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Vectors Introduction- Lesson1 To solve vector problems at the CSEC level, you will need to understand the following terms: Position vector, Displacement vector, Collinear vectors, Equal vectors, Parallel vectors and resultant vectors.

An example will be used to illustrate each point Vector Definition:

()

Displacement Vector

A vector is a quantity that has a magnitude (size) and a direction. (shown by an arrow)

In the diagram above O A and O B are called position vectors because their starting points are taken relative to the origin (O). The starting point of vector A B is not the origin, so the term displacement vector is used to differentiate between this vector and the position vector.

Vector Representation Vector AB is the vector going from A to B. Three different representations of the vector AB are: 1. 2. 3. A B

Example 1

Points P(3, 2) and Q(-1, -3) have position vectors relative to the origin O. and O Q 1. 2. 3. Express Express

O P PQ O P

and

as column vectors OQ

()

4 3

as a column vector

PQ

m - as a lowercase letter

Position vector

Solution:

The position vectors can be found directly from the coordinates of P and Q:

1)

O P=

()

3 2

= 1 OQ 3

Point A(2,3) can be viewed as being displaced from the origin O, by a vector called the position vector where:

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Finding P Q The displacement vector PQ is the vector going from P to Q where : so how do we find this vector?

Find

= AC

Vector equation

b+c

AD = OD = BO =

BM =

MA =

Imagine that your starting position is point P and you wish to get to point Q. Note that the only know path or course is to travel first from P to O, and then from O to Q. This means that we can get from P to Q using the two vectors that we already know. i.e

PQ

PO

OQ

Note carefully that we have the vector O P , but what . we need is the vector P O This is however easily found however, since the vector is simply the reverse of the vector O PO P i.e PO =

= OP

2) so :

PQ =

()

3 2

() ( )

3 2 1 3

=

( )

4 5 = 6.4

so if a vector is a constant (scalar) multiple of another vector, then they are parallel. Example:

D

f

= 4 2 5 2 PQ

Given: a b =

()

3 2

c=

()

12 8

M

d

Now

C

c

()

12 8

can be written as

()

3 2

(take 4 as a factor)

so

c = 4 b

( k = 4 a constant)

O B

In the diagram above, the points are A, B, C , M , and O, and the vectors are a,b,c,d,e, and f. =d So for example: M C Use this diagram to complete the table. (Note the direction of the arrows)

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Equal Vectors

Vector e is equal to vector h if they both have the same magnitude and direction. ( so e = h) It follows that equal vectors are also parallel vectors

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6 7 8

C

Two points A and B have position vectors 2 4 B = ; O , where O is the O A = 5 2 origin ( 0,0). The point G lies on the line AB such that 1 x AG = AB . Express in the form , 3 y ; position vector O G A B ; AG

A collinear vectors

Two vectors are collinear if one vector is a scalar are B and B C multiple of the other vector. If A collinear (on a straight line), then B C = k.A B where k is a scalar (constant) (Note that this is the same condition for parallel vectors)

A(- 2, 5)

B(4,2)

Example:

Given Points A(-2,1); B(2,3) and C(8,6) . Use a vector method to prove that the points are collinear

0

**************************************************

Solution:

C B A

1) Finding

A B

Now A B is the vector going from A to B That is: First go from A to O and then from O to B so: but so

A B AO

= =

AO

O B

O A

A B =

( )

2 5

1 AB 3

( ) =

4 2 2 5 6 3

We need to prove that : = k.A BC B . ( the condition for collinearity) so we need to find the two displacement vectors A B and then establish the relationship between and B C them.

