your market research on any issues which may concern your organisation. The writer needs to be clear as to the following:      Who has commissioned the report? For what purpose? What are the objectives of the report? What is the time-scale? Who is to receive the report? What do they need the information for? How will they be able to act on the recommendations? What costs are likely to be incurred in the production of the report? Are these borne by a department or section or unit. or support particular initiatives. Sample Reports Over the next three pages we set out some samples of short reports to illustrate the above points about style and structure. At other times you may decide to read a report in its entirety as a result of a summary of its findings in a newspaper or national news bulletin. Sometimes you may be asked to present the key issues of a particular report and the impact that this report will have on your organisation. use and dissemination of the report. or on receiving an executive summary. understand and respond to key issues in the reports that others write. such as government reports which indicate a shift in government funding or spending.

Written Communication



Informal Report

REPORT ON NEGOTIATION SKILLS TRAINING COURSE For the attention of: Ben Firth, Marketing Director From: 1. Introduction Hugh Heaton, Marketing Assistant

This report provides information on the value and effectiveness of the recent Negotiation Skills course which Hugh Heaton attended on 4 December 199.. 2. 2.1 Findings Course Details

The course took place at the Willow Bank Hotel on 18 November 200X. from 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. and was run by the Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply. The cost of the course was £150. 2.2. Course Content The course was delivered with a mixture of input, case studies and interaction with the audience. The course was well organised with good supporting materials in the way of handouts and illustrative material. The trainer's delivery was clear and he successfully maintained the interest of the audience. The topic of negotiation was dealt with from a buying and selling perspective and provided comprehensive coverage of skills, guidelines and tactics. It would have been improved slightly had there been an opportunity to practise skills learnt. Had the course been of a longer duration, it would have been possible to use a role play simulation for participants to demonstrate their skills. 3. Conclusions The course was effectively delivered and well-run. The content was comprehensive but lacked the opportunity to put newly-learnt skills into practice. 4. Recommendations Other members of staff who are involved in purchasing materials and supplies should attend this course when it runs again early next year. I recommend that there is some follow-up in-house training so that staff can practise implementing their negotiating skills.




Written Communication


Memorandum Report

MEMORANDUM To: Lisa Edwards Personnel Manager

From: Hilary Humphries Personnel Administrator Date: 19 October 200X. Ref: NR/BL Subject: Pilot Flexi-time System

The following observations were made with regard to the flexi-time system which was piloted over the last three months. Use of the System (a) (b) Most staff have taken advantage of the flexi-time system during the last three months. None of the staff using the system exceeded their limit of days owing. The rules relating to the core time have meant that neither customers nor the general flow of work has been disrupted in any way. Staff morale has improved due to the flexibility of the system. There has been a significant decrease in absences amongst staff during the period of the pilot scheme. The administration of the system has involved more work for Mrs Graves in the administration section than was originally planned.

Implications of the System (a)





Written Communication



Formal Report

REPORT ON INSURANCE SECTION'S TELEPHONE TECHNIQUE For the attention of: From: 1.0 Nicola Bingley

Sam Daniels

Terms of Reference

The quality circle team was requested to investigate the problems with the telephone service in the insurance claims section. 2.0 2.1 2.3 3.0 3.1 Procedure Telephone technique in the insurance claims section was observed. Staff in the insurance claims section were interviewed. Findings Staff were slow to answer the telephone and there were not enough staff to deal with all the calls. Telephone etiquette was observed to be inadequate. Staff frequently failed to identify themselves and their department, and customers were frequently left on hold for long periods while files were being located. Staff often promised customers and staff in other sections that colleagues would return their calls but they did not. Messages were not often taken and it was noted that the section did not have a stock of telephone message pads. Junior members of staff were reluctant to deal with incoming calls because they did not feel capable of dealing with many of the complicated queries received. Conclusions

2.2. Complaints from customers and members of staff were looked into.




It is evident that staff in the insurance claims section are not providing an adequate telephone service. They are extremely busy and there is an obvious staff shortage. Messages are often not relayed because message pads are unavailable. Junior staff lack training to deal with the more complex queries. All staff need training in telephone technique. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Recommendations Additional staff should be employed in the insurance section. All staff should be provided with a stock of telephone message pads. Junior staff should undergo specialised training, provided by senior staff, on some of the more complex incoming enquiries which the section receives. All staff should attend a training course on telephone technique.


Signed on behalf of the quality circle team: Dated:




Written Communication

There is a great deal of difference between an article, an essay and a report. The style and language of an article will vary according to the readership, i.e. who you are writing the article for. The readership depends very much on the type of publication, e.g. a professional or technical journal will have a more technically-oriented reader than will a general interest magazine or an in-house company newsletter. The subject matter will also influence the style and language which should be used in an article. The title and the opening sentence need to attract the eye of the reader and encourage him to continue reading. Technical jargon and long, complex sentence structures should be avoided wherever possible. The facts should be placed in a logical order, e.g. chronologically or in order of importance. If an argument is being presented both sides of the argument should be considered, building up to the final conclusions. The concluding paragraphs should sum up the argument or discussion and not be used to introduce new material. Separate ideas and arguments into clearly defined paragraphs. An article can be usefully divided into different sections, with sub-headings, just as they are in newspapers and magazines. There is a quick formula for counting how many words you have written. Firstly, count the number of words you have written on a few different lines; secondly, calculate the average number of words you have written on a line; finally, count the number of lines you have written and multiply this sum by the number of words you have averaged on a line. This calculation will give you an approximate idea of the total number of words you have written.



Writing a Press Release
Writing a press release involves very different skills from placing a press release. A press release is unpaid for advertising but written in a "news" style. Properly speaking, press releases are part of a public relations plan. A press release may concern charitable work, donations, sponsorship or a product/service launch, but has to be of interest to the editorial team at the publication(s) you select.  A press release should contain the following detail in its first paragraph: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)      what who where when why how

It should have a catchy title (puns are very popular in local papers). It should be no longer than one side of A4. It should be typed, double spacing where possible. It must contain a contact name, address and telephone number. This should be at the bottom of the sheet after the word "end". It is worthwhile including a relevant black and white photograph.



it is more likely to be product/service specific and you will probably have targeted specialist publications or specialist sections of national newspapers. Remember that if you are using a local paper. a car sales company may advertise on the same page as a release about a new marque which they are now stocking.e. Placing a Press Release Research which publications would be appropriate. Think of fresh ways of presenting your company. it may be possible to negotiate a small release at key times. a press release is targeting the publication (i. Find out the names of the editors and features staff. it is usually part of a public relations exercise. a publication may choose not to publish your release. Always thank the publication for their assistance and seek their advice if appropriate. were it to be represented in these "specials". What you must keep in mind is that an advertisement will be in the style and in a publication appropriate to your identified target market. It will reflect good news.Written Communication 115     Give the press release a date. Driving instructors may choose to offer driving lessons to a journalist. Do not underline anything – key points should be obvious. Restaurants offer journalists the opportunity to try their cuisine and then to write about it in their "Dining Out" section. then your press release has to be of local interest. A press release is not a free advertisement. Familiarise yourself with the style and issues which concern the publication. Introduce yourself to them even before you have any releases to place. If you are placing a press release in a national publication. Include a relevant (positive) quote where possible. © ABE and RRC . Make sure you keep a record of all press releases you send out (they're useful for other promotional activities) and to whom you send them. The editorial team may choose to italicise or subdivide the details. This will include new advances in technology. If you are already advertising in that publication. Find out if they plan any special editions or features which would benefit your organisation. For example. Give an embargo date if necessary. Sometimes. its editorial staff) as well as your identified target market. of course.

An Article from a Press Release The following article (Figure 4. Check spelling and grammar. Avoid exclamation marks.4 Remember:     Never underline anything. when. photo Figure 4. why.g. The information that has been left out is how to get nomination forms. so make sure that you include all the relevant facts. e. Remember that your press release is unlikely to be reproduced in its entirety. © ABE and RRC .5) illustrates how a press release may become an article in a newspaper. Do not start a sentence with a number. where. how Background details Customer benefits Contact details Any enclosures.116 Written Communication Typical Press Release Layout Company letterhead Date Headline Who. what.

It shows a (fictitious) press release to be sent to several local magazines and newspapers by the marketing assistant at the local leisure centre which is keen to find ways of extending the membership and increasing the number of users. extra steam rooms.5 (Source: Belfast Telegraph. © ABE and RRC . and the refurbishment of the bar by the Boddway Brewery. 20 September 1994) Example The following example illustrates the points above. It follows several improvements to the facilities – new showers.Written Communication 117 Figure 4.

in particular." said Mr Lee. Two additional steam rooms have been built to cater for the massive demand for this facility. We expect to have lots of bar promotions as well. © ABE and RRC ." Guests wishing to use the facilities can do so by paying a £3. relaxing steam bath. The Centre's manager. Marketing Assistant. That's why. "The whole atmosphere is more congenial and welcoming. Assington 01234 594666.00 entrance fee. The cold weather. in addition to improving some of the facilities. "Most people try us out once as guests and then become members because they get hooked on the whole experience. Those intending to join as members should take advantage of the old rates before increases in September. Steven Lee said: "Many of our customers are using the centre more as a social outlet and although they are keen to use the sports facilities. Temperature control is much better and new cubicle doors give more privacy. The showers have been replaced with a more powerful version so that a strong spray of water is guaranteed. many like to socialise in the bar." The new look bar includes new seating and non-smoking areas. seems to encourage more people to want to have a hot. Westover Road.118 Written Communication WESTOVER LEISURE CENTRE Press Release Date: 12 June 200X Westover Leisure Centre's New Look Following a massive refurbishment programme our local leisure centre has made drastic improvements to its facilities. The walls no longer have a white clinical look and the lighting consists of a series of wall and concealed ceiling lights. END For further details please contact Ravi Manju. we have negotiated with the Boddway Brewery for a total refurbishment. at Westover Leisure Centre.

Generally this type of letter has to be written in a persuasive style and must convey an air of congeniality to overcome the impersonality of mass communication. but also explains that not all customers will be chosen to be part of the sample and reassures them that their responses will be completely confidential. get a terrible result and lose thousands of pounds as the brochure finds its way into the wastepaper bin. Although at first sight they may appear expensive. The writing of an effective mailshot is an art and science in itself. © ABE and RRC . based on the information held on databases. they can save time and money in the long run. This is important as far too many people spend a fortune on a glossy brochure. You can also use direct mail to say 'thank you' to customers.000 copies to a dodgy list.e. If you follow up a mailing with a phone call you can increase the response rate by up to 10 times. Rhetorical questions are used and the audience is often offered an incentive to reply by a certain date. freepost address or reply paid envelope. Sometimes they are sent in response to a request or they are unsolicited mail. an easy to complete coupon. They are often used to send out information about products or services with the aim of persuading the reader to send off for more information or to order products/services. Make sure that the contents of your mailing focus on the benefits of your product or service. mail out 10. the letter or some component of the mailshot should contain a response mechanism.Written Communication 119 G. Very importantly. If you repeat a successful mailing three weeks later you can expect a response rate around 50% of the original.        Example The following is a (fictitious) circular to customers of a branch of the Midshire Bank plc informing them that a market research survey is to take place over the next few weeks. This is achieved by the use of friendly. cheerful language. Always include a letter with any brochure you send – it will increase the response rate. The letter seeks to persuade customers to cooperate by giving their views. Consider testing rented mailing lists relevant to your target group. i. Test mailing postcards – they are cheaper than a normal mailing and in some cases will produce a higher response rate. You can use it to ask for referrals or to introduce your customers to a company you've partnered with. There are thousands of highly accurate mailing lists which can be a great way of reaching new people. You want it to be about your potential customer and what you can do for them rather than just being about you. The bank has appointed TMI Limited to conduct telephone interviews with a random sample of customers. WRITING AN EFFECTIVE MAILSHOT Marketing letters or circulars are generally sent to a large audience and may or may not be personalised. Information technology means that circular letters can be personalised. In order to increase the chances of success some basic rules can be followed:  Remember to Test any Direct Mail campaigns for new customers on a small scale before rolling them out.

to interview a number of our customers. if you are contacted by TMI. if you could assist them in their research.120 Written Communication MIDSHIRE BANK PLC High Street Assington Berkshire AS1 6EL Mr A Customer 17 Goldthorpe Way Didsbury Berkshire DKS1 3FF 12 June 200X Dear Mr Customer At Midshire Bank we try to provide banking facilities of the highest quality in order to meet our customers' needs. I would be very grateful. To help us do this. We would certainly like to hear your views and opinions on our services. TMI will be conducting their interviews by telephone over the next few weeks. we have asked TMI Limited. according to the Market Research Society's Code of Conduct. Yours sincerely Milly Brown Manager © ABE and RRC . To do this we need to listen to what our customers say. an independent research company. May I take this opportunity to assure you that TMI is a reputable company and your individual responses will be completely confidential.

but we shall be concerned here with corporate identity – principally in respect of company branding through the use of logos. typestyles. since it is very much down to personal taste. essential. visually. there are a number of principles which can be identified. use of headings. There are literally hundreds of lettering styles or fonts. Lettering Typefaces.Written Communication 121 H. Given that. and the use of white space all contribute to the impact of the actual words being used. Each font can itself be made larger. though. Before we consider these applications. However. Computer graphics packages are introducing new fonts on what seems like a monthly basis. and we illustrate just a few in Figure 5. smaller. and by the weight and boldness of the type. lighter or italicised. and be unique to that application. lettering style or fonts are all terms for the type of lettering used by designers and printers. reflect the purpose of the object or organisation to which it is applied. © ABE and RRC .15. ruled lines. DESIGN AND CORPORATE IDENTITY What is good design? This is not easy to answer. capitals or underlining. and some convey formality or modernity. with the use of margins. but also by the size of type. it may be said that good design should be:    functional. They can also convey a personality or mood. In fact the layout of the page. Emphasis and impact can be created not only by the use of different typefaces. There are an immense range of application to which design is applied. with an audience. At the heart of design is the attempt to communicate. we shall review certain common aspects of design which you can use. line spacing. It is essentially a subjective matter. heavier. An understanding of the characteristics of the audience and of the object of the design are. Typefaces can facilitate the reader's ability to read text easily. therefore.

A sign or visual image can summarise a whole body of text and is much easier to "read". reflected upon and summarised.122 Written Communication Figure 5. Reading written text is a longer process in that its messages need to be internalised. They may then need to be translated into oral or written language themselves. understood. The following are excellent examples of the efficacy of signs and symbols: © ABE and RRC . International labelling for garments. road signs and electrical goods are all examples of the efficiency of such purely visual communication. so that its impact is immediate.15: Standard Font Types Reading and Interpreting Signs and Colours Visual communication which does not include text has the advantage that it can be understood in any language.

new life. © ABE and RRC . dull.Written Communication 123 Figure 4. However. Colours are seasonal and reflect emotions or attitude. boring.6: Instantly recognisable signs Colour psychology is an integral factor in visual image design and interpretation. remember that different colours have different meanings in different cultures. legible) and is always the same in essence (colour backgrounds may change). The shade and tone of a colour can change our perception of the same logo. passionate. darkness. is instantly recognisable (i. symbols. brightness. sexy. sad. slogans or any combination of these. colour. oral presentations or purely visual forms such as in packaging. envy. night. nondescript. clean. evil. The potential list of applications is vast. young. It also helps us to recognise how repetition of the corporate logo/slogan reinforces corporate image and that the best corporate identity is established through clear design. clinical. dirty. bright. pictures. peace.e. depressing. calming. conservative. whether text. environmentally friendly. pure. We note some of these below as a guide to the range and diversity available. Rather. as shown in the following table: Blue: Red: Green: Yellow: Black: Brown: Grey: White: cold. angry. naivety. lettering. they are not merely the absence or presence of light. and is used to maintain consistency of style throughout all forms of communication. cowardice. Traditionally colours have many associations. it encompasses the use of typestyle. restful. vibrant. sunshine. The most common facet associated with corporate image is the company logo. Corporate Image The purpose of a corporate image or identity is to distinguish the organisation in the marketplace and to communicate values/attributes to various audiences. muddy. but this is not the only element involved.

Adopt some of the values and beliefs of the company in the product(s)/service(s) it offers by association with the design. All too easily it becomes a new logo. The range of stationery applications includes:        Letterheads Continuation sheets Envelopes Compliment slips Business cards Memos Reports In fact. Thus. then we need some detailed answers to the following questions: © ABE and RRC .124 Written Communication            Stationery Forms Publications Products Packaging Advertising Promotions/give-aways Vehicles Interiors/exteriors Signs Clothing If we are serious about corporate image. if the design is truly going to reflect the desired image of an organisation. the introduction of particular colours or a uniform. This is the real starting point for the development of the various facets of corporate image design. These elements certainly make up corporate image. the factors which determine the design for the corporate image and which give an organisation its internal and external "personality" can be referred to as the corporate culture or company ethos. not selectively. then it has to be applied wholesale. and there are numerous image consultants specialising in just that – a design package which is standardised for every possible application. However. If we take the example of stationery. and its application should be rigorously enforced – scrappy internal memos undermine the purposefulness of well produced headed notepaper. One of the major problems in considering corporate image is merely to determine it in design terms. any item of company material can have the logo represented on one or all of its surfaces. Recognise instantly and be familiar with the company. the range of uses will cover all internal and external correspondence. The Basis of Corporate Identity The purpose of the corporate image design is for potential and actual customers to:    Associate the product(s)/service(s) offered by the company with the logo. a new slogan.

8). or a more uniform approach/understanding necessary? What are the company's perceived markets? What image does the company wish to convey? Key words may include: up-market. compliment slips. range) of the organisation? What existing promotional activities are there? Is there an existing logo/slogan/corporate colours? How and where are these applied? Is a new corporate image required. Are there any preferences as to style. The following extracts from its literature.) is required. etc? Who will sanction any change/implementation? What steps will be taken to introduce a new/updated corporate image? Is a transition period necessary? How will the internal market be informed? What potential applications will there be of any design? Even if. Case Study: MCCormick Group of Companies The McCormick Group is a construction company. size and function (i.e. product/service areas. The design is particularly effective as it allows different divisions to have their own identity as part of the corporate identity (see Figure 4. © ABE and RRC . sophisticated. show how corporate image is designed and give an indication of the company ethos. Figure 4. specialist. wide audience. only a stationery pack (letterheads business cards. an update. the design and colours may need also to be applied to other non-paper media. on building site hoardings where McCormick is building. etc. and on all company vehicles and workers' uniforms. colour. The answers to these questions often form the basis of a brief which can be given to a designer to assist the development of the image/identity. such as mouse mats and T-shirts.7: McCormick Company Logo The company logo is on a racing green background with white lettering. reproduced by kind permission. in the first instance. location. It appears on all McCormick divisional notepaper and business cards.Written Communication 125           What are the name.

which enclose the separate sheets.13.12) about each of the Group's four divisions. which allows a sense of integration and harmony within the company's publicity materials.126 Written Communication Figure 4. The inside covers of the folder. bears the text shown in Figure 4.8: McCormick Divisional Logos The Group produces a folder designed as a company portfolio rather than a throw-away glossy leaflet. © ABE and RRC .9 to 4. It contains separate sheets of information (see Figures 4. illustrating the effectiveness of design in the presentation of text.

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Organising a Presentation Organisation and Planning Types and Styles of Presentations The Context of the Presentation Internal Communications Processes The Planning Process Target Audience Presenter's Briefs Presentational Skills Key Presentational Elements Types of Presentation The 6 Ps of Presentations Knowing Your Audience Subject Knowledge Structuring Your Material Making and Using Notes Practice Structuring the Presentation Tone and Style Non-verbal Communication Participation Nature and Purpose of Audio and Visual Aids What Are Audio-Visual Aids? Using Audio-Visual Aids Effectively Designing Audio-Visual Aids Using Words as Visuals Overhead Projector Transparencies Slide Projectors Page 137 137 138 140 141 142 142 144 145 145 146 146 149 151 152 153 154 154 154 155 156 156 157 158 159 162 162 163 163 (Continued over) B. © ABE and RRC . D.135 Unit 4 Oral Communication Contents Introduction A. C.

136 Oral Communication Flip Charts Whiteboards Video Physical Objects Using Sound Effectively Physical surroundings E. Using the Telephone Purpose of Telephone Calls Successful Calls Telephone Technique Using Answering Machines to Your Advantage Message Taking 164 164 164 165 166 166 169 169 171 171 172 173 174 175 Appendix 1: Six Helpful Hints on Making a Presentation Appendix 2: Checking Presentational Effectiveness © ABE and RRC .

