CHAPTER 2 PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA (formative assessment-1)

Q.1. What is Plate Tectonics? Ans. The concept of Plate Tectonics, developed in 1960s explains the origin of continents, oceans and other landforms. Plate is a broad segment of lithosphere that floats on asthenosphere continuously. The concept explains the movement of the crustal plate. Q.2. What is the peninsular plateau composed of? Ans. Igneous and metamorphic rocks. Q.3. What are the longitudinal division of Himalayas? Ans. a. Himadri b. Himachal c. Shiwaliks Q.4. How are the Himalayas divided regionally or on the basis of river valleys? Ans. a. Punjab Himalayas between river Indus and Satluj b. Kumaon Himalayas between river Satluj and Kali c. Nepal Himalayas between river Kali and Teesta d. Assam Himalayas between river Teesta and Brahmaputra. Q.5. What are distributaries? Ans. Distributaries are the numerous channels which get split from the main river when it is about to enter the sea. Q.6. Identify the regional division of the Northern Plains. Ans. a. Punjab Plains b. Ganga Plain c. Brahmaputra Plain Q.7. What are the relief features that are found in the Northern Plains? Ans. a. Bhabar b. Terai c. Bhangar d. Khadar Q.8. Which landform feature was a part of Gondwanaland? Ans. Peninsular plateau Q.9. Which plateau lies between the Aravallies and the Vindhaya range? Ans. Malwa plateau Q.10. Where is the Aravali hills located? Ans. The Aravali hills lie on the western and north-western margins of the peninsular plateau in Rajasthan.

4.11. In the lower course of the river. Australia. d. the velocity of the river decreases and it involves into depositional work leading to the formation of riverine islands. or may slide under the other.16.12. a. The two plates coming together may either collide. Name the landmasses that were included in the Gondwanaland. activities like earthquake. Formation of Great Atlantic drift is a result of divergence of plates. Majuli in Brahmaputra Q. What are riverine islands? Ans. Pitli island Q. b.Q. Which island in Lakshadweep has got a bird sanctuary? Ans.13. South America Q. ‘Do’ means two and ‘ab’ means water. . Himalayas are the product of a process of the convergence of Indo-Australian plate and Eurasian plate. Some 70 million years ago. India. Formation of Himalayas is a result of 3. There occurred the lateral compression of the marine sediments in the bed of the Tethys Sea. The two plates drift away from eachother creating gap between the two.15. The tectonic plates move closer to 1. 3.14. How was the Himalayas formed? Ans. Southern Africa. Ans. What is a doab? Ans. 4. Divergence of plates may result into volcanic eruption. The land between two rivers is known as a doab. Ex. Convergence of plates may result into 2. Q. Ans. convergence of plates. Q. Tectonic plates move away from eacheach-other in convergent plate other in divergent plate boundaries boundaries. Geologists believe that the sediments got folded giving rise to the ranges of Himalayas. c. CONVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES 1. 2. Differentiate between Convergent and Divergent Plate Boundaries. due to gentle slope. the Indian plate started moving towards the Eurasian plate and the Tethys Sea between the two began to contract due to this movement.

Kashmir valley. Kangra valley. they are Fold Mountains. Geologists believe that the Height of the Himalayas is still rising. HIMADRI It is the northernmost range of Himalayas. They form an arc. Longitudinal valleys between Himachal and Shiwaliks are found known as ‘Duns’. Patlidun. Kotlidun. Mahabharata and Dhauladhar range. Himalayas are 7 million years old. b. A. Well known for hill stations.Dehradun.Q. Himalayas were formed as result of convergence of plates that further resulted into thefolding of sediments from the Tethys Sea. Himalayas have conical peaks and deep valleys which indicate that Himalayas are still young. Average height of Himadri range is 6000m Core of the Himadri range is composed of granite..” Justify the given statement. Q. c. d. b. a. SHIWALIKS It is the outermost range of Himalayas.19. Write the characteristics of the following: Ans. Width of the Himalayas varies from 400km in Kashmir to 150 km in Arunachal Pradesh. d. Kullu valley. Therefore. Therefore. Also known as “Lesser Himalayas”. Average height of the Himalayas also varies from about 6000m to 900m above the sea level.” Q. “Himalayas are the young fold mountains. we can say that the Himalayas are “Young Fold Mountains. Further divided into – Pir Panjal range. It is covered with snow almost throughout the year and a number of glaciers descend from it. Himalayas run in a west –east direction from Indus to Brahmaputra covering 2400km. What is the shape and size of the Himalayas? Ans. Also known as “Great Himalayas” or “Inner Himalayas”. Covered with thick gravel and alluvium.18. c. It is mainly composed of highly compressed and altered rocks. Width extends over 10-50km and altitude 900-1100m. PURVANCHALS . IV. Ans. III. This time period is considered as very young in the geological time scale.17. Altitude varies between 3700 to 4500m and average width is 50m. Ex. HIMACHAL This range lies to the south of Himadri and forms the most rugged mountain system. Composed of unconsolidated sediments brought down by rivers. II. I. It is the most continuous range consisting of very high peaks.

