International Journal of Applied Research and Studies (iJARS) ISSN: 2278-9480 Volume 2, Issue 5 (May - 2013) www

.ijars.in

Review Paper

Study of Medium Temperature Solar Thermal Applications
Authors:
1

Parimal S. Bhambare*, 2Dr. G. V. Parishwad

1

Address For correspondence: Mechanical Engineering Department, MIT Academy of Engineering, Alandi(D), Pune 2 Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Pune

Abstract— Solar energy is widely used for a variety of process heat and electricity generation applications. It is essential to apply solar energy for a wide variety of applications and provide energy solutions by modifying the energy proportion, improving energy stability, increasing energy sustainability, conversion reduction and hence enhance the system efficiency. In the work presented here, a brief study of a few medium temperature solar thermal applications up to 2400C pertaining to domestic and industrial applications has been considered. Typical applications in the range included here are water heating, air drying and dehydration, refrigeration and air conditioning, steam generation system and solar cookers. A brief description about the solar thermal technology utilised, fundamentals and applications in industry has been presented here. Keywords — Medium temperature, concentrator, collector, process heating. I. INTRODUCTION Solar thermal energy is used as process heat for different domestic and industrial applications [1,2] in medium and medium to high temperature ranges. These applications includes: hot water supply, desalination, sterilization, pasteurization, drying, space heating and cooling, refrigeration, distillation, washing and cleaning and polymerization. All these applications lies in temperature range between 60 to 2800C [3]. Solar thermal collectors are used for harnessing this solar energy. These collectors are special type of heat exchangers, which absorb the solar radiations, and convert it to heat which is further transferred to the fluid flowing through the collector. These are of two types: concentrating or sun tracking (Single and two axis) and non-

concentrating or stationery type (Refer Table 1). A nonconcentrating collector has the same area for intercepting and for absorbing solar radiation, whereas a sun-tracking concentrating solar collector usually has concave reflecting surfaces to intercept and focus the sun’s beam radiation to a smaller receiving area, thereby increasing the radiation flux. A detailed review of these collectors is presented by Soterius Kaliogirou, 2004 [4]. Non-concentrating or stationery collectors are suitable for low (Flat Plate, FPC and Advanced Flat Plate Collector, AFP) to medium (Evacuated tube, ETC and Compound Parabolic, CPC) temperature applications while concentrating type are suitable for medium (Parabolic trough (PTC), Fresnel, Scheffler and Cylindrical trough) to high temperature (Paraboloid and Heliostat) applications as they produce higher temperature [4, 5]. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the current status of utilization of solar energy in industrial and domestic applications.
TABLE I Type of solar collectors [3]
Motion Collector Type Absorber Type Flat Flat Tubular Tubular Tubular Tubular Tubular Tubular Concentration Indicative Ratio Temperature Range 1 30-80 1 50-200 1-5 60-240 10-40 15-45 10-50 100-1000 100-1500 60-250 60-300 60-300 100-500 150-2000

Stationary Flat Plate Collectors (FPC) Evacuated Tube Collector (ETC) Compound parabolic collector (CPC) Single-axis Linear Fresnel reflector (LFR) tracking Parabolic trough collector (PTC) Cylindrical trough collector (CTC) Two-axes Parabolic dish reflector (PDR) tracking Heliostat field collector (HFC)

Note: Concentration ratio is defined as the aperture area divided by the receiver/absorber area of the collector

