 Introduction  Check valve definition  Industrial application  Types of valve and its application  Selection of check valve  Feed check valve  Application  Design and analysis explanation  Introduction about pro-E and analysis  Finite element analysis  Photography  Conclusion  Reference


In fast moving world the time is very important criteria. But in the manual program time takes more and more for every work in the world In the production department drawing is very important for design the various parts. In the manual work, its takes more time and is also very difficult to draw various components compare to CAD. So, to avoid these difficulties, CAD implements for quick & accurate design. Computer aided design have various packages are Auto CAD, Pro-E, etc. Auto CAD is using for 2D drawing and Pro-E is the latest implement in CAD, Which is especially using for 3D modeling. Most of the industry Pro-E is using for creating a new Design and modification of existing Design. Before to start the production we can visualize entire parts and assembly view of the model by using Pro-E. We were design the entire part of FEED CHECK VALVE and assembled it. Ansys software is used for analyzing the 3d modeling objects. The ANSYS program has much finite element analysis, capabilities, ranging from a simple, linear, static analysis to a complex non–linear, transient dynamic analysis.


are installed in pipeline systems to allow flow in one direction only. The operation. preventing process flow from reversing. They are operated entirely by reaction to the line fluid and therefore do not require any external actuation. helping to protect equipment and processes. Check (non-return) valves are installed in pipelines to allow flow in one direction only. flow in the opposite direction is 'reverse flow'. including lift. Fluid flow in the desired direction opens the valve.CHECK VALVE Check valves are mechanical valves that permit gases and liquids to flow in only one direction. while backflow forces the valve closed. They are classified as one-way directional valves. disc. or non-return valves. In this text. applications and selection of different designs. the expected. The mechanics of check valve operation are not complicated. or desired direction of flow is termed 'forward flow'. swing and wafer check valves are explained in this tutorial. .  The printable version of this page has now been replaced by The Steam and Condensate Loop Book  View the complete collection of Steam Engineering Tutorials Check valves. benefits.


A check valve is installed on each of the individual gas streams to prevent mixing of the gases in the original source. Piston-driven and diaphragm pumps such as metering pumps and pumps for chromatography commonly use inlet and outlet ball check valves.INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION Pump The check valves on this steam locomotive are located under the small dome between the chimney and the main dome. Many similar pump-like mechanisms for moving volumes of fluids around use check valves such as ball check valves. if a fuel and an oxidizer are to be mixed. For example. check valves are often used with some types of pumps. then check valves will normally be used on both the fuel and oxidizer sources to ensure that the original gas cylinders remain pure and therefore nonflammable. Domestic use Some types of irrigation sprinklers and drip irrigation emitters have small check valves built into them to keep the lines from draining when the system is . Industrial processes Check valves are used in many fluid systems such as those in chemical and power plants. These valves often look like small cylinders attached to the pump head on the inlet and outlet lines. Check valves are also often used when multiple gases are mixed into one gas stream. and in many other industrial processes. The feed pumps or injectors which supply water to steam boilers are fitted with check valves to prevent backflow.

Porwit. Before the equation of motion for the disc can be written. Pool. Check valves used in domestic heating systems to prevent vertical convection. Also used with most home made snowmakers. and Carlton40 describe a calculation method for check valves with a hinged disc that involves setting up the equation of motion for the disc and applying to that the deceleration characteristic of the flowing fluid within the system. Rainwater harvesting systems that are plumbed into the main water supply of a utility provider may be required to have one or more check values fitted to prevent contamination of the primary supply by rainwater. especially in combination with solar thermal installations. . certain physical constants of the valve must be known. The application of mathematics to the operation of check valves is of relatively recent origin. The calculation determines the reverse flow velocity at the instant of sudden shut-off.shut off. also are called gravity brake.


