1.

PROJECT PLANING

Before starting every project its planning is to be done. Planning is very important task and should be taken with great care, as the efficiency of the whole project largely depends upon its planning while planning a project each and every details should be worked out in anticipation and should carefully is considered with all the relating provisions in advance. Project planning consists of the following steps.

PROJECT CAPACITY The capacity of the project must be decided considering the amount of money which can be invested and availability of material and machines.

DRAWINGS Drawing been decided for the project to be manufacture. Its detailed drawing specification for raw material and finished products should be decided carefully along with the specification of the machines required for their manufacture.

MATERIAL EQUIPMENT The list of materials required for manufacture is prepared from the drawings. The list of is known as “BILL OF MATERIALS”. This passes to the store keeper and the required materials taken from the store under permission of store keeper operation, the necessity of operation, the person

to do the job, machine to be used to do the job are considered while planning the operation. After considering tea above questions a best method is developed and the best method is applied to the operation.

MACHINE LOADING While planning proper care should be taken to find the machining time for each operation as correct as possible. So that the arrangement for full utilization of machine can be made machine loading programmed is also known.

PURCHASE CONSIDERATION It is different to manufacture all the component needed for the equipment in the workshop it self. The decision about a particular item whether to purchase or to manufacture is taken by planning after making through study of relative merits demerits.

EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATION Result obtained from “PROCESS PLANNING” and “MACHINE LODING” helps in calculating the equipment requirement specification of the equipment should be laid down by considering the drawing. Drawing will also help in deciding and necessary requirement of tools, accessories.

COST CALCULATION The cost of the project can be calculated by adding following.

Material Cost Machining Cost Overhead Expenses.

COMPARISION The various items in the finished project are compared to the standards for the further correction.

REPORT At the end of the project work report is prepared for future references. The report consists of all the items done the project work.

1. PNEUMATIC JACK HAMMER A jackhammer is a pneumatic tool that combines a hammer directly with a chisel that was invented by Charles Brady King.[1] Hand-held jackhammers are typically powered by compressed air, but some use electric motors. Larger jackhammers, such as rig mounted hammers used on construction machinery, are usually hydraulically powered. They are usually used to break up rock, pavement, and concrete. In modern terminology, a "jackhammer" does not have the capacity to drill rock. A jackhammer operates by driving an internal hammer up and down. The hammer is first driven down to strike the back of the bit and then back up to return the hammer to the original position to repeat the cycle. The bit usually recovers from the stroke by means of a spring. The effectiveness of the jackhammer is dependent on how much force is applied to the tool.

History Pneumatic drills were developed in response to the needs of mining, quarrying, excavating, and tunneling. The first "percussion drill" was made in 1848 and patented in 1849 by Jonathan J. Couch of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
[2]

In this drill, the drill bit passed through the piston of a

steam engine. The piston snagged the drill bit and hurled it against the rock face. It was an experimental model. In 1849, Couch's assistant, Joseph W. Fowle, filed a caveat for a percussion drill of his own design. In Fowle’s drill, the drill bit was connected directly to the piston in the steam cylinder; specifically, the drill bit was connected to the piston’s crosshead. The drill

powered by compressed air.5 mi) tunnel through Mount Fréjus in order to create a rail link between Italy and France. Fréjus tunnel project. [3] By 1850 or 1851. invented a similar pneumatic rock drill in Freiburg. there was also no way to convey steam over long distances (e. Cavé.g. and after the compressed air had been used to power equipment..[5][6] The need for a mechanical rock drill was obvious and this sparked research on pneumatic rock drills in Europe. to officials of the Mt.also had a mechanism for turning the drill bit around its axis between strokes and for advancing the drill as the hole deepened. By contrast. Fowle was using compressed air to drive his drill. had been contemplating the excavation of a 12-kilometer (7. compressed air could be conveyed over long distances without loss of its energy. mines and tunnels occasionally contained flammable explosive gases such as methane. Carlo Alberto. a rock drill that used compressed air. Thomas Bartlett made and then patented (1855) a rock drill in which the drill bit was connected directly to the piston of a steam engine. however. the king of Sardinia. Schumann. In Europe since the late 1840s.[9]) Bartlett’s drill was refined by the Savoy-born . the air had to be admitted manually to the cylinder during each stroke. which would cross his realm. and in 1851 patented. designed. furthermore. making it the first true pneumatic drill.[4] The demand for pneumatic drills was driven especially by miners and tunnelers because steam engines required fires in order to operate and the ventilation in mines and tunnels was inadequate to vent the fires' fumes. In 1855 Bartlett demonstrated his drill. so it was not successful. in England.[7] In 1854. Germany. from the surface to the bottom of a mine).[8] (In 1855. it could still serve to ventilate a mine or tunnel. A Frenchman. a German.