This is followed by sections considering the use of audio-visual aids to support and enhance the oral presentation. Although sometimes organisers of presentations may also be requested to be active participants in the presentation itself. A. Many studies have been undertaken in an attempt to identify (so that they can be developed) the personal qualities required for effective oral communication.Oral Communication 137 INTRODUCTION In this unit on oral communication we shall be concentrating on the art of ensuring an effective presentation. We shall be drawing on some of the basic principles of communication which you will be familiar with from studies elsewhere. but the skills needed to ensure that they are all effective will be the same. facilitator or convenor of a presentation. looking at the elements which contribute to its effectiveness and the particular skills that are needed. because you need to be aware of the different communication skills applied in each context. The unit concludes with a review of another important area of oral communication. ORGANISING A PRESENTATION We shall. Similarly. Thus. © ABE and RRC . but the basic precepts will be the same – the conveying of a specific message to an identified audience at a designated time and place. in this first section of the unit. Telephone conversations are a unique form of such communication in that they lack many of the non-verbal cues which are so important to the communication process. that of using the telephone. A presenter does not or should not need to worry about the arrangements surrounding a presentation. and you should keep them in mind as you work through this unit. the majority of presentations are more effective if this does not occur. co-ordinator. Presentations may be five minutes or two hours long. We start by examining the organisation of presentations and considering the fundamental importance of proper preparation. Some of the characteristics identified are:           Self-confidence Concern for listener Knowledge Empathy with audience Character Humour Sincerity Personal appearance Friendliness Friendly voice tones These are useful characteristics to know if you wish to judge your own performance. assume your role is as the organiser. and we shall consider the particular demands of such interactions and how to make them effective. the purpose and content of each and every presentation which you may make will vary tremendously. We then go on to the presentation itself. a deliberate distinction is drawn between the roles of organiser and presenter. and an organiser does not or should not need to worry about making an effective presentation.

Make up a file summarising all the activities you will need to organise. part of an existing public relations calendar.g. Food and refreshments. so you may well be arranging speakers at the same time as booking the venue. who your contacts are. reporting to presentation team)? What sort of organisation are you working for? What type of presentation are you organising? Is it fee-paying. Music. (iv)    Check the travel arrangements. Lighting. a meeting. a seminar? By whom and how will the objectives be set? What are they? Who determines the budget? Who reports to whom? Attend all necessary team briefings and meetings. Who are they? Where are they? Location: (i) (ii) Book the venue according to the requirements and budget. others concurrently. © ABE and RRC . (vii) Media coverage. Special arrangements for the day itself: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Floral displays. deadlines and budgeting. Sponsorship. time-scale. paid for. Similarly. Confirm the arrangements. it will require careful planning. (viii) Press release.138 Oral Communication The organiser is the only person who can have an effective overview of the success of the proceedings and implement minor adjustments as necessary. Arrange speakers. Access and cloakroom facilities. (ix) (x) Advertise event in relevant medium/media. total control. Audio-visual aids. a conference. Work before the event     (iii) Check whether there are any potential sponsorship/advertising opportunities. All of the following elements will form part of the planning process – some will run sequentially. Organisation and Planning Whatever the context or proposed content of your presentation. reporting to superiors. Check that you understand the requirements of your audience. the organiser is the best person to evaluate the presentation untrammelled by concerns as to his or her performance. Invite the audience. (a) Preliminary considerations    (b) What is your status as an organiser (e.

you can safely assume that you have interesting/relevant information which needs to be communicated to others. Liase with catering staff. (xiii) Caretaking. its success and the future implications (if any) for the organisation. etc. Your materials speaks for itself. there are a number of important points about presentations which you cannot assume and which must. Attend post-presentation briefing and report back to teams as necessary. © ABE and RRC . Remain a point of contact for all speakers and audience members to deal with any eventuality. be specifically addressed in the organisation and planning leading up to the event. Circulate any necessary follow-up documentation to participants (this may include evaluation questionnaires). keep the internal market aware of the purpose of the event. invoices received. However. Distribute supporting material/presentation packs. Double-check all previous arrangements. All presentations are successful. The audience is eagerly awaiting your every word. (xii) Arrange signs. At the presentation Work after the event It is important to be aware of a number of general principles about presentations as these affect the approach to their organisation. Your personality. All presenters are equally prepared/skilled at presenting. choice of language and style have no bearing on the effectiveness of your presentation. Keep a time check on the speakers. Arrange photocopying facilities for speakers' material in case copies are required. subsequently. All presentations take place externally. Present the final budget sheet. All presentations are directed at an audience of five people. All presentations require sophisticated audio and visual aids. and that the communication will be part of a formal process (internally or externally). All presentations take place in exclusive hotel conference suites. etc. Throughout the planning process and then. Ensure all parties have been paid. Thank speakers and participants for attending. For example.            All presentations are of a standard length.  (b)        (c)      Discuss potential follow-up activities at team briefings and make arrangements. therefore.Oral Communication 139 (xi) Arrange supporting material/presentation packs. You have an unlimited budget. name badges. Meet/greet the speakers and audience.

This is another form of presentation. the best person to make the presentation. Any promotional activity surrounding a presentation – perhaps a meeting to discuss company employment policy – will make use of existing internal communications channels. or you superior is. Form part of a public relations budget. Involve more than one presenter. The key skills are to know how to summarise relevant data effectively. etc. we can note a number of points about which you can be certain and which. Organising presentations is extremely hard work! Types and Styles of Presentations (a) Internal Presentations Within an organisation presentations are used to:     Brief relevant teams. presenting your section's five-year plan or sales figures). groups. a hotel.). Inform such teams. You have the support of your internal market. Finally.140 Oral Communication    You are. formal introductions. Individual style has a tremendous influence on the reception of a presentation. be they internal or external. © ABE and RRC . No two presentations will be the same. conference suite. Many organisations insist that middle or senior managers hold a progress report meeting on Monday mornings. Shareholders' meetings. trade exhibitions and advertising pitches are all types of external presentation. press conferences. The managers are relaying key information to directors or executives. Such presentations are more likely to:     Take place in a neutral location (e. they are sometimes viewed more seriously. Raise issues for discussion. after-dinner speeches. (b) External Presentations Because these involve people from outside your organisation. committees. is that the presenter can be selective above the information which he or she presents.     Presentations make use of a wide variety of communication skills. Advertisers and sponsors will be falling over themselves to participate. "Making a presentation" is a formal communication process with objectives usually set by senior management.g. again. you will need to address in the organisation and planning. to understand the requirements of the audience and be prepared for any "sticky" questions. What is certainly true of all presentations. Involve some advertising or promotional activity using external media. groups or committees. These presentations may involve as few as two staff or the entire workforce. Illustrate strategic developments (for example.

progress. authority)? What is the time-scale for the event? How will the presentation be assessed? © ABE and RRC . the organisational culture will have a strong impact on who is selected to make presentations and to whom – for example.Oral Communication 141    Be acknowledged as formal marketing activities. etc. format and context? Who will I have to report to? When? With what information (e. i. The style of an external presentation will be determined by the corporate image of the presenting company. corporate strategy or objectives will have determined the context. Require sophisticated interpersonal skills on the part of organiser(s) and presenter(s) alike. a matrix organisation is more likely to encourage presentations across departments or by junior staff than a hierarchical/bureaucratic organisation. Furthermore. background or rationale for the presentation. If you are the organiser of the presentation.g. participants making up the audience for an external presentation such as a seminar or conference may have paid for the privilege of so doing. be worthwhile and high status. It would be extremely unlikely for the audience at an internal presentation to have been charged admittance! The Context of the Presentation Presentations are a facet of organisational activity. whether they are internal or external. whereas the style of an internal presentation will be characterised by the role and status of individuals making the presentation and their own personal style. and the perceived requirements of the audience. promotional activity. extra people. teams. you need to be familiar with this organisational context and to consider the following questions:                What is the purpose of the presentation? Will I have total control as to the style. Furthermore. Need careful co-ordination and attention to detail. Thus.e. a marketing strategy or calendar)? Will the audience be paying for this activity? Who are the intended audience? How have they been selected? Do I need to recruit an audience? What public relations/advertising/promotional activities will I need to arrange? Do I need to co-ordinate with other departments in the organisation? What support will I have (administrative. financial.)? Who will I be working with? Internally? Externally? Do I need to set up a presentation team? Is there a budget? How has it been set? Are there any restrictions on hiring specialist presenters? How does this activity fit in with other organisational activities (for example.

etc. you haven't stipulated the date.1). you will have to make effective use of the existing internal communications system. team briefings. meeting with hotel managers. you need to know who are the key internal members of staff with whom you will be working – for example:        the senior management team the chief executive caretaking and cleaning staff administrative staff maintenance staff department heads presentation team drawn from throughout the organisation Having identified these people. therefore. caretaking staff could be involved in the setting up and cleaning up for ten presentations in one organisation. For example.142 Oral Communication Internal Communications Processes When organising any presentation. You must be prepared to use briefs or short reports as to how you are to set up the presentation. internal memos for co-ordination and properly drawn up planning and costing sheets to monitor and control the organisation and budget. time. (See Figure 5. if you rely on everyone's word after a brief chat as to your requirements. they would probably never do anything else! Interpersonal communications will be critical to the success of your venture. It would be sensible to set up a file with the following sections as headings and to include all internal and external correspondence/relevant data:        Title. If they attended meetings with all presentation teams. you may well discover that:    they've misunderstood your requirements. However. date and timing of presentation Location Speakers Catering arrangements Invoices Advertising and promotional activities Special arrangements You will also need a chart showing planned activities on particular dates – for example. Presentations are a formal communications process and use formal communications channels. guest speakers. © ABE and RRC . date of presentation. It is not always practical to arrange meetings with all concerned. The Planning Process Your plans for the presentation will be determined by the budget and time-scale. Within those constraints you need to identify and plan all those activities which you will need to organise. you were discussing a hypothetical presentation and not a real one. that your requirements are clarified or determined in writing. It is essential. location or purpose. including key personnel and administrative procedures.

1: Initial personal planner 143 .© Oral Communication ABE and RRC Figure 5.

Locate your target audience. etc. However. Liase with the local press/media. Interview speakers and brief them. Perhaps more importantly. and this may be a function of the complexity of the planned event. then you need to: (a) (b) (c) Identify your target audience. Timing of the presentation (cereal and grain farmers are. telephone calls and faxes – all of which must be recorded and filed.144 Oral Communication The planning time-scale will be dependent on the range of activities and research necessary. etc. The presentation could be an Annual General Meeting where shareholders (the audience) have particular concerns about your organisation and require very specific information about corporate issues. Thus. etc. Target a particular audience and make up your own database of potential participants. Market-sensitive costing structure. Write press releases/programmes. the audience may request a presentation – you may be a manufacturer supplying a retail outlet which wants to know more about your range for the next season. Necessary length of the presentation. Target Audience Very early in the planning process you need to know who are the intended audience for the presentation. you may need to:         Choose a location. Choose the most appropriate channel of communication to inform/invite them. If this is the case. much more likely to attend conferences between November and February after harvest and before replanting). internally. externally. etc. invoices. for example. For example. a recruitment drive. Whilst much of this can be held on computer. Check corporate requirements on promotional activities/colour schemes. you will know who the audience is and there may well be an expectation on their part of attending. In may cases. a physical file has the advantage of containing all the documentary evidence – expense claims. Access to meeting/presentation rooms/location. © ABE and RRC . specific to the particular subject matter of the presentation – a product launch. such as:      Dietary requirements. Select catering facilities. the audience may well be an externally invited audience. This will involve a lot of meetings. Arrange printing. it may be that the audience has requested the presentation or that everyone recognises the need to attend. internal memos. a public relations press conference after an industrial accident (essentially a damage limitation exercise). you need to inform your audience of the presentation and request their attendance. Similarly. invitation letters. You need to be aware of any special requirements your potential audience may have. You then need to anticipate the needs of the audience and structure the presentation accordingly.

others have presenters thrust upon them. Sometimes we are overawed by our audience. After all. If only it were that simple! As you have seen from previous study units. it is your role to ensure that the presenters themselves are properly briefed and can. Too often we assume that because we understand the importance/relevance of our plans or proposals. PRESENTATIONAL SKILLS Presenting information. Getting the most out of your presenters is obviously best achieved by having clear objectives as to the purpose of the presentation and an understanding of the audience requirements. Medical facilities. we need to show evidence of what might be termed the 6 Ps of presentation:       Planning Purpose Political sensitivity Personal commitment Personal communication skills (ability to persuade) Polish We shall examine these in detail later.Oral Communication 145     Crêche facilities. venue and timing Terms and conditions for presenters Communication skills required Technical or specialist knowledge required Any special requirements – particularly as to company policy on certain issues (for example. We forget to introduce the stages or processes of our thinking. This will set out the following elements:        The purpose of the presentation An audience profile Details of date. in respect of gender and racial inclusivity). reach agreement and take appropriate action. communicate effectively and achieve the objectives of the event. Presenter's Briefs As an organiser. B. you just need to talk to them. there are many barriers to effective communication and the most important one is ourselves. some can choose their presenters. notification of audio-visual aids needed. but first we shall look at some of the key elements of making a presentation and the different demands of different types of presentation. © ABE and RRC . Adherence to health and safety legislation. proposals or ideas to someone else should be easy. and still others will have to reach presenter status themselves! The key is to ensure that your presenters know exactly what is required of them and this is achieved by preparing a presenter's brief. However. In order to present ourselves and our information effectively. or lack commitment in our ideas or judgement. Translators. We get bogged down in a mass of detail which disguises the simplicity of an idea. which would illustrate how we reached the conclusions we are presenting. then so does everyone else. etc. therefore.

Thus we could identify the following types:      to prospective employers at a job interview to senior managers to colleagues to potential clients – planned "pitches". presentation organisers and/or senior management We shall be concerned. with illustrating these skills and how you can make your presentations more effective by paying particular attention to them. etc. Types of Presentation Not only does the size of the audience. in the following parts of this section. to actual and/or potential clients – product launches. You should consider this as a checklist to be directly and carefully addressed when planning the delivery of any presentation. etc.146 Oral Communication Key Presentational Elements The main elements which make up an effective presentation may be summarised as in the list below. time-scale or location vary from presentation to presentation. but not too much. information/data Careful selection of information/data Summarising salient points Using appropriate visual aids Timing Reflecting corporate objectives accurately Working in a team with other presenters. The key to making a successful presentation is understanding this context and you need to ask yourself:       What is the purpose? Who is it for? What is my role in this? Who are the audience? How will it be judged? By whom? Are there any specific requirements/criteria which have to be met? We can categorise the types of presentation you are most likely to have to make according to the audience and/or context. © ABE and RRC . but also the purpose – which determines those factors – will vary enormously.               Understanding the difference between written and spoken communications Oral communication skills (style. the subject matter. rapport) Using non-verbal techniques Understanding your audience's requirements The ability to interact with an audience Preparation and planning Knowing your subject Presenting enough. delivery.

and sometimes you will be alone. The degree of predictability of how the presentation will go may also vary with the context – for example. Note. design and execution of your presentation. too. In each of these instances. Thus. whereas at other times you will be part of a team of presenters. the context will determine how you approach the planning.2 illustrates some of the considerations involved in this range of presentation types. it will not always be appropriate to use audio-visual aids. Figure 5. you will have to be prepared for non-scripted or apparently unrelated questions/requirements from your audience. that your status will vary in the different situations and this will affect how each audience perceives you. if you are presenting specific information. © ABE and RRC . as at an interview or trade fair.Oral Communication 147    at exhibition stands/trade fairs at in-house training/staff development activities at company conferences/as an invited speaker This form of classification provides a useful means of starting to analysis the impact of the context on the form of presentation. your organisation and the validity of your arguments/presentation.

2: Requirements of different types of presentation .148 Oral Communication © ABE and RRC Figure 5.

g. the timing. In fact. and how confident you feel about your presentation. Are any visual aids produced easily visible. relevant and properly produced? Check who will be available to offer technical support if necessary. status and what is expected of you in this context?  Personal Preparation Is it necessary to adopt a particular dress code? Are you physically prepared with relevant data as well as spare pens. © ABE and RRC . what are the elements of a presentation which you are giving that require planning?  Background You will need to know the location. and the position from which you will be presenting (e. you can even set the scene by preparing information about yourself and your presentation. etc.Oral Communication 149 The 6 Ps of Presentations (a) Planning Being well prepared for a presentation affects how the audience perceives you and your organisation.? Do you need to rehearse in the chosen location to maximise your impact and to feel comfortable with your surroundings?  The Presentation Itself Does your argument follow a logical sequence? Is the language clear enough and appropriate for your audience? Have you researched all your data/information thoroughly? Are your "facts" facts or fiction? Have you timed the length of your presentation? Will your presentation be lively and varied or delivered in a dull monotone? Will you make reference to the audience? (Ask questions. with which the co-ordinator can introduce you. So. It will result in your using any technical equipment more effectively and in your being able to react quickly and accurately to any questions posed by the audience. The planning should allow you to take control of your presentation.) Do you understand what you are presenting? Have you considered all the potential implications or perceptions that there may be to your material? This will ensure that you can respond to any criticism or query adequately as opposed to defensively.). Presenters who apparently "think on their feet" and engage in an almost social interaction with their audience. usually do so as a result of very careful and detailed planning. allow questions. etc. (b) Purpose The first element of the planning stage is concerned with identifying the purpose of the presentation being given and your role in fulfilling that purpose. What technical equipment will be available to you? Who will be co-ordinating the presentation should you require additional assistance? Who are the other presenters? What are their subjects? Who are their audience? Why and how have they been selected? What is your role. on a stage. in a meeting room. the running order.

In other instances there could be internal politics which need to be considered (e. too great a commitment to the subject matter may result in an inability to see the potential pitfalls or problems.g. establish presenter as the expert. local government meetings). © ABE and RRC . objectives or ideas to be revealed. Illustrate empathy and understanding of corporate objectives.g. generate sales. Presentations which in their planning and execution need to reflect sensitivity to internal political issues.3 (c) Political Sensitivity Why political sensitivity? Quite simply. closing hospitals or schools). discussed and communicated (see Figure 5. new processes for food production. test market an idea. To colleagues "Pitch" to potential clients  (d) Personal Commitment If a presenter has no interest in the planning. reallocating workloads from one department to another). Figure 5. party conferences. Some issues are of political sensitivity in the largest sense (e. and cause the presentation to be seen as overzealous and of the preaching type.g. education). Share ideas/proposals. Raise awareness. union meetings. and others for external audiences.g.3). presenters need to be aware of the potential impact and ramifications of the content of their presentations. nuclear waste. Generate support for an idea/proposal. Type of Presentation Product launch Job interview Exhibition stand To senior managers Purpose Communicate to external market. However. Communicate corporate ethos and attitudes to external market with the objective of making future sales. Presentations which are politically sensitive and need to take account of legislation or political change in the external sense (e. generate sales. communicate to external market. but some presentations are for the benefit of internal audiences.150 Oral Communication Clearly the purpose varies from presentation to presentation. In every case they are a medium for corporate strategy. writing or presenting of the material then the presentation will be a disaster. chemical emissions. establish team hierarchy. There include:   Political presentations which represent local or national politics (e. Too great a personal involvement in the presentation and your role can result in an excess of nerves and overplanning which destroys the impact of the presentation.

This is actually easier with a large audience. scratching. Obviously you can't retain eye contact with a hundred people. © ABE and RRC . move around it so that the audience have to follow you and stay attentive. etc. rather than detract from. Avoid clumsy phrasing. vary your presentation. ("It sounds like he's said this a million times before. if you are not comfortable looking people in the eye. (f) Polish This is the most difficult element to achieve. Use the space you have available to you. look at the space between their eyebrows. Look directly at your audience. they will almost certainly influence the specific objectives and the way in which the presentation will be delivered. professional delivery and your own sanity! (e) Personal Communication Skills It is extremely important to be able to establish a rapport with your audience and fellow presenters. but you can make sure that your physical appearance. you also need to consider your audience carefully. A truly polished presenter can attain professionalism with friendliness. what you are trying to communicate. It's worth looking at news bulletins to see how professional presenters use their material and respond to the unexpected. it rarely comes naturally and is usually a result of practice. the floor or the ceiling. Don't mistake being polished for being slick or overrehearsed. rehearsal and experience. you need to start from the point at which the audience is "at". jargon or rambling. Avoid being fussily dressed or too formal. The following tips may come in useful:     Wear clothes which are smart (and clean) in which you feel comfortable. This gives the appearance that you are looking directly at them. You will find it helpful to ask yourself the following questions:       Who will make up the audience? Are you addressing a group of directors or senior managers.") Even if you have to give the same information to a variety of audiences. body language and style of presentation contribute to. As with all methods of communication. and can you get any ideas about the reasons for this? What are their own objectives for the session likely to be? Whilst the needs of the audience should not be allowed to dictate your overall aims. Try to control your nerves and the general nervous "tics" which we all have – fiddling with pens.Oral Communication 151 Your commitment should be to extensive and relevant preparation. Remember to present the identified benefits to each particular audience. As before. Knowing Your Audience As indicated above. Live morning shows are an even greater test of presenters and reflect polish to varying degrees. or a group of work colleagues? How big will the audience be? What is the level of their existing knowledge and awareness of the subject? At what level can you pitch the complexity of your presentation? What is the likely reaction to the presentation? Is it likely that there will be anxiety or resistance to the subject matter. not at your notes.