parimal.bhambare@gmail.com *Corresponding Author Email-Id

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Manuscript Id: iJARS/478

1

III. About 13% of thermal industrial applications require low temperatures thermal energy up to 1000C. Table III shows few of potential industrial processes and the required temperatures for their operations. partly or completely. controller units. Fig. 1 shows the optimum collector area for different type of solar collectors with demand temperature ranges. Industrial energy analysis shows that solar thermal energy has enormous applications in low (i. Solar thermal energy can be utilized directly as a source of energy. heat to HTF (usually air or water) used in domestic and industrial applications. Most common applications for solar thermal energy used in industry are the solar water heaters. energy is utilized to run different subsystems. solar dryers. which is further to the application as process heat. production plant. there are some challenges for integration of solar heat into a wide variety of industrial processes due to the periodic. solar collector.International Journal of Applied Research and Studies (iJARS) ISSN: 2278-9480 Volume 2. Fig.e. NOx [8]. SO2. Issue 5 (May .e. This IV.in Fig. SOLAR THERMAL CONVERSION SYSTEM A Solar thermal conversion system can be of direct or indirect type. Nevertheless. 8]. energy recovery and cooling systems [6. medium and medium-high (i. space heating and cooling systems and water desalination. 2 Schematic of Indirect Solar Thermal Conversion System [4] Thus solar thermal conversion system plays a very important role in domestic as well as industrial sector [7]. HTF storage tank. switches. dilute and variable nature of solar irradiation [9]. Restricted to Personal Use Only any manipulation will be against copy Right Policy @ iJARS Manuscript Id: iJARS/478 2 . On the contrary an indirect system has two working fluids used in the system. 27% up to 2000C and the remaining applications need high temperature in steel. a typical indirect heating system consists of mainly five major components namely. boiler. gas. With solar thermal energy replacing the fossil fuels for industrial processes not only reduces dependency on conventional fuels but also minimizes greenhouse emissions such as CO2. 2 is used for producing power from solar energy. Almost all industrial processes require heat in some parts of their processes. 20–2000C). Industry utilizes fossil fuels for satisfying their thermal energy requirements partially or completely. INDUSTRIAL ENERGY SYSTEM An Industrial system composed of four major components namely: power supply. 3 shows the block diagram of the industrial energy system. etc. system technologies and type of systems commonly used in industry. Table II gives an overview of solar energy applications. 3 Block diagram of typical industrial energy system [6. HTF forms the working fluid for the system. in the system for its operation.1. As shown in Fig. The efficiency of a solar thermal conversion system is about 70% when compared to a solar electrical direct conversion system which has an efficiency of 17% [7]. Fig. glass and ceramic industry [6].ijars. coal or gas. *Authors Copy. for running a process in the system. 6]. System shown in Fig. For process heat applications boiler and the heat engine will be replaced by the respective application system. Direct heating system heats up the heat transfer fluid (HTF) utilizing solar irradiation. 1 Optimum collector area for different collectors and demand temperatures [3] II. SOLAR THERMAL APPLICATIONS Solar thermal systems not only harness solar irradiations but also store and provide.2013) www. Power supply provides energy to the system with use of either electrical. 80–2400C) temperature levels [3]. pump for circulating the HTF and a heat engine to convert heat to mechanical energy [4. 8] Fig.

Chemistry 14. Business establishment A. Restricted to Personal Use Only any manipulation will be against copy Right Policy @ iJARS Manuscript Id: iJARS/478 3 . drying Boiler feed water Bleaching Soaps Synthetic rubber Processing heat Pre-heating water Washing. In solar water heating systems. Fig. Plastic 13. potable water can either be heated directly in the collector (direct systems) or indirectly by a heat transfer fluid that is heated in the collector. The efficiency of the system depends on the performance of the flat plate collector. Building 12. Hot water or steam demand process 2. degreasing Dyeing Fixing Pressing Cooking. Pasturization and sterilization 6. 6 show both *Authors Copy. TABLE III Heat demand in industries with temperature ranges [6] Flours and by-products Timber by-products Bricks and blocks Plastics Hence all the research in SWH is focussed on performance improvement of flat plate collectors [7]. passes through a heat exchanger to transfer its heat to the domestic or service water (indirect systems). dyeing Drying. sterilization Cooking Washing. Preheating 4. Concentration 5. 1. Issue 5 (May . Chemical reactions 8. This heat can be then stored or used directly. 5 and Fig. Drying and dehydration process 3. Solar Water Heating (SWH) System SWH system provides an effective technology for converting solar energy into thermal energy. The flat plate collector absorbs solar radiations and converts it into heat energy. This heat is then absorbed by HTF flowing through the tubes of the collector. Washing and cleaning 7.ijars. Textile 10. system technologies and type of systems commonly used in industry [3] Solar Energy Solar system technology Type of system applications SWH Thermo syphon systems Passive Integrated collector storage Passive Direct circulation Active Indirect water heating systems Active Air systems Active Space heating and cooling Space heating and service hot water Air systems Water systems Heat pump systems Absorption systems Adsorption systems Mechanical systems Adsorption units Absorption units Industrial air and water systems Steam generation Solar stills Multi stage flash (MSF) Multi effect boiling (MEF) Vapor compression Parabolic trough collector systems Parabolic tower systems Parabolic dish systems Solar furnaces Solar chemistry systems Active Active Active Active Active Active Active Active Active Active Active Passive Active Active Active Active Active Active Active Active Industry Dairy Process Pressurization Sterilization Drying Concentrates Boiler feed water Sterilization Pasteurization Cooking Bleaching Bleaching. Flat plate collectors are the central component of any solar water heating system.2013) www. Food 11. sterilization Pasteurization Sterilization Thermo diffusion beams Drying Pre-heating water Preparation pulp Curing Preparation Distillation Separation Extension Drying Blending Temperature (oC) 60-80 100-120 120-180 60-80 60-90 110-120 60-80 60-90 60-90 60-90 100-130 70-90 160-180 80-100 60-80 60-90 130-150 200-250 150-200 120-180 60-90 60-90 90-100 60-80 60-70 60-80 80-100 60-100 60-90 120-170 60-140 120-140 140-150 200-220 140-160 180-200 120-140 Tinned food Textile Solar refrigeration Industrial heat demand process Solar desalination Paper Chemical Solar thermal power systems Meat Beverages All solar thermal applications in industry can be classified in following manner [6].International Journal of Applied Research and Studies (iJARS) ISSN: 2278-9480 Volume 2.in TABLE II Solar energy applications. Industrial space heating 9.