This unit take all the weight and vibration from the user. called a rivet buster. the term "jackhammer" usually refers to electromechanical version of the tool. Both use their combined weight to push the bit into the workface.[12] In Britain. Positioner Actuator Manipulator. except for a very strong man. and push the tool back against the work after each blow. although strictly speaking a "pneumatic drill" refers to a pneumatically driven jackhammer. A technique developed by experienced workmen is a two-man team to overcome this obstacle of gravity: one man operates the hammer and the second assists by holding the hammer either on his shoulders or cradled in his arms. requiring strength conditioning and endurance to hold a smaller jackhammer. while "pneumatic drill" is used colloquially elsewhere in the English speaking world. by 1861. Another method is overhead jackhammering.A.[10] Thereafter. many inventors refined the pneumatic drill.engineer Germain Sommeiller (1815-1871) and his colleagues. over one's head. To make overhead work even safer a platform can be used.M. Grandis and Grattoni. One such platform is a P. [11] Terminology The word "jackhammer" is used in North American English and Australia. . as the user would have to both support the weight of the tool. This method is commonly referred to as horizontal jackhammering.[citation needed] Use A full-sized portable jackhammer is impractical for use against walls and steep slopes.

[13] is a jackhammer that uses compressed air as the power source. when the clutch was disengaged maximum. by a diesel engine. The unit comprised a reciprocating compressor driven. The air supply usually comes from a portable air compressor driven by a diesel engine. when the clutch was engaged and the compressor was running .Types Pneumatic A compressor for running a pneumatic jackhammer A pneumatic jackhammer. through a centrifugal clutch. also known as a pneumatic drill or pneumatic hammer. The engine's governor provided only two speeds: • • idling. Reciprocating compressors were formerly used.

The unit is usually mounted on a trailer and sometimes includes an electrical generator to supply lights or electric power tools. This tool is useful where the work is light and access to a compressor is limited or impractical. some users of pneumatic jackhammers may use a pneumatic lubricator which is placed in series with the air hose powering the air hammer. Hydraulic . It requires a heavy duty extension cord to power the motor instead. Electromechanical A single phase demolition breaker. Additionally. Furthermore. air compressors typically incorporate moisture into the compressed air leading to freeze-ups of the jackhammer or air hammer in cold weather. This section requires expansion.Modern versions use rotary compressors and have more sophisticated variable governors. This increases the life and performance of the jackhammer. Specific lubricant in filled in the pneumatic lubricator.

much larger than portable ones. A hydraulic jackhammer. These larger machine mounted breakers are known as Rig Mounted. may be fitted to mechanical excavators or backhoes and is widely used for roadwork. quarrying and general demolition or construction groundwork. since the vehicles involved are massive enough and powerful enough to exert the forces involved without needing the help of gravity in operating the tool. Health A jackhammer with black silencer attached .An excavator-mounted hydraulic jackhammer being used to break up concrete. since they lack any high-power electrical circuitry that might cause a triggering spark. Pneumatic or hydraulic tools are particularly likely to be used in mines where there is an explosion risk (such as underground coal mines). as a hydraulic hammer would develop a low strike speed and transfer unacceptable shock loads to the pump system. or Machine Mounted Breakers. Such tools can also be used against vertical walls (or ceilings for that matter). Hydraulic breakers usually use a hydraulic motor driving a sealed pneumatic hammer system.