For example. think about it from their point of view. examples provide a welcome opportunity to add life and colour to what may be a dull subject. Once you have some sort of profile of the possible audience.)  Exercises If the presentation you are involved in deals with skills development.152 Oral Communication So how do you set about finding out this information? Much of it can be obtained from careful consideration of the attendance list which is usually produced for a formal event. Depending on the type of presentation. You need to be very clear about the type of information you want them to contribute and how you will use it. Depending on the type of presentation. In other situations. as opposed to other forms of communication. perhaps. This will certainly give an indication of the size of the audience and probably information about their background and experience. There may also be information about the audience's individual objectives in attending. there are certain aspects which are of particular relevance to presentations. However. If there are not appropriate real examples to draw upon. (We shall return to the issue of getting audience input and participation below. Anecdotes – short stories –about real incidents are also particularly helpful in illustrating practical implications or applications. finding out about a particular committee or how the last such presentation went. this is the same as any information gathering exercise. such as a training programme. we can reiterate the maxim of putting yourself in the audience's shoes. perhaps during a speech about company recycling policy and practice to a local school. but during presentations. Putting a humorous slant on these can be very effective in adding life and colour to the presentation. Whilst you obviously need to focus on that which is directly relevant to your objectives. You should also consider past events of a similar nature. too. that your information is up-to-date. What will they be looking for and what will grab their attention? Subject Knowledge In oral communication generally. it is essential to "know your stuff " – you can't look it up as you go along. this would be the case with the introduction to a new © ABE and RRC . it is good to get as wide a perspective about the subject as possible. This means that you have to thoroughly research the topic and gather as much information as possible about it. it may also be appropriate to involve the audience in some way by getting them to contribute information or examples from their own experience. It all has to be at your fingertips – or more precisely. you would want to include some general facts and figures. worked-through practical examples.  Exemplification It is always helpful to illustrate the points you make by providing examples. on the tip of your tongue. it may be necessary to develop your own simulations. To a large extent. Any exemplification needs to be carefully researched and developed to ensure it is accurate. Finally. This will help you to deal with additional issues or alternative approaches which your audience might raise in questions. relevant and supportive of your main themes. In some instances – such as an introduction to a new accounting system – you would need to provide detailed. Make sure. the examples may need to be more or less detailed. For example. it is likely that you will want to include some practical work – in the way of exercises – for the participants in the session.

It is this core – not the supplementary material – which needs to be organised to give the structure to the presentation. They should be relatively simple so that participants can understand what is involved straightaway. and you. Structuring Your Material If you have done your research thoroughly. such that you are able to cover all the objectives in the time available. Any such exercises that are used need to be carefully worked out in advance.  The point of this exercise is to focus on the core. material that could be included is that which extends your central material into further areas. and structuring the session and the material so that the audience may be effectively led through it in a way which enables them to meet the stated objectives. as the presenter. where it would be important to give the audience some practical experience in trying out the procedures being introduced. You need. then.Oral Communication 153 accounting system. to organise that material:   determining what should be used. if there is not sufficient time. but not essential and could be omitted without detracting from the exposition. This may be divided into those elements which should or could be included:  material that should be included is that which is supportive of your main points – important material. can easily explain what is required. form the core of the presentation. © ABE and RRC . and this is far easier when you have stripped the content down to the essentials. If there were unlimited time. the objectives can be met without it. it would be good to include and it would add to the sum of information relevant to the objectives. not central to the main theme of the presentation. It is better to have a well-rounded argument based around the core points of a presentation than to try to include too much of the supporting detail. One approach to organising a mass of material is to consider it under three categories: could include should include must include This concentrates attention on those key elements which must be included – those that are central to meeting the objectives and will. therefore. It is important not to let detail get in the way of the overall structure. They must also be absolutely correct and capable of being completed in the time available. However. you will undoubtedly have far too much material to include in the presentation itself. Anything else is supplementary to the main points.

© ABE and RRC . The aim is to develop the presentation in a logical fashion. but should never be omitted. and make changes if necessary. Making and Using Notes Very few speakers are able to remember everything they need to say at the time. with a number of subsidiary points underneath. to have some notes to help you remember all your points and to guide you through them in the correct order during the presentation. You will need. The words on the cue cards need to written clearly and boldly so that they can be easily read while you are standing up and speaking. do not have so few that each area is too large to have a clear focus of its own. fluency. we mean notes – you do not need to produce a full script for the presentation. It is very likely that you will want to make some minor changes once you have tried things out. It is best to use cue cards. is the process of determining the main headings and sub-headings within the core. step-by-step. If at all possible. You can also check out exactly how fluently the use of your visual aids fits into the presentation. so adjust the order or amend your cue cards as you go along. In doing this. pace. you need to think carefully about the order in which you wish to present your points. starting from the basics and developing complexity as you work through it. but this will only encourage you to read the words out to your audience. These are small cards which simply state the key points to be covered – main and sub-headings. The cards should be numbered to keep them in order and to help you know where you are during the presentation. Structuring the presentation to work. This ensures a coherent progression to the whole. Colour coding can be used to clearly identify different elements or to separate topics. and helps to make your arguments persuasive. When we say "notes". but even talking out loud to yourself will be of help. of its delivery. These allow both you and your audience periodically to take stock of progress through the subject. Use your cue cards and incorporate the visual aids. therefore. Practice This is the final part of your preparation. Structuring the Presentation We discussed above the need to organise and structure your material into a coherent and manageable order. Cards have the advantage of being small and easily handled.154 Oral Communication Structuring. Do not have too many main headings or the overall focus of the presentation will become dissipated – but at the same time. You also need to bear in mind the essential structure of the presentation itself. They can also be usefully annotated to show where you will use any visual aids. etc. Try to make this rehearsal as "real" as possible. they do not rustle if you are nervous and can be easily bound together to keep them in order. There may be a temptation to write it all out verbatim. There is no substitute for rehearsal – it is essential if you are to be in control of your content and confident about the timing. rather than sheaves of paper. Your starting point is always where your audience is now (or at least where you assume them to be) and you can work from there. carry out your trial in front of a "tame" audience. through your subject. rather than speak to them. carrying them with you step-by-step through the various elements you need to cover. then. just as if you were doing the presentation for real. also helps to divide the session into a number of "chunks" and provides natural break points. and make it easier for you to keep track of where you are.

so that the audience is aware that you have definitely finished. This is generated by what you say and how you say it – so. layout and acoustics of the room. so the keynote has to be interest. Again. In terms of a formal presentation. a presentation should have three clearly identifiable parts – a beginning. it should take your audience through the topic(s) in a logical order. You need to speak clearly and avoid rushing things. As we noted above. an interaction between you as the presenter and the audience. You should also close with a distinct final statement. However. The larger the audience. The more your audience know what to expect. There may. this can be helped if you can introduce a touch of humour. or may not. impersonal speech to an audience. essentially. nerves will tend to make you speak faster than normal. The final impression you make on the audience is often the one which they will carry away with them. be a degree of active participation (see below) by the audience.  Beginning The purpose of any introduction is to tell your audience about what you are going to cover. but try to think of it as a conversation. It is important to think about your audience in establishing the tone and style of speech that is appropriate. so be quite deliberate in adjusting to an appropriate pace. This is to gain your audience's attention and establish a rapport which will carry you through the rest of what you have to say. You also need to introduce yourself (and sometimes. to get them to introduce themselves). importantly. these serve particular purposes.Oral Communication 155 Just as with any form of communication. a middle and an end. If you shared the session's objectives with the audience as part of the introduction. linking together similar aspects of subject matter and providing appropriate exemplification. and the size. You set the tone of the session by what you say in the first few minutes. where the audience is a small group.  End The conclusion of the presentation must be equally as positive as the introduction. how you are going to present it. rather than lecture at them. make it light. so make sure it is not weak. by using amusing anecdotes). albeit with a (possibly) large group of people and essentially one-way. Tone and Style Most forms of presentation are not about delivering a formal. Often. It is no different in a formal presentation.  Middle This is the main body of the presentation. They are. Talk to them. The key elements are the size of the audience. you should have time to make all your points without steaming through it so fast that the audience has difficulty following either the arguments or the speech itself. © ABE and RRC . there is an important additional purpose served by the introduction to a formal presentation. Outline what you are going to say and. introduce some humour if possible (for example. It is useful to include brief summaries from time to time to allow you and your audience to take stock and ensure that you are carrying them with you as you develop your themes. This helps to prevent any tailing off and ensures that the ending is positive. the better they will be able to follow your presentation and relate to the subject matter. you can return to them as the basis for the summary. Tell them how you intend to handle questions (see below) and what use will be made of visual aids – especially the availability of handouts and the introduction of any videos. You need to summarise what you have covered in a succinct and interesting way. where you get down to the meat of what you want to say and work through all your material. the degree of formality required for the occasion. If you have planned it correctly. and be positive.

etc. do not hide yourself away behind a desk or lectern. even in larger. This method allows for a higher degree of audience involvement and works best with smaller. There are. your audience. For example. to be as natural as possible. and indeed. Oral communication is essentially a two-way process. it is important to remember that you need to maintain contact with your audience as you write. it is quite acceptable to move away from it. rather than distances you from them. so speak with these people in mind. as this will detract from what you are saying. it is best to allow some degree of questioning on points  © ABE and RRC . This is where you will see the importance of using only cue cards rather than a full script – you will be able to glance at your notes without losing the impact of eye contact. you need to consider how you deal with questions. as well as using it as a reference point to develop further your argument. do not lose track of the need for some degree of participation. In using any visual aids. size of audience. Try to vary the intensity of your delivery to take into account the need for individuals to refocus. such movement may help to engage the audience. but can be difficult to handle as it may throw out your timing or disrupt your planned order of dealing with topics.). At the least. or feel that you have to retain the same stance and remain motionless throughout the session – a certain amount of movement will be more natural. when you can set some time aside for them – which provides you with more control over the running of the session. and never speak without turning to face the front. If you are the sort of person who would naturally use your hands as you express yourself. If you are using visual aids. and assessing people's level of concentration. basically. Depending on the particular situation (formality. This helps to show interest in. if you are using a lectern. Let your eyes move over the audience and avoid fixing your gaze on one particular individual. Whichever way you do it. formal presentations. but can be very uninvolving for the audience at the time. Do not turn your back for too long. allow your audience time to assimilate them. less formal groups. size of room. or take them as you go along – which has the advantage of resolving any issues at the time they arise. you may be able to make a decision about whether you should stand or sit to make your presentation. feel free to do so. and although in a presentation you will have a lot of one-way presenting of information to do. two alternatives:  leave them until the end. Don't introduce key points whilst they are studying one of your highly attractive OHP transparencies. It is important to maintain eye contact with the audience as a whole. You need to adopt an open stance and style which engages with the audience. Non-verbal Communication Body language is very important in delivering presentations. Eye contact is also important because you should all the time be watching for feedback from the audience.156 Oral Communication the more difficult it will be for those furthest away from you to hear. but beware of over-expansive gestures. and engagement with. You also need. Talk them through anything that you show them. as this conditions the rapport you establish with the audience. Participation The final point in considering the delivery of a presentation lies in respect of the way in which you interact with the audience. However. as far as nerves may permit.

not every presentation will need them or be more effective because of them. (Remember. that you have to write legibly and in large letters!). complexity) and designed to a standard expected of the presentation. then.Oral Communication 157 as they arise. In doing so. we shall be concerned with the effective use of audio and visual aids. Obtaining their input at certain points is a useful device for involving them. NATURE AND PURPOSE OF AUDIO AND VISUAL AIDS In this and the next section. Do not. it is quite possible that people will want to discuss issues you raise. you can respond yourself to the input and perhaps put the specific instance raised into a classification which suits you. they can make a valuable contribution to the development of your presentation by providing examples from their own experience and contributing their own ideas. C. in developing a list of. ignore your audience.) Appropriate audio or visual aids. you may want these to be aired as they arise and encourage participation and involvement from your audience. Again. However. format. in anything more than small. The more sophisticated the technology. to know the types of responses you want to get. It is helpful to record the responses you get by writing them onto a flipchart or marker board. Thus. what is the point of using audio and visual aids at all? (Note that we need to include the effective use of audio – the notion that we only use visual aids in a presentation is incorrect. if used selectively (with regard to timing. that you are prepared for such an aspect to your presentation. doesn't mean that you don't have to plan for it. Using audio and visual aids in order to appear more professional but without reflecting the purpose of the presentation is timewasting. informal groups. achieving instant results/responses. not a discussion group to run! The best time for discussion is at the end. therefore. Remember that you have a presentation to give. your performance – unless they are well produced and relevant. Depending on the type of presentation. whenever you write anything up during the course of the presentation. the worse the disaster if anything goes wrong. you could usefully solicit examples from your audience. Just because you are going to get the audience to contribute something. they are a waste of everyone's time. you need to ensure that you can keep control over what is said. © ABE and RRC . costly and can make you appear more concerned with the trivia rather than the detail of your presentation. So. Very often. but do not be afraid to cut short discussion and defer consideration of particular points to a later stage of the presentation or the end. as well as bringing in real issues of concern to them. They can also detract from. can enhance a good presentation and increase its effectiveness through:     creating awareness. when you done your bit and can allow time for the audience to make their contribution. rather than enhance. say. Allied to this is the question of allowing for audience response and feedback to what you have to say. It is easy to get deflected from the central line of your presentation by the issues that may be raised. you need to take control over it and explicitly state the way in which you intend to handle questions in your introduction. It is important. Whichever method you use. In doing this. this can be very hard to control. so that you can classify the actual responses to fit in with the way you want to develop your argument. though. You need. rather than just presenting your own. encouraging interest. retaining involvement. Although such aids can greatly enhance a presentation. safety problems encountered at the workplace.

4. If. How to make the best use of all audio-visual aids at your disposal. the use of presentational software running on a computer and linked to a projector which shows the images on a screen. being memorable. and some (such as video) combine visual and audio. The software most often used is Microsoft Powerpoint – so much so that presentations using almost any form of AVA are referred to as Powerpoint presentations. visual aids are those items which make use of pictures or visual images (including the written word) in support of an oral presentation. though. increasingly. These are the key issues with which we shall be concerned in the rest of this unit. What Are Audio-Visual Aids? Quite simply. The most common form of AVA now is the computer – or more precisely.158 Oral Communication     (a) (b) describing in one image an entire proposal or concept. Would this presentation be improved by using audio-visual aids? What would be the most appropriate format? If you are planning a presentation. How to design audio-visual aids. Do not forget. © ABE and RRC . that there are a range of other AVAs available. you do decide to use them to make more effective presentations. after appropriate consideration. reinforcing corporate identity. Only use audio-visual aids if they will enhance your presentation and are appropriate. complementing the spoken word. you need to ask yourself: Do not ask yourself "What audio-visual aids shall I use?". then you must determine:    The range of audio-visual aids available and their advantages and disadvantages. as illustrated in Figure 5. We also need to include audio aids because. music or sound effects can be used to add impact to a presentation. The difference is a subtle one but the message is clear.

It does not matter what type of audio-visual you use.4: Traditional Audio-Visual Aids Using Audio-Visual Aids Effectively Before deciding to use any form audio-visual aids as part of a presentation. Be professionally produced and presented. One of the best reasons for not using audio-visual aids is a lack of confidence in using them. Not detract from its effectiveness. Remember that audio-visual aids support and enhance presentations.Oral Communication 159 Figure 5. the following criteria must be met: © ABE and RRC . In every instance you need to be familiar with the equipment you are going to use and to have a fall-back position if the unexpected (like a power cut) should happen. Presentations are not showcases for the most technically advanced or best produced audio-visuals. you need to be certain that they will:    Enhance the presentation. Never forget that you have included audio-visuals in your presentation for the benefit of your audience.

5 provides more details about the effective use of particular aids. use audio-visuals at low attention periods such as after lunch. You opt for simplicity and clarity rather than complexity and confusion. To keep attention. before a break or towards the end of a session. Always make reference to a visual. strobe lights. loud bangs. either use technical support or arrange for your and the audience's convenience.160 Oral Communication            Language or images are selected which reflect the nature of the presentation and represent a dimension of the subject under discussion/being presented. There is sufficient technical back-up. flickering lights. Try not to obscure visuals by standing in front of them. fireworks) or even endanger them.g. Rehearse. You do not use effects which could upset your audience (e. © ABE and RRC . Figure 5. (Do semi-clothed people actually sell cars?) The seating arrangements/room layouts are designed (and double-checked by you) so that everyone can hear or see what's going on. phrases or music. Care is taken not to use offensive images. Don't turn away from the audience to operate audio-visuals.

5: Effective use of selected audio-visual aids 161 .© Oral Communication ABE and RRC Figure 5.

not everyone is a graphic designer. You do not want your audience to be concentrating so much on assimilating the words that they do not follow what you are saying or miss the context in which the visuals are being introduced. Using Words as Visuals Clearly. though. However. Engage and/or retain the interest of your audience. Add variety to your presentation. there is little point in designing sophisticated audio-visual aids unless they have relevance to your presentation and add value to it. In this section we will consider how best to design audio-visual aids using a variety of formats but always bearing in mind that it may be necessary to call in the experts to aid in production of the finished article. The most appropriate audio-visuals for this presentation. desk top publisher and layout specialist. too. slides and flip charts. As we have said. It is preferable not to use hand-written text on any pre-prepared displays (with the exception of flip charts which cannot be used in any other way). How and when you plan to use the audio-visuals. DESIGNING AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS The reasons for using audio-visual aids are to:     Illustrate the point/concept you are making/introducing. that the point of a presentation is not to engage in a communal reading session. etc. The need for audio-visuals. You will probably want to use them to summarise and highlight key words or phrases. © ABE and RRC . The starting point that you need to be clear about is:     The purpose of the presentation. Note. although obviously anything written on to a display during the course of the presentation will have to be hand-written. words will often be the dominant image on overhead projector (OHP) transparencies. Putting words up on display also makes people feel that they should be noting them down and you do not want this to occupy the audience at the expense of listening or engaging in a dialogue. straight and large enough to be read easily throughout the room. calligrapher. have a more negative impact than not using any audio-visual aids at all. although well planned and intentioned audio-visual aids. always ensure that:     the text is clear. many visual aids will include words – indeed. The same points as above apply. all words are spelt correctly lower and upper case letters have been used properly there is a clear margin around the edge of the whole display and that there is sufficient white space around the words to enable them to stand out clearly.162 Oral Communication D. Whenever you use words in visual displays. that badly designed. cartoonist. Note. Reveal a product or image rather than describe it.