International Journal of Applied Research and Studies (iJARS) ISSN: 2278-9480 Volume 2. When temperatures above 1000C is required pressurized system is required which makes system cost to increase. pasteurizing.45 tons of SO2. Five types of solar energy systems can be used to heat domestic and service hot water: thermosyphon. indirect. Fig.. ICS. and 562.5 tons of CO produced from burning of furnace oil annually [12]. 9. 7 Solar-oil integrated heating plant. Built in storage type solar water heaters are introduced in Pakistan textile industries’ saving about 17. Except for thermosyphon and integrated collector storage (ICS) systems. Natural circulation occurs by natural convection (thermosyphoning). fermenting and maintaining a room at 550C. tendency of cracking and oxidation are few issues associated with such systems [9]. The first two are called passive systems as no pump is employed. For medium temperature applications (above 1000C) mineral oils are used. Fig. Fig. pasteurization. direct circulation. The process consists of washing. Restricted to Personal Use Only any manipulation will be against copy Right Policy @ iJARS Manuscript Id: iJARS/478 4 . bleaching and washing purposes [6].in the systems [3]. Active SWH systems has been used in dairy industries for washing and cleaning. Fig. Most of the industries use low pressure hot water for different applications below 1000C depending on their heat requirements. DT: Differential Thermometer [4] The system saved about 261 kL of furnace oil per year. 8 shows a process layout of the plant with temperature ranges [8]. higher cost. However. The system is shown in Fig.ijars. Balaji Foods and Feeds Industry from India installed a 1MW SWH system with thermal energy storage system for getting about 11000 litre/day of hot water for an egg powder making plant. 6 Indirect circulation SWH system. whereas the others are called active systems because a pump or fan is employed in order to circulate the fluid [4]. 9. C: solar collector bank [11] SWH systems supply hot water for washing and cleaning of bottles in bottle washing plant.2013) www. S: storage tank. 5 Direct circulation SWH system. boiler feed water (60– *Authors Copy. DT: Differential Thermometer [4] Fig. The system saved environment from emissions gasses viz. which need no control. Fig. solar domestic and service hot water systems are controlled using differential thermostats. Issue 5 (May . 4 Block diagram of SWH system [5] SWH systems are used in textile industries to supply hot water up to 800C for dyeing. 4 shows a typical SWH system [3].13 MJ of fossil fuel energy and subsequently improving the performance [10]. whereas for the forced circulation systems pumps or fans are used. 675 tons of CO2. The heat transfer fluid is transported either naturally (passive systems) or by forced circulation (active systems). The temperature requirement of hot water varies between 40 to 800C at different stages of process. and air.