. Prevention of reverse flow on system shutdown. Prevention of flow under gravity. These hydraulic forces can cause a wave of pressure to run up and down pipe work until the energy is dissipated. Relief of vacuum conditions. for example.TYPES OF VALVE AND APPLICATION:            Ball Check Valves Double Check Valves Global Style Silent Check Valves Hydraulic Check Valves Submersible Check Valves Ductile Iron Check Valves Swing Check Valves Wafer Check Valves Stainless Steel Check Valves Plastic Check Valves Auto Drain Check Valves There are a number of reasons for using check valves. Although check valves can effectively shut off reverse flow. such as flow meters. water hammer.     Prevention of flooding. strainers and control valves. in a section of pipe.  To check the pressure surges associated with hydraulic forces. they should never be used in place of an isolation valve to contain live steam. which include:  Protection of any item of equipment that can be affected by reverse flow.

liquid is allowed to flow through the valve. which has only one through hole. the ball returns to rest in the seat. each suited to specific applications. Double check valve A double check valve or double check assembly (DCA) is a backflow prevention device designed to protect water supplies from contamination. test cocks (very small ball valves) are in place to attach test equipment for evaluating whether the double check assembly is still functional.As with isolation valves. Usage in Water Supply: In the case of usage in water supply. Ball Check Valves Ball check valves contain a ball that sits freely above the seat. Secondly the closure of one valve reduces the pressure differential across the other. it consists of two check valves assembled in series. Small valves may be so compact as to be barely noticeable. for isolation and testing. When the pressure behind the seat exceeds that above the ball. But once the pressure above the ball exceeds the pressure below the seat. there are a number of different check valve designs. allowing a more reliable seal and avoiding even minor leakage. forming a seal that prevents backflow. along with the correct sizing method. This employs two operating principles: firstly one check valve will still act. The different types of check valve and their applications are discussed in this tutorial. The ball has a slightly larger diameter than that of the through hole. Larger check valves may be installed with ball valves at the ends. . Often. particularly when they are integrated into the bodies of existing taps (faucets). It is also a valve used in air brake systems on heavy trucks. even if the other is jammed wide open.

but is not suitable for high hazard applications. Parallel Pump Installations – to prevent outlet flow from one pump at a slightly higher pressure from flowing to the other pump (see Figure 3). If P1A1< P2A2 + spring force + friction. even a relatively low hazard such as using antifreeze in the fire sprinkler system. then a more reliable check valve such as a reduced pressure zone device may be mandated. fire sprinkler and combi boiler systems. Check valves commonly use a poppet and light spring to control flow as shown in the figure below. then the poppet would be pushed to the left.The double check valve assembly is suitable for prevention of back pressure and back siphon age. against the stop. Operation is similar to the check valve shown in Figure 1 except a ball replaces the piston. If P 1A1> P2A2 + spring force + friction. It is commonly used on lawn irrigation. Check valves are used in hydraulic systems anytime flow in a selected direction is not desirable or may create a problem. In this type of pump installation. Different manufacturers may utilize other design approaches. say the left pump is powered by the aircraft’s engine and the right pump is power by an electric motor. For example. Hydraulic Check Valve The function of a check valve is to prevent flow in one direction and allow flow in the other direction. one of the two check valves is designed to open at a slightly higher pressure than the other. He most common method for designing a check valve is illustrated in the Figure 1. then flow occurs in the direction of the arrows. prohibiting flow in the reverse direction. In this . For example. another type of check valve is a ball that pushes against a spring. If the hazard is higher.

This will ensure the engine driven pump supplies the system leakage flow during periods of no hydraulic flow demands and will also help reduce electrical motor noise variability. The electrical driven pump is intended as a backup for the engine driven pump. the following factors should be evaluated: Pressure Rating – make sure the valve is rated appropriately for the system pressure Regulation Range – go into and out of the checked flow position Pressure Drop Across the Valve – this will affect design pressure available to downstream components and thus. In this case the check valve on the electrical driven pump could be set to open (crack) about 50 psi more than the engine driven pump.type of application the engine driven pump generally has a larger flow capacity over that of the electrical driven pump. the sizing of those components Temperature Rating – valve should be rated for fluid temperatures and applicable environmental temperatures Valve Materials – valve should be sufficient to pass proof and burst testing. not be susceptible to corrosion and other environmental considerations. operate properly under temperature extremes Seals/Clearances – affects overall reliability of the valve. Some valves may not use seals and will maintain tight clearances between piston and housing to minimize . When considering the use of a check valve.

