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rti NHA sin S g pe Se ci ct al ion 35 -









the magazine of power generation

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Wind Turbine

the magazine of power generation

March 2013

For info. RS# 1


COAL: An Important Option


he outlook for coal-f red power production in the U.S. is not as ominous as most people think. Predictions of the death of coal-f red power are based on hype from enthusiastic idealists and unwitting journalists caught in a popular campaign against coal. The transition to gas-f red generation will continue, which is a good thing. Increasing the use of this nations large supply of shale gas will lead to fewer emissions, better effciency and more diversity. But coal will continue to be the backbone of the nations power sector because of its reliability and affordability. The natural gas industry, for a number of reasons, is not ready to take the lead in providing most of the nations power supplies. Most power producers acknowledge this risk. There are too many questions about reserves, pipeline capacity and pricing. Whats more, the increasing use of natural gas as a transportation fuel and the opportunity to sell U.S. gas supplies overseas at higher prices creates a large amount of risk, which means power producers will need signifcant coal capacity to mitigate that risk. After all, the nations grid was built around coal, which makes coal largely more reliable than gas. Coal will remain the dominant source of power generation in the U.S. for the next 27 years, according to the Department of Energys Annual Energy Outlook, which was released last month. Coal will account for 35 percent of the nations power in 2040, down from 42 percent in 2011, the report showed. Gas will be used to

produce 30 percent of the countrys power supplies in 2040, up from 24 percent in 2011. The amount of power produced from renewable resources will grow from 13 percent in 2011 to just 16 percent in 2040. The lions share of future demand will be met with whats left of the nations existing feet of coal-f red plants, upgraded at great cost with emission control technologies. However, its not enough. In the name of reliability and affordability, power producers should be given the option of building new generation fueled with coal. Right now, they dont have that option. It was eliminated under a new greenhouse gas rule that essentially bars the construction of a coal-f red plant in the U.S. It is one of the most ill-conceived rules ever proposed by the EPA. But the book on new emission standards for coal-f red plants is still being written. Just last month, the EPA delayed the release of its greenhouse gas standard for new plants. The agency said it needs more time to review more than 2 million comments on the rule. Industry observers say the delay means the agency may revamp the rule in a way that returns to power producers the option of constructing new generation f red by coal. Given that option, I believe U.S. power producers will

bear the added cost of pollution controls and pursue new coal projects as a tool to mitigate the enormous risk and vulnerability posed by natural gas. Meanwhile, the market is telling us that coal should play a starring role in this nations plan to meet demand with reliable and affordable energy. In March, the use of coal-f red generation was 21 percent higher than the same month last year, according to Genscapes Generation Fuel Monitoring Service. The use of gas-f red generation and renewable power fell 11 percent and 14 percent, respectively. Natural gas prices are rising much faster than coal prices, prompting power producers to use more coal to meet demand. Gas prices have risen 60 percent in the last year, while coal prices have increased just 2 percent during the same period. Giving power producers the option to pursue new coal projects by establishing a reasonable GHG limit for coal is a compromise that achieves the right balance between environmental concerns and economic concerns. Lets hope the EPA is listening. If you have a question or a comment, please contact me at russellr@ pennwe

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No. 5, May 2013

MANAGING EDITOR Russell Ray (918) 832-9368 ASSOCIATE EDITOR Denver Nicks (918) 832-9214 ASSOCIATE EDITOR Justin Martino (918) 831-9492 ON-LINE EDITOR Sharryn Dotson (918) 832-9339 CONTRIBUTING EDITORRobynn Andracsek, P.E. CONTRIBUTING EDITORBrad Buecker CONTRIBUTING EDITORBrian Schimmoller GRAPHIC DESIGNER Deanna Priddy Taylor (918) 832-9378 SUBSCRIBER SERVICE P.O. Box 3271, Northbrook, IL 60065 Phone: (847) 559-7501 Fax: (847) 291-4816 E-mail: MARKETING MANAGER Wendy Lissau (918) 832-9391 SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT, NORTH AMERICAN POWER GENERATION GROUP Richard Baker (918) 831-9187 NATIONAL BRAND MANAGER Rick Huntzicker (770) 578-2688


Executive Roundtable Executives from the fastest growing sector of U.S. power generation sit
down with Power Engineering to discuss issues currently affecting gas power generation, including EPA regulation and cost issues.

38 Gas Turbines
With an increased amount of U.S. power generation coming from both renewable energy and natural gas, Power Engineering examines the latest innovations in gas-turbine technology that can accommodate the variability of wind and solar power.

46 Steam

Learn about the challenges and possible outcomes of steam turbine rehabilitation, which can allow a power producer a chance to optimize an entire turbine design.

Turbine Rehabs

CHAIRMAN Frank T. Lauinger PRESIDENT/CEO Robert F. Biolchini CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER/SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT Mark C. Wilmoth CIRCULATION MANAGER Linda Thomas PRODUCTION MANAGER Katie Noftsger POWER ENGINEERING, ISSN 0032-5961, USPS 440-980, is published 12 times a year, monthly by PennWell Corp., 1421 S. Sheridan Rd., Tulsa, OK 74112; phone (918) 835-3161. Copyright 2013 by PennWell Corp. (Registered in U.S. Patent Trademark Offce). Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specifc clients, is granted by POWER ENGINEERING, ISSN 0032-5961, provided that the appropriate fee is paid directly to Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 USA 508-750-8400. Prior to photocopying items for educational classroom use, please contact Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 USA 508-750-8400. Periodicals postage paid at Tulsa, OK and additional mailing offces. Subscription: U.S.A. and possessions, $88 per year; Canada and Mexico, $98 per year; international air mail, $242 per year. Single copies: U.S., $14, Outside U.S. $23. Back issues of POWER ENGINEERING may be purchased at a cost of $14 each in the United States and $16 elsewhere. Copies of back issues are also available on microflm and microfche from University Microflm, a Xerox Co., 300 N. Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48103. Available on LexisNexis, Box 933, Dayton, OH 45402; (800) 227-4908. POSTMASTER: Send change of address, other circulation information to POWER ENGINEERING, PO Box 3271, Northbrook, IL 60065-3271. POWER ENGINEERING is a registered trademark of PennWell Corp. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to P.O. Box 122, Niagara Falls, ON L2E 6S4. Member American Business Press BPA International PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. GST NO. 126813153 Publications Mail Agreement No. 40052420

52 Nuclear Safety in 2013:

Associate Editor Denver Nicks gives an overview of where the nuclear industry currently stands on safety as plant operators deal with increased concern and scrutiny in the aftermath of the Fukushima incident.

An Overview

60 Wind Turbine Lubrication

Wind turbines represent a large investment to their owners and may present unique challenges when it comes to lubrication and maintenance.

and Maintenance

1 4 8 10 Opinion Industry News Clearing the Air Gas Generation 12 14 16 View On Renewables Demand Response Nuclear Reactions 18 70 72 What Works Products Generating Buzz


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ITEM Output Efciency Heat Rate Exhaust Flow Exhaust Temp UNIT MW %(LHV) Btu/kWh lb/h F H-15 16.9 34.4 9,950 420,000 1,047 H-25 32 34.8 9,806 767,000 1,042 H-80 99.3 37.5 9,100 2,262,000 986

ISO Conditions (Sea Level, 59F, 60% RH), Natural Gas Firing


combustion turbine (Hitachi H-80), and several upgrades of the mature H-25 combustion turbine technology, ranging from 3242 MW. Hitachis combustion turbine lineup is ideal for upgrading/replacing existing simple cycle and combined cycle combustion turbines. Nominal combined cycle outputs of 140 MW or 285 MW are achievable with the H-80 combustion turbine in 1x1 or 2x1 plant arrangements. Learn more from Hitachi Power Systems America.


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Coalition of states threaten EPA with suit over NSPS delay

Ten states, the District of Columbia and New York City have sent a letter to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency threatening to sue over the delay in fnalizing the New Source Performance Standard.

Five-year uprate project completed at Turkey Point

Florida Light & Powers Turkey Point nuclear power plant came back online April 17 after a fve-year uprate project increased the output. The $3 billion project was originally estimated to cost half as much. It was proposed in 2007, but construction did not begin until 2010. Unit 4 was upgraded and connected to the grid on April 17. Unit 3 was completed in 2012. Unit 4 will gradually be scaled up to 100 percent output, at which point, the plant will be capable of producing an extra 525 MW, or 15 percent above its pre-uprate capacity.

In January 2012, a main generator output breaker failed, and the missing insulation caused a startup transformer to short circuit, causing a loss of offsite power. The NRC said during an augmented inspection the following September that plant owners did not properly supervise contractors and that they missed improperly connected wires that led to the electrical short.

Mississippi Power requests $540mn more for the Kemper County IGCC plant
Mississippi Power asked state regulators for an additional $540 million to build the 582 MW Kemper County integrated gasifcation combined-cycle power plant. The cost to build the plant is now at $3.42 billion. Due to a settlement agreement with

The notice provided EPA 60 days before the lawsuit is fled. EPAs deadline to fnalize the NSPS rule was April 13. The other states joining the action are Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont and Washington. The rule was originally introduced in March 2012 while Lisa Jackson was EPA administrator. Gina McCarthy has been nominated to take her place.

U.S. solar industry puts people to work in all 50 states

The Solar Foundations interactive map shows that California leads the nation in the number of workers employed in the solar industry. Arizona, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Colorado, New York, Texas, Michigan and Ohio round out the top ten states for solar jobs. The maps also break down jobs by subsector in each state, compiling data on installation jobs, manufacturing jobs, sales and distribution jobs and project development jobs.

NRG Energy proposes three gas-fred projects in New York

NRG Energy is proposing at least one new natural gas-fred power plant and possibly two others to replace the loss of generation from the 2,037 MW Indian Point nuclear power plant in New York if it is shut down. NRG is proposing a combined-cycle natural gas-fred power plant that would replace oil- and gas-fred units at the 580 MW Astoria plant in New York City. That plant would cost up to $1.5 billion and produce between 520 MW and 1,040 MW. NRG is also proposing a new plant at the site of the closed Lovett coal-fred power plant. Reports have said closing the plant could cost electricity customers as much as $800 million.

ABB sued over nuclear plant shutdown

Kansas City Power & Light and other co-owners of the Wolf Creek nuclear power plant in Kansas are suing ABB for more than $25 million in damages for claims that ABB did not perform proper repairs on a startup transformer that led to a 10-week shutdown at the plant in 2012. The repairs involved electrical pathways for redundant offsite power sources that keep safety systems running without interruption. An April 2011 inspection showed that the replacements were not properly insulated.

the state Public Service Commission, the utility cannot recover the overruns from customers. Instead, Mississippi Power is reporting a $540 million loss for the frst quarter. The plant is expected to begin operations in May 2014.

DOE announces nuclear fuel storage research

The U.S. Department of Energy announced a new dry storage research and development project to be led by the Electric Power Research Institute. The project will design and demonstrate dry storage cask technology for high burn-up spent nuclear fuels that have been removed from commercial nuclear power plants. Burn up


Building Confidence
Bechtel is among the most respected engineering, project management, and construction companies in the world. Bechtel operates through five global business units that specialize in power generation; civil infrastructure; mining and metals; oil, gas and chemicals; and government services. Since its founding in 1898, Bechtel has worked on more than 22,000 projects in 140 countries on all seven continents. Today, our 53,000 employees team with customers, partners and suppliers on diverse projects in nearly 50 countries. We stand apart for our ability to get the job done rightno matter how big, how complex, or how remote.

relates to the power extracted from reactor fuels. The work builds on the steps the DOE is taking in FY 2013, and has proposed for FY 2014, to support a new strategy for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. power from the Navajo Generating Station in Arizona and the Intermountain Power Plant in Utah. LADWP is selling its share of the Navajo plant to the Salt River Project by the end of the year, and has already approved an amendment to its contract with the Intermountain plant to switch to receive the output from a smaller gas-fred power plant in southern California. The ratepayer advocate also said ending the contract with the Navajo plant three years ahead of the termination date could cost between $150 million and $200 million. hydroelectric plant near Great Falls. The single, 60 MW unit replaced smaller units with a combined capacity of 35 MW that were installed between 1910 and 1930, which increased the output by 70 percent. The new unit began commercial operation on April 22. The overhaul also included a new turbine with wider fow passages and fewer rotating surfaces for increased fsh safety and a $38 million, 100 kV interconnection project that will connect the fve hydropower plants to NorthWestern Energys grid.

Gas plant relocation could cost Canadian taxpayers $275mn

A decision to end construction on a 280 Mw natural gas-f red power plant in Mississauga, Ontario, and relocate it to Sarnia will likely cost taxpayers $275 million, according to the Ontario Auditor General. Construction on the plant began in June 2011, but after the general election the following October, the Liberal Party said it would cancel construction of the plant. At the time, the party said the costs would be around $190 million once a litigation settlement was included. However, a special report said total costs are about $351 million, but that is offset by an estimated savings of about $76 million.

Construction begins on 579 MW solar project in California

MidAmerican Solar and SunPower Corp. started major construction at the 579 MW Antelope Valley solar projects in California. SunPower is designing and developing the projects, while MidAmer-

Fluor to continue nuclear O&M work with PG&E

Pacifc Gas & Electric (PG&E) extended a contract with Fluor Corp. for operations and maintenance work at the Diablo Canyon units 1 and 2 in California.

LAs move from coal could cost $600mn

Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosas plan to end the use of coal-fred generation could cost the city more than $600 million, according to the LA Times. The ratepayer advocate for the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) said he was not sure what that effect would have on electric bills. Currently, the city receives 39 percent of its The initial contract was awarded in May 2010. Fluor will continue to provide ongoing maintenance, modifcation and outage services for the units. ican Solar owns them. SunPower is also the engineering, procurement and construction contractor and will provide operations and maintenance services under a multi-year agreement. Southern California Edison has two power purchase agreements for the output The plant is expected to be completed by the end of 2015.

Wind power project in Ontario breaks ground

Samsung Renewable Energy Inc. and Pattern Energy Group broke ground on the 270 MW South Kent wind project in Ontario on April 30. The project will use 124 turbines made up of Siemens blades and CS Wind towers. There will be approximately 300 workers on-site during construction, with 500 workers expected during peak construction periods. The project is scheduled to be completed in the spring of 2014.

Overhaul completed at Montana hydroelectric power plant

PPL Montana completed a threeand-a-half year, $209 million expansion at the now 60 MW Rainbow

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MATS Its Time to Giddy Up or GIJoe


tilities have until April 2015 to comply with the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard, otherwise known as MATS. If you do the math in regards to evaluating your options including bidding and procuring a solution, the time is running short to pull the trigger on deciding the fate of your plant. In some cases, depending upon your specifc needs, time may be too short to implement the necessary technologies and avoiding generation interruption (GI). You (Joe) may be forced to take a unit off line while the changes are being installed and commissioned. Many solutions to meet MATS may be less onerous then you think. Companies supplying technology solutions are willing to provide proven options that could be implemented in stages. Remember not to paint yourself into a corner by electing a solution that will get you into compliance now but force you into other issues down the road. Economical heartburn can result from having to rip out equipment that was installed in a location that is needed for future upgrades. Drill a step deeper and remember when making plans or decisions now to consider what will be implemented next. Always think smart and do not overlook something obvious like layouts with future upgrade potentials, auxiliary transformer sizing or draft system sizing when making decisions about a technology solution. There are many cases where there is more than one solution for meeting MATS. It could be attractive to save

costs by installing a solution today that will only be regretted later as it may be too costly to operate because of the increase in costs for intangibles required. Some more expensive solutions upfront may offer certainty of outcome for many years to come by eliminating the need for externalities such as sorbents or other chemical additions. These running costs could rise due to supply and demand issues, transportation, etc. But you can say the cost of money is more pressing now. We all know the pay me now or pay me later routine, just keep these factors in front of you. Many decisions face our coal feet today. Retroft, retirement, gas conversions all come with various costs, risks and yes uncertainty. And, there are more regulations that are coming that will most certainly play a signifcant role in making these decisions even more diffcult. The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and Green House Gas (GHG) regulations are just two more giant gorillas in the waiting room, not to mention water effuent guidelines, 316(b) and coal combustion residue. Will your MATS solutions add complications to your wastewater streams or solid byproducts? Will they contribute to GHG / CO2 emissions? These daunting facts may favor the consideration of shutting down a coal asset. We wouldnt say that the decision to shut down a plant is easy, as we know many factors come into play. Each plant has its own set of

specifc factors to evaluate including the impacts on the local economy. Repowering is in some cases possible, but nothing can justify an outcome that leaves our nation with voids of depleted energy and a less than dependable grid. Natural gas prices have made this even more complex and at the same time easier for some to determine their path ahead for MATS compliance. Logically, it would make sense to have a balanced portfolio of energy sources and fuel mix which will include coal. Clean coal technology is real and available today. Dont leave your coal plant behind without considering all of the available options. This write-up would be incomplete without mentioning MATS for new units, although few in the U.S. are building or planning new coal-f red plants at this moment. We do not see good reasons for new units to have so much more stringent limits than existing ones. After all, the same stateof- the-art pollution control equipment is used for retroft and new build units. Limits too low to measure accurately and repeatedly present tremendous uncertainties to owners and suppliers alike and yet contribute little to protect the environment. It may take some time for these newer rules to impact specifc utility units, but the clock is ticking, and the pressure is on. Fasten your seat belts and lets giddy up. Think Smart, Act Fast and Enjoy the ride.