or open-air sun drying.e.ijars.2013) www. but generally for agricultural products it is around 70% [17.International Journal of Applied Research and Studies (iJARS) ISSN: 2278-9480 Volume 2. flavour. In the production. B. 10 shows the layout out of SWH system for dairy application.in 850C). Transfer of the moisture from the surface to the surrounding air. 13 &14]. Drying rate is an important factor for agricultural and other food products drying. V Belesolis]. i.53 million square metres of SWH systems are installed till June 2010 as per MNRE statistics [15]. Migration of moisture from the mass inside to the surface. Temperature is one of the major factor that affect taste. Generally these methods can be classified into two categories: (a) Direct. This shows three phases of drying: AB is the time spent to heat up the material until drying temperature is attained. 11 shows the drying rate curve for agricultural products. sterilization (130–1500C) and even for drying milk to produce powder. which is heated from 1200C to 1800C [3. Domestic SWH systems are used for supplying hot water for washing clothes. Fig. 9 Control system layout. (b) Indirect solar drying or convective solar drying. drying by flowing heated air circulating either over the upper side. 2. 8 System layout of bottle washing plant [8] Fig. Dehydrated food. Agricultural products drying using solar energy is the oldest method used by mankind for preserving them. Fig. is re-watered and almost regains its initial conditions. dishwashing.1% of world installations and India has way to go ahead in this area [16]. Another case of drying (or dewatering) is the total removal of moisture until food has no moisture at all. milk and whey are spraydried in huge towers with air. Issue 5 (May . bathing and other cleaning processes with temperature up to 650C. bottom side or both. Few products require pre-treatment before solar drying to keep their flavour and texture. Two basic moisture transfer mechanisms are involved in drying [17]: 1. in the form of water vapour. colour. Moisture content of the food stuff is reduced to increase its longer shelf life. or across its mass is the widest among drying methods used worldwide. 10 Dairy plant with SWH [13] Fig. CE the *Authors Copy. Solar Air Drying and Dehydration Drying (or dewatering) is a simple process of excess water (moisture) removal from a natural or industrial product in order to reach the standard specification moisture content. the direct exposure to the sun. Compared to world total SWH installations in 2005 was about 2. Convective drying. 8 System layout of bottle washing plant [8] Fig. texture or nutritional values of the product. Balaji Foods and Feeds Industry. when ready to use. It is an energy intensive operation. Fig. Moisture content of foodstuff is around 25–80%. India [12] India holds about 3. BC is the constant-rate drying. Hot air heats up the product and conveys released moisture to atmosphere. Restricted to Personal Use Only any manipulation will be against copy Right Policy @ iJARS Manuscript Id: iJARS/478 5 .

On the other hand indirect air heating has only disadvantage as higher initial cost. moisture content movement takes place slowly by diffusion and drying can stop e.International Journal of Applied Research and Studies (iJARS) ISSN: 2278-9480 Volume 2. increased productivity.al [19]. II and III [17] Direct or open air solar drying technique is used for millennia by mankind for preserving food and agricultural products. Issue 5 (May . contamination. Table IV shows drying data before and after solar drying for few agricultural and food products with drying air temperature [18]. Table IV Drying data for few agricultural products before and after solar drying [18] Product Bananas Barley Beets Cardamom Cassava Chilies Coffee seeds Moisture Percent (wb) Initial 80 18-20 75-85 80 62 90 65 Final 15 11-13 10-14 10 17 20 11 Drying Air Temperature (oC) 70 40-82 45-50 70 35-40 45-50 Solar dryers can be classified into different categories. Fig. Literature reviewed shows numerous types of solar dryers have been designed and implemented for drying of agricultural and food drying applications. 12 Classification of solar dryer [17] Solar energy for wastewater sludge drying is another area of application for solar drying.in falling rate drying where mass flow of moisture from interior is decreased continuously. controlled drying. Fig. Higher drying rate. Fig.g. *Authors Copy. Copra Com Cotton French beans Garlic Grapes Green forages Hay Longan Medicinal plants Oats Onions Peanuts Pepper Potato Pyrethrum Rice Rye Sorghum Soybeans Spinach leaves Sweet potato Tea Virgin Tobacco Wheat 75 28-32 25-35 70 80 74-78 80-90 30-60 75 85 20-25 80-85 45-50 80 75-85 70 25 16-20 30-35 20-25 80 75 75 85 18-20 5 10-13 5-7 5 4 18 10-14 12-16 20 11 12-13 8 13 10 10-14 10-13 12 11-13 10-13 11 10 7 5 12 11-14 35-40 43-82 -75 55 50-60 -35-45 -35-50 43-82 50 35 55 70 -43 -43-82 61-67 -75 50 35-70 43-82 Fig. attacks by birds and insects and other unfavourable conditions. This is a simple technique with few major disadvantages such as uncontrolled and slow rate of operation. fermentation. C is the critical point where surface is not any more saturated and the falling rate period starts. no losses at all in terms of quality are the few advantages of the technique to mention [17]. El-Sebaii et. In point E there is still moisture inside the product. It involves some thermal energy collecting devices and dryers of special techniques. dusting. environmental and weather condition dependency. Both direct and indirect methods of solar drying are used for the process. Temperature plays important role in solar drying processes. 12 shows the different types [19]. Average temperature of agricultural product drying is around 600C but it may reach to about 800C for a few. at point D when the final moisture content is reached [17].2013) www.A.ijars. A brief review of them has been presented by Arun Mujumdar [18] and A. Restricted to Personal Use Only any manipulation will be against copy Right Policy @ iJARS Manuscript Id: iJARS/478 6 . 13 shows the schematic of solar assisted wastewater sludge dryer [20]. 11 Drying rate curve for phase I.