OHPs have the advantage that you can refer directly to the information being displayed – by pointing to items on the transparency itself – without having to turn away from the audience. They can also be used to present summary information. depending on the needs of the room size and audience.Oral Communication 163 Overhead Projector Transparencies OHPs project an image from a transparent sheet onto a wall or screen. therefore. They are. However.6. or at the end as a précis of the main points covered. However. perhaps including a company logo. Using AVAs  OHPs Using AVAs   OHPs Slides Using AVAs    OHPs Slides Flip Charts Using AVAs     1 2 3 OHPs Slides Flip Charts Videos 4 Figure 5. The projection can be large or small. when they should be concentrating on what you are saying. making them a very versatile aid in many different circumstances. with a recorded commentary alongside the slides. or too complex. best used to display summaries – either as an introduction to a topic to show the structure of how you are going to work through it. It is also possible to use tape/slide packages. clear handwriting and use of different colours. effective results can be obtained by neat. this can detract from the relationship you have with your audience. Doing it this way may mean that colour can be used. or examples to illustrate the points you are making as you go along. (This is in contrast to producing hand-written material during the presentation itself. or trying to work out a statistical table.) Materials may be produced on computer – either from word processing packages or specialist presentation packages – and printed directly on to transparencies to produce the best effect. for example. When using OHPs. depending on the printer available. You can also easily cover certain items on the sheet with a piece of paper so that. so should be used with care. © ABE and RRC .6: Revealing points one by one Being able to prepare OHP transparencies in advance means that you can obtain a very professional looking finish. You do not want your audience concentrating on reading large amounts of text on the screen. a list of points can be revealed one by one – as shown in Figure 5. even if you produce transparencies by hand. such as simple charts or diagrams. ensure that the equipment is in working order and is correctly positioned – both for you to use and for your audience to see. They are particularly useful for providing illustrations of real items or events – such as a new product or a location. information on a transparency. but other high definition images may be produced on film to be presented in this way. and that particular styles can be consistently employed. It is best not to include too much. Slide Projectors These are used mainly to display photographs.

particularly those raised by participants during discussion. summaries. although producing in-house videos to the professional standard that most audiences will expect is not easy. Video Videos are widely employed in training situations and are increasingly being used in other forms of presentations – particularly to show the active use of products or different aspects of situations/locations. in a similar way to OHPs – displaying a framework for the session (or parts of it). In using flip charts. which can then be kept and returned to for be review. that you do not obscure what you are writing. Flip Charts Flip charts are very useful in a small seminar. Whiteboards Whiteboards are plain surface display boards on which you write using a special marker pen. the same principles apply as above in respect of the use of text generally. Videos can be very effective if used properly – but remember that they should be a support for your session. in a pre-prepared fashion. beware the problem of having to keep cross-referencing to previous sheets which is time-consuming and confusing for your audience. although they cannot really be pre-prepared. Thus you need to explain the relevance © ABE and RRC . notes of key points. Also. There are very many commercially available videos in most areas of training and it is relatively inexpensive to produce them oneself on specific topics. You also need to ensure that your slides are correctly mounted and in the right order. it tends to distract. a number of drawbacks to them:       They need to be wiped clean when the board is full. as for flip charts. not that it trails off the page. legible handwriting. that they all work properly and do not dry out. etc. etc.164 Oral Communication Again. You need to check that pens and cleaning cloth are available and in working order. not a substitute for your own input. In addition. but present real problems of visibility in larger groups. They may be wall mounted (as in some purpose built training rooms) or portable. If information is left for any time at all. – although you cannot reveal points one by one. They seem to establish a teacher-pupil relationship rather than a dialogue between presenter and audience. that your writing is not too small. However. They can be used. though. and of handwriting in particular. for example. you need to ensure the following:     that you have sufficient pens available. or to introduce someone else's views in person. They cannot store material for reference as in flip charts. You must have clear. There are. they come into their own as a means of displaying points during a session. if you are using slides. They are an alternative to flip charts in small presentations as a means of writing up key points during a presentation. that there is a sufficient supply of paper. make sure the projector is in working order (and that you know how to use it!) and is correctly positioned. working group or brainstorming session.

do not push them into someone's hand or bag – make a gift of them. There is a dilemma as to whether to pause a video for discussion or to discuss issues afterwards. presentation packs.Oral Communication 165 and purpose of the video before showing it and give some pointers for the audience to consider whilst viewing it. contrast. Physical Objects It may be very useful to display materials to your audience or present them with examples of relevant materials – samples of products. working models. In a demonstration. in advance. If you use working models. offer them up to your audience. then it is probably easier to discuss afterwards. but also at many other types of presentation. check that they do actually work and have spares of everything just in case. but at larger ones they are best included in a presentation pack. think very carefully as to why that particular video fits your aims and objectives and how you will draw your audience's attention to the salient points. polished or professional. etc. as this will distract attention from what you want to say. Ensure that the screen is big enough for your audience to see the video and that the video has been professionally produced. but are not always happy to discuss them afterwards. and relinquish them slowly so that you can make eye contact with your audience at the same time. etc. smell and look of a product you are discussing say so much more than words describing its values and properties. All materials you use in this way must be:     Easy to control and present Relevant to the presentation Attention-grabbing Large enough to be seen by everyone You need to be completely familiar with the products you are handling. "Here's one that I made earlier" is a useful fall-back position. You need to be thoroughly conversant with a video before using it – exactly how long it is. Once again.. etc. and there is sometimes a flat atmosphere. At a small presentation you can hand out such samples. Providing samples of products being presented can be very useful – the feel. but can be provided either before – to be picked up by the audience as they arrive. In addition. Avoid using several tapes. It is surprising how many times the equipment lets you down at the time when you need it to be functioning perfectly! Make sure you know how to operate the equipment and set volume. you and your audience will only get confused. be distributed during the presentation. This is particularly appropriate at trade fairs and exhibitions. When handing out materials. Try to avoid lengthy videos (anything over 20 minutes) unless you are in a training session. Audiences tend to accept videos readily. where you might want to break for discussion. where the main points are which you want to emphasise. have them put on one tape and note the relevant tape section. or by putting them on seats – or after the session. © ABE and RRC . Even then. generally. If you want to show several clips. it is not a good idea to start a presentation with a video because the rest of the presentation may then not appear so exciting. These should not. If the video is short – up to 10 minutes – and raises questions. make sure the machine is in working order (and that you know how to use it!) and is correctly positioned.

The lighting must be strong enough to produce a clear image. We can consider three such aspects. Physical surroundings Whilst not an audio-visual aid in itself. but not too loud. etc. or to smooth the transition between sections of the presentation. sound effects may be used on their own to enhance a presentation. Try to see your presentation from their perspective. but from their perspective the whole presentation may be leaving them in the dark. or suitably soothing music at the end or during a break. Can you hear that? That's our new model XYZ. Make each pause one of anticipation. All visual aids need their light projected from the place that causes least shadow when they are in use. If you want the audience to be able to write things down during the presentation – either making a lot of notes or carrying out written exercises – then you may want them to have desks or tables. the quality is crystal clear (no hiss. It can be used as a sound effect – for example. You need to ensure that any technical issues are sorted out in advance – amplification is loud enough. the physical surroundings in which a presentation takes place can have a dramatic effect upon its effectiveness. for the audience. Silent as a lamb!" Another possibility is not speaking until everyone is seated in order to create an expectant hush. It may be comforting to feel that you can't see your audience. into the presentation itself. to ensure that any such effects are fully integrated into the presentation. Internally it is more difficult to influence décor. décor will certainly be a factor. etc. Some possible layouts for small presentations are shown in Figure 5. General lighting available in a small presentation will be sufficient. Sound effects may be used to introduce examples of the sounds of products. One of the most effective ways of using sound in a presentation is to make use of the silences. fading in and fading out. These include tape recordings. "Listen. (b) Décor When choosing an external location for your presentation. live musicians or actors. spot lighting. Music is quite often used for the second purpose – transition – with dramatic themes used for introducing speakers or the unveiling of products. not from your own position on the stage or podium. scratches.166 Oral Communication Using Sound Effectively In certain circumstances. Use company publications and brochures to create an area of interest which will divert attention from hideous curtains or carpets.7. In a large or dramatic presentation. If you want a lot of discussion. (c) Seating and layout Seats should be functional and comfortable and in positions where the audience is able to see your presentation to its fullest advantage. therefore. © ABE and RRC . contributions by other people (although video is better for this). The intrusion of external sounds into a presentation is likely to be quite dramatic and you need. then a more informal layout and speaker position may be appropriate. or even effects you introduce yourself. and coloured lighting might be used. They must serve a purpose and that purpose must be made clear to the audience. (a) Lighting The most important factor to remember is to check how lighting affects the audience. on recordings) – and that you have rehearsed any cues with the tape operator or live musicians as to when to come in. Screens and curtains can be used to fence off unsightly areas.

store materials or act as a barrier.7: Layouts for small presentations For large presentations. an actual stage or simply a separate area from the audience – facing the audience who will be seated in rows. How the presenter makes use of a table in a small presentation affects the audience response.8. Tables are useful for presenters and audience alike to rest on. the presenter is a very effective visual aid him/herself and is in a good position to judge audience reactions and responses.Oral Communication 167 Figure 5. The key is for the presenter to use all the available space and to dominate. the presenter is likely to be on a stage of some sort – a raised platform. Being mobile. © ABE and RRC . as illustrated in Figure 5.

168 Oral Communication Figure 5.8: Presenter positions © ABE and RRC .

9 illustrates the range of business telephone calls within an organisation and how the telephone can provide real customer and business support. but your customers or colleagues may only ring once. Immediate response to issues – which may be particularly important in maintaining good customer relations. A reduction in time spent writing letters (and awaiting responses) and consequent reduction in administrative costs. The postman may ring twice. USING THE TELEPHONE Purpose of Telephone Calls There is no area of business that is not affected by the use of the telephone.Oral Communication 169 C. Using the telephone effectively can result in:      An increase the level of personal contact and the development of ongoing "live" relationships – both internally and externally. An enhanced total quality performance of your business. Using the telephone as an effective communication tool requires an understanding of the purpose of the communication and the effect that telephone communications can have on your audience. © ABE and RRC . Figure 5. Improved information flow within and around your organisation. crucially with customers/clients.

Give outline as to proposal to be discussed. is concerned. If brief and purposeful. Recipient of call will check diary. Tell (sell) what you have in stock. Establish the facts. not what's unavailable. Requires efficient support systems to deal with further enquiries. Letters may be filed or destroyed. Helps achieve client loyalty. Client may feel more important as a result of this selection. Most effective if timed correctly. Check names. Saves client money as call cost borne by you rather than lengthy written correspondence.170 Oral Communication Telephone activity Desk research Telemarketing List cleaning Direct mail Issuing invitations to customer events Questionnaires Prospecting Appointment making Benefits to organisation/audience Identify who to contact in a specific organisation. Allows recipient to feel in control. sales and after sales. Prospects for future business. not an organisation. More effective if you ring at a time which suits them and when you have all relevant data and questions.30 a. More likely to gain commitment.304 p. are often bad times for clients working from home. Re-establishes your position. Follow up referrals.m. give alternative dates and times. 9-9. and 2.m. Follow-up call reinforces message. Allows initial research. Must have clear purpose. Ensures that there is a sense that an individual. listen carefully and respond quickly to enquiries.9 Customer care calls Account management Renewing business contacts Selling Order taking Retrieving lost business Handling enquiries Dealing with complaints Invoice queries Credit control Internal calls External calls – customers and suppliers After-sales service/follow-up calls © ABE and RRC . useful information can be gained. Additional market research opportunity. Key is to stay calm. Figure 5. May be more informal but a lot of important information exchanges can be made. status and addresses of contacts. Updating databases. Re-establish client contact. Identify potential markets for goods/services. Establishes profile and referral process.

and most people are used to using the telephone socially. however "bloody" you feel towards the recipient. You can't be bothered. I just managed to fit you in today. Callers must have a clear idea as to: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Who their audience is. The nature of the organisation they are contacting.Oral Communication 171 Successful Calls Listening is the key to a successful telephone call. (Have you ever had the experience that there was suddenly no one on the other end of the line – "are you still there"?) Speaking clearly and calmly is far more important than worrying about an accent or having to use a "telephone voice". Making notes prior to and during calls is a useful way of ensuring that you cover and remember the salient points. The clarity with which you express your ideas. This kind of feedback is extremely important in using the telephone since there are no visual clues between the participants as to how the interaction is going. Your confidence and enthusiasm. You don't know who to contact. What information to convey. Remember that every time you answer the telephone or make a call. What questions to ask to elicit desired responses. Telephone calls. In the business context there is no need to adopt a new persona and voice but you should be clear as to the purpose of the call. like all business communications. Telephones are in the majority of homes and nearly all businesses (it is hard to imagine a business which doesn't use a phone). What action to take as a result of the call. ("I'm so busy. I see". They will listen attentively and let the caller know that they are listening by utilising phrases like "Yes. The type of language you use. Remember that your attitude to the audience or client is reflected in:      Your tone of voice. impart or acquire knowledge or information. must be purposeful. It is not possible to make a successful telephone call if:      You are unsure of the purpose of the call.") You feel anger towards the person you will be contacting You are unprepared. received appropriate feedback and are able to take action. "Smile when you dial" is more effective than to "groan on the phone". you should be representing the organisation to its fullest advantage. who you are talking to and what the desired outcome may be. How attentively you listen to their responses. "I understand". It is possible to write a successful business communication. People who communicate well on the telephone are not easily distracted. Business telephone calls often appear casual or informal but will take place within the context of a need to share. Even complaints can be positive and allow © ABE and RRC . Telephone Technique An effective telephone call is one when you've sent your message to the audience.

now commonly called voicemail. Acknowledge that you are still there if listening for a longish period of time. phones allow organisations to get on with their business without interruption at key moments. and allow for 24-hour communication worldwide. You must welcome calls and callers whatever the circumstances. company name. concise message. incoherent one. but it actually makes you seem disloyal and your organisation characterised by fragmentation and lack of teamwork. be consistent with company procedures or views. Offer alternative options. Always reflect the organisation you represent favourably in your own attitude and commitment.172 Oral Communication for more efficiency in services provided. even when dealing with a complaint or difficult negotiation. Instructions as to when to leave the message are given (after the long or short tone). It may seem friendly to agree with a client. Check that you have both drawn the same conclusions. Indicate what you expect to gain from the call. announces the name of the company or individual. Respond to any information you receive. The voicemail message requests name. Whatever your personal views on a matter. and repeats the telephone number so that the caller is certain that he or she has rung the right number. Using Answering Machines to Your Advantage Answering machines. They are at their most effective as a communications medium if: (a) The voicemail message is clear. than to leave a bumbling. Use open-ended questions to elicit information and to gain the confidence of the person you are speaking to. Gain agreement or consensus as to what has been said. mean that there is always a voice at the other end of the phone. have notes as to the purpose of your call and leave a clear. agreed and what future action to take. Close by thanking the person for his or her time and state that you look forward to speaking to him or her again soon. © ABE and RRC . Explain why you are calling. The following guidelines will aid towards all your calls being positive communications: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Introduce yourself and be introduced to your caller (the verbal handshake). The most confident telephone callers can be caught out by answering machines – be prepared. Messages are responded to quickly and appropriately. message or date and time called (unless digitally recorded) from the caller. (g) (h) (j) (k) (l) Every call made from your organisation says as much about your company as any other area of activity can do. It is better to hang up before leaving a message if you feel unable to do so clearly. (b) (c) (d) The caller must be able to leave his or her details clearly and suggest an appropriate time for a return call.

telephone number and possibly address of the caller The day. call back urgently © ABE and RRC . organisation.Oral Communication 173 Message Taking If you answer a telephone call and take a message for someone else you must note down certain important details:      The name of the person the caller wanted to speak to Name. e.g. date and time The name of the person who took the message The message and any action needed.

You should use one Powerpoint page per 2-3 minutes of your presentation. 5. In the presentation itself just make a few main points. The audience won't be able to remember too many points and they may not be able to concentrate for long enough if they are "crammed" with information. At the end of your presentation summarise the key points again. 2. Start with an introduction which states where the presentation is going. Drinking water is a good thing when speaking. Everybody is nervous first time but after making several presentations you should get more relaxed and the presentations become better and better. It is easy for people to say don't be nervous but there are some things you can do to help:   Remember that. are you going to stimulate conversation? Try not to be nervous. Between 30 and 35-point is usually about the right size. "Powerpoint" is a useful tool for aiding presentations but don't get carried away with your enthusiasm! Powerpoint is not a substitute for the presentation you are making merely an aid. © ABE and RRC . 6. You can watch them arrive and greet them. Try to make the presentation develop sequentially and logically.   3.e. There is no doubt that presenting is a skill best developed through practice. Remember the purpose of the presentation and ask yourself how formal should the presentation be? Do you want the presentation to be two-way communication i. You should have at least one run through before the real thing! Arrive early – rushing to arrive in time only increases the anxiety and if you have arrived early you won't be exposed to a room full of people. Never rely on technology! It is best to have a contingency of some overhead slides just in case! 4.174 Oral Communication APPENDIX 1: SIX HELPFUL HINTS ON MAKING A PRESENTATION 1. although you may feel nervous. most of your audience will not see it! Being thoroughly prepared definitely helps so that you know what you are going to say and for how long. so:     Don't be too flashy with sound effects and graphics unless they really enhance what you are saying.

If using it to rate presentational effectiveness.Oral Communication 175 APPENDIX 2: CHECKING PRESENTATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS The following list of key points may be used as a checklist when preparing a presentation. Aspect of the presentation Introduction: Was there an introduction of suitable length? Did the introduction provide suitable direction for the rest of the presentation? Main Body: Was the main body of the presentation of suitable length? Were the main points of the presentation communicated effectively? Did the presentation follow a logical sequence? Was a convincing argument put forward? Were suitable examples used in support of the arguments above? Were appropriate visual aids used? Was the quality of visual aids used good? Did I (the speaker) appear confident? Was the voice of suitable volume for the size of room and acoustics? Concluding: Did the presentation finish with a strong and firm conclusion? Were the main points of the presentation summed up at the end? Did I (the speaker) maintain eye contact with the audience throughout (or appear note-tied)? Was time provided for the audience to ask questions? Were the questions answered satisfactorily Score (1-5) How could this be improved? © ABE and RRC . or to rate your own (or others') effectiveness when giving a presentation. give your assessment of the presenter's (or your own) performance a score of 1 to 5 (where 1 = very weak and 5 = very good) for each aspect of the presentation.

176 Oral Communication © ABE and RRC .

177 Unit 6 Analysing and Presenting Data Contents Introduction Page 178 A. General Rules For Graphical Presentation 190 © ABE and RRC . Pictograms 178 B. Bar Charts Component Bar Chart Horizontal Bar Charts Gantt Chart 180 180 181 182 D. Z Chart (Zee Chart) 183 E. Lorenz Curve Purpose Stages in Construction of a Lorenz Curve 184 184 185 F. Ratio Scales (Semi-Log Graphs) Purpose Method of Drawing 187 187 188 G. Circular Diagrams 179 C.

178 Analysing and Presenting Data INTRODUCTION Graphs and diagrams are used mainly for efficient and convenient presentation of statistical data and analyses. PICTOGRAMS One of the common ways of presenting statistical data to the general public is by means of diagrams in which the information is represented by small drawings. They are not generally used for the actual analysis of data. Figure 6. picturegrams or isotypes – the words all refer to the same thing. business magazines and government pamphlets. These diagrams are variously called pictograms. © ABE and RRC . and the imports for another year by a different number of barrels. You will be able to note other examples in newspapers. Their use is confined to the simplified presentation of statistical data for the general public. and they are not really precise enough for other purposes – so. For example. the imports of oil in a particular year may be represented by a number of drawings of barrels. in Figure 6. In this unit we shall review some of the ways in graphical methods may be used to illustrate numeric data and statistical analyses.1. as in Figure 6. for example. A.1: Pictogram showing imports of crude oil To give another example. the strengths of the armies of several different nations may be represented by drawings of a number of soldiers. ideograms. It builds on your previous studies in quantitative methods by broadening the range of graphical methods shown. although the way in which the data is presented may allow for conclusions to be drawn.1 it is difficult to represent a quantity less than 10m barrels accurately.

. including public lighting The figures are illustrated in the pie or circle diagram in Figure 6. Don't overlook this point.6 . Uses Domestic Industrial Commercial Public* Total Million Therms 1. Like pictograms. Figure 6. because examiners dislike inaccurate and roughly drawn diagrams. The figures are taken from the Annual Abstract of Statistics as follows: Gas Sales in Great Britain in .. are used to show how various components add up to a total.2: Circular diagram showing gas sales in Great Britain … To construct the pie chart.g. they are used to display only very simple information. © ABE and RRC . known also as pie charts. CIRCULAR DIAGRAMS These diagrams. Convert the percentages into degrees. etc. e.2. Suppose we wish to illustrate the sales of gas in Great Britain in a certain year.383 843 437 60 2. 100 (c) Construct the diagram by means of a pair of compasses and a protractor. the rules to follow are: (a) (b) Tabulate the data and calculate the percentages. 51% of 360   51  360   183..Analysing and Presenting Data 179 B.723 % 51 31 16 2 100 * Central and local government uses.

