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Our project work is “ PNEUMATIC PUNCHING MACHINE” it can be used for temporary fastening for any sheet metal work. In modern Manufacturing technology faster & easy technology is inevitable. Pneumatic system is used to most important process of Industries and Harbor. Any work done by Pneumatic system, Ex: Lifting, Pulling, Pushing, Pressing, etc., above process can be made to easily vide by Pneumatic system. In this method of machineries work is designed through Air Pressure. So these processes are used to all kinds of work. All types of works can be successfully finished for this Air pumping pressure-creating method. Pneumatic pump and Pneumatic cylinder are used this process. Pneumatic cylinder’s ram is increase and decrease operation finished in this process. Generally, Pneumatic cylinder operations are based on Pneumatic pump operation. Air is pumping to the Pneumatic cylinder by using Pneumatic pump system. It’s the manual operation. Air is stored in the Pneumatic cylinder. So high air pressure create in the cylinder portion. In this time, ram can move in the cylinder portion. So ram can performed to our selected job. Jobs moving operation is based on length of the ram. Different types of jobs can be performed in this method. Example Pneumatic car jack, Pneumatic JCB crane, Pneumatic pipe bending machine etc… This project deals with the fabrication of the prototype of Auto feed punching machine. It consists mainly of two parts i.e. the Direction control valve and the pneumatic system
INTRODUCTION OF THE PUNCHING PUNCHING Punching machines are used to automatically set (squeeze) punching in order to join materials together. pneumatic cylinder. . The downward force required to deform the punching with an automatic Punching machine is created by a motor and flywheel combination.3 Radial (Spiral form) Punching TYPES OF PUNCHING MACHINE Automatic feed Punching machines include a hopper and feed track which automatically delivers and presents the punching to the setting tools which overcomes the need for the operator to position the punching.1 Impact Punching 1. productivity.1. or hydraulic cylinder.2 Orbital Punching 1. The Punching machine offers greater consistency. and lower cost when compared to manual Punching Impact Punching machine Radial Punching machine 1 Types 1. Manual feed Punching machines usually have a mechanical lever to deliver the setting force from a foot pedal or hand lever.
motion. 1. spiral form Punching can produce better results when very small punching are involved. continuous contact. 1.5 seconds is typical. This action causes the end of the punching to roll over in the roll set which causes the end of the punching to flare out and thus join the materials together.3 RADIAL(SPIRAL FORM) PUNCHING Radial Punching is subtly different from orbital forming.Punching machines can be sub-divided into two broad groups — impact Punching machines and orbital (or radial) Punching machines. 1. While orbital forming is the superior process in most applications. Orbital forming machines offer the user more control over the Punching cycle but the trade off is in cycle time which can be 2 or 3 seconds.2 ORBITAL PUNCHING Orbital Punching machines have a spinning forming tool (known as a peen) which is gradually lowered into the punching which spreads the material of the punching into a desired shape depending upon the design of the tool. Radial Punching lightly peens (hammers) the punching head into the desired shape whereas orbital forming spreads the punching head in one. . Impact Punching machines are very fast and a cycle time of 0.1IMPACT PUNCHING MACHING Impact Punching machines set the punching by driving the punching downwards. through the materials to be joined and on into a forming tool (known as a roll set).
4AUTOMATIC PUNCHING AND DRILLING MACHINE These machines take the automation one step farther by clamping the material and drilling or countersinking the hole in addition to Punching.1. . They are commonly used in the aerospace industry because of the large number of holes and punching required to assemble the aircraft skin.
2.CLASSIFICATION OF AIR COMPRESSOR .
both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. Compressors are similar to pumps. Liquids are relatively incompressible.1 INTRODUCTION OF THE COMPRESSOR A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. so the main action of a pump is to pressurize and transport 2.2 Types of compressors Centrifugal compressors Diagonal or mixed-flow compressors Axial-flow compressors Reciprocating compressors Rotary screw compressors Rotary vane compressors Scroll compressors The main types of gas compressors are CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR .2. the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. As gases are compressible.
A diffuser (divergent duct) section converts the velocity energy to pressure energy. With multiple staging.Centrifugal compressors use a rotating disk or impeller in a shaped housing to force the gas to the rim of the impeller. stationary service in industries such as oil refineries. They are also used in internal combustion engines as superchargers and turbochargers. Centrifugal compressors are used in small gas turbine engines or as the final compression stage of medium sized gas turbines. Their application can be from 100 horsepower (75 kW) to thousands of horsepower. The diffuser is often used to turn diagonal flow to the axial direction. but have a radial and axial velocity component at the exit from the rotor. Many large snow-making operations (like ski resorts) use this type of compressor.000 psi (69 MPa).  Axial-flow compressors Main article: Axial-flow compressor AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR . chemical and petrochemical plants and natural gas processing plants. The diagonal compressor has a lower diameter diffuser than the equivalent centrifugal compressor. they can achieve extremely high output pressures greater than 10. increasing the velocity of the gas. MIXED FLOW COMPRESSOR Diagonal or mixed-flow compressors are similar to centrifugal compressors. They are primarily used for continuous.
