Works Cited Page: Basic Format

According to MLA style, you must have a Works Cited page at the end of your research paper. Works Cited page preparation and formatting is covered in chapter 5 of the MLA Handbook, and chapter 6 of the MLA Style Manual. All entries in the Works Cited page must correspond to the works cited in your main text.

Basic Rules

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Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. It should have the same one-inch margins and last name, page number header as the rest of your paper. Label the page Works Cited (do not underline the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page. Double space all citations, but do not skip spaces between entries. List page numbers of sources efficiently, when needed. If you refer to a journal article that appeared on pages 225 through 250, list the page numbers on your Works Cited page as 22550. If you're citing an article or a publication that was originally issued in print form but that you retrieved from an online database, you should provide enough information so that the reader can locate the article either in its original print form or retrieve it from the online database (if they have access).

Capitalization and Punctuation

Capitalize each word in the titles of articles, books, etc, but do not capitalize articles, short prepositions, or conjunctions unless one is the first word of the title or subtitle: Gone with the Wind, The Art of War, There Is Nothing Left to Lose Use italics or underlining for titles of larger works (books, magazines) and quotation marks for titles of shorter works (poems, articles)

Listing Author Names
Entries are listed by author name (or, for entire edited collections, editor names). Author names are written last name first; middle names or middle initials follow the first name: Burke, Kenneth Levy, David M. Wallace, David Foster Do not list titles (Dr., Sir, Saint, etc.) or degrees (PhD, MA, DDS, etc.) with names. A book listing an author named "John Bigbrain, PhD" appears simply as "Bigbrain, John"; do, however, include suffixes like "Jr." or "II." Putting it all together, a work by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. would be cited as "King, Martin Luther, Jr.," with the suffix following the first or middle name and a comma. For additional information on handling names, consult section 3.8 of The MLA Handbook and sections 6.6.1 and 3.6 of the MLA Style Manual.

More than One Work by an Author If you have cited more than one work by a particular author, order the entries alphabetically by title, and use three hyphens in place of the author's name for every entry after the first: Burke, Kenneth. A Grammar of Motives. ---. A Rhetoric of Motives. When an author or collection editor appears both as the sole author of a text and as the first author of a group, list solo-author entries first: Heller, Steven, ed. The Education of an E-Designer. Heller, Steven and Karen Pomeroy. Design Literacy: Understanding Graphic Design. Work with No Known Author Alphabetize works with no known author by their title; use a shortened version of the title in the parenthetical citations in your paper. In this case, Boring Postcards USA has no known author: Baudrillard, Jean. Simulacra and Simulations. Boring Postcards USA. Burke, Kenneth. A Rhetoric of Motives.

Works Cited: Electronic Sources
The MLA Style Manual provides some examples of electronic source citations in chapter six; however, the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers covers a wider variety of electronic sources in chapter six. If your particular source is not covered here, use the basic forms to determine the correct format, consult the MLA Handbook, talk to your instructor, email the OWL tutors, or call the Purdue Writing Lab (765-494-3723) for help. Please Note: MLA documents should be double-spaced throughout. You may find some MLA example text on the Purdue OWL that is not double-spaced. We are working to correct this limitation in our computer code. Thanks for your patience.

Some Tips on Handling Electronic Sources
It is always a good idea to maintain personal copies of electronic information, when possible. It is good practice to print or save Web pages or, better, using a program like Adobe Acrobat, to keep your own copies for future reference. Most Web browsers will include URL/electronic address information when you print, which makes later reference easy. Also learn to use the Bookmark function in your Web browser. Special Warning for Researchers Writing/Publishing Electronically

MLA style requires electronic addresses to be listed between carets. This is a dangerous practice for anyone writing or publishing electronically, as carets are also used to set off HTML, XHTML, XML and other markup language tags (e.g., HTML's paragraph tag). When writing in electronic formats, be sure to properly encode your carets.

Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources
Here are some common features you should try and find before citing electronic sources in MLA style. Always include as much information as is available/applicable:
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Author and/or editor names Name of the database, or title of project, book, article Any version numbers available Date of version, revision, or posting Publisher information Date you accessed the material Electronic address, printed between carets ([<, >]).

Web Sources
Web sites (in MLA style, the "W" in Web is capitalized, and "Web site" or "Web sites" are written as two words) and Web pages are arguably the most commonly cited form of electronic resource today. Below are a variety of Web sites and pages you might need to cite.