It is easier to compare several bars side by side than several circles. The lengths of the components represent the amounts.3: Component bar chart showing costs of production for ZYX Co. The main use of a pie chart is to show the relationship each component part bears to the whole. It is best not to use a diagram of this kind with more than four or five component parts. by their length. and we will now illustrate different types of bar chart in common use. C.3. Ltd. however. They are more easily drawn. be extended beyond the field of frequency distributions. even where there are many components. © ABE and RRC . Component Bar Chart This serves the same purpose as a circular diagram and. is sometimes called a component bar diagram – see Figure 6. and the components are drawn in the same order so as to facilitate comparison. BAR CHARTS A bar is simply another name for a thick line.180 Analysing and Presenting Data (d) (e) Label the diagram clearly. Figure 6. using a separate legend or key if necessary. They are sometimes used side by side to provide comparisons. the frequencies of different values of the variable. In a frequency bar chart the bars represent.4). for that reason. Note: The actual number of therms can be inserted on each sector as it is not possible to read this exactly from the diagram itself. The idea of a bar chart can. Bar charts with vertical bars are sometimes called column charts to distinguish them from those in which the bars are horizontal (see Figure 6. but this is not really to be recommended unless the whole diagram in each case represents exactly the same total amount. as other diagrams (such as bar charts) are much clearer. These bar charts are preferable to circular diagrams because: (a) (b) (c) They are easily read.

but they will not necessarily represent the same actual quantities. Figure 6. i.e. Each bar chart will be the same length.. the different branches form the different categories.5 is also an example of a multiple or compound bar chart as there is more than one bar for each category. © ABE and RRC . showing profits made by branches in Years 1 and 2 Pie charts and bar charts are especially useful for categorical variables as well as for numerical variables. whereas in Figure 6. whereas in 1970 it was probably nearer 4 million and as many as 8 million in 1980. Here we have two bars at each branch corresponding to the profits in the two years.3 we had a numerical variable. Figure 6. e. as they each represent 100%. If you compare several percentage component bar charts. The example in Figure 6.5.5 shows a categorical variable. In percentage component bar charts the information is expressed in percentages rather than in actual numbers of visitors. Horizontal Bar Charts A typical case of representation by a horizontal bar chart is shown in Figure 6.5: Horizontal bar chart for the So-and-So Company Ltd. you must be careful. namely time. 50% of the visitors arriving in the UK in 1960 might have been 1 million. Note how a loss is shown by drawing the bar on the other side of the zero line.4: Horizontal bar chart showing visitors arriving in UK ….g.Analysing and Presenting Data 181 Figure 6.

205 1.200 1. The chart can also be drawn using actual sales figures as percentages of the quota figures.6: Gantt chart showing Sales record of Company XYZ The basic idea can be refined to include the cumulative performance over a longer period of time. Any discrepancy between the two can easily be recognised and investigated.452 1. For each period of time over which performance is being monitored. Figure 6.182 Analysing and Presenting Data Gantt Chart This is a special type of bar chart developed to show how actual performance and planned performance in.500 Actual Sales (units) 1.500 1.316 1. The thin line denotes the sales quota. Example Sales of Company XYZ Week 1 2 3 4 5 Sales Quota (units) 1. and coding can be introduced to indicate on the chart specific reasons for a poor performance in one particular time period. compare over a period of time.530 1. and the thick bar represents the actual sales achieved.500 1. for example. one giving the planned performance and the other the actual performance.481 The Gantt chart is shown in Figure 6. It is thus often referred to as a progress chart. sales or output. perhaps arising from shortage of supplies.6. © ABE and RRC .400 1. two bar charts are drawn.

It can be calculated quickly from the previous month's MAT as follows: e.830 6.990 6.190 1. add the sales for the month of June (760) and deduct the sales for June of the previous year (800). Here are some figures which we will use to compile the Z chart in Figure 6. profits. Although the chart is shown as complete.g.960 6.890 6. etc.840 6. we present data relating to the following questions:    How are things doing from month to month (or week to week.950 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Notes (a) (b) Last year's figures are needed to enable us to calculate the moving annual totals (MATs).940 4.Analysing and Presenting Data 183 D. turnovers.850 6.920 6.935 6.520 6. Z CHART (ZEE CHART) This is a very useful device for presenting to management on one chart such business information as sales.e.310 5.890. The cumulative line starts afresh at the beginning of each year.480 3. MAT for January is the sum of the sales figures from February of the previous year up to and including January of the current year. Each December MAT is the same as the cumulative figure for that month. take the May figure of 6. the second by drawing a cumulative target line and a cumulative actual line.)? How does the current year's performance to date compare with the target or programme? How does the present performance compare with that of the same period last year? The first of these we do by drawing a graph of the time series of the data under discussion. it would in practice be kept up-to-date each month as the figures become available.840 6.945 6. i.7: The ZYZ Company – Sales For This Year And Last Month Last year's sales £000 430 365 365 680 560 800 630 760 540 635 630 415 This year's sales £000 450 340 400 680 610 760 700 800 570 590 620 430 Cumulative for Moving annual this year total £000 £000 450 790 1.950 6. etc.240 3. (c) (d) (e) © ABE and RRC . for June. Each MAT is the sum of the twelve monthly figures up to and including the "present" month.900 6.740 5.870 2. For example.805 6. the third by plotting a line showing the moving annual total.

These experts number 12 out of 100 people (i. The wages are not now equally distributed and there is some concentration of wages in the hands of the skilled experts. In another business employing 100 people and having a total weekly wages bill of £10.990.7: Z Chart to show sales of ZYX Co. they constitute 12% of the © ABE and RRC .184 Analysing and Presenting Data (f) The value of the MAT is that it shows at a glance how the current month compares with the same month of last year. Look at our example: the MAT from August to September goes up from 6.000. showing that this September sales are 30 units higher than last September. that the variations in the monthly figures are very small and they do not show up very clearly. there is then an equal distribution of wages and there is no concentration. In this Z chart. the total weekly wages bill is £10.e. LORENZ CURVE Purpose One of the problems which frequently confronts the statistician working in economics or industry is that of concentration. E. then it shows that this September is better than the previous September. Figure 6.000 and every one of the workers gets £100. the MAT line acts as a trend line in a time series and gives the general trend for the series. in a business employing 100 people.960 to 6. which you can check by reference to the "Sales" column. there are 12 highly skilled experts getting £320 each and 88 unskilled workers getting £70 each. Suppose that. It often happens. however. If the MAT line slopes up. Also. as it does from August to September. only one of the scale of "Sales" was used for all the lines. In this case a separate scale is used for the monthly figures.

In a more realistic case.250 37.150 42. which is 38.e.840) out of £10.000 4.750 21 65 75 86 95 100 On graph paper draw scales of 0-100% on both the horizontal and vertical axes.250 32. Stages in Construction of a Lorenz Curve (a) Draw up a table giving: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Wages group (£) 0 – 80 80 – 120 120 – 160 160 – 200 200 – 240 240 – 280 The cumulative frequency The percentage cumulative frequency The cumulative wages total The percentage cumulative wages total Number of Cumulative % Total wages Cumulative % people frequency Cumulative (£) wages total Cumulative (frequency) frequency (£) wages total 205 200 35 30 20 10 500 (b) (c) 205 405 440 470 490 500 41 81 88 94 98 100 10.850 47. the skilled and the unskilled.Analysing and Presenting Data 185 labour force). Plot the cumulative percentage frequency against the cumulative percentage wages total and join up the points with a smooth curve. Remember that 0% of the employees earn 0% of the total wages. however.8. £3.000 4.500 49. The scales should be the same length on both axes. their share of the total wages bill is 12 x £320 (i.900 5. so that the curve will always go through the origin.700 4. Such a graph is called a Lorenz Curve.250 49.250 22.750 Obviously when we have such a set of figures. In the example just discussed there were only two groups.500 49. there would be a larger number of groups of people with different wages. We can therefore say that 38.900 5.250 22. the best way to present them is to graph them.4%.000. © ABE and RRC .750 10. For example: Wages Group (£) Number of Total Wages (£) People 0 – 80 80 – 120 120 – 160 160 – 200 200 – 240 240 – 280 205 200 35 30 20 10 500 10.4% of the firm's wages is concentrated in the hands of only 12% of its employees. which we have done in Figure 6.400 2.400 2.700 4.

Figure 6. 50% of the people had earned 50% of the total wages etc.186 Analysing and Presenting Data (d) Draw in the 45 diagonal..8. i.8: Lorenz curve © ABE and RRC .e. ° The graph is shown in Figure 6. Note that if the wages had been equally distributed. the Lorenz curve would have been this diagonal line.

(b) (c) (d) Very often we are more interested in relative changes than in actual changes.10 and you will notice that the vertical scale. the profits went up by £100 from January to February (from £150 to £250). On the graph. £100 is 66 3% of January sales (£150) but £100 is 1 only 33 3% of August sales (£300) so the relative rate of change from January to 2 1 February is 66 3%. A ratio © ABE and RRC . This indicates that the rate of change is the same in the two cases – £100 per month. For example.9: Arithmetical scale line graph to show monthly profits of ABC Hardware Shop (a) On the profits scale. but from August to September is 33 3%. RATIO SCALES (SEMI-LOG GRAPHS) Purpose Look at Figure 6. therefore. Although the actual rate of change is the same in the two cases (£100 per month). In each case Y represents £100. goes up by steps of equal multiples. the vertical distance between January and February is the same as the vertical distance between August and September (shown as Y).9 and then study the following notes: Figure 6. The angle of slope of the graph from January to February is the same as that from August to September. instead of going up in steps of equal amounts.Analysing and Presenting Data 187 F. This can be done by means of a ratio scale: examine Figure 6. a given distance represents the same change in profits at all parts of the scale. It would be convenient. if we could draw a graph in such a way that equal percentage changes looked the same no matter what the actual values were. they also went up by £100 (from £300 to £400) from August to September. the 2 relative rate of change is different.

changes of equal amounts may look different. equal distances on the vertical scale indicate. Use ordinary graph paper.10: Ratio scale graph of value of production of LMN Manufacturing Co. Consequently. It is usually called semi-logarithmic graph paper. © ABE and RRC . not equal amounts. For illustration. but changes of equal proportions (or percentages) look the same. but equal multiples or ratios. it is easy enough if we are dealing in round hundreds as in the above example. but how do we deal with the entire scale of numbers? There are two answers to this question: (a) (b) It is possible to buy specially printed graph paper on which the scales are ratio scales instead of ordinary scales.9. Change in Production From Year To Year Amount £000 200 100 400 Percent 100 100 100 1 3 6 2 4 7 Method of Drawing You will probably be wondering how we draw these ratio scales. Figure 6. On a graph of this kind. but use the logarithms of the numbers on the vertical scale instead of the numbers themselves. three changes of equal percentage but different amounts are shown in the graph.188 Analysing and Presenting Data scale is a logarithmic scale rather than the more usual natural or arithmetic scale used in Figure 6.

Analysing and Presenting Data


As an example of this latter procedure, we will draw the time series of profits (used above) on ratio scales. First, let's compile a table showing the data. The graph is then drawn as in Figure 6.11, with the logarithms of profits on the vertical scale. Logarithms of Monthly Profits Month J F M A M J J A S O N D Profits (£) Log (profits) 150 250 225 320 275 310 290 300 400 350 480 450 2.1761 2.3979 2.3522 2.5051 2.4393 2.4914 2.4624 2.4771 2.6021 2.5441 2.6812 2.6532

Figure 6.11: Ratio scale graph on ordinary graph paper to show profits of ABC Hardware Shop Figure 6.11 shows how a ratio scale graph can be drawn on ordinary graph paper using logarithms. If you use semi-logarithmic graph paper, you can plot the values direct without looking up the logarithms. Whenever you want to see how actual values are changing, use ordinary scales; whenever you want to see percentage changes, use ratio scales.




Analysing and Presenting Data

There is no zero base line on the ratio scale graph because the log of zero is minus infinity, which is impossible to show. Similarly, negative values cannot be plotted. The horizontal axis is scaled in ordinary measure. The most important feature of a ratio curve is not its position on the graph paper but the degree of slope of the curve. Two graphs with the same slope show the same percentage rate of change. You can see that another benefit of a ratio scale is that you can cover a wide range of numbers easily on one graph. It is also straightforward to plot two time series of completely different types and units on the same graph and using the same scale. However, it would be inappropriate to use a ratio scale graph for analysing an aggregate into its constituents. A band chart on arithmetic scale paper is more suitable for this.

There are some general rules to remember when planning and using graphical methods: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Graphs and charts must be given clear but brief titles. The axes of graphs must be clearly labelled, and the scales of the values clearly marked. Diagrams should be accompanied by the original data, or at least by a reference to the source of the data. Avoid excessive detail, as this defeats the object of using diagrams. Wherever necessary, guide lines should be inserted to facilitate reading. Try to include the origins of scales (although logarithmic graphs are an exception to this rule).




Unit 7 Electronic Communication Systems
Introduction A. Modes of Communication Non-Electronic Communication Electronic Communication The Internet Background Networks Operations Intranets and Extranets Electronic Mail (e-mail) Videoconferencing The Use of IT in Business Telecommuting Workgroup Computing Bulletin Boards Commercial Services The World Wide Web (WWW) Input Devices Keyboard Pointer Input Scanners Output Devices The Monitor Printers Human Computer Interaction, HCI

192 192 192 193 195 195 195 197 199 200 201 202 202 203 204 205 205 207 207 208 209 209 209 210 210








Electronic Communication Systems

Although people refer to the present time as the "age of communication", communication has been important whatever the century because people have always found the need to convey information to each other. This has been true from the Stone Age through to the computer age. The big difference now, of course, is that we have the means to convey vast quantities of information at great speed. It is important to be aware that this is what computers have enabled us to do. In other words, computers are a tool allowing us to communicate much more efficiently than in the past. How we choose to convey that information content will depend upon: The nature of the information; The quantity; The need for accuracy; and Added features such as emphasis for clarity and understanding . In this unit, we will examine some of the principal ways in which we can communicate electronically. Nowadays, the use of Internet and email are prevalent. So we will be interested in how these communication methods can help us in business. There is much more to the story however as electronic communication will cause business people to change not only how they communicate, but also how they actually work.

Non-Electronic Communication
Before we consider electronic communication, it will be useful to look again at some of the basic features of more traditional methods. This provides a contrast with electronic communication. Face-to-face interaction We are all very familiar with face-to-face situations. Communication is immediate and any response or feedback is also immediate. In addition, we are able to use body language and voice tone in the communication to help add extra emphasis to particular points or to convey doubts and feelings. As there is no other form of communication where we can make this claim, this sets face-to-face communication apart as being special. There are disadvantages. Most of us are quite poor at expressing what we mean, and so this form of communication can easily lead to ambiguities. However the speed of response makes immediate clarification possible. The biggest disadvantage of all is that both the communicator and the receiver must be in the same place at the same time. Telephone This method fulfils many of the advantages of face-to-face interaction in that there is immediacy both in conveying the information and the response, and voice tone can be used to enhance the message. But there are also many of the disadvantages. The possibility of misunderstanding is probably even greater as there is no body language to clarify meaning. Whilst both communicator and receiver are not in the same place, they must both be present at the same time. Answer machines give some flexibility in this respect, but only to a very limited extent. We will shortly see that the telephone features strongly in most electronic communication.



microwave and radio links. We will refer to these format changes as coding. Electronic Communication Electronic communication is the basis of our Information Society as it gives everyone ready and easy access to vast quantities of information. It is then a relatively straightforward process to transmit the data from computer to computer. The original document needs to be read electronically and it is the electronic version that is transmitted over the telephone system. It is digitalised. Nowadays. it is just a method of sending a hard (paper) copy of some document over the telephone. If it is to be transmitted through modern fibre optic cables. Speech is in analogue form. of course. The assumption is that the recipient will understand the full context. If the information is being transmitted over the traditional telephone system it will first be converted back to analogue form. This is known as the analogue format. © ABE and RRC .Electronic Communication Systems 193 Letters This traditional method of getting information to people without being in the same place at the same time is also the slowest form of communication and is only really suited to formal communication such as initial introductions. or be it spoken. Letter formats have little to offer very fast electronic communication. satellite links and computer networks. the electronic document is printed onto paper before becoming accessible to the recipient. It is not necessary for you to understand exactly how this is done or even what it means. Electronic communication relies on a communications infrastructure consisting of telephone lines. light and radio. it will be converted to light waves. radio involves radio waves. but they all involve the conversion of the information to a format suitable for transmission over a particular medium. memos have been replaced by email (electronic mail). Memos This means of communication allows people to get basic information to others within organisations. And. fibre-optic and other types of cable. The digitalised wave format consists of discrete values so that the waveform appears in a square format. There are several forms of electronic communication. Fax or facsimile A forerunner of email. You could include fax communication within the section on electronic communication as fax does depend on computing facilities although it is an older form of communication. The first machine codes the information into the required format and the second reassembles it into the form we wish to view it. be it on paper as words or graphics. contracts and specifications. it is converted. which we call the communications medium. We are familiar with the normal undulating wave format of sound. At the receiving end. as this is the form the telephone system was originally designed to handle. by a computer. to the binary form of 1s and 0s. of any electrical circuit. No matter which format the original information is in. but you should be aware that computers use digitalised data consisting of groups of 1s and 0s representing the two states of off and on. It allows letter type communication without the built-in delay of carrying the specific piece of paper from the communicator to the recipient.

Allowance must be made to check for this and to correct any distortions – for example. we will look at way in which telephone companies are meeting the demand for more transmission capacity. They are related. Half-duplex communication: allows transmission in both directions. a radio transmitter). This is anything that interrupts or distorts the signal. This then leads to another problem – how to maintain a separation of the messages. The capacity of the channel depends upon its bandwidth. We must not confuse bandwidth with speed of transmission. your bags appear sooner and possible all together! If the aircraft a full 747. This is just a measure of how much data the channel can carry. Asynchronous transmissions use a recognised marker at the start of the message and another at the end. The speed of transmission will depend directly on the amount of data being sent through the channel. it provides a communications channel for the transmission. which are then sent by different routes to the receiver where the chunks are reassembled into the message. It follows that any system we are interested in will be full duplex. © ABE and RRC . but not necessarily directly. they can travel equally fast over a narrow bandwidth as congestion is not an issue. If the aircraft is half full. The more informative we transmit. This then leads to problems in co-ordinating the two-way communication link so that messages in one direction do not interfere with messages in the other.194 Electronic Communication Systems Information source encode decode Information receiver Transmission noise The main problem in the above scenario is the interference of the transmission noise. the slower it travels as the channel becomes congested.   Finally in this section. The communications medium will always allow information to be transmitted in both directions. Whatever communications medium we are using. This is the method used in computer to computer communication. At the other end of the scale. the bags will be all jumbled up and can take a long time to appear. Coaxial (TV style) cable has the lowest bandwidth whilst fibre-optic cable has the highest. Each message is then recognised as it all arrives at this specific rate. Its moving speed (bandwidth) remains constant. if only small amounts of data are being transmitted. Internal computer communication is made this way. Full-duplex (or just duplex) communication: allows transmission in two directions simultaneously. The usual metaphor used here is an airport carousel.e. You need to be familiar with the following terms as you will certainly come across them. The telephone system uses this system and so do computers. the channel is less likely to become congested. On the other hand.    Simplex communication: only travels in one direction (i. but only one at a time. with a greater bandwidth. Parallel transmissions involve breaking the message into separate chunks.  Synchronous transmissions are co-ordinated by transmitted data being sent at a fixed rate and the received data arriving at the same fixed rate. This technique is fast and is used between the computer and its printer or a network. in respect breaks in the signal or incompatibility between the computers or the programs being used to send and receive the message.

A dedicated line is clearly more reliable and the connection. to places remote from the actual computer. Local comparable set-ups were developed in many places and whole groups of computers were connected into the system. © ABE and RRC . the service will offer ISDN (integrated Services Digital Network) transmission. As its name suggests. To protect vital communications within the university based technical and research facilities of the Department of Defence. considerably faster. (a) Local area networks (LAN) A LAN (Local Area Network) is. It did not take long before we reached the stage that we now know in which the Internet stretches to every part of the world and.Electronic Communication Systems 195  The first requirement is for a dedicated or leased line. By 1969. there are two types of network of interest to us. computers within a business or part of a business will be connected in a LAN. using cell or mobile phones. a group of computers. In conjunction with the dedicated line. UC in Los Angeles and Santa Barbara and the University of Utah) were connected together via a dedicated line. ISDN is also available over normal dial-up facility. ISDN enables the information to be transmitted in digital format. There are two principal ways (or protocols) in which data is transmitted around a LAN:  The Ethernet standard requires the sending computer to first check whether the network is busy or not. four other US networks were connected in so was born the internet. the packet of data (we shall define a packet later) being sent is despatched to every computer in the LAN. The others just ignore it. This is just a permanent connection between two points in contrast to the normal telephone system. it is nothing more than an enormous network of computer networks. The Internet originated with the United States military and their fear of nuclear attack following the Soviet Union's launch of Sputnik. connected together. as you would expect. If the network is busy. Not only does this cut out the need for encoding the information before transmission. which are geographically close to each other. or if two computers send out a data packet at the same time causing a collision.  B. it also offers greatly enhanced transmission speed and accuracy. Networks The basic component of the Internet is a computer network. If it is not. but only the computer to which it is addressed will take receipt of it. the first satellite. which routes the connection through a dial-up switching telephone exchange. There is also much higher security for the information. We will introduce two more later in the section. Typically. then the sending computers wait a random amount of time and try again. it became possible to bring in computers across the world. THE INTERNET Background You may ask: 'What is the Internet?' In reality. four universities in the US west (Stanford University. in 1957. It is thousands of computers connected together. Once connections were expanded into the normal telephone dial-up system. At this stage.