The Best Of The Best


Founded in 1988, PIC has been a leader in the power generation industry for over 20 years. We are experts at managing multi-faceted projects including start-up and commissioning, operations and maintenance, installation, turbine outages, mechanical services and technical services. Combine these capabilities with our responsive approach and global resources, and its easy to see why those who know choose PIC.

For info. RS# 4

Founded in 1988


Shale Gas Comes of Age


Author Michelle works with ANGAs State Affairs Committees, as well as utilities, regulators, legislators and other business-to-business stakeholders to communicate the economic and environmental benefts of the increased use of clean, abundant, domestic natural gas. Prior to offcially joining the ANGA team in 2010, Michelle was extensively involved in its creation through her previous position with ANGA member company Energen, where she spent more than 20 years. Michelle served as the frst co-chair of ANGAs Communications Committee and has made signifcant contributions to the organizations development.

he promise of shale gas has been dominating the energy debate for several years now. But the conversation is shifting from the potential to the practical in the choices utilities are making, in the facilities and pipelines being built and in the real, tangible progress being made in reducing our greenhouse gas emissions. In other words, shale gas has arrived, and its here to stay.

gas emissions since 1992. Natural gas combined-cycle turbines are also far more effcient than boilers or other forms of combustion about 40 percent more power comes from each unit of energy input. Perhaps most importantly, utilities are responding to the broad scientifc consensus of our nations prolonged abundance of natural gas and the low, steady prices that will accompany continued development.

that, thanks to the drop in natural gas prices.

There is little credible debate about the fact that abundant natural gas supplies are available and could be used virtually anywhere in the U.S. Today, we have over 2.4 million miles of natural gas pipelines. On a national level, 16,000 miles of interstate pipeline have been approved in the last decade, the largest amount in 40 years. By contrast, only 900 miles of electric transmission lines have been approved. Our role has been to assure all parties of the large supplies that now are produced, often right in the market area. The distance natural gas now has to travel to market has dropped dramatically, thanks to shale gas production in 30 states. Take for example the Marcellus and Utica shales: two impressive resources that are being produced near major industrial and population areas precluding our historic reliance on long pipelines to get gas where it needs to go.

In the last decade, natural gas-fred power generation has accounted for the lions share of electricity additions in the U.S., making up 73 percent of new capacity. Together with wind, the two have captured 99 percent of all new generation capacity. Until just recently, however, many of these additions were sitting dormant, underutilized and passed over for coal-fred generation. The tide is changing. In April 2012, for the frst time in history, actual generation produced from natural gasfred plants equaled that produced from coal-fred plants, at 96 million MWh apiece. Market share still depends on relative prices, but this was an important landmark. Why the change? For one, natural gas is our cleanest conventional fuel, emitting far less NOx, SOx, and CO2 and none of the particulates or mercury. This means cleaner air and, more practically, fewer hurdles to construction. It is precisely this use of more natural gas in power generation that, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, last year helped us reach our lowest level of greenhouse


This game-changing abundance and the potential for consumer savings have become key factors in the energy choices of some of our biggest customers. As representatives of the nations largest independent natural gas producers, Americas Natural Gas Alliance (ANGA) has been working with utilities, independent generators, regulators, organized markets and legislators to ensure confdence in the ability of natural gas to fulfll the major and growing role it now plays in U.S. power generation. Thanks to the shale gas revolution, North Americas recoverable resource base is projected to last for generations. Todays expectations of natural gas production in the lower 48 states are dramatically higher than they were in 2007, the year before shale-driven abundance was truly recognized. Natural gas productivity has led to dramatic decreases in price, resulting in impressive consumer savings. Conservatively, U.S. utility consumers are saving more than $50 billion per year, and by some measures more than twice

As the shale gas revolution has come of age, we have seen the enormous promise of this resource fulflled; as a base load- capable fuel that is cleaner, available at stable prices and vastly abundant. Our air quality has seen its greatest improvement in 20 years, capacity additions and actual generation are up dramatically, and this fexible resource is being delivered to market via a rapidly expanding pipeline infrastructure. Shale has indeed arrived, and its here to stay.


For info. RS# 5


North American Utilities Commit to Reliable, Affordable Wind Energy


ind energys contributions of clean power in North America in 2012 grew signifcantly. The U.S. installed over 13 GW of new wind capacity. In Canada, utilities connected nearly 1 GW of new wind capacity. The cumulative global capacity of wind energy is now approaching 300 GW. This growth is not by accident it has been driven by forward thinking policy, and has been enabled through sophisticated design, tools and technologies. There are many widely known and accepted benefts that wind energy development brings to communities the overwhelming positive environmental attributes, increased taxes, revenue and job creation. What is less well known are the positive attributes that wind energy brings to the bulk power grid. The primary purpose of the electrical system is to deliver electricity on demand, when needed reliably, safely and affordably. The introduction of wind energy on the electrical grid must not cannot compromise these underlying principles. The modern power grid was designed based on one-way fow of electricity from a centralized power source to a distributed customer. Wind energy does not necessarily ft this mould, and power engineers have gone to great lengths to ensure that wind energy can be interconnected with the power grid without compromising system reliability. In fact, wind farm and system operators have sophisticated tools that allow this fexible source of electricity to provide clean electricity to the transmission system in a reliable manner if it

could not accomplish this, all of the benefts that wind has would be lost. In Ontario, wind energy now represents an increasing portion of the provinces generation feet. Centralized Forecasting will be implemented to more accurately predict variable wind and solar generation output, and is an essential tool for the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) to maintain system reliability and market effciency. This Centralized Forecasting service is similar to services implemented in most jurisdictions with comparable amounts of wind generation. Let us back up just a bit. Humans have been harnessing energy from the wind for literally thousands of years. The late 1800s saw the frst documented use of wind energy to create electricity. Prior to this, wind energy was used for production of mechanical power that pumped water or ground grain. During the oil embargos of the 1970s, engineers saw the potential of an unlimited fuel source to create electricity. The wind generators of the 1970s were rudimentary in their design relative to the sleek and modern machines that are being built today. These earlier models produced limited amounts of electricity, and they did not have sophisticated power electronics to effciently manage their operation. These were the early designs; they were a squirrel cage induction motor that had to disconnect from the electrical grid when there was a fault or a blackout. But they opened the eyes of engineers and planners, and while the industry faced a few hills and valleys,

varying policies and the like, those early wind energy pioneers continued to see a limitless energy potential. Fast forward thirty years. Engineers have advanced wind energy technology from these early designs into the present day sophisticated doubly fed induction motors or Type 4 full converters. These are marvels of engineering. They bring with them SCADA systems that permit remote operation and fault detection; they contain advanced controls, sensors and state-of-the-art power electronics. Modern wind turbines now have the capacity to contribute to the reliable operation of the bulk power transmission system. The 2011 IEEE Special Edition (Vol. 9, No. 6, Nov/Dec 2011) reports that modern wind turbines have a myriad of offerings voltage and var control/regulation; fault ride-through capabilities; real power control, ramping and curtailment; primary frequency regulation; inertia response; short-circuit duty control. This evolution in wind energy technology is not by accident the need to ensure that the modern wind turbine is a good citizen on the grid has been driven by an overarching need to invest in our electrical system, which is in part being driven by demands of society for cleaner, less impactful electricity sources. The demand that we clean up our act is not at the expense of reliable and affordable electricity wind energy more than fts this role, and has clearly risen to the challenge just ask Texas, California, Iowa, Denmark, Ontario - or even a little Canadian province called Prince Edward Island.


Powerful Player in Power

TIC is one of the leading industrial contractors serving todays Power industry. With over 44,000 MW of installed capacity, TIC is consistently ranked in Engineering NewsRecord (ENR) as one of the Top 10 contractors for Power and/or Cogeneration installations. TICs extensive power experience spans a variety of technologies, fuel types and confgurations, including Gas/Combustion Turbine installations in both combined and simple cycle operation; large Coal-Fired and other fossil fueled plants including both sub-critical boilers and supercritical steam generators, Integrated Gasifcation Combined Cycle (IGCC) projects, and Renewable Energy including Wind, Geothermal, Solar and Hydroelectric facilities, plus Alternative Fuels plants.

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The Market for Demand Response

the DR Maturity Model Perspective


emand Response (DR) is a proven alternative to adding new generation with an approach that is zero-carbon, cost-effective and environmentally-friendly. DR technologies deliver a temporary adjustment in energy consumption usually due to a severe network reliability issue or extremely high price in the real time energy market. It is an effective tool for postponing capital expenditures in relieving network reliability constraints, or avoiding spikes in energy prices and energy consumption. But what is the path to implementing a successful DR strategy? This article examines the traditional 4-stage Demand Response (DR) Maturity Model. There are points along the DR maturity path when a utility fully embraces and implements DR such that it becomes a real and reliable resource, but there can be challenges in felding successful DR programs. The market for DR is heating up. Utilities of all sizes with multiple DR programs in place are growing their portfolios. Much of the industry is not implementing its frst DR program, but perhaps its eighth or tenth.


STAGE 1: GETTING STARTED Most utilities use some form of DR perhaps just a phone call to a few large industrial customers to reduce energy consumption during a network reliability emergency, or a legacy residential hot water heater cycling program. These frst load reduction programs usually were launched to preserve reliability. They reduce overall network outages and provide either time for a

network upgrade or replace the need for network upgrades all together. For Retailers, Coops, and Munis in Texas and other markets where scarcity pricing allows peak energy prices to reach $5,000 per MW this year and up to $7,000 in 2014, it is not hard to justify DR. The measurable success of these programs usually prompts utilities to extend DR deployment until the targeted network segment or audience is saturated. STAGE 2: SCALE & LEARN Whether the frst program was a success or failure, need often arises for another program, possibly due to network capacity issues, avoiding peak energy prices, or the unfavorable economics of building high cost peaker plants. Usually, the latest available device technology is studied and deployed in a new program with different rules often targeted at new customer segments or load profles. A DR Aggregator is sometimes hired to handle part of, or most of the DR management recruiting customers, installing devices, scheduling DR events when needed and signaling the devices to reduce energy consumption. In either case, a new program is created with new rules, incentives, device technology and even new communications infrastructure. STAGE 3: DR CHALLENGES EMERGE Multiple DR programs, device technologies, and communications paths managed by multiple systems can quickly become unmanageable. Typical challenges faced by utilities include: No single system for registering customers and devices; No single view or forecast of DR availability by network segment; No ability to forecast device response profles or snap back; No

optimization of DR resources across programs or geography; Device technologies not using or supporting open standards for communications protocols and messages; No performance measurement capabilities or settlements ; Very little integration into back offce systems; No data sync across disconnected systems STAGE 4: DEMAND RESPONSE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (DRMS) When DR challenges reach a level of complexity, frustration, and operational risk at which tools are not being effectively used, or when the cost of operating many disparate systems in parallel is signifcant enough, or when the lack of integration and automation investment in large-scale harmonization, there is a cost effective solution implement a DRMS. A DRMS is an integrated command and control system that manages the entire lifecycle of DR programs and resources across customer segments, device types, and communications technologies. It also acts as the integration hub managing all DR related data fows between operational and back offce systems. The Market for DR is maturing at every level. Utilities like Nevada Energy have proven the value and shown that DRMS is the ultimate command and control tool for forecasting and effciently using DR so control rooms can preserve reliability, energy traders can hedge against high prices, and network planning engineers can push out infrastructure upgrade projects and direct capital to more pressing needs. Whether you are just beginning your DR journey, in the middle of it, or at Maturity Level 4, it is never too soon to consider the savings and fexibility of DR, and of implementing a DRMS.


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Blind Squirrels and China


cant say I put much stock in the adage that posits, Even a blind squirrel f nds a nut once in a while. Seems to me that the squirrel would encounter some other predator, or the front tire of a passing car, long before f nding that nut. I may have to re-evaluate my lack of faith in that saying, however, in light of a crystal ball prognostication I made a few years ago in this column. Back in early 2011, I offered fve Lead-Pipe Cinch Predictions, one of which concerned Chinas burgeoning nuclear program. I boldly predicted that China would offer a nuclear plant design for export within fve years. Not only was this blind squirrel right, but I was right three years ahead of schedule (maybe that means I was wrong). In early February, an executive at Chinas state nuclear corporation, SNPTC, said that the reactor being built for export the CAP1400 would be ready the end of 2013. The exploration of business opportunities on the world market will begin in 2013, Gu Jun was cited as saying in the China Daily newspaper. The thirdgeneration CAP1400 reactor, which is based on the AP1000 design, was developed through a 2008 agreement between SNPTC and Westinghouse, and there are reportedly plans in place for a larger, more advanced version called the CAP1700. While the Westinghouse association will certainly add some validity to the technical viability of the Chinese reactor on the world market, commercial success outside China will likely take

some time. Global familiarity with the Chinese design and with the track record of Chinas operating nuclear feet is limited. Still, I hesitate to hazard a guess as to how long that some time might be. Whatever the guess, export success will probably come sooner than expected. With 18 operating reactors, China currently breaks into the top 10 in terms of countries with the most number of operating reactors, but with 28 more under construction, and dozens more in the planning and development stages, China will soon be rivaling the United States for the top spot. And no one can say that China is satisfed with older designs. China is the only country where two of the worlds most advanced designs the Westinghouse AP1000 (at Sanmen) and the Areva EPR (at Taishan) are being built. Beyond the CAP1400, China has a memorandum of understanding in place with Areva and EDF to develop a new 1,000 MW Generation III reactor that would be common to EDF, Areva, and the China Guangdong Nuclear Power Corp. (CGNPC). Operationally, China is also deploying modern technology to standardize and improve effciency. CGNPC, for example, recently completed an ambitious three-year effort to implement f nancial and enterprise asset management software from SAP at Daya Bay, which will help the plant coordinate daily operations, maintenance, supply chain, and f nancials. CGNPC plans to use this as the foundation for managing a nuclear feet that will exceed 20

units in the next decade. So whos on the list of potential early buyers of Chinese nuclear technology? South Africa is one possibility, based on its plan to build six new nuclear power stations by 2030 to deal with that countrys energy supply challenges. Turkey is another, with plans for a 5,000 MW nuclear facility in the Black Sea province of Sinop. China is reportedly on Turkeys short list along with a Japanese-French consortium. Even if China doesnt win either of these awards, there are a few elements in Chinas favor that will ultimately convince someone to take the chance. One is money. Financing a large modern nuclear plant is a roughly $10 billion investment, and China has the deep pockets to support a given country in turning nuclear ambitions into commercial reality. Another is time. As more countries consider embarking on commercial nuclear programs, China will continue gaining experience from the construction and operation of the newest generation of nuclear reactors in the world. Theyll be ready. So keep your eyes on China. The day is coming when a Chinese reactor will be nearer to you than the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. For now, Ill bask in the glory of a prediction come true. Just dont ask me about one of the other prognostications I made back in 2011that the U.S. Congress would pass legislation allocating signifcantly more money to the loan guarantee program. Apparently, this squirrel was too blind to f nd that nut.