opening the valve. Furthermore. Clogging is also a possibility. Leakage – what is the leakage through the valve in the checked position under all environmental conditions? Failure Modes – the dominant failure modes consist of the piston jamming in either the open or the closed position. With reverse flow. The lift check valve has two major limitations.leakage through the valve. Lift check valves Lift check valves are similar in configuration to globe valves. When the flow into the valve is in the forward direction. is acceptable. subsequently they are commonly used to prevent reverse flow of condensate in steam traps and on the outlets of cyclic condensate pumps. and as the cone is the only moving part. and secondly. The design characteristics can be affected by environmental conditions and aging/wear over time. The main advantage of the lift check valve lies in its simplicity. it is designed only for installation in horizontal pipelines. its size is typically limited to DN80. under reverse flow conditions. the use of a metal seat limits the amount of seat wear. the pressure of the fluid lifts the cone off its seat. the cone returns to its seat and is held in place by the reverse flow pressure. the plug may be held on its seat using a spring. firstly. . in some valves. In addition. the design of a lift check valve generally limits its use to water applications. If a metal seat is used. the lift check valve is only suitable for applications where a small amount of leakage. the valve is robust and requires little maintenance. The inlet and outlet ports are separated by a cone shaped plug that rests on a seat typically metal. except that the disc or plug is automatically operated.

2. This can be overcome by fitting a damping mechanism to the disc and by using metal seats to limit the amount of seat wear.3. which allows the flap to retract out of the flow path. which hangs down in the flow path. Swing check valves A swing check valve consists of a flap or disc of the same diameter as the pipe bore. The dashpot produces a damping effect during operation. With abrupt changes in flow. In addition. closure may be assisted by the use of a weighted lever. which can cause significant wear of the seat. which are subject to surges in pressure. It incorporates a piston shaped plug instead of the cone. the whole mechanism is enclosed within a body. . due to the weight of the disc. or frequent changes in flow direction (one example would be a boiler outlet).The piston-type lift check valve is a modification of the standard lift check valve. and generate water hammer along the pipe system. In the absence of flow. in pipeline systems. Reverse flow will cause the disc to shut against the seat and stop the fluid going back down the pipe. they create turbulence. in some cases. the disc can slam against the valve seat. thereby eliminating the damage caused by the frequent operation of the valve. As can be seen from Figure 12. because the flap 'floats' on the fluid stream. allowing flow through the valve. the weight of the flap is responsible for the closure of the valve. however. Swing check valves produce relatively high resistance to flow in the open position. for example. With flow in the forwards direction. and a dashpot is applied to this mechanism. the pressure of the fluid forces the disc to hinge upwards.

a spring and a spring retainer. When the force exerted on the disc by the upstream pressure is greater than the force exerted by the spring. the disc is forced to lift off its seat. By definition wafer check valves are those that are designed to fit between a set of flanges. When the differential pressure across the valve is reduced. the spring forces the disc back onto its seat.Wafer check valves Both lift and swing check valves tend to be bulky which limits their size and makes them costly. Where a 'zero leakage' seal is required. wafer check valves have been developed. instead. Disc check valves The disc check valve consists of four main components: the body. but do not have the full-bodied arrangement. This is shown in Figure. Subsequently. The presence of the spring enables the disc check vale to be installed in any direction. the flap is forced into the top of the pipeline. Swing type wafer check valves These are similar to the standard swing check valves. This broad definition covers a variety of different designs. a soft seat can be included. The disc moves in a plane at right angles to the flow of the fluid. To overcome this. The body is designed to act as an integral centering collar that facilitates installation. the weight of the disc and any downstream pressure. including disc check valves and wafer versions of swing or split disc check valves. closing the valve just before reverse flow occurs. resisted by the spring that is held in place by the retainer. when the valve opens. allowing flow through the valve. a disc. the flap must have a smaller diameter than that .

They are specifically designed for use with submersible pumps or other applications where it is necessary for the check valve to be installed in the well casing.of the pipeline. Flomaton’s ductile iron series 80DI are one of the most popular valves in the water well industry today. Furthermore. For general installations. There is however one problem with using larger size valves. Click on a link below to view cast iron check valve applications and specifications and to enter a RFQ. due to the small amount of material required for the construction of the valve. the discs are particularly heavy. because on smaller pipelines the pressure drop. which could cause damage to the seat of the valve and generate water hammer. disc and follower with threaded female x female connection. becomes significant. Swing type check valves are used mainly on larger pipeline sizes. Cast Iron Check Valves Flomaton Corporation manufactures Cast Iron Check Valves with high strength epoxy coated ductile iron body (1”-2” have cast steel body). caused by the disc 'floating' on the fluid stream. This energy is transferred to the seat and process fluid when the valve slams shut. The 80DI series valves will provide excellent service in any application where a conventional check valve is recommended and is vertically mounted. . due to their size. request bulletin #810. and because of this. the pressure drop across the valve. there are significant cost savings to be made by using these valves on larger sizes. and therefore possess a large amount of kinetic energy when they close. typically above DN125.