If alternative routes are available. As some of the messages can be very large. the message is reassembled. to the token. Each packet is given the destination address of the whole message and any other information necessary. Token for 33 11 22 44 Waiting packet Free token 33 The next point we need to consider is the way in which the data is actually sent. such as the sender's address. The police escorting the load require everyone else using the motorway to wait behind. Instead. and they need not arrive in order. We have only to think of a very large load travelling up a motorway. It would be the same across the network if entire messages were sent intact. If it is addressed to that computer the packet is accepted and the token is then free to accept another packet. As the token passes each of the other computers. The sending computer waits until a token is passing by and. attaches the data packet it wants to send. The packets are then sent out individually. if the token is not already carrying a data packet.196 Electronic Communication Systems 11 sender 22 not mine 55 33 not mine 44 not mine 55 mine  The token ring standard involves signals or tokens continuously travelling around the network. then each packet will take whichever route is available and convenient. the message is divided up into sections called packets. to send the message intact would clog up the whole network. such as a video or other multimedia message. each checks the token and the address of any attached packet. much to their frustration. When all the packets for the message have arrived at their destination. © ABE and RRC .

There are several different tasks that servers provide:  Some will store resources such as files and application software. the server simply holds the files. In some other cases. Obviously it will be much bigger and a great deal more complex in communication terms. A WAN will probably consist of several LANs connected together and a server machine will be used to co-ordinate the delivery of resources across the WAN. As we have already seen. The Internet will rank as the world's largest WAN. In those kinds of systems. to the various computers within the WAN. However. It will be provided with more powerful processing facilities in order to do this. This is a connection specially designed to move information around the Internet at very high speeds and it connects all the principal servers on the Internet.Electronic Communication Systems 197 The complete message A B C D Individual packets A C B D The complete message A B C D The message is reassembled Packets sent by separate routes (b) Wide area networks (WAN) The other network that we are familiar with is the WAN. at this level much more than simple severs is required. there is a central connection known as the backbone. servers can fulfil a number of different tasks within the network.   So. which they can then serve. the Internet lacks the control and cohesiveness of a WAN. on demand. but the common feature is that they are all accessible from the individual computers and they provide some kind of service on behalf of the individual computers. A packet switching protocol. is used in the same way. A server is a computer wholly dedicated to a specific task. With application servers. as for a LAN. the individual computers do the processing. as well as various LANs and WANs connecting together. it is a network of networks of computers. A WAN (Wide Area network) is effectively a LAN without the geographical restriction. The following illustration of a segment of the Internet shows that. © ABE and RRC . as you will realise. the server does the processing on behalf of the client computers. the server is in charge of the routing of the messages around the WAN. Operations Now we will have a look at the Internet itself and how it works.

The particular version of this protocol used by all computers on the Internet is called TCP/IP. especially in error messages). Both e-mail and web addresses are known as style. the message is broken up into packets.  The first thing the computer does is convert the address that we type in. © ABE and RRC .uk name. I freely refer to "messages". de. For then the address is registered in the United States. as that is what we are name. The crucial part of any URL is the domain. All such addresses are held on domain name servers or DNS server. This stands for Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet If there is no country extension such as uk.198 Electronic Communication Systems Backbone = Internet server = LAN or WAN computer We have already discussed the packet switching protocol used to move information around networks. This is just the label given to the set of rules followed for sending messages across the Internet. ir etc. into a unique IP number. (You will sometimes see the IP number used in the address. fr. a DNS may hold all the . These servers hold groups of addresses in the dot. In the following addresses of the UK Government. For instance. as the thankfully in a shorter form. The address of anything on the Internet is known as a Uniform Resource Locator or. But in reality. the user gives the domain or destination address with an extension such as: name. as we have name. This is what identifies the computer at the receiving end of the

In other words. a secure interface is required. Should the enterprise network be connected to the Internet. The message is first directed to the backbone. the name server used by the sender's computer (the ISP's computer referred to below) will consult the . as its name implies. an extranet will not give access to the whole of the intranet. by the addition of web servers. and so on. through a connection to the Internet. and most are. Basically. This will then prevent outside unauthorised access to the Intranet and Extranet and the import of certain unwelcome web pages into the Intranet and Extranet. which then determines the path the message should follow across the Internet. trading partners and so on. the message is passed to a higher level router. The network is.Electronic Communication Systems 199  Whenever a message is sent to such an address. Of course. Typically these will include:      email (which will already have been available over the LAN). Each network has at least one router connected to its own network and to one adjoining.  Intranets are developing extremely quickly as businesses realise their potential. If the path to the address is not known. Messages can even be stored for a short time until a path becomes available. a full connection is made with the ISP computer and the user's computer becomes part of the Internet for as long as it remains dialled in. Individual users gain access to the Internet via an Internet Service Provider (ISP). From there it goes to the ISP and then on to the designated recipient. there is a possibility of all kinds of uses.     The success of the Internet is due to its ability to reroute the path followed by a message should the normal or obvious path be unavailable for any reason. pages of company. Frequently used paths are held in store by the router to save time. product and market information. bulletin boards. By creating a common interface across the internal network in this way. This is special software designed for this purpose. only accessible by those with authorisation. Most large organisations use the Internet to provide the communication © ABE and RRC . on-line conferences and discussion points. both of which having been registered on making the agreement with the ISP. These are likely to be customers. Once these are checked and DNS for the IP address required. An extranet is a secure extension to an intranet that has a constantly open link to persons outside of the Intranet authorisation. and. At this point the user will be requested for a user name and a password. This is a specialist company that provides a host computer into which the user can dial and make a connection with their own computer. typically within one organisation. Intranets and Extranets Now we return to the final two types of network referred to some pages ago. suppliers. it is like a private mini Internet. it can readily be turned into an Intranet. and then is sent at high speed across the backbone to the point closest to the ISP where a business has operated a LAN. which we discuss later.  An intranet is a closed network which uses the TCP/IP packet switching protocol and whose visible pages will look just like Web pages. all that is available there. A sent message first goes to the router. A firewall is used to provide the secure interface. however.

All other messages are sent out over the Internet. It is then directed to the ISP server to the recipient's mailbox at that server. Where the network is a LAN. The messages remain on the ISP's server and the user opens and reads them there. Electronic Mail (e-mail) E-mail or electronic mail has become commonplace in recent years. Not only does the firewall protect the company networks from outside threats. E-mail is also sent over the Internet using a version of the TCP/IP protocol for addressing. As we saw previously. It will wait there until the actual recipient logs into their ISP's e-mail system. It is simply a correspondence between two or more users over a network. The final part of the address is the domain name that designates the DNS server holding the address registration. edited and so on. WAN or Intranet and Extranet. This method has the advantage of making the mailbox accessible from any computer when the correct user name and password are entered.200 Electronic Communication Systems connections between their various site centred intranets. When an e-mail message is sent. The second part of the address is the name of the ISP server to which the user is registered. it also allows the company to monitor all communication between the Internal and External networks. read. this means the message will be forwarded to a server on the Internet backbone and then by any available route over the backbone to the nearest point to the ISP server. If this is the same as the local mail server then the message is forwarded directly to the appropriate mailbox. so firewalls are used to protect the intranets. Intranet Firewall software Internet There must be no other external connection other than through the firewall. The @ symbol is just a separator. When an e-mail message arrives at its destination server it is stored in an area of that server which the user calls their mailbox. It has a unique IP number. An e-mail address or URL has the form: © ABE and RRC . There are two types of system used for mailboxes:   The messages can be retrieved to the user's own computer where they can be opened. My-name @ my-ISP. the local mail server first examines the second part of the address to identify the ISP server to which the message is The first part of the address is the user name. it will be tightly controlled and the e-mail correspondence will be virtually direct. This will then involve the services of an ISP and their router.

The codec also has to decode the received transmission. it is even more inexpensive to use the Internet. On the other hand. For instance. a digitalised video requires far too much storage. However. This is achieved by losing some of the data. digitises it and then compresses it. as we noted above. the bandwidth is available and the quality is predictable.Electronic Communication Systems 201 Videoconferencing Videoconferencing enables two or more people in different locations to see and hear each other at the same time. If it is just to make brief phone calls. A broadband satellite link with studio-quality equipment gives an excellent full-motion video connection. and this can take its toll on the video and sound quality. © ABE and RRC . A videoconference system must have audio-visual equipment such as a screen monitor. In fact it would require a large computer to store and play a full-length feature film without compressing the size of the file. It is the way in which these two systems transmit the data that marks out the difference between videoconferencing systems. sometimes even sharing computer applications. As you will have noted. Only in the biggest organisations will a satellite connection be feasible. a camera. it comes down to making a choice based on the way the videoconferencing is used. For instance. Whilst more than this is required for television quality. Modern communications have generated an interest in video systems that transmit information via the Internet. a lesser rate would take less storage. an Internet-based connection has to share bandwidth with other Internet data and this can cause some loss of audio and produce a jerky video. a microphone and an output speaker. Once a connection is made. you see the other person in colour video and you may be able to transfer files. In most systems. But if a number of people are involved in a technical conference. This is typically 15-30 frames per second. so systems created by different vendors can still connect together. Even more can be achieved in such a case as it is likely that only the person's mouth and eyes move to any great extent. It is therefore not necessary to transmit the background with every frame. then the Internet is fine. Videoconferencing over normal phone lines requires a piece of equipment called a codec (short for coder-decoder). a video of a person talking will have a fairly static background. this is very expensive. technique is to only store any changes from one frame to another. more satisfactory. The system also needs a communications link. After you connect. I have mentioned that the signal is compressed. It is economical and gives high-quality videoconferencing. It works over regular phone lines. This is where the jerkiness comes from. A communications technology as rich as this offers new possibilities for a variety of purposes. Placing a video call is like making a phone call. bandwidth can be extended by increasing the number of ISDN lines. ISDN works over the normal phone lines and provides enough bandwidth for smooth audio and video transmission. The reason is simply that without compression. The most obvious consequence of a slow codec or low-bandwidth connection is a jerky picture and an audio time delay. so no special wiring is necessary. Another. then ISDN technology will be best. ISDN has most of the advantages:     It adheres to standards. Videoconferencing connections may be limited to a closed network such as a LAN or they may use dial-up phone links. As always. the normal video frame rate is about 30 frames per second. A very realistic solution is to make the connection using ISDN technology. In contrast. The codec takes the analogue video signal. which are more realistically priced.

C. It increases connections with the outside world. © ABE and RRC . as each participant is very aware of the person at the other end. people mostly worked from their homes in cottage industries of one type or another. and sometimes even pan and zoom the camera. At the same time. saving time and resources. It will improve the participant's communication and presentation skills. There are two principal types of videoconferencing systems. As a communication medium. Telecommuting In the Middle Ages. it stands out in a number of ways. whereas music quality take about 44000 samples per second.  It is almost like being there. the cost of maintaining an office or other facilities in city centres escalated. and how working practices are changing as a result. The controls available allow users to adjust the volume. The basic technique here is to take a cross-section sample of the signal at regular intervals. animations and computer applications. THE USE OF IT IN BUSINESS In this section we will look at some specific ways in which the modes of electronic communication can help in business situations. everyone lived close to the factory or coalmine that they worked in. thus hastening the end of the cottage industries.202 Electronic Communication Systems Not even all the person's face features need be transmitted with every frame. so communications can be more frequent. Computing facilities have developed to such an extent that network technology can be used to take the work back out the people in the country and so reduce the considerable costs and time involved in maintaining central facilities and travelling. with increased prosperity. families moved to the outskirts of the cities.    It has been found to heighten the motivation of learners. All of this allows a great deal of compression to be achieved without significant loss to the picture. In other words. been re-established. The benefits of a videoconferencing system are fairly self-evident. cottage industry has. people were drawn into the cities and factories. to the suburbs and back into the country areas. With the advent of the Industrial Revolution. other compression techniques are used. More than this is not practical for the normal PC computer. to some extent. The camera can be anything from a tiny camera on top of the computer to a high-quality camera with remote pan and zoom features. This goes a long way towards building relationships in a way that e-mail or the telephone cannot. graphics. the normal PC computer systems which displays the video in a small section of the computer screen and room sized systems which have one or two large screens and usually display all the local audience as well as the remote audience. A videoconference system can be further improved by including video or audio clips. For about one hundred and fifty years or so. These factories were able to use steam power to drive many machines simultaneously. The number of such samples obviously affects the play-back quality. Another technique is just to reduce the size of the displayed picture! With audio. Low quality systems use about 8000 samples per second. Videoconferencing is usually easier than visiting. This brought about the need to commute to the cities where the work was. Then. The visual connection and interaction between participants enhances understanding and helps participants feel connected to each other. especially where a live visit is not possible except on rare occasions.

Electronic Communication Systems


The benefits to the company are considerable:         There are lower costs in office and infrastructure, There is less absenteeism, There is increased productivity. A considerable timesaving through avoiding the commute. An enhanced quality of life generally. Lower costs in a number of areas, including tax advantages. The individuals can quickly become isolated from their co-workers. They are taken out of the "information loop". It is difficult to develop a company career structure, as individuals are remote from each other and from the proximity of higher management.

For the individual there are also benefits:

However, there are some problems for the individual, and hence ultimately, the company:

Whenever a telecommuting system is implemented, companies find it necessary to have periodic briefings and other meetings when the remote staff gather at some central point to socialise and be kept up-to-date on developments within the company. Telecommuting systems use intranet technology. Whether the individual is sited at a desk in Head Office or in a back room of their own house is of no consequence to the technology. Communication is just as fast and just as complete. Access can be given to archives and libraries, e-mail will be available and, as it is a fast internal system, using central servers, powerful computing power can be made available. Whilst there is no doubt that telecommuting will increase over future years, its development will always be restricted by the disadvantage of individual remoteness. Over time, the distinctive working culture of the company is lost, and individuals cannot develop their interpersonal skills. Network technology also makes it possible to move the workplace out of the cities and closer to the country living workers. This is, without doubt the growing trend, especially with the new IT industries. Several of these remote sites can be set up, all interlinked in an intranet.

Workgroup Computing
The trend that I identified at the end of the previous section will also lead to the development of workgroups. Groups of two or more workers will share the same information resources via a LAN client/server system. This, in turn, means that each member of the group or team can be working on different parts of a project whilst, at the same time, having access to what each other part of the group is doing. This facility is made possible through the introduction of groupware application software. This is software that supports collaborative work. Workflow management software will also be used to automatically forward the documentation throughout the group. A typical use of a workgroup approach is the processing of a major request within the company, as illustrated in the following diagram.




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The proposal is formally submitted to the departmental manager He/she forwards it to the appropriate director



Who then submits it to the board members for approval The response is fed back down the line and, if approved Implemented by the original applicant



The workgroups need not be sited together. Because of the networks used, the group can be scattered anywhere in the world. Of course, this will involve a network larger than a LAN; probably an Intranet would be most appropriate. At the extreme has been the development of 24-hour global working. For example, a part of the group can start the project in Europe. During the second half of the day their work is taken further by another part of the group working in Northern America and, as they finish, yet another part of the group in Asia can work on the project. Finally, the European workers return for the new day and take over where the Asian workers leave off. In this way there is no break in the working day.

Bulletin Boards
A computing bulletin board is little different to the bulletin boards found lining many an organisational office or corridor. They are an electronic form of notice board used to convey information to a whole group of people. Electronic bulletin boards are available through the company intranet and over the Internet. If the board is accessed over the Internet, a password system will be required in order to protect the privacy of the board. It can serve any purpose, and like a normal notice board, it can be subdivided into sections. However, unlike a normal notice board, the bulletin board can be spread over several pages of display with electronic links from one to the other. Whilst some of the group will only be able to read and search through the postings made to the bulletin board, others will be able to make the postings. These can be messages such as schedules, update specifications, feedback from elsewhere, diagrams and messages of any kind that someone wishes the whole group to see. In addition, an appointed person, perhaps a manager, will have the facility to edit, change and delete items from the board and to check that everyone has accessed the board recently through the board's monitoring facility.



Electronic Communication Systems


Commercial Services
There are a number of generic commercial services that have developed, namely:  The principal electronic commercial service that we are now all aware of is shopping over the Internet. This is a perfectly simple service whereby the customer views the available products and then, via the Internet connection and screen, indicates a wish to purchase the item. Either credit card details are supplied or the bill is added to the customer's account. Delivery is then made in the usual way, by physical transport! There are two weak points in this system: (i) (ii) First there is the matter of the security of credit card details. There are several systems available to protect against this, but, as yet, no absolutely safe one. The second point is the delivery system. This suffers from all the weaknesses of normal trading and is subject to all the usual delays. Again, several companies are trying to avoid these problems by having their own delivery vehicles or dedicated contracts with specialist carriers.

Another electronic commercial service is Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) or "paperless trading". This means that all the ordering, acknowledging, delivery details and invoicing is done over the Internet. Such systems are becoming increasingly popular as they are efficient and fast and are much cheaper to operate. The speed of completion of a contract gives the company a distinct competitive advantage. Many businesses, including all the supermarket groups, operate a "just-in-time" supply system. By monitoring the flow of items from the supermarket, or other operator, through the electronic till bar-code scanning system, the system will automatically detect when a stock item has reached a predetermined level, triggering an automatic order for more of the item. Through experience, the amount of any one stock item sold over a specified period will be known, and it is therefore a fairly straightforward task to set the restock levels of each item. The advantage for the business is that there is no need for expensive storage facilities. By linking the restock mechanisms into the manufacturers' Extranet, the required items may even be manufactured on just-in-time systems. At this stage, you should have realised that there is little difference between these just-in-time systems and Intranets. Usually we can say that a just-in-time system is a subsystem of an Intranet using an Extranet.

Such systems are normally known as VANs or Value Added Systems as they are adding value to the company. Another example of a VAN is where a business links its customer network to the sales staff and thus provide sales with up to date customer information. EDI is yet another example of a VAN. VAN systems are mostly implemented on an Extranet as the business can then use the contact with other businesses to gain valuable information. More or less any system where this is the case is a VAN.

The World Wide Web (WWW)
The World Wide Web, or WWW, or just "the Web", is the whole collection of information pages that can be viewed over the Internet. We can therefore differentiate between the "Internet" and "the Web", two terms that are often incorrectly interchanged. Whilst the Internet is the network of computers, the hardware, the Web is what we actually see on our computer screens. Earlier we saw that the Internet grew out of the cold war era. The Web came along much later, in March 1989, when Tim Berners-Lee proposed a hypertext system for the exchange




Electronic Communication Systems

of documents at CERN, the physics laboratory in Geneva. In 1991 the first web browser was developed. It was called Mosaic and this became the Netscape Navigator browser in 1994. The Web is officially described as a "wide-area hypermedia information network". Most of that term is understandable to all of us, but maybe "hypermedia" needs additional explanation. It is the electronic linking of text, sound and pictures and the ability to jump from one information place to another. It also refers to the method used to create the web pages using a hypertext mark-up language, HTML. This is a computer language that is used to create the links between web pages and to handle the graphics involved. There are other web languages in widespread use nowadays.  XML, which stands for eXtensible Mark-up Language, has become the standard language of e-commerce and communication as it allows easy transfer of data and documentation between systems that are quite different from each other. For straightforward documents over the Web, the standard language is Acrobat, which loses none of the quality of the text during transmission compression. Another useful web language is called javascript. This is a useful language for interactive communication across the Web and is used in conjunction with HTML.