For info. RS# 8


Advanced Energy PV Inverters Ride-Through PG&E Low Voltage Events


part of the VRT offering, the AE Utility inverters can perform Zero Voltage RideThrough (ZVRT), High Voltage RideThrough (HVRT) and LVRT. The AE Utility inverters followed the utility required timing profle and quickly ramp back up after an event has cleared. VRT allows the inverters to ride through disturbance events and enables the generation station to stay online, and limit the revenue lost

he 30 Advanced Energy (AE) 500 kW 1kV DC Utility PV Inverters at PG&Es 15MW Westside Solar Station successfully passed multiple low voltage sag events. This sites inverters are equipped with Voltage Ride-Through (VRT) capabilities and are connected to a Pacifc Gas & Electric substation outside of Fresno, Calif. AE 500kW 1kV Inverters at PG&Es Westside Solar Station On March 17, 2012, there were a total of 4 low voltage events caused by momentary phase to phase faults on an adjacent 12 kV circuit which is fed from the same substation where this Solar Station is connected. The Solar Station is equipped with a Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) relay at the 12kV switchgear. The oscillography traces from the SEL relay at Westside Solar Station showed close to a 50% voltage depression at the 12 kV bus for approximately 7 cycles. During each of these events the units were between 20 percent and 80 percent of full-power. All the inverters remained online, demonstrating the Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) capability of AEs Utility inverters. A similar event occurred on Feb. 7, 2012, when the adjacent feeder experienced a short circuit condition causing both A and B phases at the connected substation to experience a 50 percent voltage sag which activated the inverters LVRT capabilities. The protective relays on the faulted 12 kV circuit detected the short circuit and cleared the fault in approximately 7 cycles. The inverters

AEVRT & Utility Profles

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

2 3 4 Seconds The VRT profle for the AE Utility PV Inverters is programmable to multiple regional profles such as for FERC 661, NERC, & ERCOT, shown above. successfully rode through the event and returned to normal operation upon clearance of the short circuit condition. The SEL graphs were collected and reviewed by PG&Es Renewable Resource Development department. VRT timing profles are features offered in the AE Utility inverters. They provide the inverter the ability to stay connected with the grid under these external fault conditions. While there are no specifc VRT requirements imposed by the existing interconnection requirements at this time, PG&E voluntarily implemented the VRT feature at this solar site to demonstrate the benefts of having these features. VRT enables inverters to stay online during grid disturbances and produce reactive power to stabilize the grid. As to the investors while helping to stabilize the grid. This event successfully demonstrated the LVRT capabilities of the AE Utility PV Inverters. The Solar Stations graphs provide data for PG&E to better understand the impacts of inverters with LVRT capabilities to support the grid in areas with a high penetration of distributed generation. Figure 2 displays the voltage and current waveforms captured by the SEL relay at Westside Solar Station during the February LVRT event. It can be seen that the current temporarily increases for approximately 2 cycles at the inception of the fault. This is expected behavior as the units are operating at less than 50% of their nameplate rating. When the line voltage began to drop, the units attempted to maintain a constant output power

p. u. Voltage


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and the AC current increased up to the AC current limit before the LVRT features were activated. The February and March LVRT events at Westside Solar Station provided PG&E with the actual data to demonstrate the effect of successful LVRT. It is expected that large PV Solar Stations, such as Westside Solar Station, will be required to be equipped with VRT features in the near future. The following are the two guiding documents that utilities and the system operators are using to develop the VRT requirement for large PV generating stations: NERC Standard PRC-024 The Technical Justifcation for the New WECC Voltage Ride-Through (VRT) Standard, A White Paper Developed by the Wind Generation Task Force (WGTF), dated June 13, 2007, a guideline approved by WECC

Voltage and current plot from the SEL relay at Westside Solar Station
IA 50 IA IB IC 0 IB IC VA(kV) VB(kV) VC(kV)

50 VA(kVVB(kV)VC(kV) 5 0 5 2.5 5.0

7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 Cycles This plot confrms that the Advanced Energy Utility PV inverters successfully rode through the February low voltage event. Technical Studies Subcommittee. As utilities connect more large PV projects onto the grid, it becomes more important that these large PV projects be equipped with VRT capabilities to stay online during grid disturbances.


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With worldwide energy consumption expected to double to an estimated 2.55 million megawatts by 2030, Fluors experts are committed to providing industry-leading solutions, innovation and technologies that bring strategic value to our clients capital projects. With more than 20 years of experience building gas-fred power plants, Fluor recently completed Dominions 590-megawatt combined cycle project, the Bear Garden Generating Station.

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NOx Limits Met with Ammonia-Free SCR Solution

A typical HMI screen shot for one of the injection systems operating three airless return fow injectors. Reagent is circulated by the injection pump from the day tank through the supply meter, over to the injectors and returned through the return fow meter and back to the day tank. When the day tank level falls low, a solenoid opens and the tank is reflled from bulk storage. Photo courtesy of Nationwide Boiler

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NRGs central district heating plant housed two (2) 55,000 lb/hr (71.4 MMbtu/hr) natural gas-fred Keeler boilers that were required to comply with the Bay Area Air Quality Management Districts (BAAQMD) Reg. 9 Rule 7 NOx emission requirement of 9 ppm (a total reduction of 90% at all conditions). Overall, the project requirements included an easy to operate and energy effcient space saving solution.

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A single Ammonia-Free CataStak SCR system that utilized Combustion Components Associates (CCA) TRIMNOX LT urea injection system was supplied by Nationwide Boiler. The SCR system used a common and readily available 32 percent urea solution called DEF (diesel exhaust

Two TRIM-NOX(R) urea injection skids with the day tanks, fow meters and control panels with HMI operator touch screens. Each of the two boilers had its own injection system and each injection system controlled three injectors. Photo courtesy of Nationwide Boiler

fuid), providing NRG with confdent SCR performance without the use of ammonia. To meet the constraints of the tight boiler room confguration,

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The Ammonia-Free CataStak SCR system easily reduced NOx emissions from 30 ppm and was tested at 1 ppm NOx throughout the f ring range. The system was also optimized from 20 percent to 65 percent load (65 percent is full load). The system remains to operate dependably without any performance issues or concerns about meeting future NOx emission limits, providing the customer with hasslefree operations and confdent, effcient performance. Working closely with CCA engineers and performing actual f re testing on package boilers, Nationwide Boiler proved that CCAs technology can be supplied for both package f retube and watertube boilers. This technology enables a cost effective, ammonia-free SCR system to achieve up to 95 percent NOx reduction at a very low capital and operating cost. Additionally, boiler owners and operators adverse to ammonia can economically obtain the performance of SCR technology and not be limited to the poor operating and energy intensive performance of 9 ppm burners.

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customized low NOx power solutions

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Power Engineering sat down with four executives to discuss the future of gas-fred generation in the U.S. and the potential impact of increasing environmental regulation.

atural gas is becoming more important in the power generation industry each year. With increasingly strict regulations on emissions controls and growing concerns about the environment, more companies are looking to natural-gas fred generation as a reliable, clean source of energy. Natural gas-fred plants can also quickly increase to peak load, making the fuel a good complement to renewable energy sources, and are also faster and less expensive to build than many other power sources. With the growing use of natural gas, however, many questions remain to be answered about the fuel sources cost, the increasing reliance on natural gas over other fuel sources and upgrading natural gas pipelines to cover the increased usage, among other issues. I recently moderated a roundtable discussion with executives from American Electric Power, Electric Power Research Institute, Alstom and Bechtel.

The discussion centered on the future of gas-fred generation, the sustainability of todays low gas prices and the potential impact of increasing environmental regulation. The participants were: Tom Alley, vice president of generation for EPRI; Scott Austin, manager business development for Bechtels thermal business line; Amy Ericson, vice president gas product platform for Alstom Power; and Toby Thomas, vice president generating assets for AEP. What follows is a transcript, edited for length and style, of that discussion. POWER ENGINEERING: With the recent increase in the price of natural gas, do you see power plants continuing to turn to it as the preferred fuel choice as they have for the past several years? AMY ERICSON: Theres one thing that we know for certain, and thats that fossil fuel prices are uncertain and will remain uncertain. Its interesting particularly

over the past several years that weve seen, not just in the US but globally, an obvious connection between coal and gas usage and pricing. Weve seen gas generation go up in the US on the heels of the low prices, and weve seen that usage temper while there has been a comeback a bit in coal. I think these fuctuations are what were going to continue to see. In fact, we hear from our customers that at this point, theyre taking a long-term view. Theres no doubt that their interest in using natural gas for electricity has grown steadily for the reasons that arent likely


Alstom Power, which is working to create new technology for the power industry, recently delivered GT24 natural gas turbines to the El Sauz Plant in Mexico. Photo courtesy of Alstom.


to go away, which would be the matching of renewables and the speed with which they can be constructed and commissioned. Personally, from an Alstom perspective, we defnitely see the trend toward natural gas continuing. TOM ALLEY: I think that the pricing change we see here for units that are operating on the margin, the coal units that are operating right on the margin, may come back into play, but for a regulated utility, I dont see that impacting their business very much. For the unregulated generators out there, it may open up a little opportunity for a highly-effcient, environmentally-controlled coal plant to come back into play, because theyve been under a lot of pressure with the low gas prices. I dont see this pricing change really infuencing the industry much. SCOTT AUSTIN: Based on the information that weve received and interaction were having with our customers, I would echo Toms comments that what were seeing here in the U.S. is a lean toward new builds from a natural gas perspective. Given the outlook of the relatively stable $5 to $7 range in the long term, we would see the gas-fred generation being the mid-term selection. POWER ENGINEERING: EPA regulations are making it more expensive to operate coal-fred power plants. With some of the rules coming out, it may be almost impossible to build new coal-fred plants. With more companies building natural gas-fred facilities to compensate for that, does that raise concerns about maintaining feet diversity? TOBY THOMAS: We certainly do have concerns from a fuel diversity perspective. In any long term view, if you focus too much on one fuel or one technology, youre going to potentially have problems long term. You defnitely want to be diversifed. The other side of it is that the more power plants you have relaying on gas pipelines, the more potential risk you have to grid reliability. On those warm

Amy Ericson

Toby Thomas

Tom Alley

Scott Austin

summer days, youre starting to get close to peak fows on gas pipelines, similar to what you see with the winter heating load, and sooner or later somebodys going to have to get cut. You can build a gas-fred power plant, but you do have to line up the fuel supply not necessarily the commodity but the transportation to make sure you can get gas when you need it. Also, if the pressure on that gas pipeline goes too low, all those gas plants are coming off. ALLEY: I would say Im defnitely concerned about diversity. I think the industry is being led down a path toward natural gas as a destination fuel source. We hear it in the presidents recent State of the Union Address. We see the EPA rulings for Mercury and Air Toxic Standards putting extra pressure on the coal plants and coal plants closing. We see the EPA proposed rulings for greenhouse gas emissions for the New Source Performance Standard, which put a lot of pressure on coal. I think the very effcient natural gas combined cycle plants can meet that standard at least as its proposed, but not coal plants. Plus, a gas plant is about one-third the cost of a nuclear plant and half the cost

of a coal plant, so when folks are trying to plan and build, gas is certainly one of the least cost options. Smaller staff, easier to site gas is just an easy decision, and it really concerns me that the industry doesnt have the fexibility to provide more diversity. Again, I think everybody is kind of being led in that direction. ERICSON: I can tell you from a technology development perspective that we preach diversity. We invest in diverse technologies, and its exactly for this purpose, and for the protection of supply and price and policy and even public attitudes because they change in time. But I would have to say that the prospect of all gas and renewables in the future is probably not the optimal prospect for the U.S. and for the industry, and I think people probably agree with that. AUSTIN: From a Bechtel perspective, weve been around for about 115 years. Weve seen the peaks and the valleys of gas pricing over that time and the desire to move forward with gas in the current environment. I would concur with Amys comment that maintaining diversity from a capability perspective is an important



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The 550-megawatt combined cycle natural gas-fred J. Lamar Stall Unit at AEPs Arsenal Hill Power Plant in Louisiana went into commercial operation in June 2010. Photo courtesy of AEP.

element that we strive for, to be able to facilitate the diversity thats needed in our energy mix as a nation. We look to our customers to make those decisions as demand warrants, and we stand ready to implement those technology solutions as theyre appropriate. POWER ENGINEERING: The EPA is starting to look at the affects of hydraulic fracturing on the environment. Is there a concern the EPA may make rules that make fracking an uneconomical source for obtaining natural gas and cut down on the current gas reserves? ALLEY: The EPA and other government agencies are all sorting out the jurisdiction over fracking and everything associated with it. Weve seen a lot of discussion

about the water use and cleaning up water from fracking were sitting at a water conference right now in Atlanta and some of the technologies were looking at are actually coming out of that industry so I think the industry is trying to

manage that situation pretty well. I dont foresee that EPA rulings are going to heavily impact the business. I dont think you can say there will be no impact, but I just dont see a heavy impact. Im more concerned, when it comes to gas pricing, with the demand side of the equation, with as many industries as we see moving toward gas. Its not just the electric sector. Its transportation. Weve seen some announcements recently on locomotives being converted to natural gas. The automobile industry is looking at it. The chemical industry is looking at it. There is a lot of discussion about whether the U.S. ends up being a exporter of natural gas. I see all of this having a much greater impact on the pricing than I would EPA regulations. POWER ENGINEERING: One thing it seems people are concerned about on the volatility of natural gas is so many other places uses natural gas as well, while coal is predominately used for power generation. How much does that factor into the equation? THOMAS: There are a lot of petrochemical refneries and others that can use natural gas, and you could potentially increase demand quite a bit. On the power generation side, weve spent hundreds

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of millions, if not billions, to build a power plant, youre kind of stuck with it for a while, so its certainly a concern to add to the volatility. We have a lot more supply now, but it wasnt that long ago we had double digit gas prices because the market thought supply/demand was tight. It doesnt take too many traders and others that feel things are tightening up to really start pushing the market. Will it happen? I certainly dont know. Im not an expert on that, but its a concern. POWER ENGINEERING: What benefts do you receive from a natural gas-fred plant as opposed to a coal-fred plant using state of the art technology that would cut down its emissions, or a power project using renewable resources? ERICSON: Many plants are operating with daily starts and stops or on a seasonal basis, and this operating is changing throughout the lifetime of these plants, which are coming up on their 10-year or 12-year installation date. The reasons that are driving that are the renewables penetration and, again, the fuctuation of fossil prices. Those arent likely to change, and the beauty of natural gas is that its always available. Not just that its always available, because certainly so are nuclear and coal, but that it can actually deliver large amounts of electricity directly onto the grid in a short period of time for example, 450 MW in 10 minutes. And so I do think that given the changing market conditions and the need for fexibility, natural gas generation is being chosen because it can respond when it needs to respond. It can be fexible. AUSTIN: I would concur with Amys remarks there. From a general perspective, it was alluded to earlier that the initial capital cost of a combined cycle plant is much lower than a coal plant. The time frame to implement the construction is probably on the order of magnitude of half of the schedule. The obvious environmental beneft weve spoken about and the operability fexible that Amy just described, I think, are very important

variables when you speak about natural gas. At Bechtel, were currently building several combined cycle plants. Were building three signifcant plants in Texas for Panda Power Funds, which are good examples of this technology in operation or in deployment. These projects have state of the art environmental controls and will be some of the cleanest plants in the nation when theyre built. One of the things theyre able to do is respond to fuctuations in the grid. For example, within 10 minutes the plants will be to 50 percent capability, and within 30 minutes be at base load. When the wind stops blowing in west Texas, there are plants that are going to be able to support the grid and provide an opportunity for more deployment of renewable resources. THOMAS: The number of people it takes to run a comparably sized combined cycle natural gas plant are far less, so my fxed costs are lower. Most of my bigger costs are variable costs, so if Im not running the plant Im not incurring those costs. Operational fexibility is probably the biggest piece of it, meaning that when Im not making money I can shut down. Whether youre in the regulated or competitive power business, you still try to dispatch your units economically to either save customers money on the regulated side or maximize proftability on the competitive side. Having a lower fxed cost is a big beneft. The amount of time you spend on fuel and waste handling at a solid fuel facility is signifcant, meaning you have a lot of people at coal-fred plants that basically take coal off the rail, off the river or off the truck, however it comes in, get it onto the pile, move it from the pile into the units, and then once you come out you have ash and after treatment byproduct, mainly from SO2 scrubbers, that you have to manage. The amount of time and effort it takes to move the material going in and out of the plant is signifcant. Having a gaseous fuel that basically comes in, is consumed and goes out the stack means you dont have to really touch it, so cost savings are realized there as well. The benefts of natural

For info. RS# 18

EPRI is working to maximize the effciency and lifespan of natural gas-fred plants as well as looking at CCS technologies to reduce emissions from all plants. Photo courtesy of EPRI.

gas generation are lower fxed costs, high operational fexibility and low costs for fuel handling. POWER ENGINEERING: One thing Ive heard multiple people mention already is the uncertainty right now, the need to fnalize some of these rules. Coal plants are certainly affected by this right now because theyre not sure what the EPA rules will be. For gas plants that come under these standards, its easier for them to meet the new emissions rules and they are less affected, but what role does that uncertainty play right now when youre trying to design a longterm strategy? AUSTIN: Youre seeing decisions on new generation units or retroftting of

existing facilities delayed until there is regulatory certainty and until people can make the appropriate decision knowing all the facts. However, while there may be delayed decisions, I think the time is coming in many areas of the country when those decisions cant be put off any longer. THOMAS: A long-term strategy with todays uncertainty and regulatory

structure is almost an oxymoron, because you cant have a long-term strategy when you dont yet know the rules of the game. Weve had instances where, based on the proposed rules and the timeline for implementation, we start down a path, then those rules either get remanded or changed after weve spent time and resources and money, and then the timelines dont change for implementation,

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With a decade of service to the coal sector, COAL-GEN is the industrys most dynamic event covering the latest topics affecting the design, development, upgrading, operation and maintenance of coal-fueled power plants. With an anticipated attendance of over 4,000 industry professionals and more than 250 exhibitors, COAL-GEN is the industrys largest event focused on the solutions of today and the technologies of tomorrow.