It should be noted that when using blast discharge type steam traps. check valves should always be inserted after a steam trap to prevent back flow of condensate flooding the steam space. The check valve will also prevent the steam trap from becoming damaged by any hydraulic shock in the condensate line.  Steam traps . due to their compact design and relatively low cost. Furthermore. a disc check valve with a heavy-duty spring and a soft seat can be fitted in the boiler feed line to prevent flow under gravity into the boiler when the feed pump is shut off.The check valve is used to prevent boiler water being forced back along the feed line into the storage tank when the feed pump stops running. .Wafer check valve applications Wafer check valves are becoming the preferred type of check valve for most applications.Other than with steam traps discharging to atmosphere. the check valve should be fitted at least 1 m downstream of the trap. The following is a list of some of their most common applications:  Boiler feed lines .


valve flutter can be a problem for high lift check valves in gas service. Examples of how to assess the required closing speed in pumping installations are given in this page.SELECTION OF CHECK VALVES Most check valves are selected qualitatively by comparing the required closing speed with the closing characteristic of the valve. a reputable manufacturer should be consulted. If the application is critical. sizing is also a critical component of valve selection. Check Valves for incompressible Fluids These are selected primarily for their ability to close without introducing an unacceptably high surge pressure due to the sudden shut-off of reverse flow. as deduced from page. Selecting these for a low pressure drop across the valve is normally only a secondary consideration. However. The second step is the selection of the type of check valve likely to meet the required closing speed. This selection method leads to good results in the majority of applications. Check Valves for Compressible Fluids Check valves for compressible fluids may be selected on a basis similar to that described for incompressible fluids. The first step is qualitative assessment of the required closing speed for the check valve. . However. as discussed in the following.


The following figure shows one of the simple types of the feed check valves used in the boiler feed systems. This gap can be varied by turning the handle fitted at the top of the spindle and secured to it using a hexagonal nut and washer. Temperature of feed water influence . It is assembled to the feed water pipe line with its horizontal flange bolted to the flange of the inlet pipe and vertical flange bolted to the flange bolted to the flange of the delivery pipe. so as to retain the packing in the stuffing box provided in the cover. The cover is fitted to the body by six studs and hexagonal nuts. To prevent the leakage of the steam between the spindle and the cover a gland is mounted on the cover.FEED CHECK VALVE: A feed check valve is one of the important boiler mountings. A gun metal valve seat in the part takes its seating on the valve seat such that its webs project sufficiently long into the valves seat so as to be well guided during its lift and fall. The feed water is pumped into the boiler through the feed check valve which prevents its flowing back due to pressure in the boiler. and connected to it by the studs and the hexagonal nuts. Requirement of feed water is regulated by ABMA (American Boiler Manufacturing Association). Feed water Regulator Feed water is the water to be supplied into steam boiler. The amount of the feed water flowing through the check valve depends on the lift of the valve which in turn depends on the gap between the lower end of the spindle which is screwed through the cover and the top of the valve. It is usually fitted in the feed pipe line close to the boiler shell so as to lie just below the normal water level. Water treatment is one of step in this requirement. It helps to regulate the supply of feed water to the boiler and thus enables to maintain constant water level.