 

The whole system works through the specification of keywords on the web page created in HTML. The keywords act as tags that are recognised by all web browsers. Having recognised a tag, and the end tag of the section, the browser knows how to display the information between. Finally, on this topic of web languages, the communications protocol or standard used across the Web is called HyperText Transfer Protocol, HTTP. It is this standard that allows web servers to talk to each other. You will no doubt be familiar with these initials from the front end of web URLs or addresses, http://………. This specifies the protocol to which pages at the URL conform. A web URL has the form: "www" tells the computer that it is a web page that is required. The domain indicates which computer the web page request is addressed to. In the example above the domain is described as:    myCollege ac uk = Domain server = Domain group = Domain country

This will display the "home" page of the website. The forward slashes indicate a path to the required file. The extensions are optional, as the domain part of the address will take the user to the correct location. It is then a matter of following the hyperlinks to the required file. Looked at the other way round, by specifying the file, the user can go direct to the specified file. In order to access the Web we need to use a web browser. This is a piece of software that runs on your computer and which enables it to connect to the Internet. There are quite a few browsers available, but the most familiar are Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. The browser gives direct contact with a web search engine. This is another piece of software that accesses an extensive index of websites and identifies key words within the site web page. We do tend to think of the search engine as a computer, but it is actually the program that performs the index search on our behalf. Some the more well known search engines are Yahoo, Alta Vista, Excite, Look Smart, Netscape, and so on.



again. whilst having the same range of keys. Basically. The traditional layout of a computer keyboard is shown in outline below. Esc Function keys Number keys Direction keys Character and punctuation keys Number Pad Control keys As the keyboard is very familiar to us all. is organised differently. Uppercase characters and the top mark characters  © ABE and RRC . – either by specifying a known URL and going straight to the web page. This is the introductory page to the site. There are also a number of "function" keys which perform special tasks depending on the particular program being used. a web page is one displayed page. alphabetical and punctuation keys. and some control keys which are used in conjunction with other keys to. This seems a suitable point at which to draw the distinction between web pages and a website. although often we do need to scroll down its full length. or the mouse pointer. and then display the URLs of the locations identified. A website is a collection of such pages. although note that the keyboard of a laptop computer. connected by links. and deleting text). It will contain a series of links to each of the other pages in the site. or just links. When the users clicks the mouse over a link on a web page. I shall concentrate on the main features only. we note that the screen cursor flashes at the exact point where the typed characters will appear.Electronic Communication Systems 207 We can therefore access the web in two ways. Keyboard This is the most familiar. Each website starts with a web home page. INPUT DEVICES We now have two short sections on what we require for input and output to and from electronic communication. A keyboard contains a range of numerical. and probably the most essential input device that we use. although underlying it will be the URL. This insertion point can be moved by using either the keyboard arrow keys.  First of all. perform special functions. This is an HTML tag called an anchor. D. The URLs will be displayed as hyperlinks. The main character and punctuation keys are grouped together in the largest part of the keyboard. the typing pad. as well as other keys which allow you to move around the screen and format text (such as inserting spaces or paragraphs. It need not be an actual URL that is displayed on the web page as HTML allows a user-friendly name or phrase to be displayed. or by using a search engine to search its indexes for certain words. the system moves immediately to the new location specified by the URL.

At the top left is an escape key. The numeric pad is to the right hand side. The 'home' and 'end' keys will take the insertion pointer to the corresponding part of the displayed document. and the top numbers are only activated by pressing 'num lock' first. This was invented in the 1970s as an intuitive manipulation device.   The top row of the typing pad has the has numbers 0 to 9. Others will save. but this will not give the upper marks on these keys. Pointer Input The main pointer input device is the mouse (Figure 7. it can be dragged across the screen by holding down the left hand button and moving the mouse. At the top of the keyboard is a row of function keys. These combinations will very much depend on the software being used. and the instruction manual will be required to identify these. the 'ctrl' key may be required as well. When a screen item has been selected. but F1 generally brings up a help facility. The left-hand button generally selects the items being pointed at by highlighting them and the right hand button causes a pop-up menu to appear.10). and is sometimes shown as an arrow. the system will react in specified ways. which also moves correspondingly. There are other functions available by pressing combinations of keys simultaneously. What each key does will depend upon the software used. Sometimes a double click is required. the most common and useful combination is 'ctrl' + ''alt' + 'del'. As the mouse is moved across a surface. Uppercase can also be obtained via the 'caps lock' key. It is generally easier to use than the keyboard for manipulation of items on the screen as all we are expected to do is click and move the mouse. again obtained by pressing the shift key simultaneously. Laptop computers use a touch pad built into the keyboard for pointer input. a ball or optical sensor underneath moves and sends a signal to the cursor. There are usually two buttons at the front of the mouse. either one space at a time. There are also a series of symbols on these keys. The central control pad has the directional arrows to move the screen insertion point. (It is possible to reset the mouse buttons for left handed people. There are also the arithmetical function keys around the side of this pad. This will often be used to make an emergency stop of a program. The menu will have various options depending upon what is currently being pointed at. This will close the currently running program and is mostly used when the software goes wrong! The 'print screen' and 'scroll lock' keys are not used very often with modern software. This is controlled by touching the pad and dragging the finger across in the required directions. © ABE and RRC .      Although we are quite familiar with the standard keyboard. The 'shift' key is duplicated on each side of the typing pad. or a page at a time. labelled F1 to F12.) Most mice also have a scroll wheel between the two buttons which allows the cursor to be scrolled up or down the screen. Sometimes it is necessary to press one of the 'ctrl' keys at the same time. There are two symbols on most of these keys. It is through the keyboard that we compile our electronic messages. depending on the software being used. There are also separate buttons equivalent to the mouse buttons situated at the bottom of the touch pad.208 Electronic Communication Systems shown on the punctuation keys are obtained by pressing the shift key at the same time as the character key. we must be aware that it is our primary input device. and by clicking these. 'Esc'. format etc. highlight. Each of these performs a special function which may depend on the software being used. However. However.

The greater the number of pixels in a specified area. OCR software is by no means perfect in getting 100% accuracy in the document scanned. or optical character reader (OCR).Electronic Communication Systems 209 Yet another pointer input device is the light pen. Nowadays we are quite familiar with simple displays on notices using this concept. the scanner will have special software which recognises text characters on the paper document being scanned. This means that the screen is just a matrix of dots or pixels. In this case. The other way it can be used is as a text character reader. A scanner generally works in one of two ways. This figure shows two areas of screen made up of 20 pixels each. E. This can then be stored as an image file and. or VDU. manipulated using graphics software. More or less everything that the computer does is presented in the first place via the screen. of course. or bit-map display technology. This is a light sensitive stylus that can be used to write or draw directly onto a screen. the principal output medium. © ABE and RRC . the greater the resolution of the image. Scanners This an electronic device which converts text and pictures on paper to a digital format. These can then be stored and displayed by a computer and be transmitted electronically between computers. Modern screens use graphic display. Sometimes it is called the visual display unit. and saves these in a designated word processor program as a normal document file. Everything displayed is made up as a pattern of these pixels. OUTPUT DEVICES The Monitor The computer visual display screen or monitor is. By selecting specific pixels I have displayed the number 37. but depending on the quality of the original can be a very effective way of transferring paper documents to electronic text files. when required. It can also be used to select screen items.  Scanners are often now built into printers as a multi-function device rather than being separate devices in their own right.  The main one is to scan a very bright light across paper document on the scanner bed and then digitise the reflection obtained.

8 pages per minute. the display was given in textual form and the peculiar language had to be learned before the user could access the machine. although all computers still use them for some of the basic functions. the Apple Lisa computer was introduced with not only pull down menus.210 Electronic Communication Systems Printers After the monitor. it was still extremely limiting. the most commonly used output medium is the printer. Using the keyboard directional keys. Edit View Insert Format Help © ABE and RRC . These squirt black or coloured ink onto the paper to form the image. Clearly this severely limited the range of users to those who had the time and inclination to learn the command language of the machine. this often opens up a further menu. HCI In connection with output. In other words. All requirements were input as commands causing this to be known as command line technology. we do also need to look at the important topic of HCI. but also screen icons accessed via a mouse.. The normal print rate of such printers is about 4 . but the quality is good and they are inexpensive to both buy and run. This was soon followed by the Apple Macintosh computer and the concept was established. one would chose the appropriate command. Having selected one of the options. how the display is constructed. although a short meaningful name is often attached. To minimise the difficulty. again as illustrated above. which can be quite slow. In earlier machines.  Human Computer Interaction. The other main type of printer is the laser printer which uses the same technology as copying machines. Whilst this was a considerable improvement. menus were introduced. In 1984. Microsoft followed with the Windows software and now all computers use the principle of windows. This refers to the interaction between the computer display and the computer user. The paper is fed in at the top of the printer and emerges from the bottom with the image (text and/or graphics) printed on to the paper. particularly for colour printing. They give very high quality results at high speed but tend to be expensive when compared to ink jet printers. and so on. listing the available commands. as seen in the highlighting below Click first on 'file' File New Open And then on 'save' Save Save As Print Etc.  Most modern PC printers are inkjet printers. The bases of the HCI concept is that the screen interface should be:  intuitive to use in that the icon should suggest its purpose.

in Microsoft Word software. By pausing the mouse pointer over the icon. telephone icons. For instance. the appropriate picture. a page of a document is set out to look like a real page. etc. file icons. a small box often appears to give further explanation of the purpose. the icon can be dragged across the screen either to another position or so that it is incorporated within some other icon. the printer picture at the top of the screen should start the print operation and not something else such as saving a file. © ABE and RRC . Every so often we are invited to empty the recycle bin. their use is intuitive and fast. and when it is printed out it still looks as it did on the screen. This means that what you see on the screen looks as much like its real world counterpart as possible. There is even a waste paper basket called the 'recycle bin' into which we can place any documents or programs that are no longer required. For instance. A further important concept of HCI is that of metaphors. show that an expected effect is taking place. giving the user who clicks on an icon. When used in conjunction with a mouse pointer. clicking on the icon should either start the operation immediately or some specific operation dialogue panel should appear requesting further action as expected. The metaphors we are now all used to are drawn from the world of offices. Microsoft even call their software Microsoft Office! We are presented with a desktop metaphor on which are arranged document icons. By selecting an icon and then keeping the mouse pointer depressed. name or explanation.Electronic Communication Systems 211  react to selection. In fact.  The use of icons and other graphical objects as the basis of selecting particular functions and operations gives rise to the graphical user interface or GUI. For example.

212 Electronic Communication Systems © ABE and RRC .

C. © ABE and RRC . Word Processing The Software Desktop publishing Electronic or Web Publishing Summary of the Web Page Creation Process: Web Page Design Page 214 214 214 217 217 219 219 B.213 Unit 8 IT and Presenting Information Contents Introduction A.

In some of the descriptions below I am following the style of Microsoft Word. certainly in the business world. as a simple word processing computer is no more expensive and is far more versatile. Replaced by choosing from the very top tool bar and in succession edit & replace and then typing into the window that appears the word or words to be replaced and what it is to be replaced with. Either one occurrence of the word(s) can be replaced or some of them or all of them by choosing the correct options presented in the menu. However. using typefaces. Copied by highlighting with the mouse pointer and then either clicking on the double page icon at the page top and which has the 'copy' flag which pops up when the pointer is paused over the icon. electronic publishing and presenting information. as we would expect. All of us use our computers for this purpose and. you may be able to appreciate the value of personal computing in word processing. and others to virtually any requirement. There are very few offices where typewriters are still in use. Reports. and graphics. At the end of the unit. including desktop publishing. word processing is the main reason for the phenomenal growth of personal or individual computing. Deleted by dragging the mouse screen pointer over the word. The Software A word processor is a piece of software. part of a word or a whole section to highlight it and pressing the erase arrow at the top right corner of the typing pad. or by right clicking the mouse and choosing the similar icon and option in the pop-up menu.214 IT and Presenting Information INTRODUCTION This unit is wholly concerned with how we use the computer for the presentation of textual information. desktop publishing. Each word processing package of software is a proprietary package and they differ greatly as a result. Finally we will look at the concept of electronic publishing. (a) The ability to create a new documents of several types:     (b)  Document pages. although many computers are dedicated to being used only with word processing software. or the end of it. Manuscripts. An editing facility whereby text can be:    © ABE and RRC . Letters. This can be the beginning of the particular word or section. Amended by moving the mouse screen pointer directly to the point at which you wish to edit. We will be concentrating on the use of word processing software and need to look at various aspects of word processing such as formatting. or the space bar or clicking on the scissors icon at the top of the screen. they do have common features. It is not a computer. WORD PROCESSING Word processing is by far the most popular application on personal computers. A. We will also look at the use of multimedia and the rules of direct manipulation on the screen interface.

This brings a window up onto the screen and it is necessary to navigate through its sections in order to save the file:    in the correct place. click on the little arrows to the right of font type and size as displayed at the top of the page and from the drop down menus make the new choices. as when the font is changed. or Choosing from the very top tool bar.IT and Presenting Information 215  Moved from one part of the document to another. Formatted by choosing from the very top tool bar. Saved by either: (i) (ii) (iii) Clicking on the 'tv' style icon at the top of the page. U. Viewed and proof read prior to printing. by selecting either the whole text if the whole document font is to be changed. the whole text will move one way or another as the word processor realigns the new style text to the page. Word counted – there is a facility to produce other statistics. Alternatively if the style of bullet or number is already set. or even a complete change of document style. by clicking on the appropriate icon at the top of the document Underlined. The whole text is chosen by using the mouse at the very top tool bar and by clicking in succession Edit & Select All. italicised. To do this. Illustrated by inserting graphs and pictures and wrapping text around in a variety of ways. as the correct type of file. There is usually also a thesaurus. A particular word or text section is chosen by highlighting with the mouse the word or piece of text whose font is to be changed. and click on the paste icon (the clipboard and page picture). Then. then click on the copy icon (double page picture) and cut icon (the scissors picture). right or centre. I. The drop down menu presents several options such as changing the case of the character(s).   Changed in font type and size. Next move the mouse pointer to the place in the text where the word or piece of text is to be moved to. and with the chosen name. Numbered and bulleted either via the Format list of options if the style of bullet or number is not yet set. changing paragraph settings such as the line spacings. Some care is required however. or Selecting File & Save As the file either does not have a name as yet or you wish to save a second copy with a different name. These are labelled B. Format. first use the mouse pointer to highlight the word or piece of text. or around diagrams and so on. Reused after minor editing for the new requirements. In this case a window appears with a range of options and settings from which it is necessary to make the appropriate choice.         © ABE and RRC . Word and grammar checked – options can be tailored to different versions of the language (particularly English) and different grammatical requirements. or by highlighting a piece of text and clicking on the appropriate button at the top of the page. File & Save. typed in bold by placing the mouse pointer within the word. indentations and text alignment to the left. and in succession. This can cause misalignments at page ends. The exercise can be repeated as often as you wish until a suitable font is decided upon. in both cases. or a particular word or section of text.

The software takes over that kind of responsibility. characters punctuation The spell checker automatically corrects spelling errors. However. the spell checker automatically detects spelling errors. A 'footer' comment has also been added. This is in part due to the GUI interface used with suitable icons for most of the editing and other features. too. highlight it and edit it by correcting spelling. numbers. Import a picture into the page. Insert a title box and a title. Fill in the table with a mixture of text. it is also due to the actual features listed above. capitalising the first character of a sentence. and at other times by prompting and suggesting. and the sections in Times New Roman (some in 9 point and some in 14 point). and then suggests a range of correct spellings. It shows that we can select a word. and the word processor can be used to suggest a range of correct spellings and formats. The whole strength of word processing and its popular success is its ease of use.300. consistent. The list of features can go on and on as modern word processing packages become more and more sophisticated. To help with this there is a mail merge facility. This allows a file of names. characters and punctuation marks. sometimes automatically. deleting or moving it numbers Note. flexible and changeable formatting or any of the hundred and one things we need to bear in mind when typing.. to be merged with a standard letter so that an individually named letters are produced. For example. Number the page. the use of different fonts and sizes – most of the insert is in Arial font at 11 point size (as has been used for the text in this study manual).1 One of the most popular features of a word processor is the ability to create standard letters and a whole host of documents that can then be constantly reused with different names etc.2. say. Insert a subtitle with a special effect. but see if you can where Arial 9 point is used and also if you can spot two words in Courier New (11 point).4000 @&%$*> .216 IT and Presenting Information  Scanned to search for the occurrences of a word or phrase. Create a two-column table in the page. In Figure 8. This is especially useful in offices for mass mailings of promotional material. using the automatic page numbering system of the word processor. a word processor has been used to:       Create the initial document page. © ABE and RRC . /‘[“!? Page 1 example document Figure 8. spelling. WORD PROCESSING  1.1. The compiler of the document can type away happily with no thought to reaching the end of the line.

if the number of recipients is infinite. brochures. The main components of a web page are:   A file name for the page Meta tags. rather than an advanced form of wordprocessing. – anything where text and graphics need to be mixed in a complex way. It simply introduces the subject. This is not.IT and Presenting Information 217 B. ELECTRONIC OR WEB PUBLISHING Electronic publishing is a fast growing field of communication. a picture or graphic. a CD-Rom is often best. then the web is the only feasible medium to use. notices. it provides the facility to place paragraphs of text and graphics in precise locations on the page. and the medium used is whichever is most appropriate for transmission between one person and another. of course.  The first two components are for the use of the system. and to format the text and. First of all. it is less concerned with the editing of the text or the creation of the graphics (both of which are available in DTP. but not as extensively as in specialist wordprocessing or graphics software). allowing folding layouts to be adopted. the page has a © ABE and RRC . This will be a title. Rather. In both cases. In most cases Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox will be the browsers used. the publication is in the form of a web page. a web browser will be required for the sender to prepare the publication and for the receiver to read it. We have already noted some of the languages used. This is not quite the same as 'publishing on the web'. By publishing in web page format. They are an opportunity to include some keywords that the search engines will recognise and use to make your publication known to people browsing the web. to a lesser extent. which are used to activate the browser in some way. However. and A CD-Rom. a piece of text and links to other pages. Meta tags are used to describe the pages in a few words. the graphics as well. HTML is still the favourite. C. DESKTOP PUBLISHING Desk-top publishing (DTP) is specialist software used for integrating text and graphics on a page. This is also the case if the recipient dislikes the web or is unfamiliar with it. although this is indeed now the main medium used. where the number of recipients is finite. magazines. Thus. the only part seen by the recipient or reader of your publication will be the last part. It is also possible to specify various page sizes and constructions. etc. The following picture of a web page shows the introductory or home page. It encompasses almost everything you will have heard of in electronic communication. In fact. It essentially a "page make-up" tool. The reason for using a browser is that the publication will be prepared in one of the web languages capable of being read across different systems and with a built-in link system between the document pages. This makes it ideal software to use for the preparation of newspapers. there are two media used for electronic publication:   The web. Clearly. The actual text and graphics to be included in the page between tags. important when publishing on a CDRom. On the other hand. By 'electronic publishing' we really mean 'web page publishing'. such as with promotional material.

2 Whilst the web page is prepared in HTML language. it can be saved to a CD-Rom or placed on the web. it can be edited in much the same way as any document. By following the usual menu options. You will be able to paste in or import documents that you have previously prepared in your word processor. you will need to know the URL (address) of the web server to which you are placing the page. To read about the following. at sea. The life of a sailor Life at sea Jutland 2. Finally. There are many software tools available. 1914 – 1918. The Battle of Jutland Clicking on the buttons activates the links to other pages Figure 8. This is the story of the Great War. You will also be required to provide a password that is used to protect the web page so that only the author can change it. Once the basic web page has been constructed. Then a picture is included. click on the links: 1. in most cases. And again. and with very little practice. as pictures are much better at conveying the subject matter than words. the web server of your ISP (the dial-in contact number you use) or it may be the web server of your Intranet. can be imported from other stored files. © ABE and RRC . it is not necessary for the ordinary user to learn such a language. and even sound. to other web pages. Many are included with the word processor package and others are available free from the web. either in your computer or from a CD-Rom. This will be. there are two clear links via buttons. the page onto the web. There are software tools available for transferring or uploading.218 IT and Presenting Information heading. it is possible to compile a brand new web page in about ten minutes. Graphic images. just follow the menu suggestions. Once the page has been completed. However.