An Entire Web Site Basic format: Name of Site. Date of Posting/Revision. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sometimes found in copyright statements). Date you accessed the site [electronic address]. It is necessary to list your date of access because web postings are often updated, and information available on one date may no longer be available later. Be sure to include the complete address for the site. Here are some examples: The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. 26 Aug. 2005. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. 23 April 2006 <>. Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. 28 Nov. 2003. Purdue University. 10 May 2006 <>. For course or department websites, include "Course home page" or "Dept. home page" after the name of the professor or department and before the institution's name, followed by the date of access and URL. English. Dept. home page. Purdue University. 31 May 2007 <>.

Felluga, Dino. Survey of the Literature of England. Course home page. Aug. 2006-Dec. 2006. Dept. of English, Purdue University. 31 May 2007 <>. Long URLs URLs that won't fit on one line of your Works Cited list should be broken at slashes, when possible. Some Web sites have unusually long URLs that would be virtually impossible to retype; others use frames, so the URL appears the same for each page. To address this problem, either refer to a site's search URL, or provide the path to the resource from an entry page with an easier URL. Begin the path with the word Path followed by a colon, followed by the name of each link, separated by a semicolon. For example, the URL for customer privacy and security information is < tg/browse/-/551434/104-0801289-6225502>, so we'd need to simplify the citation: "Privacy and Security." 22 May 2006 <>. Path: Help; Privacy & Security. A Page on a Web Site For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by the information covered above for entire Web sites. Make sure the URL points to the exact page you are referring to, or the entry or home page for a collection of pages you're referring to: "Caret." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 28 April 2006. 10 May 2006 <>. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili." 10 May 2006 < how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html>. Stolley, Karl. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The OWL at Purdue. 10 May 2006. Purdue University Writing Lab. 12 May 2006 <>. Note: Individuals using Wikipedia should use the "cite this article" link located in the "toolbox" area on the right side of the navigation. The link will provide a stable URL that wikipedia recommends using when citing. An Image, Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph For works housed outside of an online home, include the artist's name, the year the work was created, and the institution (e.g., a gallery or museum) that houses it (if applicable), followed by the city where it is located. Include the complete information for the site where you found the image, including the date of access. In this first example, the image was found on the Web site belonging to the work's home museum: Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo del Prado, Madrid. 22 May 2006 <>.

In this next example, the owner of the online site for the image is different than the image's home museum: Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive. "Klee: Twittering Machine." 22 May 2006 < klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html>. For other images, cite as you would any other Web page, but make sure you're crediting the original creator of the image. Here's an example from, an online photo-sharing site ("brandychloe" is a username): brandychloe. Great Horned Owl Family. 22 May 2006 < 47/7/17/41/347171741bgVWdN_fs.jpg>. The above example links directly to the image; but we could also provide the user's profile URL, and give the path for reaching the image, e.g. brandychloe. Great Horned Owl Family. 22 May 2006 <>. Path: Albums; birds; great horned owl family. Doing so helps others verify information about the images creator, where as linking directly to an image file, like a JPEG (.jpg) may make verification difficult or impossible. An Article in a Web Magazine Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Online Publication. Date of Publication. Date of Access <electronic address>. For example: Bernstein, Mark. "10 Tips on Writing The Living Web." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites. No. 149 (16 Aug. 2002). 4 May 2006 <>. An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal Online scholarly journals are treated different from online magazines. First, you must include volume and issue information, when available. Also, some electronic journals and magazines provide paragraph or page numbers; again, include them if available. Wheelis, Mark. "Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention." Emerging Infectious Diseases 6.6 (2000): 33 pars. 8 May 2006 <>. An Article from an Electronic Subscription Service When citing material accessed via an electronic subscription service (e.g., a database or online collection your library subscribes to), cite the relevant publication information as you would for a periodical (author, article title, periodical title, and volume, date, and page number information) followed by the name of the database or subscription collection, the name of the library through which you accessed the