a condition known as white finger. Many factories and plants already have a compressed air system. Sound-blocking earmuffs must be worn by the operator to prevent a form of hearing damage of which tinnitus is the main symptom. Pneumatic drill usage can also lead to a predisposition for development of carpal tunnel syndrome. SELECTION OF PNEUMATICS: Mechanization is broadly defined as the replacement of manual effort by mechanical power. which is capable of providing both the power or energy requirements and the control system (although equally . Most pneumatic jackhammers now have a silencer around the barrel of the tool. Prolonged exposure to the pronounced vibration set up by the tool can lead to blood-circulation failures in the fingers. Applying athletic tape is not effective in preventing white finger but seems to help alleviate some of its discomfort. makes pneumatic jackhammers dangerously loud.The sound of the hammer blows. Pneumatics is an attractive medium for low cost mechanization particularly for sequential or repetitive operations. emitting 100 decibels at two meters. combined with the explosive air exhaust.

the latter reducing maintenance to a low level. It can also have out standing advantages in terms of safety. The main advantages of an all-pneumatic system are usually economy and simplicity. 2. CLASSIFICATION OF AIR COMPRESSOR .pneumatic control systems may be economic and can be advantageously applied to other forms of power).

Compressors are similar to pumps.1 INTRODUCTION OF THE COMPRESSOR A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible. so the main action of a pump is to pressurize and transport 2. As gases are compressible. both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe.2 Types of compressors Centrifugal compressors Diagonal or mixed-flow compressors Axial-flow compressors Reciprocating compressors .2.

MIXED FLOW COMPRESSOR Diagonal or mixed-flow compressors are similar to centrifugal compressors.000 psi (69 MPa). chemical and petrochemical plants and natural gas processing plants. With multiple staging. increasing the velocity of the gas. Many large snow-making operations (like ski resorts) use this type of compressor. they can achieve extremely high output pressures greater than 10. Their application can be from 100 horsepower (75 kW) to thousands of horsepower.Rotary screw compressors Rotary vane compressors Scroll compressors The main types of gas compressors are CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR Centrifugal compressors use a rotating disk or impeller in a shaped housing to force the gas to the rim of the impeller. but have a radial and axial velocity component at the exit from the rotor. A diffuser (divergent duct) section converts the velocity energy to pressure energy. They are primarily used for continuous. They are also used in internal combustion engines as superchargers and turbochargers. Centrifugal compressors are used in small gas turbine engines or as the final compression stage of medium sized gas turbines. The . stationary service in industries such as oil refineries.

usually as pairs: one rotating and one stationary. around 90% polytropic at their design conditions. they are relatively expensive. also known as blades or rotors. also known as a stators or vanes.diffuser is often used to turn diagonal flow to the axial direction. Beyond about 5 stages or a 4:1 design pressure ratio. Axial compressors can have high efficiencies. requiring a large number of components. decelerate and redirect the flow direction of the fluid. The rotating airfoils. However. The arrays of airfoils are set in rows. The stationary airfoils. variable geometry is normally used to improve operation. tight tolerances and high quality materials. They are used where there is a requirement for a high flow rate or a compact design. [edit] Axial-flow compressors Main article: Axial-flow compressor AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR Axial-flow compressors are dynamic rotating compressors that use arrays of fan-like airfoils to progressively compress the working fluid. The diagonal compressor has a lower diameter diffuser than the equivalent centrifugal compressor. accelerate the fluid. . with the cross-sectional area of the gas passage diminishing along the compressor to maintain an optimum axial Mach number. preparing it for the rotor blades of the next stage.[1] Axial compressors are almost always multi-staged.