decelerate and redirect the flow direction of the fluid. However. The rotating airfoils. also known as blades or rotors. requiring a large number of components. Axial compressors can have high efficiencies. with the cross-sectional area of the gas passage diminishing along the compressor to maintain an optimum axial Mach number. variable geometry is normally used to improve operation. The arrays of airfoils are set in rows. preparing it for the rotor blades of the next stage. also known as a stators or vanes. usually as pairs: one rotating and one stationary. Axial-flow compressors can be found in medium to large gas turbine engines. they are relatively expensive.Axial-flow compressors are dynamic rotating compressors that use arrays of fan-like airfoils to progressively compress the working fluid. The stationary airfoils. around 90% polytropic at their design conditions. RECIPROCATING COMPRSSOR A motor-driven six-cylinder reciprocating compressor that can operate with two. Axial compressors are almost always multi-staged. four or six cylinders. . in natural gas pumping stations. tight tolerances and high quality materials. Beyond about 5 stages or a 4:1 design pressure ratio. and within certain chemical plants. They are used where there is a requirement for a high flow rate or a compact design. accelerate the fluid.
noisier.200 horsepower (890 kW) and from low pressure to very high pressure (>1200 psi or 8.2 kW) to over 1. Their application can be from 3 horsepower (2. In certain applications. can be single or multi-staged. ROTARY VANE COMPRESSOR Rotary vane compressors consist of a rotor with a number of blades inserted in radial slots in the rotor. Discharge pressures can range from low pressure to very high pressure (>6000 psi or 41.3 MPa).4 MPa). and are typically larger. Larger reciprocating compressors well over 1. and can be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines. such as air compression.000 hp (750 kW) are still commonly found in large industrial and petroleum applications. which uses pistons which are moved by a swash plate mounted on a shaft. and more costly than comparable rotary units. ROTARY SCREW COMPRESSOR Rotary screw compressors use two meshed rotating positive-displacement helical screws to force the gas into a smaller space. They can be either stationary or portable. The rotor is mounted offset in a larger housing . Small reciprocating compressors from 5 to 30 horsepower (hp) are commonly seen in automotive applications and are typically for intermittent duty. Another type of reciprocating compressor is the swash plate compressor. These are usually used for continuous operation in commercial and industrial applications and may be either stationary or portable.Reciprocating compressors use pistons driven by a crankshaft. multi-stage double-acting compressors are said to be the most efficient compressors available.
blades slide in and out of the slots keeping contact with the outer wall of the housing. They can be either stationary or portable. As the rotor turns. Archimedean spiral. quietly. Dry vane machines are used at relatively low pressures (e. Thus.. 2 bar) for bulk material movement whilst oil-injected machines have the necessary volumetric efficiency to achieve pressures up to about 13 bar in a single stage. and can be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines. A rotary vane compressor is well suited to electric motor drive and is significantly quieter in operation than the equivalent piston compressor. and reliably than other types of compressors in the lower volume range .which can be circular or a more complex shape. the devices may be either a compressor or a vacuum pump. with piston compressors one of the oldest of compressor technologies.g. can be single or multi-staged. SCROLL COMPRESSOR Mechanism of a scroll pump A scroll compressor. The vane geometry may be involutes. uses two interleaved spiral-like vanes to pump or compress fluids such as liquids and gases. Rotary Vane compressors are. a series of decreasing volumes is created by the rotating blades. or hybrid curves. also known as scroll pump and scroll vacuum pump. With suitable port connections. They operate more smoothly.
Structural steel shape. such as I-beams. while the other orbits eccentrically without rotating. thereby trapping and pumping or compressing pockets of fluid or gas between the scrolls. in this case used to support wood beams in a house. Structural steel members. one of the scrolls is fixed. This type of compressor was used as the supercharger on Volkswagen G60 and G40 engines in the early 1990's. made of polystyrene leavened gypsum. Steel beam through-penetration with incomplete fireproofing. Metal deck and OWSJ (Open Web Steel Joist). strength. upon which a concrete slab has been poured. etc. storage. is regulated in most industrialized countries. INTRODUCTION OF THE STRUCTURE Structural steel is steel construction material. Structural steel in construction: A primed steel beam is holding up the floor above.Often. a profile. which consists of a metal deck (Q-Deck). formed with a specific shape or cross section and certain standards of chemical composition and strength. have high second moments of area. composition. size. A steel I-beam. which allow them to be very stiff in respect to their cross-sectional area. receiving first coat of spray fireproofing plaster. Contents .