COAL-GEN 2013 presents eight conferences in one. Conference tracks include:

Carbon Management Air and Water The Evolving Coal Plant Material Handling Clean Coal Technologies Emission Control New Plants: Design & Construction Plant Management & Operation


Presented By:



Owned & Produced By:

For info. RS# 20

so were always left trying to juggle implentation timelines. We often end up spending more time and money than we would have if the rules were clear. A long-term strategy, given where we are from a regulatory structure, in my mind, is almost not attainable because even to build a gas-fred plant, it still takes a reasonable amount of time and obviously sizeable investment less than nuclear or coal, but still sizeable. We have all the regulations coming at us and were preparing for those. On the regulated side, we cant get cost recovery for investments unless theres a clear rule that says we need to do it. So when they change the rule after weve spent the money, thats money that can be stranded because the rules changed. I do believe there is a strong need for a national energy policy for our economy, for our country and so many other things. We need to have clear rules so we can invest money

properly and we can employ people in the most effcient manner. Like I said, its anybodys guess where were going to end up, and that leaves those of us who have to make those long term decisions in a diffcult position. Even the OEMs, the Alstoms of the world, are trying to decide what technology to invent or make. Well, that depends on the problem theyre trying to solve. ERICSON: So it sounds like you want to add some adjectives to long-term: certainty, constant, not changing, sensible. THOMAS: Exactly. Long term now could be a matter of months, not years. When youre talking about hundreds of millions if not billions, of dollars to comply, thats a big bet. And, if you bet wrong, its not a good situation for us, our customers, our vendors or anyone. We need a national energy policy that sets clear goals and rules on a forward-looking basis, and then I think we could be effective

as a nation and as individual companies. Until then, we are just in reactionary mode, and that is just not good. POWER ENGINEERING: When youre starting a plant, is there a tough balance between investing money in a plant to reduce emissions and making sure you dont invest so much money you either send rates up or lose profts in the merchant business? THOMAS: If youre a competitive power producer, the widgets you sell are electrons. Anything you put on the back end that increases the cost of making that widget with no way of compensation, its like building a car and adding 10 different options that nobody really wants. Thats going to cost 20 percent more, or whatever the number is, to make the same car, and those investments are very hard because theres no incremental revenue. Even if youre building a new plant, you certainly dont want to spend more capital if theres not a clear need. You might do some design changes to accommodate something in the future, but whenever we get to those rules, the technology or approach changes so whatever you design up front to try to accommodate the future may not be the right thing. If the rules were clear, maybe the Alstoms and others could say, OK, I will design this plant so that 10 years from now you can add these other things to it and reduce carbon, but if the rules change, they could design something and it may not ft the bill and nobody is going to want to pay for it. Regulators do not want to pay for anything that is not needed by law. They simply will not pay for it. And competitive producers obviously dont want to do it because it raises their price of production. Those decisions are extremely diffcult to make. ERICSON: Ill try to put myself in our customers shoes, and in your shoes, and its got to be pretty scary looking out there, saying, Over the next 20 years, I dont know whether I can count on any nuclear license renewals, I dont know

For info. RS# 21


whether I can plan coal without carbon capture and storage or what it will cost with CCS. Yet at the same time, as I said before, the prospect of only gas and renewables is probably not the best choice for you or our nation. ALLEY: We really dont have the economic framework together that supports the capture technology that is available. Certainly EPRI and a lot of other organizations are using a lot of resources trying to fnd an answer to that problem, but right now that answer doesnt exist. Until it does, its going to be a very diffcult decision, as Toby mentioned. What it adds to the cost of generation is going to be pretty stiff. The economics obviously do not support the development of these technologies. THOMAS: We struggle with this a lot. Whether its on the generation side, the transmission side or the distribution side, we could deliver a product, with the help from the OEMs the Alstoms, the EPRIs, the Bechtels, all over the world we could give you the cleanest, best megawatt ever, but nobody could afford it. We could do it. Theres no doubt, technologically, we could fgure it out, but then nobody could afford what we produce. If you want 100 percent reliability, we can give it to you, but your price is going to go up because we have to go out and add a lot of new technology to the wires to be able to deliver that. We could do it, but we always ask our customers, Are you willing to pay for it? and the answer is always No, we are not. POWER ENGINEERING: Do you see natural gas as a solution for the foreseeable future or as a stepping stone toward a more renewable-based environment? ERICSON: Pretty much everywhere around the world, not just the U.S., gas is going to be needed for safe and economical, relatively environmentally sound, and certain reliable electricity. There is, I suppose, a game changer out there in the future. Right now were certain

For info. RS# 22

renewables are intermittent and hard to plan and not terribly predictable. What could change is the possibility of commercial large-scale, affordable storage. Now, that probably could change the role of gas in the future, but right now we absolutely see it in more in the cornerstone department of your defnition. AUSTIN: Similar to Alstom, were

planning to continue to have the ability to support a diversifcation of power generation sources. Having said that, I think EIA forecasts over the next 25 to 30 years youre going to see renewable rise to 16 percent of U.S. consumption, which is a pretty signifcant amount. I think gas, nuclear and coal are going to continue to play a major role in the generation of

power in the U.S. Like some of the other comments made, natural gas will continue to be a cornerstone, not only in the U.S. but worldwide. Again, I think as Amy has said previously, the mix of renewable and gas dependent grid is probably not the long-term solution. Thats why were continuing to invest in our capabilities to support a more diverse mix. POWER ENGINEERING: What natural gas products are you working on or have completed recently? THOMAS: We brought our Dresden Power Plant online last year, which is a two-on-one 7FA combined cycle. That construction started 10 years ago with Dominion, and we bought that facility from Dominion and then fnished the build out. We also brought online the combined cycle Stall Unit down in Louisiana, which is a two-on-one Siemens Westinghouse technology. Other than that, really, its still an interesting game of making sure that we can make these units operate the way theyre designed to operate and mitigate operational risks as we cycle units. ERICSON: For us at Alstom, weve recently delivered our GT24 to the El Sauz Plant in Mexico. Additionally, were seeing some activity in terms of steam addons and conversions of simple cycle to combined cycle where were supplying those technologies that are part of the water-steam cycle or heat recovery steam generator to Dominion as well as our large steam turbines for the conversion of simple cycle to combined cycle. I know that weve been in this discussion so far and weve talked a lot about new builds and adds, but I do want to point out, and weve seen this as an emphasis from our customers in the past few years due to the economic situation as well as the uncertainty in regulation, that there is an ongoing upgrade emphasis to the existing gas turbines. As the existing gas feet becomes 10 years old and 15 years old, there are opportunities to upgrade turbines in effciency and output and






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For 20+ years, SSPC has led the way in Certication Quality Programs for the industrial coatings industry. SSPC Certications are nationally recognized certication programs designed to help facility owners, engineers, and speciers select qualied industrial contractors. Certied contractors have proven their knowledge and abilities in their area of expertises; have proven ability to protect their workers and the environment; and have certied inspectors.

For More information on Certied Programs or Standards

For info. RS# 23

Bechtel is working on a large number of natural gas products and has about 5,000 MW of capacity being built or under development. Photo courtesy of Bechtel.

extension of life, which all move in the right direction, and weve been busy doing that. Finally, Alstom as well as other OEMs are really innovating in terms of hybrid designs between renewables and gas, basically matching the best of both worlds to get 24 hour power. AUSTIN: From a Bechtel perspective on natural gas, were seeing a lot of activity in the marketplace, particularly in North America. We are currently building close to 3,000 MW of combined cycle plants here. We have also been

selected to or are developing our own combined cycle plants totaling about a little over 2,000 additional MW. We expect those to go under construction sometime this year as well. So we have quite a healthy portfolio of projects in the U.S. ALLEY: Our projects are certainly on a different scale than the other panelists. We anticipated a move to gas about three to four years ago and restructured the research we do at EPRI around gas. Were taking a holistic

look at the entire plant and many of the items Toby has mentioned, particularly in regards to running plants, and stretching the boundaries of the the plant operations. Were trying to stay ahead of the carbon capture technologies, so were working with members and pushing our carbon capture technologies and keeping an eye on natural gas plants and the fexibilities of those technologies. We have a large interest in looking at the older feets and how they can be maintained.

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Siemens SGT6-5000F gas turbine. Photo courtesy of Siemens

Increasing Flexibility& Effciency



Mitsubishi, General Electric, Siemens and Hitachi. The following is a description of what each company has to offer.


In 2011, Alstom reinforced its offering for the U.S. natural gas electricity generation market with the introduction of its GT24 gas turbine and associated KA24 combined-cycle power plant (CCPP). With the U.S. being one of the worlds major producers and users of natural gas, Alstom offers U.S. customers an advanced class gas turbine designed to generate more electricity, lower emissions, improve effciency and increase operational fexibility. In its 2-on-1 confguration, known as the KA24-2, the latest GT24 gas turbine has the capability of producing more than 700 MW and achieving gross effciency of more than 60 percent, while simultaneously maintaining low emissions. Integral to its fexible design is a spinning reserve capability that can


ore than 200 GW of new generating capacity are expected to be added in the U.S. between 2011 and 2035. Natural gas will account for 60 percent of that new capacity. By 2040, natural gas will be used to generate 30 percent of the nations power generation, up from 25 percent in 2011. Coals share of the power generation market is projected to fall from 42 percent in 2011 to 35 percent by 2040. Meanwhile, the share of renewable

power will grow to 16 percent of U.S. output by 2040. The need for effcient gas-turbine technology that can accommodate the variability of wind and solar power is on the rise. The transition to gas-fred generation and renewable power means gasturbine effciency and fexibility will be critical for power producers planning to build a new feet of modern-day power plants fueled with natural gas. To better understand the options available to power producers, Power Engineering examined the latest gasturbine innovations from Alstom,

For info. RS# 25

deliver 450 MW in just 10 minutes. This makes the KA24-2 particularly attractive for clients who want maximum fexibility and reduced cost for fuel and maintenance. The spinning reserve capability is ideally suited to complement the intermittency of renewable energy sources. As U.S. power companies continue to look for clean alternative energy sources, many are integrating renewables such as wind and solar. Power companies can add renewable energy sources to the grid confdently, knowing that the KA24 can deliver important power

guarantee grid stability on demand and reduce the environmental footprint.


As the U.S. market is shifting from coal-fred power generation to gas-fred generation, Hitachi is shifting its focus, too. The company recently announced the completed development of several new combustion turbine models, including the Hitachi H-80, a 100 MW combustion turbine and several upgrades of the mature H-25

from natural gas to distillate oil. The nominal H-25 Combined Cycle output without HRSG duct fring is 45 MW for 1x1 arrangements and 90 MW for 2x1 arrangements. Hitachi H-15 The H-15 is a scaled down model of the H-25 gas turbine and offers similar benefts as the H-15. Hitachi H-80 The Hitachi H-80 combustion turbine is a 100 MW class, heavy duty, high effciency combustion turbine. It utilizes

The fuel savings from Hitachis H-25 combustion turbine will repay capital investments within a few years while allowing a range of fuels from natural gas to distillate oil.

reserves within minutes. Using the fexibility of Alstoms latest gas turbine technology simplifes the integration of renewable energy to the grid and supports its stability. The reliability and availably of electricity is critical. CCPP operators seek the fexibility to maintain peak output reliably, shut-down or turn-down during off peak periods and extend maintenance intervals. In addition to its high output and effciency, the latest GT24 offers an operation-mode fexibility that enables up to 30 percent longer time interval between scheduled inspections, thereby reducing service costs and increasing availability. With Alstoms unique Low Load Operation (LLO) capability, operators can keep the plant in full operational standby below 20 percent CCPP load, with both gas turbines and the steam turbine in operation. These are just a few of several features that can help plant operators enhance competiveness,

combustion turbine technology, ranging from 32 MW to 42 MW. Hitachi H-25 Hitachis H-25 combustion turbine is the most effcient and reliable heavy-duty gas turbine in the 30 MW unit capacity range. It is suitable to be installed in new, highly effcient simple cycle plants, cogeneration plants and combined cycle. It can be used to replace existing combustion turbine generators. The H-25s fuel savings will repay capital investments within a few years while allowing a range of fuels

state of the art technology. The H-80 was specifcally designed for mid-sized power generation and large sized combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Suitable for numerous applications, including simple cycle, combined cycle, and CHP plants, the H-80 incorporates effciency, reliability and fexibility, together with low-life cycle costs. The two-shaft design of the H-80 combustion turbine is also ideal for mechanical drive applications. The nominal H-80 Combined Cycle output without HRSG duct fring is 140 MW for 1x1 arrangements and 285 MW for 2x1 arrangements. Hitachi Combustion Turbine Design Features Heavy duty, industrial design with high reliability and easy maintenance Package Design H15/H25 - Single shaft


H80 Two Shafts Horizontally split casing with stacked rotor. Fuel fexible combustor, Dry Low NOx available. Air cooled nozzles and buckets. Fully automated digital control Quick delivery and easy installation Repair and replacement on a parts basis (not component basis)

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Gas is the fuel of choice for power generation in the 21st century. Gas reserves are growing substantially due to new unconventional gas discoveries in the U.S. Moderate pricing for natural gas combined with its other advantages low carbon footprint, high fexibility, and low CAPEX makes gas the fuel of choice. In Canada, huge amounts of steam are needed for sand oil recovery. In the U.S., an abundance of low-cost natural gas, increasing environmental regulation and advancements in gas turbine technology mean gas-fred power will be the technology of choice for several decades. The Siemens business model and product portfolio is in line to serve these business opportunities, from power plant components to full turnkey solutions, from open-cycle to combined-cycle solutions, from pure power generation to combined heat and power generation solutions. Siemens supplies between 25 percent and 30 percent of the worlds power generation. Siemens has a wide range of gas turbine technologies to meet a variety of scenarios facing U.S. power producers. Siemens 15 models, with capacities from 5 MW to 375 MW, are designed with customer proftability in mind. Siemens gas turbines are designed to improve effciency, reliability, environmental compatibility, and return on investment. In its portfolio, Siemens has brought together many technologies from Westinghouse, Siemens, and Alstom to integrate technologies to create innovations such as the SGT6-8000H gas turbine, which is now in hot commissioning in Florida and will be operational this summer. This gas turbine combines the best features of existing product lines and technology advancements. It is the prime mover in the SCC6-8000H combined cycle power plant, which has an output of more than 410 MW and an effciency level exceeding 60 percent. This innovative 274 MW gas turbine is characterized by high effciency, low life-cycle costs, high reliability and availability, operational fexibility, and last but not least low emissions. Across the portfolio the SGT6-5000F gas turbine is the No. 1 F-class-seller in the 60 Hz market. It has reached a

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Diverter Damper

Exhaust Stacks

For over 45 years, Braden has designed, engineered and manufactured hundreds of GT auxiliary systems as the preferred supplier for turbine OEMs.

Comprehensive Retrofit Solutions Bradens full array of engineers (structural, mechanical, electrical and acoustical) scrutinize every aspect of your retrofit design. Braden also installs complete intake and exhaust systems.
Air Filtration Inlet Cooling/Heating Silencing Exhaust & Inlet Ductwork Diverter Dampers Expansion Joints Bypass Stacks Diffusers and Plenums Installation Inspection and Reporting Services SCR & CO Catalyst Systems

A Global Power Company
For info. RS# 26

General Electrics test facility in Greenville, S.C., is equipped with an advanced data acquisition system that allows more than 7,000 data streams to be acquired.This data system enables accelerated, yet fully comprehensive, testing of GEs gas turbine feet.

market share of 20 percent to 30 percent. The SGT6-5000F enables our customers to get the full potential from all components and achieve maximum cost effciency whether in peak-, intermediate-, or base-load duty. The SGT65000F gas turbine continues to break reliability and continuous operation records. With more than 9 million hours of feet operation, the SGT6-5000F is designed for combined cycle and simple cycle applications as well as for integrated gasifcation (IGCC) applications. Siemens has a long history with the SGT6-2000E gas turbine. The SGT62000E is an proven, robust engine for the 60Hz market used for simple or combined cycle processes, particularly in peak-load operation. Besides the application in power plants, the SGT62000E can also be used for different

applications in the oil and gas industry. The compressor drive design, derived from proven standards, can be used e.g. for the production of liquifed natural gas (LNG) either as a direct mechanical compressor drive or as an all-electric generator version. The feet of more than 90 turbines is in commercial operation since 1989 and has more than 3.3 million operating hours and more than 5 million equivalent operating hours (EOH). This mature frame can easily compete with aero derivatives in peakload operation by providing lower up front capital costs and long term O&M advantages to customers.


