Radiography | Nondestructive Testing | Radiography

LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED Bulk Material Handling RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING PROCEDURE FOR PLATE TO PLATE WELD

Procedure No: ESS 100 Page 1 of 3

1. Scope This procedure defines the technique and acceptance for the radiographic examination of carbon steel plate to plate welds of thickness 10 mm to 65 mm (including reinforcement) to detect both internal and surface discontinuities in the weld and heat-affected zone. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this procedure to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 2. Personnel Requirement Personnel shall be certified as Level II in accordance with a written practice conforming to “Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing” SNT-TC-1A – 1996 Edition or later published by American Society for Nondestructive testing. 3. Radiation Source Iridium -192 or X ray shall be used as the radiation source from 20 mm thick to 65 mm thick weld. X ray shall be used from 10 mm to 19 mm thickness. Thickness mentioned is inclusive of weld reinforcement. 4. Film All films to be used for radiography shall be fine-grained, high- contrast, slow/medium-speed type. Films shall be of approved make given below: i) AGFA Ii) KODAK The film type to be used for different thickness shall be as per table-1: TABLE-1 . Weld Thickness (t) in mm. Film (Including reinforcement) t ≥ 19 AGFA D7 or equivalent Between 11 and 18 AGFA D5 or equivalent t ≤ 10 AGFA D4 or equivalent The length of radiograph shall be selected so that said length of exposures is covered including 25mm overlap either side. Each film length shall be 380 mm. 5. Geometric unsharpness Geometric unsharpness of the radiograph shall be determined in accordance with: Ug = Fd / D Where Ug = Geometric Unsharpness (mm) F = Source Size: the maximum projected dimension of the radiating source (or effective focal spot) in the plane perpendicular to the distance D from the weld or object being radiographed (mm) D =Distance from the source of radiation to source side of weld or object being radiographed (mm) d =Distance from source side of weld or object being radio graphed to the film (mm)

Sensitivity of radiographs: Sensitivity of the radiographs shall be 2 %. A tolerance of ± 0. 9.LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED Bulk Material Handling RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING PROCEDURE FOR PLATE TO PLATE WELD Procedure No: ESS 100 Page 2 of 3 Limitations on Geometric Unsharpness shall be as per table-2: TABLE-2 Weld Thickness (t) in mm. an elongated discontinuity shall be defined as one in which its length exceeds three times its width. IQI shall be as per Fig 1. Density Limitation The transmitted film density through the radiographic image of the body of the appropriate designated wire of the IQI and the area of interest shall be between 1.51 0.05 in density is allowed on densitometer readings. Radiographic Density Density of radiographs shall be measured by using a duly calibrated densitometer. Fig 1 7. 8 . Radiography shall display the designated wire image clearly on radiograph. IQI shall be of wire type. 0. Regardless of the type of discontinuity.5.8 and 3.76 6. Acceptance: Discontinuities other than cracks shall be evaluated on the basis of being either elongated or rounded. (Including reinforcement) Under 50 50 to 65 Ug Maximum in mm. .

Fig.6mm or larger.2 c) The distance from any porosity or fusion type discontinuity described above to another such discontinuity. 'C'.6mm shall be unacceptable if the sum of their greatest dimension exceeds 10mm in any 25mm length of weld.2 d) Discontinuities having a greatest dimension of less than 1. project E horizontally to B. or to the toe or root of any intersecting flange to web weld shall not be less than the minimum clearance allowed. . shall not exceed the size B indicated in Fig. • To determine the minimum clearance allowed between edges of discontinuities of any size. to an edge. The following type of discontinuities shall not be acceptable: a) Any type of crack. project B vertically to C . b) The greatest dimension of any porosity or fusion type discontinuity (such as slag inclusion.LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED Bulk Material Handling RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING PROCEDURE FOR PLATE TO PLATE WELD Procedure No: ESS 100 Page 3 of 3 A rounded discontinuity shall be defined as one in which its length is three times its width or less and may be round or irregular and may have tails. lack of fusion and incomplete penetration) that is 1.2 Notes: • To determine the maximum size of discontinuity allowed in any joint or weld size. indicated in Fig.

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