can be single or multi-staged. and are typically larger.4 MPa). ROTARY SCREW COMPRESSOR Rotary screw compressors use two meshed rotating positive-displacement helical screws to force the gas into a smaller space. multi-stage double-acting compressors are said to be the most efficient compressors available. noisier. and within certain chemical plants. Small reciprocating compressors from 5 to 30 horsepower (hp) are commonly seen in automotive applications and are typically for intermittent duty.[6] Another type of reciprocating compressor is the swash plate compressor. four or six cylinders.Axial-flow compressors can be found in medium to large gas turbine engines. and can be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines. and more costly than comparable rotary units. Larger reciprocating compressors well over 1. such as air compression. These are usually used . RECIPROCATING COMPRSSOR A motor-driven six-cylinder reciprocating compressor that can operate with two. which uses pistons which are moved by a swash plate mounted on a shaft.000 hp (750 kW) are still commonly found in large industrial and petroleum applications. In certain applications. They can be either stationary or portable. in natural gas pumping stations. Discharge pressures can range from low pressure to very high pressure (>6000 psi or 41. Reciprocating compressors use pistons driven by a crankshaft.

Their application can be from 3 horsepower (2. with piston compressors one of the oldest of compressor technologies.200 horsepower (890 kW) and from low pressure to very high pressure (>1200 psi or 8. a series of decreasing volumes is created by the rotating blades. They can be either stationary or portable. Rotary Vane compressors are. 2 bar) for bulk material movement whilst oil-injected machines have the necessary volumetric efficiency to achieve pressures up to about 13 bar in a single stage. can be single or multi-staged. Dry vane machines are used at relatively low pressures (e. blades slide in and out of the slots keeping contact with the outer wall of the housing. SCROLL COMPRESSOR Mechanism of a scroll pump . A rotary vane compressor is well suited to electric motor drive and is significantly quieter in operation than the equivalent piston compressor. The rotor is mounted offset in a larger housing which can be circular or a more complex shape. As the rotor turns. With suitable port connections.[1] Thus. the devices may be either a compressor or a vacuum pump.g.3 MPa).2 kW) to over 1.for continuous operation in commercial and industrial applications and may be either stationary or portable. ROTARY VANE COMPRESSOR Rotary vane compressors consist of a rotor with a number of blades inserted in radial slots in the rotor. and can be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines..

A scroll compressor. They operate more smoothly. or hybrid curves. while the other orbits eccentrically without rotating. also known as scroll pump and scroll vacuum pump. uses two interleaved spiral-like vanes to pump or compress fluids such as liquids and gases. thereby trapping and pumping or compressing pockets of fluid or gas between the scrolls. quietly. one of the scrolls is fixed. and reliably than other types of compressors in the lower volume range Often. This type of compressor was used as the supercharger on Volkswagen G60 and G40 engines in the early 1990's. The vane geometry may be involutes. . Archimedean spiral.

Since our project is based on single acting cylinder we shall see deep about it. turning and many other applications. medium duty and heavy duty but according to the operating principle air cylinders can be sub divided as 1. 2. They are light duty. bending.acting cylinders. The Pneumatic power is converted to straight line reciprocating motion by pneumatic cylinders. INTRODUCTION OF PEUMATIC YLINDER Pneumatic cylinders are the devices for converting the air pressure into linear mechanical force and motion. this cylinder can produce work only in one direction the return movement of the piston is affected by a built–in spring or by application of an external force . compressed air is fed only in one side hence.single-acting.3. The various industrial applications for which air cylinders are used can be divided duty wise into the groups.Double. In a single-acting cylinder. tilting. They are basically used for single purpose applications such as clamping.

Many factories and plants already have a compressed air system. which is capable of providing both the power or energy requirements and the control system (although equally pneumatic control system may be economic and can be advantageously applied to other forms of power). The single acting pneumatic cylinder consists of the following components to the requirements of complete operation of the machine.the spring is designed to return the piston to its initial position with a sufficiently high speed. Pneumatics is an attractive medium for low cost mechanization particularly for sequential or repetitive operation. It can also have out standing advantages in terms of safety. 4. PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS SELECTION OF PNEUMATICS Mechanization is broadly defined as the replacement of manual effort by mechanical power. piston .pneumatic system are usually economy and simplicity. the latter reducing maintenance to a low level. 1. The main advantages of an all.