GEs full-speed, full-load (FSFL) test facility in Greenville, S.C. features one

of the largest and most comprehensive gas turbine validation system in the world. With this $180 million facility, GE has the capability of validating GEs FlexEffciency portfolio of gas turbines beyond the variances that a feet of turbines would typically experience in the feld. To overcome limitations of the grid, testing is performed without loaded grid connection. This validation methodology can produce results far superior to operating a prototype unit in the feld for 8,000 hours the historical industry benchmark for verifying the reliability of new technology. By identifying improvements on a test stand instead of in the feld, GE can signifcantly reduce customer downtime and potential lost profts. Armed with data from the innovative test


The National Integrated Power Project (NIPP) was conceived in new generation capacity to Nigerias electricity supply system along with the electricity transmission, distribution and natural gas transport infrastructure required to deliver the additional capacity to consumers throughout the country.


Method of Application Prospective Bidders should register their interest by completing the requisite forms online at www. or by printing and submitting the forms in person to NDPHC at the address below. Submissions via email in any form (e.g. scans) will not be accepted. Upon receipt of interest from Prospective Bidders (as described an Information Memorandum via an online data room. These documents can also be picked-up in physical format from the NDPHC address below.


Niger Delta Power Holding Company (NDPHC), a special purpose company owned by the three tiers of the government, is tasked with the responsibility for implementation of NIPP. It is the intention that the ten NIPP power generation assets will be divested through a sale process to strategic investors. Each of the ten power generation assets is held by a wholly owned subsidiary of NDPHC. In line with its objectives and as mandated by its Board of Directors, NDPHC hereby invites prospective Power Sector investors (Prospective Bidders) to register their interest for the purchase of thermal power stations owned by NDPHC through a sale of 80% of the shares in each generation subsidiary. The transactions, to be conducted through International Competitive Bidding, will cover the following generation companies:
Alaoji Generation Company Nigeria Limited - situated near Aba in Abia State of Nigeria with total gross installed capacity of 831.3 MW (at ISO); Benin Generation Company Limited situated near Benin city in Edo State of Nigeria with total gross installed capacity of 507.6 MW (at ISO); Calabar Generation Company Limited - situated near Calabar city in Cross River State of Nigeria with a total gross installed capacity of 634.5MW (at ISO); Egbema Generation Company Limited - situated near Owerri in Imo State of Nigeria with a total gross installed capacity of 380.7 MW (at ISO); Gbarain Generation Company Limited - situated near Yenagoa in Bayelsa State of Nigeria with total gross installed capacity of 253.8 MW (at ISO); Geregu Generation Company Limited - situated in Ajaokuta in Kogi State of Nigeria with total gross installed capacity of 506.1 MW (at ISO); Ogorode Generation Company Limited - situated near Sapele in Delta State of Nigeria with total gross installed capacity of 507.6 MW (at ISO); Olorunsogo Generation Company Limited - situated in Olorunsogo in Ogun State of Nigeria with total gross installed capacity of 754 MW (at ISO); Omoku Generation Company Limited - situated near Port Harcourt in Rivers State of Nigeria with total gross installed capacity of 264.71 MW (at ISO); Omotosho Generation Company Limited - situated in Okitipupa local government area in Ondo State of Nigeria with total gross installed capacity of 512.82 MW (at ISO).



Prospective Bidders are required to submit their Expression of Interest by 5.00pm (Local Time) on June 28, 2013 in accordance address for physical delivery is: Niger Delta Power Holding Company Limited Attention: Managing Director Address: 17 Nile Street, Maitama District, Abuja FCT, Nigeria



Upon receipt of Expressions of Interest from Prospective Bidders, NDPHC shall evaluate and pre-qualify bidders. Only short listed Bidders will be contacted.

(RFP) and other Bidding documents upon the payment of a nonrefundable fee of $20,000 for each Generation Company in bank draft payable to the Niger Delta Power Holding Company Limited.

Niger Delta Power Holding Company Limited Attention: Managing Director Address: 17 Nile Street, Maitama District, Abuja FCT, Nigeria Email: Or the Transaction Adviser; CPCS Transcom International Limited Attention: Vice President, West Africa Address: 15 Buchanan Crescent, Wuse 2 District, Abuja FCT, Nigeria Email:

12. Roadshow will be held in the following locations on the following 5.

Each Bidder must be an experienced power generation company (i.e. a company that owns and/or operates utility size power plants). In case of a consortium at least one of the consortium members must be an experienced power generation company (the Technical Partner). The Technical Partner shall be responsible for providing operation, maintenance and management services under a long term Agreement. dates: Lagos (May 8 9), London (May 15 16), New York (May 20 21), and Hong Kong (June 3 4). Venues for roadshow will be posted on as details become available.

13. Please note that this is not an invitation to tender. NDPHC shall not
be responsible for the cost of any submission. All submissions shall be at the cost of the Prospective Bidders. NDPHC reserves the right to accept or reject any submission.

For info. RS# 27

stand, GE is able to develop a global set of performance predictions and understand how a unit will perform at extreme ambient and confguration ranges. That, in turn, makes it possible to provide higher levels of performance and reliability under a broad spectrum of operating conditions. The unique capabilities of GEs test facility enable compressor mapping and validation for GEs 7F 5-series, 7F 7-series and 9F 7-series gas turbines, all part of the FlexEffciency portfolio. As GEs most advanced gas turbine technology, FlexEffciency gas turbines provide effciency and unprecedented operating fexibility to accommodate both continuous and cyclic operation while delivering reliable, responsive power to the grid. GEs validation system provides a roadmap to how the gas turbine system will perform under the most extreme circumstances. In fact, a few hundred hours of full-load testing of the 7F 5-series gas turbine provided more variance in input conditions than a monitored feet of 7F gas turbines operating for a year with more than 2.6 million f red hours. Because the validation facility is not connected to the grid, the compressor and full turbine tests can go beyond any kind of operating conditions that typically would be experienced in the feld. The developer of a new highperformance automobile would not rely on a U.S. public highway with all its inherent restrictions to test the vehicles capabilities, but instead would use a test track. GE in similar fashion is utilizing the FSFL test stand to test the limits of its highest performing heavy duty gas turbines, part of the FlexEffciency portfolio. After being thoroughly vetted on the test stand, the 7F 5-series gas turbine proved it could meet all of GEs predicted performance targets, including overall effciency, exhaust fow, grid

stability and fexibility characteristics. The Greenville facility is equipped with an advanced data acquisition system that allows more than 7,000 data streams to be acquired. This data system enables accelerated, yet fully comprehensive, testing of GEs gas turbine feet. This level of testing prior to shipment enhances the reliability of GEs new technology advancements and increases confdence in the soundness of these technologies. It also improves commissioning cycles at power plant sites utilizing this technology by decreasing the need for feld changes.

MW/min for 1:1 or 2:1 confgurations with combined cycle effciencies of 59 percent and 59.2 percent, respectively. A larger steam cooled frame called M501J with even higher effciency was introduced in 2011. With an ISO rating of 327 MW gas turbine output, and 1:1 combined cycle effciency of 61.5 percent, this gas turbine is the largest and most effcient 60Hz offering currently in commercial operation. After thorough validation in Mitsubishis demonstration plant in Japan, the worldwide M501J feet consists of 17 units with several of them under commissioning. WHAT DOES MPSA HAVE Similar to the G experience, an air TO OFFER TO POWER cooled counterpart called M501JAC PRODUCERS IN NORTH is being produced to facilitate simple AMERICA? cycle and fast start combined cycle apMitsubishi Power Systems Americas plications. This air cooled version has (MPSA) offers several high effciency an ISO rating of 310MW with simple and high availability large frame gas cycle effciency in excess of 41 percent turbines for the North American mar- and a 1:1 ISO rating of 450 MW with ket. MPSA started combined cycle efinstalling and com- GEs validation system fciency in excess of provides a roadmap missioning gas tur61 percent. bines in the U.S. to how the gas turbine In order to proin the early 2000s. system will perform vide high quality Today, the feet under the most extreme operation support has grown to more and service to the circumstances. than 85 units, inexisting feet, MPSA cluding 29 steam cooled M501Gs. has made large investments in reFollowing the success of the steam pair and service facilities in Orlando, cooled M501G feet; an air cooled Houston, and Savannah. These facilicounterpart called M501GAC has been ties, dedicated to the Western Hemiintroduced and sold to several large sphere, provide training, manufacturutilities in North America. Three of ing, assembly, and repair services to these air cooled units were manufac- support gas and steam turbines, parts tured and shipped in 2012 from MP- and rotors. The Orlando infrastrucSAs new gas turbine manufacturing ture also includes a state-of-the-art refacility in Savannah, Ga. mote monitoring center that operates The M501GAC has an ISO rating of around the clock and handles around 270 MW and can be modifed to op- 2,000 parameters per unit. erate in fast start simple or combined Many of the plants in the feet are cycle confgurations. In simple cycle, under long term service agreements the gas turbine can increase load at a that have been tailored to accommorate of 50 MW/min reaching base load date their needs and facilitate smooth in 10 minutes. In combined cycle, the operation and execution of mainteramp rate is increased to 65 and 130 nance outages.


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For info. RS# 28

Final machining of a new HP/IP rotor for a steam turbine upgrade of an existing 247-MW plant. Photo courtesy of Mitsubishi

Steam Turbine Rehabs Deliver Greater Output and Longer Life



large chunk of Americas coal-fred power plants will be phased out in favor of cleaner-burning gas-fred generation. The transition to gas is being driven by low gas prices, stricter emission standards and a tough economy. But the vast majority of U.S. coal-fred generation will survive as power producers spend billions to bring these aging units into compliance with new emission limits on a wide range of pollutants.

These old coal-fred units, upgraded with new pollution control technology, will remain online for another 20 years, providing the bulk of Americas power supplies for years to come. Coal will remain the dominant source of power generation in the U.S. through 2040, according to the Department of Energys Annual Energy Outlook. Coal will account for 35 percent of the nations power in 2040, while gas will supply 30 percent, the report showed. The problem is this: The average age

of a coal-f red power plant in the U.S. is 38 years. To remain online, many of these plants will require a major steam turbine rehabilitation. Worn and tattered after decades of operation, many of the rotating components in a steam turbine must be replaced to extend the life of the unit. The market for steam turbine rehabs is strong, as power producers spend billions on a wide range of pollution control equipment, including scrubbers and dry sorbent injection systems, to comply with stricter emission limits and preserve their coal-f red assets. If they decide this is a plant they


Clay Soils & Logistic Challenges
Webberville Solar
Located approximately 15 miles east of Austin, the $250 million Webberville Solar facility is contracted to Austin Energy for 25 years, and is expected to generate enough energy to power 5,000 average homes annually. One of the challenges presented by this project was the clay soil located in the northern part of the site. Clay expands and contracts dramatically as the moisture content changes, which in turn can work the tracker foundations out of the soil. To counteract this, RES Americas determined the appropriate depth for the foundations by conducting extensive pull-out and lateral load deflection testing on sample foundations at various locations on the project site. The logistics of the project were also significant. At one point, 66 Sea-Land containers containing 29,000 PV modules were received at the site over a nine-day period. RES Americas successfully managed the scheduling, tracking, and sequencing the delivery of all the components, and the project was completed on schedule.

Developer BOS Contractor Owner Installed Capacity Module Technology Number of Panels Year of Operation

SunEdison RES Americas MetLife / Longsol 30 MW (AC) Trina Solar 127,728 2012

Renewable Energy Systems Americas Inc. 11101 W. 120th Ave. | Suite 400 Broomfield, CO 80021 | 303.439.4200
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want to keep online for 20 more years, they need to look at the rotating equipment and evaluate its condition, said Kent Rockaway, manager of strategic marketing for Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas Inc. The problems will often be with the blade path. The rotating stationary blades can reach an end-of-life situation where the amount of erosion makes low-cost repairs no longer feasible. The objectives for most steam turbine rehabs are longer life, increased output and greater effciency, Rockaway said. To justify the expense, they need to see performance improvement, Rockaway said. Their goal is to have the performance improvement pay for the upgrade. To increase the steam output, you would accommodate it with more effcient blading, he said. If you have a 1970s vintage turbine, then going with a totally new blade path will get you overall heat rate improvement for the plant. Mitsubishi is now rehabilitating two 40-year-old units of an unnamed plant at its Savannah Machinery Works facility, a service and manufacturing center for steam turbines, gas turbines and generators in Savannah, Ga. The project calls for upgrading each units high pressure/ intermediate pressure turbines and replacing some of the

Installation of integrally shrouded IP blades at Mitsubishis Savannah Machinery Works. Photo courtesy of Mitsubishi

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blading on the low pressure (LP) turbine of each unit. Both units have a capacity of 250 MW each. The existing blades were showing signs of fatigue, Rockaway said. For the long-term safety and reliability of the units, a decision was made to replace them. Unit 1 is scheduled to be installed this fall, while Unit 2 will be installed in the fall of 2014. Adding emission control technology to a coal-f red power plant can cause a meaningful reduction in power production, as much as 20 percent in some cases. Much or all of that lost output can be recovered through effciencies achieved with a steam turbine rehab. By rehabbing, you can help offset the lost output, Rockaway said. In April 2012, Alstom completed a steam turbine upgrade at Dominion Powers two-unit, 1,863 MW North Anna Power Station in Louisa County, Va. The project entailed a new high pressure (HP) and two new low pressure rotors for each nuclear generating unit in order to enable the 140-ton units to handle increased steam output. The rotors installed were among the f rst produced at Alstoms new Chattanooga, Tenn. turbomachine manufacturing facility. Alstom also increased the blade length on North Annas LP rotors from 48 to 57 inches in to maximize energy capture from the steam fow. The advent of computational fuid dynamics has allowed us to accelerate our technology and blades, said Charlie Athanasia, vice president of thermal services, North America. That not only allows for more effciency and more power outft, it prolongs the life. Alstoms retroft work at North Anna units 1 and 2 resulted

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Partially bladed IP section of a replacement steam turbine HP/IP rotor. Photo courtesy of Mitsubishi

in a power output capacity increase of 60 MW per unit. Previous to the North Anna upgrade, Alstom completed a similar project at the Surry Power Station in southeastern Virginia. The uprate was completed in June 2011 for Surry Unit 2, and the Surry 1 uprate was completed in December 2010. Prior to the uprates, each Surry Unit was rated at 799 net MW. After the uprates, they are each rated at 838 net MW. While the effciency increase is welcomed, Alstoms focus during its steam turbine upgrades is not simply on ramping up the turbine; but rather optimizing the entire shaft line and accessory system confguration, often


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potentially including balance of plant, Athanasia said. With each upgrade comes an added cost. However, Alstom has developed a cost solution for its upgrades. Instead of

periods, Athanasia said. In doing so, customers get much higher value and return on their maintenance costs. In addition to implementing a unique cost mechanism, Alstom is fo-

If they decide this is a plant they want to keep online for 20 more years, they need to look at the rotating equipment and evaluate its condition. - Kent Rockaway, Mitsubishi
conducting extensive turbine maintenance at one time, Alstoms spreads out the implementation and cost of maintenance over a long period of time. As we continue to advance technology, we look at component design options to prolong lifetime and thus outage cusing much attention on lowering the costs of steam turbine upgrades in an effort to keep coal competitive with natural gas generation. Although the market is perceived suppressed for new steam turbines in conventional coal-f red generation, Athanasia said,

the need for new gas turbines and steam turbines in combined-cycle confguration plants is increasing. Therefore, options for both new and/ or retroftted steam turbines must be considered. Alstom is looking at how to better position steam turbine technologies, application and service capabilities and capacity for what we see as a coming surge in the gas turbine driven combined-cycle application, Athanasia said. Additionally, steam turbine upgrades at nuclear plants, such as those performed by Alstom at North Anna and Surry, allow nuclear facilities to produce even more megawatts. By undergoing a steam turbine upgrade, both nuclear and coal-f red facilities can gain signifcant results in effciency and reliability.


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n early March of this year, two studies were released on the same subject with f ndings that could not have been more divergent. On March 7, 2013, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission released a report stating that nearly all99 out of 104of the commercial nuclear reactors in the

United States received passing grades on nuclear safety, and 81 out of the 99 passed with fying colors, meeting every safety and security performance objective. Three of the worst performing reactors were found to have a degraded level of performance requiring additional NRC oversight, and just one had a safety fnding of high signifcance requiring

yet more oversight and corrective actions. The NRC report seemed to confrm unequivocally that Americas nuclear power plants are operating safely. Just days later, the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) released its own study titled Tolerating the Intolerable, in which 14 nuclear plants were found to have experienced near miss scenarios in the last year, in which the risk of a meltdown increased by at least a factor of 10. The media had a feld day with the second report, the Atlantic releasing online A Map of All the U.S. Nuclear Plants That Almost Melted Down in 2012. One can be forgiven for wondering whats going on here. Two years after the worlds worst nuclear disaster in decades is the U.S. nuclear feet taking reasonable security and safety precautions? Or are Americans narrowly avoiding Fukushimas at a rate of more than once a month? In truth, the UCS reportan annual publication that defnes near miss events as those requiring special inspections from the NRC, of which the NRC itself notifes the publicmischaracterizes the nature of regulatory oversight and misrepresents the status of nuclear safety in the U.S. The NRC weighs a number of factors to determine if the odds of damage to a reactor core have increased suffciently to require them to send in an inspection team but Sending such a team, an NRC spokesman told Power Engineering, does not indicate there was ever any realistic threat to public health and safety. As a hypothetical he said, consider a reactor with all safety-related pumps available. It has a core damage possibility of 1 in 100,000. If an event knocks a pump out of service, the risk could rise to 7 in 100,000. That might require a Special Inspection. If the event knocks out two such pumps and the risk were to rise to 5 in 10,000 that would very likely require a Special Inspection.