Solar thermal systems can be integrated with conventional energy supplies in an appropriate way to meet the system requirements. The NH3–H2O system is more complicated than the LiBr– H2O system.ijars. adsorption. In addition. Absorption refrigeration systems are adopted most frequently for solar cooling over other systems. The coefficient of performance (COP). It requires very low or no electrical input and for the same cooling capacity. 13 Schematic of covered solar assisted wastewater sludge dryer [20] A silk cocoon solar assisted drying has been presented by Panna Lal Singh [21].77 N and 0. 14 shows the schematic of the system.7 [4].in Fig. solid and liquid desiccant and solar-electrical technologies are used for solar refrigeration and air conditioning system. Issue 5 (May . The main advantages of solar cooling systems concern the reduction of peak loads for electricity utilities. is between 0. It was counted that about 59% of the solar cooling systems in Europe were solar absorption cooling systems. Solar Refrigeration and Air Conditioning With solar thermal energy absorption.2013) www. the use of zero ozone depletion impact refrigerants. the decreased primary energy consumption and decreased global warming impact [22] though reduction of green house gases up to 50% [23]. The NH3–H2O system requires generator temperatures in the range of 125–1700C with air-cooled absorber and condenser and 95–1200C when water-cooling is used.75 N respectively. The tenacity of the silk thread obtained for solar dried cocoon and electrical dried cocoon were about 0. Fig. In China. Restricted to Personal Use Only any manipulation will be against copy Right Policy @ iJARS Manuscript Id: iJARS/478 7 . which is defined as the ratio of the cooling effect to the heat input.International Journal of Applied Research and Studies (iJARS) ISSN: 2278-9480 Volume 2. The LiBr–H2O system operates at a generator Fig. C. 14 Schematic of forced convection solar assisted silk cocoon dryer [20] Temperature in the range of 70–950C with water used as a coolant in the absorber and condenser and has COP higher *Authors Copy. The NPV (net present value) of solar dryer is found to be more stable as against the escalation rate in electricity as compared to the same for electrical dryer.15 Basic principle of absorption refrigeration system [4] Fig. almost all the largescale solar cooling demonstration projects during the last twenty years were based upon absorption systems [22]. Industries which involve drying process usually use hot air or gas with a temperature range between 1400C and 2200C. The optimum temperature for the process is about 60-800C. Heat storage seems to be necessary when system is required to work in the periods of day when there is no irradiation [3]. 15 shows the basic principle of operation for absorption refrigeration system.6 and 0. the fluidity of the absorbent gives greater flexibility in realizing a more compact and/or efficient system [24]. Fig. The most usual combinations of fluids include lithium bromide-water (LiBr –H2O) where water vapour is the refrigerant and ammonia–water (NH3–H2O) systems where ammonia is the refrigerant. the physical dimensions of an absorption refrigeration system are usually smaller than that of an adsorption refrigeration system due to the high heat and mass transfer coefficient of the absorbent.