End plate End plates are connected to both the ends of the cylinder. End plate 5. Pressure acts mainly on both the end plates. This actuation is used for the operation. It is made up of ms plate. Return spring 6. Nipple 4.e. Ram 4..1 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION Cylinder An air cylinder is an operating device in which the state input energy of compressed air i. Nipple Air from the compressor is passed through the nipple in to the cylinder it is made up of mild steel . pneumatic power is converted into mechanical output power by reducing the pressure of air to that of atmosphere Ram It is an output device when the pressure inside the cylinder exceeds the limit the ram actuates. cylinder 3.2.

Piston It is the main component which is placed inside the cylinder. Then the compressed air is passed though the directional control valve for supplying the air alternatively to either sides of the cylinder. which means that the air pressure operates alternatively (forward and backward). A pressure gauge is attached to the regulator for showing the line pressure. The air from the compressor is passed through the regulator which control the pressure to required amount by adjusting its knob. Here stud and nut are used to connect the plates Spring Open coil spring is used in this system.Stud and nut It is used to connect two plates or some members of the setup. Two hoses take the output of the directional control valve and they are attached to two ends of the cylinder by means of connectors. . CYLINDER: The cylinder is a single acting cylinder one. One of the output from the directional control valve is taken to the flow control valve from taken to the cylinder. It is used to force the ram in and out by the action of compressed air.

this valve is used to control the direction of air flow in the pneumatic system. The push type solenoid is one in which the plunger is pushed when the solenoid is energized electrically. pneumatic power is converted in to mechanical output power. by reducing the pressure of the air to that of the atmosphere. This valve was selected for speedy operation and to reduce the manual effort and also for the modification of the machine into automatic machine by means of using a solenoid valve. The directional valve does this by changing the position of its internal movable parts.Pneumatic cylinder An air cylinder is an operative device in which the state input energy of compressed air i. These are also used to operate a mechanical operation which in turn operates the valve mechanism. A solenoid is an electrical device that converts electrical energy into straight line motion and force. . The pull type solenoid is one is which the plunger is pulled when the solenoid is energized.e. Commonly known as DCV. SOLENOID VALVE WITH CONTROL UNIT: The directional valve is one of the important parts of a pneumatic system. Solenoids may be push type or pull type.

Parts of a Solenoid Valve 1. 460 volts AC. The frame has . They are usually bolted or welded to the frame. The frame has provisions for attaching the mounting. Coils are rated in various voltages such as 115 volts AC. cutting oil or often fluids. They are designed for such frequencies as 50 Hz to 60 Hz. moisture. to do service work or to install them. 575 Volts AC. Frame The solenoid frame serves several purposes.The name of the parts of the solenoid should be learned so that they can be recognized when called upon to make repairs. The magnetized coil attracts the metal plunger to move. Since it is made of laminated sheets. The layers of wire are separated by insulating layer. 12 Volts DC. 2. 115 Volts DC & 230 Volts DC. The entire solenoid coil is covered with an varnish that is not affected by solvents. 24 Volts DC. 230 volts AC. it is magnetized when the current passes through the coil. Coil The solenoid coil is made of copper wire. 6 Volts DC.

the plunger. Solenoid Plunger The Solenoid plunger is the mover mechanism of the solenoid. and protects the actuator. Solenoid operated valves are usually provided with cover over either the solenoid or the entire valve. In many applications it is necessary to use explosion proof solenoids. The wear strips are mounted to the solenoid frame. so that there will be no movement of the lamination with respect to one another. and are made of materials such as metal or impregnated less fiber cloth.provisions for receivers. At the top of the plunger a pin hole is placed for making a connection to some device. This protects the solenoid from dirt and other foreign matter. WORKING OF 3/2 SINGLE ACTING SOLENOID (OR) CUT OFF VALVE: . 3. The plunger is made of steel laminations which are riveted together under high pressure. The solenoid plunger is moved by a magnetic force in one direction and is usually returned by spring action.