Westinghouse AP1000 plant under construction in Haiyang, China
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2013 Shandong Nuclear Power Company Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

A stress analysis of a concrete containment vessel using Abaqus fnite element analysis.This graphic shows the deformed shape of a structure subjected to a high level of internal pressure, the contours illustrating the magnitude of displacement.

Reports from mainstream media outlets, like the Atlantic, that take the UCSs conclusions yet a step further have, frankly, no relationship to reality. Far from showing lax regulation or oversight, the spokesman said, the special inspections show the NRCs doing its job to protect the public and the environment by fnding and correcting problems early, before they can cause real harm. In fact, signifcant steps have already been taken to apply the lessons learned from Fukushima to making the U.S. nuclear feet safer. Days after the March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami in Japan, the NRC dispatched staff to assist the Japanese government and begin to draw lessons from the event. Four

months later, the NRC issued a set of recommendations, which laid the groundwork for a set of full-fedged regulatory requirements issued almost a year to the day after the Fukushima meltdown, on March 12, 2012. As Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Chief Nuclear Offcer Anthony Pietrangelo wrote in Nuclear Power International magazine, The industry and the NRC are in broad agreement on the

high-priority actions that should be taken at Americas reactors. The industrys Fukushima response priority has been to identify those activities that provide maximum tangible safety benefts in the shortest time and implement them frst. Central to the industrys response to the post-Fukushima regulatory regime has been implementation of what the NEI terms the FLEX strategy. Defense in depth against power lossand subsequent cooling systems failure, as occurred at Fukushimalay at the foundation of the FLEX strategy. FLEX calls for placing more key backup safety equipment like generators, battery packs, battery chargers, pumps, and air compressors at each reactor and at satellite sites in order to create layers of redundancy. With respect to backup systems there is often an emphasis on portability, said Dave Hedrick, business development manager for Caterpillar, which produces the generators sought by power producers

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to comply with safety requirements. Power plant operators have a need to balance generator size with the requirement that the unit be mobile in order to meet both portability specifcations and the energy needs for cooling and other essential systems in the event that primary systems fail. To meet their backup power needs, plants have been purchasing generators that run at between 150 KW and 3 MW,

and sometimes more, Hedrick said. Additional aspects of the FLEX strategy include adding more equipment to monitor spent fuel pools to ensure safe temperature and water levels are maintained; training for nuclear plant workers in the use and maintenance of new equipment and communications systems; and establishment of off-site regional support centers, in Memphis and Phoenix, where

yet more emergency equipment will be stationed. In addition to these regional support centers, there are 65 facilities across the United States with equipment available to plant operator if needed. In April, AREVA and the Pooled Equipment Inventory Company (PEICo) fnalized a contract to operate the regional response centers, managing backup equipment and providing services in fulfllment of the FLEX strategys regional response requirements. According to NEI, the NRCs Tier 1 and Tier 2 recommendations have been nearly implemented across the industry. As of March 2013, the NEI says, the industry had purchased over 1,500 units of backup equipment, including 320 emergency diesel generators of various sizes; over 225 pumps that operate up to 5,000 gallons per minute; and hundreds of satellite phones to ensure that communication doesnt break down in the event of a disaster. Whether building a new plant, uprating an old one, or planning for decommissioning and spent fuel storage, one of the most powerful tools plant operators can use to maintain and improve safety is foresight, the ability to look into potential futures and predict how various structures and pieces of equipment will perform under different circumstances. Fortunately, today we have simulation software that does just that. The Abaqus software from SIMULIA, for instance, gathers numerous data points to model possible events and changes throughout the lifecycle of a nuclear power plant. Abaqus can model how a part will change with age, the effects, including heat, of the friction between two materials that touch one another, how concrete will change with time and repairs, or the effects of creep (plastic deformations in a material, like steel, under both high temperature and high stress). The software, which is being endlessly tweaked and improved, becoming ever more sophisticated, might be used, for example, to model how a one-of-a-kind

For info. RS# 37

A crack propagation analysis using Abaqus extended fnite element method simulates crack geometry and growth in a pressure vessel.

event, like an earthquake, would affect a spent fuel storage container. Or it might model how a containment vessel would react if struck by a plummeting airplane. It makes as few assumptions as possible, looking even beyond the specifcations of the facility itself. You can take into account the properties of the soil as well as that of the structure, said Deepak Datye, an engineering

specialist with SIMULIA. If you have good data on material properties after aging has taken place, these properties can be taken into account in order to predict the structural behavior. As an FEA (Finite Element Analysis) code, Abaqus looks primarily at mechanical and structural elements. While the code can model some simple fuid movements on its ownlike fuid sloshing in

a tank, for instanceit is designed to interface with other commercially available CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes to model the kinds of complex fuid dynamics that occur in a major event like a tsunami. Perhaps the most controversial aspect of post-Fukushima safety enhancements are the questions surrounding venting and fltration systems in early-model American boiling water reactors (BWR). Some American BWRs are similar to the reactors that melted down at Fukushima, where indecision and delays in getting vents opened led to pressure buildup and hydrogen explosions that greatly exacerbated the severity of the event. Ever since the Japanese disaster, there has been substantial concern that American facilities are not prepared to handle

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FLEX is a fexible and diverse strategy developed by the nuclear energy industry to implement the Nuclear Regulatory Commissions Fukushima task force recommendations. (with the y at the end of Regulatory)The FLEX strategy builds on three decades of industry experience to address the main safety problems at Fukushimathe loss of cooling capability and electrical power during a severe natural event that exceeded the plants design basis. Additional Spent Fuel Monitoring Supplementary equipment monitors spent fuel pools to ensure temperature and water levels are maintained.

Multiple Layers of Power Supply Backup generators provide essential power and cooling capability if normal equipment is disabled. Battery packs provide power if backup power supply is disrupted.
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in the frst place. As passive safety designs become increasingly sophisticated in Generation III and newer reactors, the need for such numerous, overlapping, and redundant layers of backup safety may decrease over time for newer units. But in all likelihood older designs will continue operating in coming decades and, as has been made painfully clear by the meltdowns at Fukushima, many older nuclear plants were built with unacceptable vulnerabilities and deeply fawed emergency backup systems. The industry has recognized this and is, the NEI says, methodically implementing realistic, sensible solutions to ensure that when things go wrong there are working backup systems in place to ensure that Fukushima is never recreated in the US.

the high pressures that can build up in the early stages of an accident, and that, where vents are in place, they are unfltered and will release radiation into the air. Furthermore, theres concern that the vents may not even work in the event of a power outage. After years of deliberation, in March 2013 the NRC issued a memorandum that, the NRC says, will make for stronger venting systems, according to a March 19, 2013, NRC blog post. In their latest decision, the NRC Commission votes to further strengthen these vents, the post says. The NRC staff has 60 days to fnalize an Order for these enhancements. Generally speaking, these additional requirements mean the vents could handle the pressures, temperatures and radiation levels from a damaged reactor.

In a political victory for the industry and the Nuclear Energy Institute, the commission vowed to use its rulemaking process to consider the best approach by which these 31 reactors can keep radioactive material from the environment during a severe accident. At least for the time being there will be no one-size-fts all solution imposed on the question of BWR vent flters, which could cost plants between $16 million and $45 million to install. The decision seems to echo the fndings of a study published by the Electric Power Research Institute which held that no system is optimal for keeping toxic radiation contained in the event of a core meltdown. Instead, says the study, The best way to avoid radiological release and potential land contamination is to prevent an accident from occurring




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An UpWind Solutions worker performs maintenance on wind turbine, which can extend the turbines life and protect the owners investment in the equipment. Photo courtesy of UpWind Solutions.


INVESTMENTS in Renewable

ike any other piece of major equipment in the power industry, wind turbines represent a large investment for the companies that rely on them to generate both electricity and revenue. Unlike gas turbines or boilers in coal-fred power plants, however, wind turbines present some unique challenges. Repairing wind turbines can be diffcult for several reasons. Most wind farms are in remote areas, and workers are faced with making repairs while up to 330 feet in the air once at the site. Also unlike natural gas-fred or coal-fred plants, operators can expect to repeat this process multiple times because of the comparatively small capacity of wind turbines. One of the keys to preventing costly, time-consuming repairs is planned maintenance, said Sharanie Patterson, marketing category manager for Petro-Canada Lubricants Inc. Proper turbine lubrication is an important part of that maintenance. Wind turbines are expensive pieces of

machinery and the lubrication system is machinery, critical to keeping that machine working well, she said. Many different parts of the wind turbine need to be lubrication with a range of lubricants greases to gearbox fuids to hydraulic oils. Keeping a wind turbines gearbox properly lubricated is important in extending the life of a wind turbine, Patterson said. Petro-Canadas HARNEX 320, designed for use in wind turbine gearboxes, is a fully-synthetic oil designed to withstand the conditions wind turbines may face, from extreme temperatures to potential corrosion from saltwater for offshore wind turbines. The type of oil that is used in a turbines gearbox and for all other parts of a wind turbine is usually designated by the original equipment manufacturer for the units, with a main difference being whether the oil is a synthetic or mineral. Shell Lubricants offers both synthetic (Shell Omala S4 GX 320 and Shell Omala


S4 Wind) and mineral-based (Shell Omala S3 Wind) oil for wind turbine gearboxes. Shell Global Solutions Product Application Specialist Felix Guerzoni said one thing the company looks at when designing products is making sure customers can rely on the product to last a signifcant amount of time without compromising on reliability. With the remoteness of these units, theyre typically only serviced, as far as the regreasing, every six months at best, he said. In terms of the gear oil, customers want to use the gear oil and have that last anywhere from three to fve years without change out, because there are some very signifcant costs involved in changing the gear oil out as well as in the event of failure of a gearbox and having to change the gearbox out. The rental of specialty cranes is a very signifcant cost as well. The gearbox is not the only part of the turbine that requires lubrication, however. The generator bearings and blade bearings also require lubrication, and there are lubrication points on the blades. Wind tower blades have bearings that will essentially feather the blade so operators can optimize the blade angle to match wind speed. The main shaft bearing and yaw and pitch drives also require lubrication. The turbines also use a hydraulic system that provides a braking mechanism for a unit, but can also be used for hydraulic pitch control on the blades. With all these different parts requiring lubrication, multiple products could be required in order to maintain a single turbine. Guerzoni said Shell attempts to create products that can be used for multiple purposes when it can be done without compromosing on performance. Were trying to optimize that as much as possible, because obviously from a service engineers standpoint, the fewer lubricants they have to apply the better, he said. Some companies will try to do a single solution, but then you have to look at the overall reliability of the unit

relative to trying to rationalize the number of products. You can get much better performance and reliability out of a product that is really designed for that specifc application, especially when we talk about greases. So theres a bit of a tradeoff there. Shell Gadus S5 V460 KP 1.5 can be used for the main shaft bearing and yaw bearing, while Shell Rhodina BBZ and recently-developed Shell Gadus S5 V 110 KP have been specifcally designed for

we try to help customers use the fewest number of correct lubricants possible in order to meet their lubrication needs. Optimizing the number of potential applications while producing the highest quality product is just one area companies look at in their research and development process. As turbine technology continues to develop and companies produce larger wind turbines, companies producing the lubrication also need to produce lubricants to keep up with the industry.

GE workers prepare to work on a wind turbine, which is often diffcult because of the remote location and need for specialty equipment. Photo courtesy of GE Renewable Energy.

blade bearing application, Guerzoni said. The company also has a hydraulic fuidsdesigned for extreme low temperature application in Shell Tellus S4 VX 32. Travis Lail, Americas Industrial Marketing Adviser for ExxonMobil Fuels, Lubricants and Specialties Marketing Co. said his company takes a similar approach to specializing lubricants for different parts of a wind turbine, but also attempts to make multipurpose products when there would be no decline in quality. The company produces Mobil SHC XMP 320 for use in a wind turbines gearbox as well as several other products, including Mobil SHC Grease 460WT for use in main, pitch and yaw bearings and SMobil SHC 524 lubricant for use in hydraulic sytems and Mobil SHC Gear XMP, used in more than 40,000 turbines globally. Our approach to the industry is providing products that are optimized for specifc applications, he said. Of course

The gearbox actually creates additional stress, and the essence is it challenges the oils ability to maintain a suffcient flm strength, Lail said. You have to improve your additive packages and base oils that you use to make sure youre able to optimize your oxidation resistance but still maintain low temperature fuidity. One way to ensure products are optimized for different wind turbines is to work directly with the original equipment manufacturers, Guerzoni said. Weve got a very well-proven and successful product line at the current time, but as these turbines are getting larger in size with higher towers, longer blade lengths and higher megawatt class, thats adding new challenges and putting more stress on the unit and more stress on the oil, he said. As a result of that the specifcations are changing at a very rapid rate, especially on the gear oil side, and so as an oil supplier were constantly looking at


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2013 Exxon Mobil Corporation. All trademarks used herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of Exxon Mobil Corporation or one of its subsidiaries.

For info. RS#40

Proper lubrication of a wind turbine, especially the gearbox, is essential to prevent unnecessary and expensive repairs. Photo courtesy of Siemens.

the updates and changes in trends of the design and bringing out new products to meet those requirements. Turbine lubrication, however, is just one part of the process of maintaining equipment at wind power farms. Dennis Pruett, who leads Services Global Operations for GE Renewable Energy, said planned maintenance can also include services such as flter changing and the torqueing of bolts. Unplanned maintenance may include electrical component failures and part replacements. Wind turbine maintenance is important for the same reasons that regular maintenance to your car is important, he said. A turbine is a complex machine that handles extreme loads, pressure and stress on a regular basis. Maintenance is important to ensure that the wind turbine is running at its highest capacity and effciency. GE Renewable Energy is both an original equipment manufacturer for wind turbines and a provider of maintenance services. Many of GE Renewable Energys

customers sign service agreements at the same time they purchase their new units. When the turbine comes off warranty, it undergoes a post-warranty inspection. Owners then decide they would like to keep the OEM as the service provider, use a third-party service provider or self-perform maintenance, Pruett said. Pruett said GE Renewable Energy has more than 22,000 units installed globally, with about 6,000 of those units currently under warranty. The U.S. has seen a large increase in wind power projects recently with the production tax credit currently in effect. Around 183 wind power projects adding 13 GW of new capacity were built in 2012, according to the American Wind Energy Association. That number is nearly double the 103 wind power projects built in 2011. The standard warranty for a wind turbine lasts two years, so in the next few years there will be a large number of turbines coming off of warranty, Pruett said. Robert Bergqvist, vice president of sales

and marketing for UpWind Solutions, expects to see growth in the turbine maintenance business over the next few years as turbines age and owners explore options. UpWind Solutions is one of the thirdparty providers of operations and maintenance companies, drive train health monitoring and asset management solutions turbine owners may choose to use. Bergqvist said that UpWind Solutions, which manages a 2.5 GW feet of wind projects, has developed a model for asset management of wind projects that differs from one for conventional power plants. One has to consider the fact that spare parts and consumables is a major part of the annual O&M spend, that its relatively uncomplicated to perform a borescope inspection of a gearbox in a turbine fagged with a potential issue and that the electricity production from one turbine often is at or below 3 MW. The cost of managing the asset, any monitoring solutions and the potential repair costs must match the revenue generation, he said. Bergqvist said his company is continuously monitoring turbines to identify different types of maintenance that can be performed to avoid leases of cranes or other equipment. If its possible to identify 10 units that will likely fail soon, operators can schedule a proactive replacement of those units at the same time. Monitoring the equipment is an important part of preventing expensive repairs, he said. UpWind Solutions offers drive train health monitoring solutions that provide results allow ing the company to create an intelligent, predictive analysis identifying the outliers with high likelihood of failing in the near term, he said. If youre able to take care of problems before they become a major problem, then youre going to extend the life of the unit, Bergqvist added.


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TAW in Tampa, FL is seeking experienced Industrial Switchgear Sales Specialists for our Power Distribution & Switchgear Division Custom Equipment. The positions will be based in the following markets: Houston, Dallas, Chicago, Metro DC, or Atlanta. Will sell switchgear, power distribution equipment & power equipment centers both low & medium voltage product lines with new & existing accounts. Prior experience either selling or application engineering of industrial switchgear systems. Prior industrial switchgear experience in either medium or low voltage switchgear is required. Candidates can e-mail resumes to or fax resumes to (813) 217-8076. AA/EOE. DFWP.
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Quality and Service Since 1908

Ring Granulators, Reversible Hammermills, Double Roll Crushers, Frozen Coal Crackers for crushing coal, limstone and slag. 1319 Macklind Ave., St. Louis, MO 63110 Ph: (314) 781-6100 / Fax: (314) 781-9209 / E-Mail:

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Are Stray Electrical Currents Destroying Your Bearings and Seals?