21. TERAI 1. 3. the vast basin was formed at the foothills of the Himalayas. Q. industries and other domestic works. This deposition was done mainly by the three river systems – Indus. Northern Plains are densely populated regions of the world. The width ranges between 8 to 16km. C. 2. RIVER SUPPLY Many rivers and tributaries are present here providing regular supply of water for agriculture.20. FERTILE SOIL The soil present here is highly fertile because of the sedimentation done by the rivers making it suitable for agriculture. The belt exist to the south of Bhabar area. ADEQUATE CLIMATE The Northern Plains experience almost every type of climate giving a wide variety of doing agriculture. 1. Q. They are mostly composed of strong sandstones which are sedimentary rocks. . industries. Covered with dense forest and mostly run as parallel range. A.Beyond the Dihang gorge.22. Ganga. Bhabar and Terai BHABAR 1. Therefore. Manipur hills. The area has got highly fine sediments due to the deposition made by several streams. The area is highly coarse in nature due to many pebbles and ‘kankars’ found over here. and Mizo hills. Differentiate between the following: Ans. 2. It is comprised of Patkai hills. 3. Q. Himalayas bend sharply to the south and spread along the eastern boundary of India known as Purvanchals or Eastern hills. It lies to the south of Shiwalik range. 2. transport and to do agriculture. FLAT TERRAIN The Northern Plain region has got flat topography almost without any undulations making it easier for the human beings to construct houses. Naga hills. and Brahmaputra that resulted into the formation of Northern Plains. After the formation of the Himalayas out of the Tethys sea. D. A. Thereafter. It is almost parallel to the Bhabar. Why the Northern Plains are most densely populated areas of the world? Ans. the deposition of alluvium in the vast basin was done for the millions of years. Forms a natural frontier between India and Myanmar. B. 3. How was the Northern Plains formed? Ans.

4. 2. Western ghats are comparatively more in height i. Very dense vegetation is found in Terai region. therefore. 5. 4. the fertility is comparatively less. Main feature is that river disappear in the Bhabar region because if big pores present in it. It is a regular stretch of highland. Being new. 4. The colour of the soil is lighter. C. It is slightly above from the flood plains. 3. 2. Khadar is the new alluvium that is BHANGAR 1. Since bhangar has been used up. Height of eastern ghats is comparatively less than western ghats ranging from 600900m. formed after the recent deposition made by the river. The soil is comparatively darker in colour. Khadar and Bhangar KHADAR 1. Soil is very fine in nature. Western ghats receive more rainfall due to orographic rainfall. 2.4. 2.e. 3. Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats WESTERN GHATS 1. stretching from Gujarat to Kerela. 4. 5. Vegetation found here is very less. stretching from Orissa to Kerela. 3. Since the river re-emerges back in this region. Bhangar is the old alluvium that is formed after the change in the course of the river. the area becomes highly swampy and marshy. Eastern Ghats mark the eastern boundary of the peninsular plateau. . khaddar is more fertile. 3. The texture of the soil is coarse because of concentration of kankars. 4. 5. It lies near to the flood plains. B. from 900-1600m. 5. Rainfall received is comparatively less because the monsoon winds move parallel to the eastern ghats. boundary of the peninsular plateau. They are dissected and irregular because of the major rivers flowing through them. Western Ghats mark the western EASTERN GHATS 1.

They are volcanic in origin. 2. Highest peak of eastern ghats is Mahendragiri. Eastern Coastal Plains is a belt of plain region lying towards the east between eastern ghats and Bay of Bengal. Eastern Coastal plains are divided into Northern Circars and Coromandal Coast. From North to South. Western coastal plains are less fertile because no major river is engaged in sediment deposition. Western plains receive more rainfall. Andaman and Nicobar is a chain of islands. 5. of Bengal. Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep Islands ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS LAKSHADWEEP ISLANDS 1.5. Eastern coastal plains are very fertile because rivers like Mahanadi. Western Coastal plains are divided into Konkan Coast. 5. 2. 4. Kaveri deposit their sediments during delta formation. Administrative unit is Port Blair. Godavari. 3. 2. Lakshadweep is a cluster of islands. These islands are located in Arabian Sea. . These island groups are located in Bay 1. Kannad Coast and Malabar Coast E. From North to South. followed by Doda Betta. These island groups are far away from the mainland. 2. Krishna. 4. 5. 3. 5. Administrative unit is Port Blair. 4. This belt of plains is narrow in width. 5. This island group is closer to the mainland. 3. Highest peak of western ghats is Anai Mudi. They are formed because of coral deposition. D. Western Coastal Plains and Eastern Coastal Plains WESTERN COASTAL PLAINS EASTERN COASTAL PLAINS 1. Eastern plains receive comparatively lesser rainfall. 3. 4. 1. Eastern Coastal Plains are comparatively wider. Western Coastal Plains is a belt of plain region lying towards west between western ghats and Arabian sea.

The coastal region and island groups provide sites for fishing and port activities. The plateau is the store house of the minerals which is highly important for the industrialization of the country. b. Barchans (crescent shaped dunes) and sand dunes cover large area of the desert. Indian desert is an undulating sandy plain covered with sand dunes. The region receives very low rainfall below 150mm per year. The northern mountains are the major source of water and forest wealth. Q.Q. a. Luni is the only major seasonal river in this region. we can say that the diverse physical features of India make the country richer in its natural resources. Thus. b. d. d. How can you say that the diverse physical features of India makes the country richer in its natural resources? Ans. c. c. a. The northern plains provide us with number of agricultural crops. e. The region has arid climate with low vegetation cover.24. Give the characteristics features of the Indian desert. Ans. .23.