A B BC +O AO B

2) Finding now

AG

= AG

= 1/3

6 3

2 1

+O C = BO

2 2 = + 1 3 2 8 = + 3 6 so

( ) () ()

= = 4 2 6 3

3) Finding Now

OG

OG

= =

=

0 4

O A + AG 2 2 + 5 1

**************************************************

but

6 3

4 1.5 2

()

= k.A BC B

k = 1.5

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Class Activity 1

The position vectors of points A, B and C are: O A=

giving so:

3D A DA

= DC

= =

3a a

()

6 2

O B=

()

3 4

, and O C = 12 2

B A , BC

( )

()

a b

, vectors

Finding

2) State one geometrical relationship between BA and BC 3) If Point M is the mid point of AB; Find the coordinates of M. Example 2:

A

Two Geometrical Relationships: ii) DX and DC are parallel, (2) DX = 4 DC iii) D, C and X are collinear ( on a straight line)

Class Activity 2

The Position vectors of R and J are :

C

O R = 2 3

B X

and

O J=

1 1

1. Express

R J in the form R J

In the diagram above: C is the mid point of AB and B is the mid point of OX, and D is such that OD = 2DA. The vectors a and b are such that: O A= 3a and

O B =b

a b = 8 RT 2

and

b

*********************************************************

State two geometrical relationship between DX and DC State one geometrical relationship between the points D, C and X

**************************************************

OT

*********************************************************

B Finding A

now

A B =

= = Finding

AC

+O AO B O A +O B =

O A=

3a + b

( )

8 4

O B=

( )

5 7

= OC

()

1 4

b 3a

OM is a point on OA such that the ratio OM:OA = 1:4 Prove that ABCM is a parallelogram

= ( b 3a)

Solution:

*********************************************************

DC =D , DC A A C

Hint: The opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal., so this question is testing that you know how to prove that two vectors are equal.

*********************************************************

+D = 3a OD A 2D A+ D A = 3a

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Class Avtivity 4 The position vectors A and B relative to the origin are a and b respectively. The point P is on OA such that OP = 2PA The point M is on BA such that BM = MA

B A

b a

1. 2. 3.

A B; P A; PM

use a vector method to Prove that Points P, M and N are collinear Calculate the length AN given that : a=

6 2

and b =

1 2

***************************************************

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B(3,4) A(6,2

Activity 2

T R(-2,3)

RT OT

O

J(1, -1)

O

C(12, -2)

R J

B A = +O BO A =

= =

+O RO J

3 4 3 4

= BO +O C = BC

() ( ) () ( ) ( )

+ 6 2 = 3 2 + 12 2 = 9 6

( )

2 3

2

+

2

( )=( )

1 1 3 4

length =

( 3 +(4 ) )

=5

OT

so:

BC

3B A

( geometrical relationship)

Position vector of T = =

=

2 3

O R

RT

B(3,4) M A(6,2

( )

()

8 2

()

6 5

so coordinates = T (6, 5)

*********************************************

O

C(12, -2)

Activity 3

B(-5,7)

1 3 2 2

BM

1 BA 2

C(1,4) A(-8,4)

( )=( )

1.5 1

M O

Now the coordinates of M can be found from the position vector O M where

OM

; and (2) A B =M C M A= C B

= =

O B+ B M

() + ( ) = ( )

3 4 1.5 1 4.5 3

+O B A B = AO =

coordinates = M( 4.5, 3)

Also:

( )

8 4

( ) ()

5 7 = 3 3 but OM:OA = 1:4 8 2 = 4 1

= MO +O C MC

OM

= O A =

so : Giving

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= OM MO

( ) ( )

2 1 2 1

6

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so:

= MC

1 2 4 1 = 3 3

.... (1)

= PM

1 1 a b a 3 2 1 3b a 6

A B =M C

3 OA = 4

M N

now: also

M A =

3 8 4 4

( )

=

(2)

( )

6 3 6 3

+O C B = CO B =

M N

M B

= = =

M B+ B N

b a ; and b a + b

3b a BN

()

1 4

( ) ( )

5 7

where: so

=b

M A= C B

= M N

M N

3PM

k=3

Activity 4

N

b

M A

1/3 (a)

=O ON A A N =O N O AN A = AN 2b a

=2 =

P

2/3 (a)

1 2 6 2 2 4 6 2 = 4 2

2

Length =

Finding:

A B =

+O AO B a+b

= =

+O A O B ba

4 2

4.47

************************************************

= Finding now:

P A

1 P A= a 3

Finding P M

P A+ A M

B = now A M = MB = A

b a

so P M

1 1 a + ( a b) 3 2

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