Sohre Turbomachinery - Are Self Cleaning. - Operate dry or in oil. - Use gold/silver bristles. - Require little or no maintenance. - Can often be serviced during operation. - High performance. Transmit instrument signals from a rotor without special sliprings.
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Opportunities in Operations and Maintenance, Project Engineering and Project Management. Business and Project Development. First-line Supervision to Executive Level Positions. Employer pays fee. Send resumes to: P.O. BOX 87875, VANCOUVER, WA 98687-7875 email: (360) 260-0979 (360) 253-5292

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Chemical cleaning advisory services for boilers and balance of plant systems

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Multichannel particulate monitor Mini-signal conditioning board Fan coil unit

ilterSense has introduced the PM 100 multichannel particulate monitor, featuring and FilterSenses Modular Instrumentation Control System. The monitor allows users to assess and compare compartments

he Fredericks Co. is now offering the RS-485 multi-signal conditioning board. The board was

EA has recently made its GEA Flex-Geko fan coil units available with heat exchangers

specifcally designed as a cost-effective solution that can be integrated into larger control systems or used to evaluate Fredericks comprehensive line of tilt sensors. The RS-485 is a production-ready, microprocessor-based printed circuit board capable of driving one or two Fredericks electrolytic tilt sensors. The board can be operated with up to two external sensors to meet specifc resolution, axis, and measurement range requirements. Each version includes a built-in temperature sensor, power voltage of 3 to 5 VDC (regulated), power supply current 9 mA @ 5 VOC or 3 mA @ 3.3 VDC, and RS-485 output of 16 bit in ACSII. Other mini-signal conditioning boards available in the series include SPI, Analog/PWM, and RS-232. For more information, visit The Fredericks Co.

designed for low heating-media temperatures or for high coolant temperatures and low mass-fow levels. The EC motors installed as standard in the fan coil unit have electronic commutation allowing infnitely variable adaptation of the fan output by adjustment of the alternating magnetic feld to match the fan speed. For economic partial-load operation without loss of comfort, the optional GEA Drive air-outlet profle, motor-controlled, furthermore assures optimal outlet-air speed. GEA Drive enhances air fushing of a room and prevents air short circuit. GEA Flex-Geko has attained Class A, given only to units that prove to be highly effcient in partial-load cases. GEA

using the on-screen logarithmic bar graphs or optional remote FilterWare software. The continuous particulate emission monitor and baghouse leak detector incorporates Automatic Self Checks (Zero and Span) to eliminate manual calibration audits as required by the US-EPA for MACT. The companys feld-proven technologies provide enhanced reliability over older opacity and triboelectic technologies particularly in diffcult applications such as coal, cement, carbon black, chemical plants and pharmaceutical spray dryers. The benefts include EPA compliance, eliminating cleanup costs and protecting downstream equipment. FilterSense


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1421 S. Sheridan Rd., Tulsa, OK 74112 Phone: 918-835-3161, Fax: 918-831-9834 e-mail: Sr. Vice President North American Power Group Richard Baker Reprints Foster Printing Servive 4295 Ohio Street Michigan City, IN 46360 Phone: 866-879-9144 e-mail: National Brand Manager Rick Huntzicker Palladian Professional Park 3225 Shallowford Rd., Suite 800 Marietta, GA 30062 Phone: 770-578-2688, Fax: 770-578-2690 e-mail: AL, AR, DC, FL, GA, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV Brand Sales Manager Dan Idoine 806 Park Village Drive Louisville, OH 44641 Phone: 330-875-6581, Fax: 330-875-4462 e-mail: CT, DE, IL, IN, MA, ME, MI, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, VT, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Ontario Brand Sales Manager Tina Shibley 1421 S. Sheridan Road Tulsa, OK 74112 Phone: 918-831-9552; Fax: 918-831-9834 e-mail: AK, AZ, CA, CO, HI, IA, ID, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, NV, OK, OR, SD UT, WA, WI, WY, Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Northwest Territory, Yukon Territory, Manitoba International Sales Mgr Anthony Orfeo The Water Tower Gunpowder Mills Powdermill Lane Waltham Abbey, Essex EN9 1BN United Kingdom Phone: +44 1992 656 609, Fax: +44 1992 656 700 e-mail: Africa, Asia, Central America, Europe, Middle East, South America European Sales Asif Yusuf The Water Tower Gunpowder Mills Powdermill Lane Waltham Abbey, Essex EN9 1BN United Kingdom Phone: +44 1992 656 631, Fax: +44 1992 656 700 e-mail: Europe and Middle East Classifieds/Literature Showcase Account Executive Paige Rogers 1421 S. Sheridan Rd. Tulsa, OK 74112 Phone: 918-831-9441, Fax: 918-831-9834 email:


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Four takeaways from The Experts on nuclear power



hats the best way forward on nuclear power? T he Wall Street Journal posed this question to The Experts, an exclusive group of industry and thought leaders and last month they published the responses, many of which offer interesting food for thought. Here are a few key takeaways I gathered from the discussion. Robert Rapier, CTO of Merica International, makes a key distinction between fail-proof and failSan Onofre Nuclear Station

Relations says, nuclear power isnt being kept down by safety rules, public opposition or waste problems. Its stalled because its expensive. Though there is new build happening around the world, most of it tends to be a result of top-down policy designed to meet discrete objectives, like addressing the coal pollution problem in China or reserving fossil fuels for export in the UAE. In most of the world under free market conditions nuclear power does not fare well amid high and unpredict-

its own externalities in the form of the nuclear waste fee levied by the Department of Energy (fees that have not, it must be said, bought the industry a nuclear waste repository). Fossil fuel-fred power plants, however, have thus far been exempted from paying for their main externalities, the greenhouse gases that are placing the planet in increasingly grave danger. A tax (or some other method of imposing a cost on emissions) on carbon would go a long way toward leveling the playing feld and giving nuclear a chance to compete, which it might fare well at because: Nuclear has much to recommend it aside from the carbon emission question, as well as an exciting technological future. In terms of energy security alone, the density and availability of uranium as a fuel makes nuclear power uniquely resilient to price shocks, supply chain disruptions, etc. The potential for thorium reactors down the road only makes this argument stronger. Advances in nuclear fuel recycling would contribute to the fuel stability argument and, as Todd Myers, environmental director of the Washington Policy Center in Seattle, points out, companies like Bill Gatesbacked TerraPower are already at work developing small, fexible spent fuel recycling solutions.

safe technologies. Nuclear power, he says, will never be fail-proof (and I suspect we can say the same about any technology, in deference to Rumsfelds lurking unknown unknowns) but nuclear plants canand increasingly arebuilt fail-safe through passively safe design. Fail-safe design will be essential if nuclear power is to win public confdence. Unfortunately, fail-safe nuclear plant designin conjunction with other costs associated with new build and regulatory requirementsturns out to be pretty costly and in order to have a prosperous future the industry must fnd a way to address the fact that:

able capital costs and the low price of power tied to cheap natural gas. With time, the cost of building passively safe Generation III+ plants may very well come down, but in order for the high expense of nuclear power to drop to any meaningful degree:


Nuclear power is prohibitively expensive. As Michael Levi, a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign

Fossil fuels must be forced to absorb the cost of their own externalities. This fnal point may be the key to unlocking a bright nuclear future. Nuclear power in the US has to pay for

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For the industr y s c areer- minded profe s sionals


The New Leadership Needed in Energy


Skilled Transition

Networking After College


Attracting Graduates to Industry

A supplement to PennWell public ations

w w w.P ennEnerg yJOB S .c om


2 3 6 10 12


Energizing the Next

Dorothy Davis, PennWell

The New Leadership Needed in Enegry

Dorothy Davis, PennWell TRAINING INSIGHTS

Skilled Transition
Hilton Price, PennWell CAREER INSIGHTS
Stacey Schmidt, Publisher Dorothy Davis, Content Director Hilton Price, Editor

Networking After College


Attracting Graduates to Industry

Jamie Ferguson, Maxwell Drummond

Cindy Chamberlin, Art Director Daniel Greene, Production Manager Tommie Grigg, Audience Development Manager

PennWell Corporation 1421 South Sheridan Road Tulsa, Oklahoma 74112 918 835 3161
Adver tisers Index Chevron C2 Map Search 5 PennEnergy Books 9 PennEnergy Research Services C3 PennEnergy Jobs C4
Recruitment Advertising Sales: Brent Eklund Petroleum Account Executive 720 535 1264

Editor s Letter

Energizing the Next

member of the PennWell team, PennEnergys parent company, I am fast approaching my seventh year of being engaged in energy. Although my initial career ambitions were not remotely tied to energy, the knowledge and relationships I have gained in this industry have changed the course of how I plan to spend the rest of my working life. In preparing for this issue, what kept returning was the need to engage the next group of energy professionals. How do we pass on the passion and commitment needed to keep this vital industry thriving? We begin by exploring the new leadership needed in energy on page 3. For those just starting their careers, one of the toughest challenges can be making Although my initial career ambitions were not remotely the skilled transition from tied to energy, the knowledge and relationships I have the classroom to the feld. On page 6 PennEnergy gained in this industry have changed the course of speaks with three graduates how I plan to spend the rest of my working life. of BPs Challenge Program, a corporate initiative that addresses this learning gap to empower new energy professionals to maximize their careers. Rounding out this edition are insights from career experts with CareerCast and global search consultancy Maxwell Drummond. Job seekers will learn how to effectively network after college on page 10, while recruiters will gain an understanding of what it takes to attract new graduates to the industry on page 12. PennEnergy is immersed in the companies, projects, policies and people that impact all segments of our industry. Most importantly, we are charged with providing content resources that matter to the true experts, the energy workforce, so you might energize the next. Carpe diem! Dorothy Davis


Spring 2013 | FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT | EnergyWorkforce


The New Leadership Needed in Energy

By Dorothy Davis

the Fall semester of 2012 The University of Tulsa (TU) launched a new energy focused post-graduate degree offering, the online Master of Energy Business program. As the content director for PennEnergy, I was invited to join a speaking panel that would address the frst class. Initially, I chose to focus my speech on the growing trend of integration between the power and oil & gas sectors. However, the night before my presentation I had the opportunity to attend a dinner with those students and enjoy several presentations from prominent members of the energy industry. What I heard that evening not only inspired me to shift the focus of my presentation for those incoming TU post-grads, but was successful in setting me on a path of active industry advocacy and education. Along with learning about some exciting new project developments and the robust growth of the energy sectors, what stood out was the enthusiastic call from those already tenured in the industry to encourage those in attendance to seek positions of leadership. What they wanted most for the energy sectors was to inspire others to take up the mantles of responsibility, service and innovation.

Part of what was so moving about this experience is that until my move to Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 2001, I had next to no knowledge of the industry that powered my world. While raised and educated in New York City as a massive consumer of energy products and services, the industry remained something abstract for me. Even as an active member of community programs which focused on raising environmental awareness, energy remained a peripheral. I was disconnected from just how connected I was. In late 2006 I began my career with PennWell, a business to business media company serving the energy sectors. I came into this feld with a background in human services and communications, but found here an opportunity to maximize my existing skills and challenge me toward establishing a successful new career. A career that for me, and I am certain for many you, has since become a passion.

Now here I am, a professional under 40 going into my seventh year within a corporation that has been functioning in energy for over a century. As a young professional in service to an industry both vast and demanding I can no longer imagine doing anything else. Energy after all touches everything. While my role in energy is primarily an outlying one, the demands of my position are not much different from what many of you will encounter as they advance. Rather than requiring expertise in a singular sector, my position requires that I cultivate a level of expertise across the industry as a whole. And not just the industry of today, but its rich history as I work to stay at the forefront of what is ahead. The most important detail in all of this is that my experience is not the exception. Today, energy professionals both in outlying roles such as mine and in more direct felds such as engineering or the geosciences will need
Photo by Ambro,

EnergyWorkforce | FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT | Spring 2013

to possess a broad skill set to remain competitive. Not just competitive, but in moving the industry forward. Thats what clicked for me that evening. What I needed to share with those incoming post-graduates was not an overview of the growing trends and benefts of cross sector collaboration, but the benefts of cultivating strong leaders to drive it. The needs of the industry are broadening. Energy now, not in some unspecifed future, is actively recruiting its next thought leaders. Further, from what I was hearing the key concepts behind the success of that leadership will be diversity, collaboration and innovation. While functional and technical specialists will always be needed, those beginning or continuing their professional lives within todays energy must bring more to the table. Programs like TUs Master of Energy Business are an important step, but understand its just the beginning. True masters never stop seeking knowledge. To quote Eric Hoffer, American social writer and recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, In a time of drastic change, it is the learners who inherit the future. Make no mistake; this is a time of drastic change. While the energy industry has long been subject to intense cycles, what is on the horizon for our sectors is far more signifcant than a period of boom or bust. The new leaders of our industry will be challenged with maintaining many of the core initiatives and values that have strengthened energy since its earliest years while fnding the means to integrate an evolving culture of diversity, collaboration and innovation.

The message being shared was that while it is a very good time to be in energy, its an even better time to be a trailblazer. As the industry average continues to near retirement age, most companies are bracing to see around half of their professional staff leave within the next decade. Further complicating matters, is the fact that a good portion of those numbers represents the industrys current leadership. Meanwhile, the U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasts that demand is expected to rise more than 40 percent over the next 25 years. To frame this more plainly, we are losing close to half of our industry professionals as demand will nearly double. This presents both a daunting challenge and an immense opportunity. We must encourage young professionals to be the leaders this industry needs and get fully engaged in energy. We must also encourage energy companies to broaden their horizons through training resources and recruitment efforts beyond traditional industry focused degrees. The industry today requires all hands, across all decks. The burdens of a strained global economy, increasing regulation, resource limitations and the need to modernize are not oil & gas problems, utility problems or infrastructure problems, they are global challenges. As our industry moves ahead in fnding ways to connect and integrate diverse resources, the energy sectors must also strive to do the same with their business resources. How? I return again to diversity, collaboration and innovation. These will drive our evolving industry and its new imperatives.

To grow we must be all-of-the above in all things. I do not say that lightly and certainly not as the echo of any politically biased policy. It is meant as a universal way forward that respects the heritage of our industry while taking the necessary steps to ensure it continues to thrive. There is a bright future for all sectors if we can apply the principles of diversity, collaboration and innovation. Renewables are in their awkward adolescent phase and like unruly teenagers with proper guidance and development they will prosper and be so worth it. Coal is facing brutal regulation. To play on the title of a favorite movie, we must accept this is no country for old coal. Old being the operative word in that turn of phrase; coal is too abundant for the industry to do anything but cultivate new ways to harness its power both effciently and proftably. While unconventional natural gas has us swooning, the past has taught us not to rely too heavily on any single resource. Natural gas has its place and it is in being one part of a dynamic portfolio of energy resources. Hydrocarbons in general must be approached differently. While we continue to make great strides in exploration and production we know resources are indeed limited. But our visions and our talents are not. There is always a way forward. In my mind, the way ahead is through a cultivated thought leadership bold enough to cross boundaries and integrate to meet challenges. We start with ourselves by taking on the responsibility of being energy stewards. In doing so we inspire the next to diversify, collaborate and innovate!

Spring 2013 | FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT | EnergyWorkforce

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Skilled Transition
How one corporate training program is helping industry graduates energize for the future.
By Hilton Price

education and training is the cornerstone of entry into the power and petroleum industries. For new graduates and recruits, it is preparation that provides the tools to stand out from the crowd. For the companies hiring these men and women, it is preparation they look for when determining who will be essential staff moving forward. BPs Challenge Program is a global initiative for new graduate recruits in their frst three years with the company. PennEnergy had the chance to interview three graduates of the program, to discuss how it supplemented their education and prepared them for careers in the industry. Heres what they had to say.
Tracy Gunness


As a frst year Challenger Gunness won Technofest, a global competition for BPs Challengers.

Photo by Stuart Miles, publis

of subsurface, which aided in developing my technical ability in a holistic manner far beyond what I could have achieved solely from university studies. I was very impressed that BP entrusted in me to lead and complete such an important project. It was such a great experience that set the foundation for my entrance into the company. As a BP Challenger, you won the Technofest. What elements of that win were directly fueled by education and training through BP? TG: My coaches defnitely believed in me before they knew what I was capable of, since I entered the competition only a few months after joining the company as a Challenger. They even envisioned me winning globally before the results of the local round were even announced. Their enthusiasm and confdence in my ability inspired me to always bring my best to the table. I truly believe that even though I stood as an individual in the competition, we won as a team since my win is a testament to the great coaching that I received throughout my project and to date. Thats one thing I like about BP. The company takes pride in teaching and developing the skills of others.