2 TYPES OF CYLINDERS . This solenoid cut off valve is controlled by the emergency push button. one outlet port and one exhaust port. The solenoid valve consists of electromagnetic coil. 4. The air enters to the pneumatic single acting solenoid valve when the push button is in ON position. The 3/2 Single acting solenoid valve is having one inlet port.The control valve is used to control the flow direction is called cut off valve or solenoid valve. stem and spring.

DUAL LINER CYLINDER (3-POSITION) Similar to the tandem cylinder. DOUBLE -ROD CYLINDER (THROUGH ROD CYLINDRE) It has piston rod extending from both the ends of the cylinders. 4. TANDEM CYLINDER Here two cylinders are arranged in series so that the force obtained from the cylinder is almost double. It produces equal force and speed on both sides of the cylinder. 2. SINGLE ACTING Air pushes the piston in one direction and the piston is returned by means of an external means. DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER The force exerted by the compression spring moves the piston in both the direction. 6.1. CUSHION END CYLINDER Cushion is used in the end position to prevent sudden damaging impacts. but the piston and the rod assemblies of a dual actuator are not fastened together like tandem cylinder. . 3. 5.

TURN CYLINDER (ROTARY CYLINDER) It has a piston rod having rack and pinion arrangement in such a manner that liner movement of the piston rod . 5.90°. TELESCOPIC CYLINDER It is a two stage double acting telescopic cylinder.180°.the worm wheel rotates at 45°. 8. CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING OF PNEUMATIC .7.

When the compressed air entering the cylinder is less the piston comes to its original position by the action of spring force.The piston is connected by a ram. Ram is fixed to the piston and it moves along the piston. punching etc. 6. This makes a linear movement of the ram. the ram moves along with the piston when the compressed air moves the piston. The nipple is found outside the cylinder. The end plates are fitted on both sides of the cylinder by four cover screws or tie rods. The maximum pressure applied inside the cylinder is 10-12bar. cylinder. return spring. BORING OPERATION OF PNEUMATIC CYLINDER FORMING . The piston is placed upon the spring. The spring is placed inside the cylinder and it covers the ram. ram and nipple. piston. Working In pneumatic cylinder air is being compressed by the compressor and it is fed into the cylinder through the nipple using dc valve.CYLINDER CONSTRUCTION Generally a single acting cylinder mainly consists of following parts such as end plate. The moving ram performs many operations such as slotting. This compressed air moves the piston in one direction against the spring force. In single acting cylinder the stroke is limited to the compressed length of the spring.

(a) Correction of geometrical accuracy (1) Out of roundness (2) Taper (3) Axial distortion (b) Dimensional accuracy . The advantages of honing are. The work piece were a hole is already existing is mounted on the table of a horizontal boring machine. Generally a single point tool bit is mounted in the boring bar of suitable diameter commensurate with the diameter to be bored. It is most Commonly used for internal surface. it can also be Used for external cylindrical surfaces as well as flat surfaces. Those is an operation performed as The final operation to correct the errors that have occurred from the previous Machining operation. The table of a horizontal boring machine has accurate guide ways to move the table into perpendicular direction. The single point cutting tool is used for a boring operation. HONING Honing is a low abrading process whish uses bonded abrasive Sticks for removing stock from metallic surfaces. However.Boring is the operation of enlarging a hole. The over hang of the tool is to be made as small as possible to reduce the chatter which is very common in boring.

storage. formed with a specific shape or cross section and certain standards of chemical composition and strength.7. composition. A steel I-beam. is regulated in most industrialized countries. which consists of a metal deck (Q-Deck). etc. in this case used to support wood beams in a house. Structural steel shape. INTRODUCTION OF THE STRUCTURE Structural steel is steel construction material. Structural steel members. strength. Structural steel in construction: A primed steel beam is holding up the floor above. size. such as I-beams. which allow them to be very stiff in respect to their cross-sectional area. have high second moments of area. . upon which a concrete slab has been poured. Steel beam through-penetration with incomplete fireproofing. a profile.