Fig.8. either in a sensible heat form or in a latent heat using Cool Thermal Energy Storage (CTES) is used in industries for process cooling. Single effect chillers operate with pressurized hot water temperature ranging from 80 to 1500C. corrosion or crystallization (Li-Br system) problem.7 tons of CO2 throughout the summer period.ijars. In market two types of chillers are available. the single and double effect. A variety of solar collectors are used in the solar refrigeration system. lower equipment cost and more effective when lower grade energy such as solar energy is used. 18 shows the solar absorption chiller system with storage tank. 19. 19 Fig. COP of double effect chillers is higher and it is about 0. 17 Solar absorption chiller with storage tank [25] Solar assisted air conditioning systems generally based on solar absorption refrigeration. Compared to absorption. food preservation and building air conditioning systems [25]. Issue 5 (May . storage method and applications for the solar refrigeration systems. The COP of this system is between 0.International Journal of Applied Research and Studies (iJARS) ISSN: 2278-9480 Volume 2. Sabina et al. [26] presented a simulation study of silica gel-water solar adsorption refrigeration system using MATLAB Simulink as tool.9-1. *Authors Copy. On the other hand double effect chillers operate with higher temperature of heat source which ranges from 155-2050C. 16 shows a single-effect absorption cooling system shows the structure of silica gel-water adsorption chiller system. use LiBr-H2O absorption systems with hot water or steam as the heat source.6 and 0. Fig. Schematic of the system is shown in Fig. A disadvantage of the LiBr –H2O systems is that their evaporator cannot operate at temperatures much below 50C since the refrigerant is water vapour.2 [4]. The COP of the system varies little with heat source. [27] from their performance evaluation study shown that integrating chilled water storage tanks with the solar assisted air conditioning system it is possible to save 30% of water consumption. 18 Structure of silica gel-water adsorption chiller [26] Fig. Fig. 20% of electrical consumption and about 1. adsorption refrigeration system shows advantages like no distillation (NH3-H2O system). 16 Single-effect absorption cooling system[22] Storing cool energy during sunshine hours in a cool thermal energy storage tank. 19 Solar assisted air conditioning system [27] Fig. compound parabolic collectors or concentrating collectors are used. Table V shows the details of the collectors.2013) www. Fig. Hot water temperature is in the range of about 40850C but below 1000C to prevent degradation of silica gel. But for temperatures above 1000C evacuated tube collectors. Flat plate collectors are sufficient to achieve temperatures below 1000C. Commercially available chillers for air conditioning systems.in than the NH3–H2O systems. Zhang et al. Restricted to Personal Use Only any manipulation will be against copy Right Policy @ iJARS Manuscript Id: iJARS/478 8 .

Fig. Parabolic trough collectors (PTC) are mainly employed for solar steam generation. Sensible 2. Latent 3. Adsorption 2. Air conditioning ( i) office (ii) Hotel (iii) Building (iv) Laboratory 2. Concentrated collector Solar PV (electrical) 1. sterilization.2013) www. Evacuated tube collector 3. is transferred to an unfired boiler where steam is generated by heat exchange to water [4]. ThermoChemical Production of cool energy Thermal storage (cool energy) 1. Three concepts are used to produce solar steam namely. Absorption 1. 21 Schematic of Direct or in situ steam generation system [4] D. 20 Schematic of steam flash system [4] E. Fig. Thermo4. Principally solar cookers and ovens absorb solar energy and convert it to heat which is captured inside an enclosed area. Flat plate collector 2. and for powering desalination evaporations. In steam flash method. In-situ or direct and unfired boiler. Vapor Compression 2. 29]. Restricted to Personal Use Only any manipulation will be against copy Right Policy @ iJARS Manuscript Id: iJARS/478 9 . etc. In most of these designs the sun actually strikes the food for cooking. Issue 5 (May . the steam flash.. Desiccant 3. In direct or in situ method two phase flow is passed in the collector to produce steam. 23 Classification of solar cookers [29] *Authors Copy.ijars. 22 Schematic of unfired boiler steam generation system [4] come in many shapes and sizes. Process industries (i) Dairy (ii) Pharmaceutical (iii) Chemical Fig. Latent 3. Figs. This absorbed heat is used for cooking or baking various kinds of food. Sensible 2. Ejector Chemical Applications Sun Solar Thermal 1. pressurized hot water from collector is flashed in separate vessel to produce steam. Solar cookers Fig. 21 and 22 shows the schematic of above systems. Thermoelectric 1. Unfired boiler system uses heat transfer fluid which passes through the collector. Solar Cookers Solar cooker is an age old technology used worldwide for cooking food.International Journal of Applied Research and Studies (iJARS) ISSN: 2278-9480 Volume 2.in Table V Stages and options in solar cooling technologies [25] Source Conversion Thermal storage (hot energy) 1. 20. Solar Steam Generation Systems Low temperature is used in industrial applications. but all cookers trap heat in some form of insulated compartment [28. In solar cookers internal box temperatures can be achieved up to 3000C. Food preservation (i) Vegetables (ii) Fruits (iii) Meat and Fish 3.