The communication will be ineffective if the recipient does not have time to wait for your fancy design to download to their machine. between the tags. You should certainly test both of the main browser types. editing will be required. Avoid complex and moving graphics. once you have found what works and what does not. Place all the documents and images previously prepared into the HTML document. defeating the whole point of the communication. The following are ten common mistakes in web design:  Using Frames A technique whereby the visible screen area is broken up into individual. write the HTML document. Your message then gets lost in all the clutter. At the very least a 'return to top' button should be included at the bottom of the page. As there as many tools and devices for enhancing web page design. All of a sudden.) Splitting a page into frames is very confusing since frames break up the visible screen. Using the latest and greatest before it is in © ABE and RRC . keep the appearance of the page simple and uncluttered. using the word processor and other facilities of your computer. it is a good idea to look at a wide example of existing pages and decide which you personally like best.    Web Page Design The following are a few relevant points but we must always remember that design is very subjective and we all have our preferences. Having finished the preparation. Before attempting to design a web page and place a communication on it. or transfer it to the web server using file transfer protocol (FTP) software. provide easy and obvious ways in which to do this. The overriding golden rule is. so that what your communication is effective. if that is what is required. either copy the web page file to a CD-Rom. it is very easy to overload the page. You may attract a few enthusiasts. you cannot bookmark (save the URL) the current page and return to it as the bookmarks will indicate a frame rather than the page. but there are plenty of others.   These are the main points. free-standing sections. This will give a defined outline of the page.IT and Presenting Information 219 Summary of the Web Page Creation Process:   Prepare the document and/or images you wish to be included on your page. other than moving onto other pages in the site. The recipient should not need to do anything beyond this. remembering that HTML is actually just a layout language. The recipient should receive as much of the whole communication (page) as possible within the screen area. as these are slow for the recipient to download. but mainstream visitors will care more about the usefulness of the content and good customer service. There are different types of HTML editors. If not. Using an HTML editor. It is usually a good idea to load the page into several browsers as they each interpret the HTML document differently. This will now need to be checked to make sure the page appears as you intended. If scrolling up and down a page is required. Use a simple heading to the page. These documents can be edited at any time. Graphics and pictures are powerful support to what you wish to say on the page. Load the whole web page into your browser.   The page should be easy and intuitive to read and use by the recipient. whilst keeping it to a minimum. from the simple to the more advanced. The communication on the page should be meaningful and complete.  Over-use of Bleeding-Edge Technology Avoid trying to attract visitors to your site by using the latest web technology.

every page should have a link up to your home page as well as some indication of where they fit within the structure of your information space.  Non-standard Link Colours Links to pages that have not been seen by the visitor are blue. and are certainly more likely to do so than to follow a link to the next page in the site. links to previously seen pages are purple or red. Whilst web visitors are now more willing to scroll down a page. Provide a site map and let visitors know where they are and where they can go.  Lack of Navigation Support Don't assume that visitors know as much about your site as you do. Start your design with a good understanding of the structure of the information space and communicate this structure explicitly to the visitor. Moving images have an overpowering effect on human peripheral vision.  Complex URLs Even though link addresses like URLs should never be exposed on the screen interface. Don't change with these colours since the colours have become standardised and the ability to understand what links have been followed is one of the few navigational aides that is standard in most web browsers. Doing so may cause their system to crash while visiting your site and you can be sure that many of them will not be back. © ABE and RRC .  Long Scrolling Pages Only a minority of visitors scroll beyond the information that is visible on the screen when a page comes up. Consistency is key to teaching visitors what the link colours mean. A URL should therefore be presented in human-readable form using file names that reflect the nature of the information space. it is better to wait until some experience has been gained with respect to the appropriate ways of using new techniques.  Orphan Pages Make sure that all pages include a clear indication of what web site they belong to since visitors may access pages directly without coming in through your home page. some pages are better off being removed completely from the server after their expiration date. Maintenance is a cheap way of enhancing the content since many old pages keep their relevance and should be linked into the new pages. it is important to ensure that all critical content and navigation options are on the top part of the page. Give your web page visitor some peace and quiet to actually read the text.  Outdated Information Keep your web site up-to-date. they should exist. For the same reason.  Scrolling Text and Constantly Running Animations Never include components that move constantly. people over-enhanced their documents: We can avoid doing similar things on the Web. They always have difficulty finding information. Unless you are selling Internet products or services. so try to minimise the risk of error by using short names with all lower-case characters and no special characters (many people don't know how to type a ~). When desktop publishing was young. so they need support in the form of a strong sense of structure and place. visitors sometimes need to type in a URL. Also. Experience shows that visitors actually try to decode the URLs of pages to infer the structure of web sites because of the lack of support for navigation and sense of location in current web browsers.220 IT and Presenting Information wide spread use will discourage visitors. Of course.

visitors have been trained to endure so much suffering that it may be acceptable to increase this limit to 20 seconds for a few pages. as the Internet adds visitors faster than the infrastructure can keep support. © ABE and RRC . Bandwidth is getting worse. not better.IT and Presenting Information 221  Overly Long Download Times Traditional guidelines indicate 10 seconds as the maximum response time before visitors lose interest. On the web.

222 IT and Presenting Information © ABE and RRC .

Data And Information Gathering And Organising Information Spreadsheets Databases Information Systems Management Information Systems (MIS) Data Warehousing Page 224 224 225 225 230 233 233 234 © ABE and RRC .223 Unit 9 Information Processing Contents Introduction A. B.

e. DATA AND INFORMATION We will begin with two definitions:   Data are raw facts such as. in order. they will for ever remain a meaningless set of numbers. My answers. First we must understand the difference between data and information and just what each is. This is important. become information conveying a reference to the reader. we could then understand them to be a reference to Study Unit 3. things. It is easiest for us to understand the difference through numbers. a number.224 Visual Communication INTRODUCTION We now move on to the processing of the information prior to transmission. Data is stored in the computer. For example. a sound or anything at all. I'm not saying at this stage. words. the large topic of information systems needs to be considered. And finally. the 'people' may be everyone in the building. However. And so. a picture. numbers. would be: © ABE and RRC . You might then ask: 'Where is the information in that case?' And the answer is that the information is nowhere until we supply it. the number can be a telephone number. in binary code. people. Primarily these will be spreadsheets and databases. Let us consider an example. Then we can look at the various tools used for processing. Information is the meaning we derive from the facts. can you tell what the following represents? 10101010 11001100 11110000 Even if you decipher the digitised groups into their normal number equivalent. if we put these numbers into the context of this course. they still do not tell us anything. By itself. Within this context. This is always so. For example. page 68. You will recall that everything is stored in the computer as a digitised number in the form of 1s and 0s – i. These 1s and 0s by themselves are meaningless to us. as this is the source of most information available within the corporate environment. Yes. However. data means nothing. to repeat. A. 3 and 68 are just a pair of numbers and with no further explanation. it is data that is stored in the computer. we will again examine the role of browsers in this respect. An example will best help us examine the concept of information: We will start with the following simple series of numbers: 100100 The first thing for us to do is to ask:       Why were those particular numbers chosen? Is there a familiar pattern or format? What do they mean? No particular reason as another six digits could equally have been chosen. the bare facts that are two numbers. whether it is a word. and so on.

This has a knock on effect on our understanding of information however. GATHERING AND ORGANISING INFORMATION As mentioned above. It is common to use data for both singular and plural forms. This is the numbering system used inside computers. In other words. we will now discuss the collection of information and its organisation into a presentable form. they do not tell us anything with confidence. The sound made by a sheep. No information is conveyed. For an example. Any others you may have thought of. But is it the 10th January 2000. although data is the Latin plural of datum. we will further consider the third option above. To choose the correct option from these we need to know the context in which the data is presented. and therefore no information to us. then the data representation is still just data to you. So all representations are both data and information at the same time and it depends upon a context and further understanding to turn data into information One final note about data. I know what I intend them to mean but at this stage you do not. We have arrived back at the distinction between data and information.Visual Communication 225 In other words. you cannot be sure. they are the same thing. which refers to the binary numbering system used inside computers. Even if you have made a guess. Examining the two data representations – 100100 and baa baa – we can think of each as a further encoding of the other. As the numbers stand. We can now say that to fully understand a piece of information we need to interpret the data representation within a previously understood context. The following is a simple outline of the page display presented by spreadsheet software. Each of the options can be correct within its own separate context. or the 1st October 2000 as expressed in the North American style? The binary equivalent of the number we normally give as 36. Spreadsheets A spreadsheet is a piece of software that presents a grid on the screen and into which we can enter numbers and apply calculations and formulae across the grid. Musical notes in series as for the tune 'Three Blind Mice'. We can say that what is information to one is usually just data to another. B. A date. The possible meanings conveyed to us could include:       The number one hundred thousand and one hundred. © ABE and RRC . It still tells us nothing with certainty. For instance: baa baa could be another representation of the same information. If you are one of the many who do not know what 'binary numbers' means. They convey no meaning. Of course the representation need not be numbers.

as well as numeric data. Therefore.226 Visual Communication A Cell A1 1 2 3 4 Cell C5 5 6 B C D E F G H I Given that any specific cell can be directly referenced. Cross references can be applied to alphanumeric data. then both cells will contain the same data. such as dates. This can be text or other alphanumeric data. Calculation in cell D4 A 1 2 3 4 10 9 0 15 B 23 21 12 16 C 21 18 20 18 D 17 24 13 65 1 2 3 4 Formula in cell D4 A 10 9 0 15 B 23 21 12 16 C 21 18 20 18 D 17 24 13 54 D4 = (B1+C3+A2+D3) = (23+20+9+13) = 65 D4 = sum (D1 to D3) = 17+24+13 = 54 Any specific data entered into a cell is called the "value" of that cell. Page before change A 1 2 3 4 A1 80 B C D 1 2 3 4 100 Page after change A 100 B C D Cell D4 references A1. This is a very powerful facility. especially as formulae and calculations can be included in the references. The following examples show a calculation in the first sheet and a formula in the second. Thus. Text values are often "labels" which describe the numeric data which follows. it is possible to insert all sorts of cross references in the spreadsheet page. financial or statistical figures. a change in A1 will be copied to D4. © ABE and RRC . any change made to cell A1 will also be copied to cell D4. if cell D4 contains the reference A1. but clearly calculations and formulae can only be applied to numeric data. In addition. The numeric data can be any form of numbers – for example.

This is a facility much used in decision support systems whereby the decision-maker can input different values to a projected scenario. we can see that a doubling of the value of X results in a doubling of the increase in the total: © ABE and RRC . In the following example. as required. Table 2 shows the result with the starting figures: Table 1 A 1 2 3 4 if X = and Y = then Z = B 10 20 B1 + B2 5*B4 C 1 2 3 4 Table 2 A if X = and Y = then Z = B 10 20 30 150 C and the total is and the total is We can then examine the result of "what if the value of X was doubled" as follows: Table 3 A 1 2 3 4 if X = and Y = then Z = B 20 20 40 200 C 1 2 3 4 Table 4 A if X = and Y = then Z = B 40 20 60 300 C and the total is and the total is Table 5 A 1 2 3 4 if X = and Y = then Z = B 80 20 100 500 C Table 6 A 1 2 3 4 if X = and Y = then Z = B 160 20 180 900 C and the total is and the total is Thus. we examine the results of changing the value of one of the figures.2) (B3 – B4) Spreadsheets are particularly useful in evaluating 'what if' scenarios. First. using a basic table with formulae (Table 1). the spreadsheet is set up with various data trails.Visual Communication 227 A 1 2 3 4 5 Income Expenses Profit Tax at 20% Profit after tax B 1000 200 800 160 640 C D formulae (B1 – B2) (B3 * 0. and then examine the range of outcomes.

This exercise not only shows the usefulness of the 'what if' facility in spreadsheets. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 Year Income Expenses Profit Tax at 20% Profit after tax B C D E 1998 1999 2000 2001 1000 1500 200 160 640 300 240 860 800 1200 900 1200 150 750 150 500 250 950 190 760 © ABE and RRC . which is 80% of 500 If we assume that X is actually a production input (say. the actual increase in the total is by a lesser percentage than the doubling of X: X = 10 to X = 20. The pictorial representation of data is much easier to understand than just the figures themselves. the chart menus are accessed by clicking on the button with the coloured column chart icon. total increases from 500 to 900 = 400. we can show some examples of the corresponding charts which illustrate the information. on closer inspection. This information may be valuable in making a decision on how to change production inputs to obtain an increase in production. total increases from 150 to 200 = 50. you may be thinking that if we were to continue the exercise just a little further we would achieve a doubling of the total figure. Using the following example spreadsheet which expands the earlier profit calculation over several years.66% of 300 X = 80 to X = 160. Should you try the calculations. it also emphasises that the spreadsheet is no more than a support tool in decision making. as you can see. When using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The personal judgement of the decision maker is still very necessary. which is 66. There are many styles available and it is quite easy to choose the most appropriate for some situation by examining the menu of styles presented and the illustrative examples provided. numbers of workers employed). total increases from 200 to 300 = 100.228 Visual Communication X = 10 X = 20 X = 40 X = 80 total = 150 total = 200 increase = 50 total = 300 increase = 100 total = 500 increase = 200 X = 160 total = 900 increase = 400 However. then we can see that doubling the labour force will not result in a corresponding doubling of output. which is 50% of 200 X = 40 to X = 80. which is 33. total increases from 300 to 500 = 200. Out of interest.33% of 150 X = 20 to X = 40. you will find that this is never so! Another very useful spreadsheet facility is the creation of charts or graphs to illustrate graphically the information obtained.

2: Line chart 1500 Income 1000 Profit (before tax) Profit (after tax) 500 Expenses Tax 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 And finally we can use a pie chart (or circular diagram) to show the relative proportions of the figures (although this does not provide much useful information in this case): © ABE and RRC .Visual Communication 229 The first chart is a column chart: Figure 9.1: Cluster column chart 1500 1000 500 0 Income Expenses Profit Ta x at 20% Profit after tax 1998 1000 20 0 80 0 16 0 64 0 1999 1500 300 1200 240 860 2000 900 150 750 150 500 2001 1 200 250 950 190 760 We can show the same information in a slightly different way as a line chart: Figure 9.

However. The database is capable of being used by many users simultaneously and each of these users can use the database in a number of different ways. stored once only.230 Visual Communication Figure 9. within any one relation. The style chosen will depend on what information we want to highlight and that we feel shows this aspect off best. hence the type of database. the columns are labelled and. This is quite a long definition. The following two tables are examples of relations. The important point. But most modern databases and all small system databases are a type called relational databases. there are no duplicate rows. as always. So. This just means that the data is stored in a series of tables. A table is called a relation. There is little that is special about them. as far as is possible.3: Standard and exploded pie charts (for 1998 only) Profit after tax Income Tax Tax Profit after tax Income Profit before tax Expenses Profit before tax Expenses Each of these charts shows the same information in a different style. is that the communication must be successful. There are databases at the root of nearly all systems. simplicity is always the best course to take. The files are stored in a structured form and each data item is. There are different types of database. and their number is growing fast. but it boils down to saying that a database is data stored in one place and it can be used by many people in many ways. This is a subjective choice and we will each have our preferences. Table A: Cars Type Ford Peugeot Rover Vauxhall Model Mondeo 406 45 Astra Colour Black Green Black Red Reg No S123 ABC J54 XYZ Y344 DEF X43 JJU © ABE and RRC . Databases Databases dominate all of today's computing activities. To achieve this. 'What is a database?' A database is a single store of data files. the first question we need an answer to is.

That is the car registration columns. The language used for this work is known as Standard Query Language (SQL). The DBMS performs a number of functions: It controls who is allowed to access the database by using different passwords and authorisations. in Table B giving students N Black & A Brown. Each row is equivalent to a stored record. The good news is. obtain the details of rows 2 & 4. Each relation has a name and each has several named columns. registration J54 XYZ. A relationship such as this gives the user of the database flexibility in accessing the data. and so helps the database comply with the requirement of being able to be used in a variety of ways. we access the Student's name. All sorts of similar queries can be asked of the database. again. Once a user has been granted access. registration numbers S123 ABC & Y344 DEF. Therefore we now know that R Thomas drives a green Peugeot 406. The database is controlled by a very complex piece of software known as the Database Management System (DBMS). The third row of Student relation tells us that R Thomas has a car with registration number J54 XYZ. they will need to produce further passwords to gain access to different parts of the database. Example 1 Suppose we need to know the type of car owned by a particular student.     In Table B.   In Table A. Access the Car relation with this registration number. This is both a © ABE and RRC . Example 2 This time we want to find the owners of all the black cars in the car park. This indicates that there is a relationship between the tables. By following these steps.Visual Communication 231 Table B: Students Name G Smith N Black R Thomas A Brown Number 3456 2345 4563 2534 Age 25 37 22 51 Car Reg X43 JJU S123 ABC J54 XYZ Y344 DEF The above tables are two examples of relations as they could be held in a database. You may also have noticed that each table has a column with the same values within it. although the columns are labelled differently. we can find the car. All users access the database through the DBMS. Using both of these values. The second row of this relation tells us that the particular car is a green Peugeot 406. we find that rows 1 & 3 have details of black cars. SQL has virtually monopoly on database use. that we do not need to learn the language as there are many software tools on the market which enable us to access the database via a series of window displays and by clicking on various screen buttons. Suppose this student is R Thomas. and number if it is known.

the company payroll department needs to know the detailed salaries of all employees. and so on. If the query is an ad hoc query.4 In Figure 9. is not already stored. then the integrity of the data is ensured. each is stored once only as that when a value is updated. © ABE and RRC . Databases store millions of individual pieces of data. say. One user has direct access to the DBMS via a standard SQL query.232 Visual Communication security mechanism and it protects the privacy of the data. User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 User 5 User 6 Application program 1 Application program 2 Direct query DBMS Computer Database Figure 9. Through a special application program. although further processing of the results may occur elsewhere. Each user accesses the DBMS in one of two ways:   By making a direct query as in our queries above. If the same query is to be made many times. having a month 13 date. then a direct SQL query will be most efficient. Therefore it is protected from general access. as this needs to be done in one place only. Two users use the second application program. As far as possible. Where it be necessary to have more than one copy of a data item. In our illustrative relations above we stored the registration numbers in two places so that we could have a relationship. greater efficiency is obtained by writing an application program.4:    Three users access via the first application program. It processes the data being retrieved from the database as in our two worked examples above. These users are all making similar use of the database and so may all be in the same company department. is a reasonable value and not. then there must be simultaneous updating of each copy of the item. It maintains a log of who accesses the database and how and how often it is used. but few other personnel need this information.   And there are many other specialist functions that the DBMS performs.  It controls the data being entered into the database by performing a series of checks to ensure the data conforms to the required format. For example.

Communication of information around the company is through the common database. It will also generate data on personnel work schedules. etc. detailed sales figures for each sales person and so on. For example. We will start with an outline of the main management structure: Executive level management Strategic or middle level management Operational or lower level management Figure 9. For example. All this data is stored in the corporate database. Furthermore. they generate data. the production department generates supply needs. but over a longer time scale. as people in the company go about the business of the company. the report may contain a summary of the sales for the previous month. management at different levels will have different information requirements. It is then made available to those with the authority to access it so that other activities of the company can be efficiently completed. hours worked and personnel required. However. All management will be provided with exception reports.5 The operational management will require information in the form of a detailed report. The report may contain the production figures for the previous year or projected half-yearly profit figures. © ABE and RRC . At its simplest. a summary of the supply flow over the previous three months. There is no need for paper to be used and a record of the hours is readily available. Virtually all companies use an information system of some kind. These are generated by the system whenever something goes wrong or something strays outside previously prescribed limits. Executive level management also require summary reports. For example. that definition is much too simplistic to be of use to a company. Other departments generate similar data. it is the payroll department that will retrieve the data from the database to calculate the wages of the workers.Visual Communication 233 Information Systems An information system is a computerised system that provides information. finished product numbers and maintenance requirements and schedules. Strategic level management require information in summary report form. The system must be capable of providing information that is both reliable and timely. Management Information Systems (MIS) One of the principal uses of a company information system is to provide management with reliable and up-to-date information on the performance of the company. and so on. This would contain details such as a full production list and schedule. This information is used for supervisor purposes. whilst the production department generates the hours worked by each individual worker of the department.

It is intended to help the executive level managers analyse long term trends and to build a strategy for the company to move forward. it arrives at the data warehouse in many formats. A DSS has the facility for the manager to call up the summary data and to then directly manipulate it. and patterns for other identifiable groups. but once it has been processed it is discarded. the DSS will have a statistical tool. it is most important not to think of the DSS as being a tool that make decisions. it is intended to help decision-makers with their decision. These are collated to a common format and then stored in the data warehouse. And there it stays. It is a support tool.234 Visual Communication To produce these reports. This again. The operational MIS processes vast amounts of data. As this data comes from a number of different systems. is a special version of the MIS. As well as a spreadsheet. You may also come across mention of Executive Information Systems. Largely supermarkets use this. A Decision Support System (DSS) is a special type of MIS. but its popularity is growing very fast. As its name suggests. as there is no substitute for an experienced manager who can bring many other skills and judgements to the decision making process. One technique is known as knowledge discovery. This involves trawling through the data using a further technique called data mining. (EIS). © ABE and RRC . the MIS will extract the relevant data from the database. We have already examined one of the tools used by a DSS when we discussed spreadsheets and the 'what if' scenario. which can be used to discover trends in the data. The data warehouse imports data resulting from the processing of all the different transactions. As we noted before. but it is historical and so has a time factor built into the data. assuming the company is large and spread over several sites. Data Warehousing Data warehousing is a more recent development. A data warehouse is like the database of the MIS. sort it and process it and it will then present the data in some prescribed manner. As a result. data warehouse data is very stable. as they search for people's shopping patterns. which looks for trends in the data. They may look for the pattern of late night or young men shopping. It is then possible for the data to be analysed at leisure.

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