1 Carbon steels 2.2. I-beam (I-shaped cross-section .2. in the US it includes Wide Flange (WF) and H sections) Z-Shape (half a flange in opposite directions) . in Europe it includes the IPE.2 High strength low alloy steels 2.in Britain these include Universal Beams (UB) and Universal Columns (UC).2. HE. HD and other sections. concrete 4 Thermal properties 5 Fireproofing of structural steel COMMON STRUCTURAL SHAPES In most developed countries. although a number of specialist and proprietary cross sections are also available. HL.4 Quenched and tempered alloy steels 3 Steel vs.2.2 Standard structural steels 2.1 Standard structural steels 2.3 Corrosion resistant high strength low alloy steels 2.1 Common structural shapes 2 Standards 2. the shapes available are set out in published standards.
see also rebar and dowel.HSS-Shape (Hollow structural section also known as SHS (structural hollow section) and including square. many national standards also remain in force. circular (pipe) and elliptical cross sections) Angle (L-shaped cross-section) Channel ( [-shaped cross-section) Tee (T-shaped cross-section) Rail profile (asymmetrical I-beam) Railway rail Vignoles rail Flanged T rail Grooved rail Bar a piece of metal. Standard structural steels Most steels used throughout Europe are specified to comply with the European standard EN 10025. a round or square and long piece of metal or wood. Rod. rectangular cross sectioned (flat) and long. the largest circular hollow sections are made from flat plate bent into a circle and seam-welded). Plate. sheet metal thicker than 6 mm or 1/4 in. but not so wide so as to be called a sheet. others are made by welding together flat or bent plates (for example. rectangular. . However. Open web steel joist While many sections are made by hot or cold rolling.
Further letters can be used to designate normalized steel ('N' or 'NL'). 420. The normal yield strength grades available are 195. 'S' denotes structural rather than engineering steel. 890 and 960 . In these examples. . depending on its alloying elements. the temperature falls to a minimum 724°C for eutectic steel (steel with only . J2 or K2 denotes the materials toughness by reference to Charpy impact test values. as more carbon is added. and the 'W' denotes weathering steel. 690.g. in the UK. to 1130°C. almost all structural steel is grades S275 and S355. the melting point of steel changes based on the alloy. 275 or 355 denotes the yield strength in newtons per square millimetre or the equivalent megapascals. 235. Higher grades are available in quenched and tempered material (500. the austenizing temperature climbs back up. ] Thermal properties The properties of steel vary widely.83% by weight of carbon in it). the temperature where a steel transforms to an austenite crystal structure. 355. 275. 620. Similarly. then.1% carbon (by mass) is approached. although some grades are more commonly used than others e.although grades above 690 receive little if any use in construction at present). As 2. 550.Typical grades are described as 'S275J2' or 'S355K2W'. and thermo mechanically rolled steel ('M' or 'ML'). and 460. The austenizing temperature. quenched and tempered steel ('Q' or 'QL'). for steel starts at 900°C for pure iron.
its solidus. and is completely liquid upon reaching 1539 °C (2802 °F). The time it takes for the steel element that is being tested to reach the temperature set by the national standard determines the duration of the fire-resistance rating.The lowest temperature at which a plain carbon steel can begin to melt. Steel with 2. is 1130 °C.ac. Pure Iron ('Steel' with 0% Carbon) starts to melt at 1492 °C (2720 °F). but is known as Cast iron. the critical temperature is set by the national standard. .gif ] Fireproofing of structural steel In order for a fireproofing product to qualify for a certification listing of structural steel. Care must be taken to ensure that thermal expansion of structural elements does not damage fire-resistance rated wall and floor assemblies. and is completely molten upon reaching 1315 °C (2400 °F). In China. Europe and North America.1% Carbon by weight begins melting at 1130 °C (2066 °F). Penetrants in a firewalls and ferrous cable trays in organic firestops should be installed in accordance with an appropriate certification listing that complies with the local building code. 540°C. it is set at ca.cam. In Japan.msm.uk/phasetrans/images/FeC. this is below 400°C. through a fire test. 'Steel' with more than 2. Steel never turns into a liquid below this temperature. which governs the test. http://www.1% Carbon is no longer Steel.
4. LINE DIAGRAM OF THE AUTO FEED PNEUMATIC PUNCHING MACHINE .
acting .Double. They are light duty.single-acting. turning and many other applications. bending. The various industrial applications for which air cylinders are used can be divided duty wise into the groups. medium duty and heavy duty but according to the operating principle air cylinders can be sub divided as 1. tilting. They are basically used for single purpose applications such as clamping. INTRODUCTION OF PEUMATIC YLINDER Pneumatic cylinders are the devices for converting the air pressure into linear mechanical force and motion. 2.5. The Pneumatic power is converted to straight line reciprocating motion by pneumatic cylinders.
In a single-acting cylinder. this cylinder can produce work only in one direction the return movement of the piston is affected by a built–in spring or by application of an external force the spring is designed to return the piston to its initial position with a sufficiently high speed. compressed air is fed only in one side hence. BIBLOGRAPHY . Since our project is based on single acting cylinder we shall see deep about it.cylinders.
Kataria and sons .D. • Parr.K. S.BIBLOGRAPHY • GUPTA J.P.K.K and KHURUMI R.C SHARMA(2004) “machine design”.Chand & comp and.S (1981) “Text book of Machine Design”. ANDREW (2003) ‘Hydraulic & Pneumatics’ Butterworth Heimann Ltd • Dr. S.AGGARVAL & Dr.
R “Pneumatic systems”.S.R(2004) “Hydraulic & pneumatic controls”. vijay Nicole imprints private ltd.• MAJUMDAR. • SRINIVASAN. . Tata mcgraw-hills company ltd.