the steam will enter the tube. If the water level in the boiler indicates low level. Hydraulic Regulator This type is feed water regulator which consist tube. When water level show low level which means that amount of steam steam is higher than water. This regulator use tube which be connected between water column in the steam drum and feed water control valve. and jacket. and the principal working. The following below are the feed water regulator type 1. at the certain temperature and pressure.efficiency of steam boiler. the valve will open to supply feed water into steam boiler. size. Thermostatic Expansion Regulator This type is feed water regulator which uses inclined tube and connects it between feed water control valve and boiler. . so the feed water control valve will supply the feed water. higher temperature will increase the efficiency. the tube will get expansion. Amount of feed water is maintained to keep steam boiler on the range of NOWL (Normal Operation Water Level). There are three types of feed water regulators commonly used in the power plant system. fin. Maintain water level is totally important to keep steam boiler safe from both short term overheating or long term overheating and also damage turbine generator. so feed water heater is required in the feed water system. 2. The type of feed water regulator is generally used based on function.

must address cavitations during initial operation and provide adequate range ability to address the entire feed water requirements. The floating ball will move up and down parallel with water level in the boiler. Turndowns of at least 75:1 are common. . 1. A connecting system must be set up between this equipment and the feed water control to maintain the steam boiler water level in the range NOWL. This valve. Float Regulator This type is feed water regulator which uses floating equipment like a ball and connects it to the boiler.3. Not only is the valve used to initially fill the steam drum. therefore. it is also used to control flow during normal operation when the steam drum is under pressure. The boiler feed water regulator valve used in many power plants is required to transition from feed pump recirculation to operation of the unit.


APPLICATION Building Maintenance Compressor Discharge Condensate Lines Chemical Processing Boiler Feed & Discharge Compressor Discharge Food Beverage & Drug Autoclaves Boiler Feed & Discharge Mining Boiler Feed & Discharge Mine Dewatering Petroleum Production & Refining Boiler Feed & Discharge Compressor Discharge Petroleum Production & Refining Pump Discharge Steam Lines Power Generation Boiler Feed & Discharge Compressor Discharge Primary Metals Chemical Lines Compressor Discharge .


Then the volume is meshed using meshing option load values (temp) are added to the required surfaces.7 w/m’c cast steel . The design model is done in the Pro. The solution is carried out using ansys solver. The details of element attributes such as element type and material properties. Finally the results are obtained by using general post processer.DESIGN AND ANALYSIS The main objective of this project is to design and analysis the feed check valve.e software and the design part is saved in IGES format. Material and its properties: Material: Properties: Density: Specific heat: Youngs modulus: Poisson ratio: Thermal conductivity: 7850 kg/mm^3 419 J/kg k 2. It is imported to ansys software.29 46.07*10^11 Gpa 0. Here we take to analysis the feed check valves temp distribution on our design.


Computer – aided design (CAD) can be defined as the use of computer systems to assist in the creation. The computer systems consist of the hardware and software to perform the specialized design functions required by the particular user firm. modification. . keyboards. heat-transfer calculations. analysis. It is the technology concerned with the use of digital computers to perform certain functions in design and production. CAD/CAM will provide the technology base for the computer-integrated factory of the future. The CAD software consists of the computer programs to implement computer graphics on the system plus application programs to facilitate the engineering functions of the user company. dynamic response of mechanisms.INTRODUCTION TO CAD/CAM CAD/CAM is a term which means computer-aided design and computeraided manufacturing. two activities which have traditionally been treated as district and separate functions in a production firm. and numerical control part programming. and other peripheral equipment. one or more graphics display terminals. or optimization of a design. This technology is moving in the direction of greater integration of design and manufacturing. Examples of these application programs include stress-strain analysis of components. The CAD hardware typically includes the computer. Ultimately.


The mathematical description allows the image of the object Components in an assembly.compatible mathematical description of the geometry of an object. Synthesis 4. or highlight dimensions. or a host of other purposes . Evaluation 6. Automated drafting Geometric modeling In computer-aided design. Engineering analysis 3.THE DESIGN PROCESS: The process of designing is characterized by six identifiable steps or phase 1. Analysis and optimization 5. Geometric modeling 2. Recognition of need 2. Design review and evaluation 4. Presentation APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS FOR DESIGN: The various design-related tasks which are performed by a modern computer-aided design system can be grouped into four functional areas: 1. Definition of problem 3. geometric modeling is concerned with the computer.

. or the use of differential equations to describe the dynamic behavior of the system being designed. The thermal properties of most material do vary with temperature. Examples of this type are 1. so the analysis usually is non linear. heat-transfer computations. or non linear. A steady state thermal analysis may be either linear. with material properties that depend on temperature. with constant material properties. Finite element analysis The analysis may involve stress –strain calculations.Engineering analysis CAD/CAM systems often include or can be interfaced to engineering analysis software which can be called to operate on the current design model. including radiation effects also makes the analysis non linear. Analysis of mass properties 2.