Tracy Gunness is a geologist currently working in Upstream: Exploration and Appraisal for BP in Trinidad and Tobago. The graduate of the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Gunness joined the company following an internship experience. She is currently in the second year of BPs Challenge Program and is working on an appraisal project involving the Manakin feld on the border of Trinidad and Venezuela.

As a BP intern, did you feel prepared to handle the challenges ahead of you? How effective was the education youd had before joining the BP internship program? TG: I graduated at the top of my class from the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, with a Bachelors degree and First Class Honors in petroleum geosciences. While the university helped prepare me for the internship, at BP Trinidad and Tobago I had a great opportunity to participate in a real life project that I used for my university thesis. The project allowed me to apply my knowledge from university and integrate different aspects

Spring 2013 | FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT | EnergyWorkforce

Tess us about an experience you had as an intern that fueled your professional development. TG: The story that always sticks out for me was when I frst started my internship I was given several objectives for my project. I was basically tasked to determine fault evolution, timing and linkage for the area with some additional geochemical work. When I fnished the task, I knew something was missing to complete the story, so I showed my data to the team leader and he told me to take the project and run with it. I was really surprised! I thought they would send this project to someone more senior, but my supervisor trusted me to get the job done and I got the go ahead. I took my data and integrated it to create an evolutionary model for the area that showed trap formation and modifcation through time, as well as gas migration and accumulation. Then, I used the model to identify where the best sites could be for exploration. I presented the work that I had done to my supervisors and other senior decision makers. They were pleasantly surprised and happy about what I discovered and presented. They even said that the project I led was more on a Masters level, not a bachelors level, which was quite satisfying to hear. How has the Challenge Program supplemented your existing education? TG: Since I am still relatively new to the working world, I would say the obstacles I face are the same as any new employee developing the right technical skills, working alongside a team and adapting to a new environment. The Challenge Program has helped supplement my existing education by providing consistent, structured learning and development throughout the frst three years of my career. I am constantly

impressed by the way BP invests time and resources to help new employees through comprehensive training courses. These courses are designed in such a way to bridge the gap between academia and the industry. They set the foundation with a strong technical understanding followed by exercises in industrial application and examples. It has also helped me grow professionally by providing a roadmap for my career and allowing me to sample three different roles within the organization. What were the biggest benefts of the BP Challenge Program? TG: Im actually still in the Challenge Program and am at the end of my second year. Aside from allowing me to sample two different roles within the organization and providing consistent and structured learning, Challenge has provided a sense of community and events which allow us to give back. Since I have been here, BP staff members have participated in several community projects, such as painting schools and feeding the poor. What makes me most proud to work at BP is the companys community interaction and positive impact.
Carter Clemens

program, Clemens also worked in Wyoming initially, where he was in charge of nearly 400 wells. What was it like joining BP after college? Were you overwhelmed entering the industry, or did you feel your education had prepared you properly? CC: I chose to work at BP because of its culture. Specifcally, I like that the company employed many young people as well as the companys Challenge program that includes technical training. Its like college but now you get to apply what you learned on actual projects around the world. College prepared me very well for the oil industry, but the difference with BP was that it involved hands-on experience on actual projects. It has a different feel to it. For me it was standing at the wellhead after executing a workover I designed and waiting to see whether the well came back online- its tough to get that in the classroom. In New Mexico, you oversee 200 wells for BP. In Wyoming, it was 400. How did the Challenge Program prepare you for that responsibility? CC: You are given a lot of responsibility from the beginning here at BP. Challenge also provides you with a world class training program. Ive been able to attend training programs taught by both university professors and BPs technical experts which allow you to see a very practical side to things. You also have a huge peer base that you can use as a resource. As soon as you join BP you gain a network of several hundred people with knowledge on different areas of BPs business. It also comes in handy to meet others if youre new to Houston or a particular feld location.

Carter Clemens will soon begin a new international assignment for BP and was most recently a production engineer in the San Juan South Basin in Farmington, New Mexico. In New Mexico, Clemens worked with natural gas and coalbed methane, managing 200 wells for BP. Clemens is a graduate from the University of Texas who studied petroleum engineering and joined the company following college. A member of the Challenge Program who recently completed the

EnergyWorkforce | FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT | Spring 2013

Do you feel the knowledge and experience of the older generation of oil & gas professionals is available to you? CC: At BP our teams work in a very interactive open air environment and, as a result, we have full access to technical experts who really are the superstars of this industry. They serve as our teachers and mentors. Along with programs like Challenge they ensure were prepared for the responsibilities of the job. What is another memorable element of your post-college training? CC: One of the things Ive enjoyed most is the feld experience. My work has taken me to Texas, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Colorado. In addition to the

delivery of the worlds frst ever subsea multi-stage acid fracture using a new type of technology. Michael is 27 years old and has been with BP for fve years. North Sea platforms present unique environmental challenges for workers. How prepared were you for this environment, and how did training and preparation through BP infuence you? MW: I worked as an offshore drilling engineer for the frst year of the Challenge program, during which time I gained first-hand, operational experience on a rig. BP did prepare me before I went to spend time on the platforms. For instance, as well as receiving standard technical training, I had basic explosive

Its like college but now you get to apply what you learned on actual projects around the world.
change in scenery and side trips that these provide, its been helpful more me to see a wide spectrum of reservoir types. From an engineering standpoint, different operating conditions provide different challenges. I feel that the ability to see several different areas has given me better perspective as an engineer. Also, its always fun to tackle new challenges. Out in the feld you gain a big appreciation of how much impact what you are doing has on people. Its motivating.
Michael Wolanski

infuenced my decision to enroll in a BP summer internship in 2006. The internship was in completions and I enjoyed the experience so much that I decided it was the feld I wanted to work in, and BP was the company I wanted to work for. Fortunately, I was offered a conditional position, which motivated me to work even harder in the fnal year of my robotics and cybertronics degree. In the end, I got the results I needed and was able to join BPs graduate program in 2007. What has impressed me throughout my career at BP is how much knowledge we have in the industry and what we are able to achieve technically. The scale and accuracy of the drilling, for instance, is mind blowing. I am currently writing the procedure to install the completion in a well that more than fve miles long, and despite its huge scale, the well will hit very precise coordinates to access hydrocarbons. You garnered praise for delivery of the worlds frst ever subsea multi-stage acid fracture using a new technology. How did BPs training and education aid in this process for you? MW: I worked with a team to develop and deliver the worlds frst ever subsea multi-stage acid fracture, using a new type of technology. Technically, it was the most interesting piece of work I have ever undertaken. It involved designing a system that would activate various components by dropping different sizes of activation balls. This was done while pumping acid at high rate and high pressure. To give an idea of scale, the acid was pumped at a rate that could fll a bathtub in about a second and at a pressure that is the equivalent of an elephant

awareness training and also underwent a helicopter crash simulation that taught me how to escape if an accident were to occur over water. What were your impressions of the industry before you began the Challenge Program? How were they different upon completion of the program? MW: The oil and gas industry and BP have both been a part of my life since I was quite young. I remember BP staff used to come and give talks at my school and once I was taken on a trip to see one of their facilities. I think it was this early exposure that led me to appreciate the importance of the sector in delivering energy to the UK and also the contribution it makes to the economy. This undoubtedly

Michael Wolanski is a Completions Engineer on the Magnus Platform in the North Sea. His role involves drilling wells using some of the latest technology. His career highlight to date, has been the

Spring 2013 | FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT | EnergyWorkforce

standing on an inch of space. The system was signifcant because it could potentially enable access to more hydrocarbons, changing how fnancially viable it was to further develop certain areas of the feld we were working on. Speak a little on preparation, how it has factored into your career, and how it can be best addressed for newcomers to the industry. MW: The work you get to do at BP is extremely interesting, but it can be a steep learning curve. Fortunately, its a great environment to learn in, as the people working at BP have a lot of experience to share. You end up learning a lot from colleagues in both formal

and informal settings and there is always support if you need it. I also have a mentor who I meet with on a regular basis to look at technical challenges. I also act as a mentor and technical coach to a number of summer interns and new BP engineers, which is very rewarding. What were your biggest surprises from training with BP? MW: I think its that every day is different. Some days you receive technical training, other days its health and safety training, but its that variety that keeps things interesting. The role itself is similarly diverse, and some days are spent performing in depth engineering,

such as stress analysis, and others can be spent at a vendors offce looking at new products. What more can the company do to aid in training future candidates? MW: BP invested heavily in my training during the Challenge program and has continued to support me in my subsequent career and I think the company does a good job of developing young talent. However, there is room for improving training across all companies operating in the sector. We need to become better, as an industry, at sharing best practices and in collaborating to deliver standardized training across companies.

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EnergyWorkforce | FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT | Spring 2013



Networking After College

By Tony Lee

to fnd a job by calling people you dont know and asking them for help probably sounds dreadful, like a cross between telemarketing and door-todoor sales. After all, nobody likes rejection, and this jobsearch strategy is sure to provoke a rash of apologies and unreturned phone calls. Yet, what if it works? What if you can fnd a great job simply by making phone calls and meeting with people who want to help you? Would you try it? Thats the premise behind networking, the practice of contacting everyone you know (and everyone they know) to ask for their advice and support. And it works. A survey of more than 1500 successful job hunters shows that 63% found new positions by tapping their networks of friends, family members, acquaintances and anyone else who would help. In comparison, only 11% found jobs by answering ads, and just 2% by sending unsolicited resumes to company recruiters, reports a New York-based career consulting frm. Although most job hunters have heard successful networking stories from friends and colleagues, some avoid the

Where to Start?

technique because they dont like the way it sounds. They hate the idea of using people to fnd a job, and the equate networking with sleazy tactics used by unscrupulous salesmen. It sounds like a what can you do for me kinds of tactic that Id only try if I knew Id never see the person again, says one recent college graduate. He couldnt be more wrong. An effective networking relationship helps both parties. Contacts enjoy talking about themselves, how they got jobs after college and how companies in their industry are doing. And if they can match you up with a job somewhere, theyre doing both you and your new employer a favor that they hope will be returned one day. Its a win-win situation.

Tony Lee is the Publisher of and This article is reprinted by permission from, Adicio Inc. All rights reserved.

The best people to enlist as you launch a networking campaign are those you know well and who know you, such as: Brothers, sisters, aunts, uncles, cousins and any other relatives who are willing to help, including your parents College friends now in the workplace Past professors who also work as consultants or who have left academia for the business world Former bosses, and co-workers at fullor part-time jobs, internships or workstudy assignments Neighbors and family acquaintances Write down a list of people who might have information on available jobs or, more importantly, who know other people who might be helpful. Realize the importance of building a wide range of contacts. Although many of these people may never hear about job openings, theyre critical because of the many friends and contacts theyll refer to you. Next, decide what youll say when you reach people on your list. An approach that works well is to frst explain your status (eg, a recent graduate) and your interest (to gather information about hiring trends in their industry and names of others who might help you). If the person says she doesnt know of any openings, reiterate that what you really want is her opinion of the hiring market and


Spring 2013 | FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT | EnergyWorkforce

the names of people who might know of openings. With this reassurance, most contacts will agree to a brief call, or will at least call back with a name or two. If the contact still doesnt understand, say thanks and move on. When calling a contact you dont know who was referred to you, use the same two-part approach, but add a new introduction: Hello, Mr. Jones. My former college roommate Jill Smith suggested I call you. Or, Jill Smith at ABC Corp. thought you might be able to help me. Then explain your status and interest and ask for a brief meeting. Most people love to give advice and are very willing to talk about their fled and the job market if you approach them the right way, say career counselors, who say that recent grads typically face three types of potential contacts when networking. About 25% are real nice and will help you no matter what you say. About 25% are mean and wont help no matter how good or polite you are. The rest are in the middle and will respond based on how well you approach them. If you act like youre going to plop yourself down in their chair and say, Tell me everything you know, they wont help. You have to guide them, coach them and ask good questions, they say. Sometimes your best contact is the most unlikely. Christine Bowman interviewed on campus for insurance and sales positions before graduating with a business administration degree from the University of Iowa. But she landed her present position as a staff accountant in Chicago through her boyfriends sister-in-law. Knowing the right people at the

right time helped me get the job, says Bowman.

Preparation is Key

Proven Approaches

To elicit someones support in a phone call, know all you can about the person youre calling. Getting through to a contact and making arrangements to see that person isnt a victory. That comes only after youve completed a successful interview, and that doesnt happen by accident. Career counselors suggest researching contacts companies and industries before each meeting. Develop an under-

Sometimes your best contact is the most unlikely

standing of each persons interests so that you can discuss your education and experience as it relates to their background and to potential needs in the marketplace, he says. After a successful exchange, send a thank-you email; then continue to contact the person every month or so to report your progress and ask for new leads. Dont become a pest, but dont think that one fve minute call or meeting will engage their attention. You need to be relentless in using your network contacts, but dont be defensive if they dont return your calls, says Taunee Besson, president of a career consulting frm in Dallas, Texas. If you rely on contacts to remember you weeks after a brief meeting or phone call, youll likely be disappointed.

To launch and maintain an effective networking campaign, consider the following fve tips suggested by Ms. Besson: Set networking goals Determine who you want to meet early on and what you want to fnd out from each person. As you efforts progress, evaluate the types of people who are most helpful and try to contact others who share their attributes. Build networking into your daily schedule The months before graduation can be crazy, but you need to devote at least 15 or 20 minutes to your network each day for it to pay off. Remember, the best time to reach most executives by phone is early (before 8 am) and late (after 5:30 pm). People you respect but dont necessarily like can be helpful Sometimes, theyre the most objective sources of solid information. On the other hand, people you like and with whom you share common interests will be your most valued contacts over time. When networking, make develop ing a friendship rather than getting something your primary goal If they like you, people who lack useful information now will think of you when an opening arises. Join professional organizations where you can easily meet people who work in the industry you hope to enter Campus groups are great, but reach beyond them to join organizations composed of working professionals who can serve as terrifc contacts and mentors. Networking isnt easy, but compared to most other job-search strategies out there, its a highly effective technique you cant afford to ignore.

EnergyWorkforce | FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT | Spring 2013




Attracting graduates to industry

By Jamie Ferguson

oil and gas industry offers new entrants a diverse range of challenging career options with longevity, variety and opportunities for world-wide travel. However, the publics perception of the industry is often distorted. Many people living outside energy hubs like Aberdeen, Calgary and Houston are unaware of the importance of the oil and gas sector in the global economy, supporting hundreds of thousands of jobs, contributing billions of dollars every year to Governments and supplying the vast majority of the worlds energy needs. How to attract young professionals to the oil and gas industry is high on the agenda at OTC 2012 with a whole event dedicated to the subject on the opening day. Figures from the World Petroleum Council found that 50 percent of its 60 member countries workforce is due to retire in the next ten years. Over the years, environmental disasters and safety breaches have contributed to a somewhat negative public opinion of the energy industry. Last year, research by the Gallup Organization found only 20% of participants viewed the oil and gas industry positively- ranking second last. This negative perception has

a direct affect on the ability to attract emerging talent. Parents of 20-somethings considering their career path may warn their children of what was previously an unstable industry. The energy market is dictated by oil prices and fuctuating prices in the 1990s meant downsizing

and less hiring. As a result, average workforce age in developed economies is somewhere in the mid to late 40s. The ability to locate hidden reserves and extract precious hydrocarbons is based on a comprehensive understanding of science, math and engineering. These are subjects fewer students in the Western World are keen to pursue.

Jamie Ferguson joined Maxwell Drummonds Aberdeen team in 2006 and by July 2011 was promoted to Vice President of Global Business Development. Jamie has extensive experience managing executive level searches for clients spanning the oil and gas value chain and has deep industry networks developed from working on assignments in over 20 countries on 6 continents. Maxwell Drummond International is a world leading retained search consultancy offering professional search services to clients in all sectors of the energy and natural resources industries.

In contrast to India and China where 1 million engineering students graduate annually, 120,000 engineering students in the U.S is extremely low. How do we re-position the oil and gas industry as an attractive career choice to todays young graduates? As an industry, we should do more collectively to engage talent in the countries we operate. We need to collaborate with academia and with government sectors. Many major oil companies for example, have longterm research commitments with major universities around the world. We must be proactive in our attempt to reach the young as they are about to enter university and again whilst they are contemplating career choices. We should educate the public about the investment that the industry makes annually in research and development, the diversity of the geographical locations in which they could live and work, the many technically challenging projects executed each year, the advances in environmental safety and how lucrative a career in the oil and gas industry can be compared to others. There is mileage in the idea that the career choices of the young should be seen as the largest investment that the industry makes. It should be tackled with all the same effort, cunning and intelligence that a consumer company harnesses when it looks to attract its customers; especially so, as energy and the humans that play a part in producing it, are the life blood of our civilization.


Spring 2013 | FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT | EnergyWorkforce

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