2 Standard structural steels 2.3 Corrosion resistant high strength low alloy steels 2.4 Quenched and tempered alloy steels 3 Steel vs. made of polystyrene leavened gypsum.in Britain these include Universal Beams (UB) and Universal Columns (UC). in Europe it includes the IPE. Contents 1 Common structural shapes 2 Standards 2.2. the shapes available are set out in published standards.1 Carbon steels 2. in the US it includes Wide Flange (WF) and H sections) . HD and other sections. although a number of specialist and proprietary cross sections are also available.2. I-beam (I-shaped cross-section .1 Standard structural steels 2.Metal deck and OWSJ (Open Web Steel Joist). HE.2. concrete 4 Thermal properties 5 Fireproofing of structural steel COMMON STRUCTURAL SHAPES In most developed countries. HL.2. receiving first coat of spray fireproofing plaster.2 High strength low alloy steels 2.

but not so wide so as to be called a sheet. circular (pipe) and elliptical cross sections) Angle (L-shaped cross-section) Channel ( [-shaped cross-section) Tee (T-shaped cross-section) Rail profile (asymmetrical I-beam) Railway rail Vignoles rail Flanged T rail Grooved rail Bar a piece of metal. Open web steel joist While many sections are made by hot or cold rolling. others are made by welding together flat or bent plates (for example. the largest circular hollow sections are made from flat plate bent into a circle and seam-welded).Z-Shape (half a flange in opposite directions) HSS-Shape (Hollow structural section also known as SHS (structural hollow section) and including square. sheet metal thicker than 6 mm or 1/4 in. rectangular cross sectioned (flat) and long. see also rebar and dowel. Rod. rectangular. Plate. Standard structural steels . a round or square and long piece of metal or wood.

275. 890 and 960 . 620. 355. for steel starts at 900°C for pure iron. 'S' denotes structural rather than engineering steel. The normal yield strength grades available are 195. many national standards also remain in force. ] Thermal properties The properties of steel vary widely. Typical grades are described as 'S275J2' or 'S355K2W'. In these examples.Most steels used throughout Europe are specified to comply with the European standard EN 10025. quenched and tempered steel ('Q' or 'QL'). Higher grades are available in quenched and tempered material (500. the temperature where a steel transforms to an austenite crystal structure. and the 'W' denotes weathering steel. Further letters can be used to designate normalized steel ('N' or 'NL'). then. J2 or K2 denotes the materials toughness by reference to Charpy impact test values. the temperature falls to a minimum 724°C for eutectic . 420. almost all structural steel is grades S275 and S355. as more carbon is added. depending on its alloying elements. 550. 275 or 355 denotes the yield strength in newtons per square millimetre or the equivalent megapascals.g. 690. and 460. although some grades are more commonly used than others e. and thermo mechanically rolled steel ('M' or 'ML'). However. The austenizing temperature.although grades above 690 receive little if any use in construction at present). 235. in the UK.

Penetrants in a firewalls and ferrous cable trays in organic firestops should be installed in accordance with an appropriate certification listing that complies with the local building code. In Japan.1% Carbon by weight begins melting at 1130 °C (2066 °F). and is completely molten upon reaching 1315 °C (2400 °F).msm. http://www.uk/phasetrans/images/FeC.ac. As 2. its solidus.steel (steel with only . which governs the test. to 1130°C. but is known as Cast iron. through a fire test. The lowest temperature at which a plain carbon steel can begin to melt. is 1130 °C. 'Steel' with more than 2.cam.1% Carbon is no longer Steel.83% by weight of carbon in it). Pure Iron ('Steel' with 0% Carbon) starts to melt at 1492 °C (2720 °F). this is below 400°C. Europe and North America.1% carbon (by mass) is approached. Steel with 2. In China. the melting point of steel changes based on the alloy. Care must be taken to ensure that thermal expansion of structural elements does not damage fire-resistance rated wall and floor assemblies. Steel never turns into a liquid below this temperature. Similarly. the critical temperature is set by the national standard. the austenizing temperature climbs back up. .gif ] Fireproofing of structural steel In order for a fireproofing product to qualify for a certification listing of structural steel. and is completely liquid upon reaching 1539 °C (2802 °F). 540°C. The time it takes for the steel element that is being tested to reach the temperature set by the national standard determines the duration of the fire-resistance rating. it is set at ca.