0. Pro-e Wildfire. .In 2011. As such. ANSYS: The ANSYS program has many finite element analysis capabilities.0… pro-e 5. but also parametric functionality and full associativity. static analysis to a complex non – linear. It is one of the new generation of systems that not only over a full 3-D solid modeller. The current version of the software is 1. in contrast to purely 2-D and surface modellers. This means that explicit relationships can be established between design variables and changes can be Pro/ENGINEER is a feature based. it's use is significantly different from conventional drafting programs. PTC rebranded Pro/Engineer as Creo Parametric.. In conventional drafting (either manual or computer assisted). linear.0. parametric solid modeling program. Pro/ENGINEER (Pro/E for short) is a commercial CAD/CAM package that is widely used in industry for CAD/CAM applications. A typical ANSYS analysis has three distinct steps:  Building the model  Applying loads and obtain the solution  Review the results. After this version they are released Pro-E 2000i2. Pro-E 2001. It is ideal for capturing the design intent of your models because at its foundation is a practical philosophy. Founder of this Pro-Engineer is Parametric Technology Corporation.INTRODUCTION ABOUT PRO-E AND ANALYSIS PRO-E: Pro-Engineer is a powerful application. ranging from a simple. transient dynamic analysis. various views of a part are created in an attempt to describe the geometry. Pro-e Wildfire2.

For example real constants for BEAM3 . and the model geometry. such as cross sectional properties of a beam element. DEFINING MATERIAL PROPERTIES: Most elements types require material properties. shear deflection constant (SHEAR Z). height . and material properties. shell. The table of material reference number verses material Depending on the . moment of inertia(IZZ). the 2-d beam element. initial strain (ISTRN) different elements of same type may have different real constant values. solid. plant. Each element type has a unique number and a prefix that identifies the element category. pipe. material properties may be:  Linear or non linear  Isotropic. DEFINING ELEMENT TYPES: The analysis element library contains more than 100 different element types. real constants. Then. application.BUILDING THE MODEL: Building a finite element model requires a more of an ANSYS user’s time than any other part of the analysis. Example: beam. define the element types. Arthotropic. or area. DEFINING ELEMENT REAL CONSTANTS: Element real constant are the properties that depend on the element type. First you specify the job name and analysis title. each set of material properties has a material reference number. or an isotropic  Constant temperature or temperature – dependant As with element type and real constant.

In the broadest sense. The ANSYS program offers you the following approaches to model generation:  Creating a solid model within ANSYS. this model comprises all the nodes. In other words. the ANSY program enables you to store a material property set in an archival material library file. one analysis you may have multiple material properties set. then retrieve the set and reuse it in multiple analysis. material properties. boundary conditions. real constant. model generation in this discussion will mean the process of define the geometric configuration model’s nodes and elements. MATERIAL PROPERTY TEST: Although you can define material properties separately for each element analysis. Within. the term model generation usually takes on the narrower meaning of generating the nodes and elements that represent the spatial volume and connectivity of actual system. In ANSYS terminology. OVERVIEW OF MODEL GENERATION: The ultimate purpose of finite element analysis which to recreate mathematical the behavior of an actual engineering system. The material library files also enable several ANSYS user to share common used material property data. elements. Thus. .property set ids called material property table.  Using direct generation Reporting a model created in CAD system. the analysis must be an accurate mathematical model of a physical prototype. and other features that are used to represent the physical system.

it is important to think about whether a free mesh or a mapped mesh is appropriate for the analysis. . you must build the geometry as series of fairly regular volumes and or areas that can accept a mapped mesh. In addition. and has no specified pattern applied to it. you can use the small size feature to produce a better quality free mesh. Compared to a free mesh. A free mesh has no restrictions in terms of element shapes. is not always necessary because the default mesh controls are appropriate for many models. If no controls are specified. a mapped mesh is restricted in terms of the element shape it contains and the pattern of the mesh. with obvious rows of elements. The second step. the program will use the default setting on the de size command to produce a free mesh. FREE ARE MAPPED MESH: Before meshing the model. If you want this type of mesh. setting mesh controls.MESHING YOUR SOLID MODEL: The procedure for generating a mesh of nodes & elements consists of three main steps:  Set the element attributes  Set mesh controls  Generate the mesh controls. A mapped area mesh contains either only quadrilateral or only triangular elements. a mapped mesh typically has a regular pattern. while a mapped volume mesh contains only hexahedron elements. As an alternative. and even before building the model.