24 summarises different types of box type cookers while Fig. 25. Efforts in the direction of improvement in the efficiencies of the solar collecting systems such as reducing the top loss coefficient by introducing aerofoil design shape for glass covers for SWH systems. This stored heat can be used to cook the food in case of cloudy environment or cooking indoors or cooking off sunshine hours. stearic acid. Solar cookers with thermal storage use thermal energy storage material to store thermal energy. System design engineers. 25 Concentrating type cooker: (a) panel cooker. Solar cookers with flat plate collector. solution providers. Direct type cookers are broadly classified into box type and concentrating type cookers. are the examples of few latent heat storage material or phase change materials (PCM) used in solar cookers for thermal energy storage [28. (e) Fresnel concentrator and (f) cylindro-parabolic concentrator [29]. (c) with double reflector. (b) funnel cooker. 26 Indirect type solar cooker: (a) with flat plate collector. government should encourage utilisation of solar thermal *Authors Copy. Fig. vegetable oil or sand. Issue 5 (May . (f) with eight reflector [29] Fig. polyethylene. Direct type make use of solar energy directly in cooking process while indirect type uses heat transfer fluid to transfer heat from collector to cooking pot [29]. (d) with three reflectors (e) with four reflectors. Restricted to Personal Use Only any manipulation will be against copy Right Policy @ iJARS Manuscript Id: iJARS/478 10 .2013) www.International Journal of Applied Research and Studies (iJARS) ISSN: 2278-9480 Volume 2.23 solar cookers are broadly classified into solar cookers with storage and without storage. 29]. the overall efficiency depends on the proper integration of the different systems and appropriate design of the solar concentrators/collectors. Fig. 25 summarises different types of concentrating type solar cookers. (b) with single reflector. Engine oil. should be employed to make the system more cost effective (reducing pay-back period) and environmental friendly in terms of reduction in terms of CO2 emissions in order to penetrate in the industries. acetanilide. Fig. service engineers and material providers should consider solar installations as a sustainable energy development. latent heat storage materials are used for storing the thermal energy. etc. manufacturers.in As shown in Fig. system design with minimum number of components. etc. heat transfer fluid is being used to collect heat and transfer it to the cooking pot. coconut oil. The various types of indirect type solar cookers are shown in Fig.ijars. utilization of less energy intensive materials for manufacturing of the system. Besides. Solar heat for industrial processes has a great potential to curb the demand for conventional energies which reduce our dependence on imported fuels and to reduce CO2 emissions. Solar cookers without storage are further classified into direct and indirect solar cookers depending upon heat transfer mechanism to the cooking pot. CONCLUSION A brief overview of different solar thermal application in medium temperature applications has been presented here to elaborate the extent of the applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial applications. (c) parabolic concentrators at Tirumala Tirupathi Devasthanam and (d) spherical reflectors at Auroville [29]. (b) with evacuated tube collector. However. In indirect type solar cookers. While acetamide. Both sensible and V. (c) spherical reflector. salt hydrate. evacuated tube collector and concentrating type collector are commercially available cookers under this category. (d) parabolic reflector. 24 Box type cooker: (a) without reflector. granular carbon are some of the common thermal energy storage material used for sensible heat storage.

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