Reaming. Ram Turning. hack sawing. Drilling.PROCESS CHART PART NAME Cylinder bore MACHINING OPERATION Boring. . Facing. Grinding.8. Thread forming. End plate / Gas cutting Drilling. Grooving. Pneumatic Cylinder Turning. Shaping. Tapping. grooving.

45% of carbon MECHANICAL PROPERTY . Guide ` Facing. Threading. welding. chamfering. DESIGN ASPECTS PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL: Physical property • density-7860kg/m³ • melting point-1427ºC • thermal conductivity-63w/mk CARBON CONTENT Low corrosion or mild steel-0.Stud Turning. 9.15% to 0.

S rod M.S M.S plate 10.• elasticity • ductility • toughness • weld ability In our design screwed spindles have a main part hence the calculations are concentrated on it. MATERIALS USED .S with chromium M.S rod M. NAME OF THE COMPONENTS Cylinder Piston Ram Spring Nipple End plate MATERIALS M.S rod M.

COST ESTIMATION S.NO 1 2 3 4 COMPONENT Pneumatic cylinder 3/2 Direction control valve Pneumatic accessories Structure work Machining cost QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 MATERIAL USED M.S M.11.S COST(RS) 2800 750 450 1450 .

Operation is very smooth and in this system we can get more output by applying less effort. Simple construction of pneumatic elements and easy handling.TOTAL 5450 Total material cost =5450 Assembly cost =150 Total cost of the project=5600 12. Comparatively cheaper in cost then the other systems. 3. It does not require current carrying cables. No extra skill is required for operating this system. 2. 5. Easier maintenance 4. 6. . ADVANTAGE 1.

Stroke length is fixed 2.7. It is also used to drill holes in concrete footings to pin concrete wall farms to drill holes in concrete floors to pin wall framing. Even a bit of leakage may result in power loss 3. APPLICATIONS A hammer drill is well suited for drilling hole in msonary or stone. Compared to hydraulic and mechanical Punching machine pneumatic Punching machine is economical 8. LIMITATION 1. . The max pressure is used in the cylinder is (6-12bar) 13. Efficient Hammer action.

The pneumatic hammer machine is ideal for job fixers and general engineering applications..14. They are smooth operating systems for both vertical and horizontal operations. WORKING PRINCIPLES OF THE PNEUMATIC HAMMER A Pneumatic hammer machine is used for blow and drilling for any hard surface. The fixing capacity of Pneumatic ram fixers varies as per the strength. power and performance. Before operating . They are suited for various types of fixing and forming applications.

LINE DIAGRAM OF THE PNEUMATIC HAMMER PUNCHING MACHINE . At once the system will function aswellas hammering action will performed. first insert the required fixing job in the bed to the release valve turn the operating handle clock wise until release valve.the hammering machine. 15. After the job is fixed on the base the pneumatic source is executed.

CONCLUSION: This report deals with the design and fabrication of pneumatic hammer machine and it is attached with the line diagram with design . The .

BIBLOGRAPHY • GUPTA J.Chand & comp and.S (1981) “Text book of Machine Design”. ANDREW (2003) ‘Hydraulic & Pneumatics’ Butterworth Heimann Ltd . S. We have done to our ability and skill making maximum use of available facilities.pneumatic system can be found in almost all industries /fields. • Parr.K and KHURUMI R. However some of the industrial application is punching. hammering throughout the project period we gained knowledge on all type of machining Process and pneumatic system is controlled. clamping. materials handling.

AGGARVAL & Dr. S. • SRINIVASAN.• Dr.R “Pneumatic systems”.K.Kataria and sons • MAJUMDAR.K.D.C SHARMA(2004) “machine design”.P. vijay Nicole imprints private ltd. Tata mcgraw-hills company ltd.R(2004) “Hydraulic & pneumatic controls”.S. .