For example. For examples you may apply magnetic forces calculated in magnetic field analysis are force loads in structural analysis. a key stepping analysis. you must specify the following  Element type  Real constant set  Material properties set Element co-ordinate system: LOADING: The main goal of finite element analysis is to examine how a structure or component response to certain loading condition. where results from analysis are used as loads in another analysis. you can specify forces at a key point or a node. You can apply loads on the model in variety of ways in ANSYS program. LOADS: The word loads in ANSYS terminology includes boundary. Specifying the proper loading conditions. HOW TO APPLY LOADS: You can apply loads most loads either on the solid model (on key points. you must first define the appropriate element attributes. Coupled field loads are simple case of one of the above loads. therefore. Similarly. line.SETTING ELEMENT ATTRIBUTES: Before you generate a mesh of nodes and elements. That is. areas) or on the finite element model ( on nodes and elements). you can specify .

No matter how you specify loads. automatic iterative solver option (ITER). The result of the solution is a nodal degree of freedom values. preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) solution. the program automatically transfers them to the nodes and element at the beginning of the solution. incomplete cholesky conjugate (ICCG) solution. sparse direct solution. SOLUTION: In the solution phase of the analysis. which form the primary solution. POST PROCESSING: After building the model and obtaining the solution. the computer takes over and solves the simultaneous equations that the finite element method generates. which form the element solution. but you can select a different solver. Several methods of solving the simultaneous equations are available in the ANSYS program: frontal solution. and b) derived values. The ANSYS program writes the results to the database as well as to the result file. you will want answers to some critical question: will the design really work when put to use? How high are the stresses in this region? How does the temperature of this part vary with time? What is the heat loss across my model? How does the magnetic flow . Jacobi Conjugate gradient (JCG solution. The element solution is usually calculated at the elements integration points. The frontal solver is the default.convections (and other surface loads) on lines and areas or nodes and element faces. Therefore if your specify loads on the solid model. the solver expects all loads to be in term of finite element model.

as well as mechanical components such as pistons. but also naval. aeronautical and mechanical structures such as ship hulls. aircraft bodies and machine housings. Post processing means reviewing the results of an analysis. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Structural analysis is probably the most common application of the finite element method. and so on. because you are trying to understand how the applied loads affect your design. it is probably the most important step in the analysis. how good you finite element mesh is.  Contour displays  Deformed shape displays  Vector displays  Path plots  Reaction force displays  Particle flow traces.through this device? How does the placement of this object affect fluid flow? The post processors in the ANSYS program can help you find answer these questions and others. machine parts and tools. Types of structural analysis: The seven types of structural analysis provided by ANSYS are given below. The term structural (or structure) implies not only civil engineering structures such as bridges and buildings. . You can display the following types of graphics in post1. DISPLAYING RESULTS GRAPHICALLY: Graphics display is perhaps the most effective way to review results.

2. Transient dynamic analysis: used to determine the response of a structure to arbitrarily time varying loads. Non – Linearity’s can include plasticity. Spectrum analysis: an extension of the model analysis. Explicit dynamic analysis – ANSYS provides an interface to the LS-Dyna explicit finite element programs is used to calculate fast solution for large deformation dynamics and complex contact problems. 6. 7. Harmonic analysis: used to determine the response of a structure to harmonically time varying loads. Static analysis: used to determine displacement. Buckling analysis: used to calculate the buckling load and determine the buckling mode shape. large strain. 4. stress stiffening. Different mode extraction methods are available. 5. large deflection. Modal analysis: used to calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structure. stresses etc. 3. and creep. under static loading conditions.1. All non-linearity’s mentioned under static analysis above are allowed. used to calculate stress and strain due to response spectrum or a PSD input (random vibrations). contact surfaces. hyper elasticity. Both linear (eigenvalue) buckling and non –linear buckling analyses are possible. Both linear and non-linear static analyses. .