content, including the library's city and state, plus date of access. If a URL is available for the home page of the service, include it. Do not include a URL to the article itself, because it is not openly accessible. For example: Grabe, Mark. "Voluntary Use of Online Lecture Notes: Correlates of Note Use and Note Use as an Alternative to Class Attendance." Computers and Education 44 (2005): 409-21. ScienceDirect. Purdue U Lib., West Lafayette, IN. 28 May 2006 <>. E-mail or Other Personal Communication Author. "Title of the message (if any)." E-mail to person's name. Date of the message. This same format may be used for personal interviews or personal letters. These do not have titles, and the description should be appropriate. Instead of "Email to John Smith," you would have "Personal interview." E-mail to You Kunka, Andrew. "Re: Modernist Literature." E-mail to the author. 15 Nov. 2000. MLA style capitalizes the E in E-mail, and separates E and mail with a hyphen. E-mail Communication Between Two Parties, Not Including the Author Neyhart, David. "Re: Online Tutoring." E-mail to Joe Barbato. 1 Dec. 2000. A Listserv or E-mail Discussion List Posting Author. "Title of Posting." Online posting. Date when material was posted (for example: 18 Mar. 1998). Name of listserv. Date of access <electronic address for retrieval>. If the listserv does not have an open archive, or an archive that is open to subscribers only (e.g., a password-protected list archive), give the URL for the membership or subscription page of the listserv. <> Discussion Board/Forum Posting If an author name is not available, use the username for the post. cleaner416. "Add [<b>[</b> Tags to Selected Text in a Textarea" Online posting. 8 Dec. 2004. Javascript Development. 3 Mar. 2006 < add-b-b-tags-to-selected-text-in-a-textarea-209193.html>. Weblog Postings MLA does not yet have any official rules for citing blog entries or comments. But as the technology becomes more widely used for academic discussions, you may find yourself referencing blogs more often. If you are drawing on a blog as a source, make sure you consider the credibility of the weblog site

and/or the author of the posting or comment. Also, check with your instructor or editor to see what their stance is on incorporating evidence from blog entries. If you decide to use blogs, we suggest the following for how you would cite blog entries and comments depending on the author or sponsor of the weblog. Citing Personal Weblog Entries List the author of the blog (even if there is only a screen name available), provide the name of the particular entry you are referring to, identify that it is a weblog entry and then follow the basic formatting for a website as listed above. Last Name, First. "Title of Entry." Weblog Entry. Title of Weblog. Date Posted. Date Accessed (URL). NOTE: Give the exact date of the posted entry so your readers can look it up by date in the archive. If possible, include the archive address for the posted entry as the URL in your citation as you would for an online forum. If the site doesn't have a public archive, follow the suggestion under "Listserv" citation above. Hawhee, Debra. "Hail, Speech!" Weblog entry. Blogos. 30 April 2007. 23 May 2007 <>. Citing Entries on Organizational or Corporate Weblogs/Blogs List as you would for a personal blog, but include the corporation or organization that sponsors the weblog. Bosworth, Adam. "Putting Health into the Patient's Hands." Weblog entry. The Official Google Blog. 23 May 2007. Google, Inc. 27 May 2007 <>. Citing Comments Posted to a Weblog Follow the same basic format for blog entries, but identify that the posting is a comment and not an original blog entry by the organization or weblog author. Also refer to the screen name that appears as the author of the comment, even if that author is anonymous. Screen Name. "Comment Title." Weblog comment. Date Comment Posted. "Title of Blog Entry." Author of Blog Entry. Title of Weblog. Date Accessed (URL). Anonymous. "The American Jew and the Diversity Debate." Weblog comment. 21 May 2007. "Imagining Jewishness." Monica Osborne. Jewcy. 23 May 2007 <>. NOTE: Some weblog sites don't require titles for comments, so you should just list the first few words of the comment itself to provide enough identifying information for the comment. E!. "Perhaps ironically ..." Weblog comment. 30 April 2007. "Hail, Speech!" Debra Hawhee. Blogos. 30 April 2007 <>.

An Article or Publication in Print and Electronic Form If you're citing an article or a publication that was originally issued in print form but that you retrieved from an online database that your library subscribes to, you should provide enough information so that the reader can locate the article either in its original print form or retrieve it from the online database (if they have access). Provide the following information in your citation:
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Author's name (if not available, use the article title as the first part of the citation) Article Title Periodical Name Publication Date Page Number/Range Database Name Service Name Name of the library where or through which the service was accessed Name of the town/city where service was accessed Date of Access URL of the service (but not the whole URL for the article, since those are usually very long and won't be easily re-used by someone trying to retrieve the information) The generic citation form would look like this: Author. "Title of Article." Periodical Name Volume Number (if necessary) Publication Date: page number-page number. Database name. Service name. Library Name, City, State. Date of access <electronic address of the database>. Here's an example: Smith, Martin. "World Domination for Dummies." Journal of Despotry Feb. 2000: 66-72. Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale Group Databases. Purdue University Libraries, West Lafayette, IN. 19 Feb. 2003 <>. Article in a Database on CD-ROM "World War II." Encarta. CD-ROM. Seattle: Microsoft, 1999. Article From a Periodically Published CD-ROM Reed, William. "Whites and the Entertainment Industry." Tennessee Tribune 25 Dec. 1996: 28. Ethnic NewsWatch. CD-ROM. Data Technologies, Feb. 1997.