thermal gradients.INTRODUCTION TO THERMAL ANALYSIS: A steady state thermal analysis calculates the effects of steady thermal loads on a system or component. performed after all transient effects have diminished. and thermal loads that do not vary over time cause heat fluxes in an object that. heat flow rates. Engineer/analysts often perform a steady state analysis before doing a transient thermal analysis.  Convections  Radiations  Heat Flow rates  Heat fluxes (heat flow per unit area)  Constant temperature boundaries. Such loads include the following. to help establish initial conditions. You use steady – state thermal analysis to determine temperatures. . A steady – state analysis also can be the last step of a transient thermal analysis.


and is now the basis of a multibillion dollar per year industry. and errors in input data can produce wildly incorrect results that may be overlooked by the analyst. .FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Finite element analysis (FEA) has become commonplace in recent years. In spite of the great power of FEA. representing a broad price range and compatible with machines from microcomputers to supercomputers1. they are complex enough that most users do to program their own code. However. Most finite element software is written in Fortran. Perhaps the most important function of theoretical modeling is that of sharpening the designer's intuition. users with specialized needs should not necessarily shy away from code development. but some newer codes such as felt are in C or other more modern programming languages. and may the code sources available in such texts as that by Zienkiewicz2 to be a useful starting point. Nevertheless. Numerical solutions to even very complicated stress problems can now be obtained routinely using FEA. Finite element codes are less complicated than many of the word processing and spreadsheet packages found on modern microcomputers. supplementing the computer simulation with as much closed-form and experimental analysis as possible. users of finite element codes should plan their strategy toward this end. the disadvantages of computer solutions must be kept in mind when using this and similar methods: they do not necessarily reveal how the stresses are influenced by important problem variables such as materials properties and geometrical features. and the method is so important that even introductory treatments of Mechanics of Materials { such as these modules { should outline its principal features. A number of prewritten commercial codes are available. that finite element analysis can be done conveniently as part of the computerized drafting-and-design process. Analysis: The dataset prepared by the preprocessor is used as input to the finite element code itself. Some of these preprocessors can overlay a mesh on a preexisting CAD . Preprocessing: The user constructs a model of the part to be analyzed in which the geometry is divided into a number of discrete sub regions. and others will have prescribed loads. and commercial codes vie with one another to have the most userfriendly graphical \preprocessor" to assist in this rather tedious chore. with elements appropriate to a wide range of problem types.In practice. or \elements. and this module will outline the approach for truss and linear elastic stress analyses. One of FEA's . Commercial codes may have very large element libraries. These models can be extremely time consuming to prepare. which constructs and solves a system of linear or nonlinear algebraic equations K[ij] u[j] = F[i] Where u and f are the displacements and externally applied forces at the nodal points. a finite element analysis usually consists of three principal steps: 1." connected at discrete points called nodes. The formation of the K matrix is dependent on the type of problem being attacked. Certain of these nodes will have displacements.

3. It is easy to miss important trends and hot spots this way. . listing displacements and stresses at discrete positions within the model. merely by specifying the appropriate element types from the library. the user would pore through reams of numbers generated by the code. Post processing: In the earlier days of finite element analysis. and modern codes use graphical displays to assist in visualizing the results.principal advantages is that many problem types can be addressed with the same code. A typical postprocessor display overlay colored contours representing stress levels on the model.







We can change the size of the component easily by using parametric feature (i. The components are drawn very using PRO/E. . From this we conclude that every work has been completed confidently with PRO/E and Ansys. The problems. which emerged during the design of the machine where successfully over come using pro/E. Analysis has been completed by using the ansys software efficiently and quickly. Protrusion and cut are used as main feature to develop the components.) no need for redraw the components.e. and can draw and analyze any complicated machine drawing efficiently and quickly. The design of the project involved making use of most of the important features of pro/E is versatile and comprehensive software foe threedimensional solid modeling.CONCLUSION The design of the project was successfully completed using pro/E.

PTC.nwu. PTC Series Manual for Pro-E. CAD/CAM by Groover.htm 6. Machine Drawing by K.Ansys. COM 5.Gopalakrishna 3. www. 4. Www. Mech. Pro-E /toc.BIBLIOGRAPHY . Www.

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