FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT

A. FILL IN THE BLANKS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Temperature is an ...................... property. (Intensive). Pressure cooker is an example of ............... systems. (closed) Specific volume is a ........... property. (intensive) A centrifugal pump forms ............... system. (open) A prescribed region in space for its thermodynamic study is know as ............... (thermodynamic system) ............... is the quantify of matter of fixed mass and identity which is bounded by a closed surface. (system) An envelope closing the system is known as ............. of the system (boundary) Everything external to the system is known as.................... (surroundings). The system and surroundings put together forms a ............ (Universe) In a ....................... transfer of mass does not take place but energy may cross the boundaries. (Closed system) In an open system, both .................. and ............... may ............. the boundary. (mass, energy, cross). In an ............... there is ................ of .............. across the system boundary. (isolated system, no transfer, mass or energy) ..................... property of the system depends upon the mass of the system. (Extensive) ...................... property of the system does not depend upon the mass of the system. (Intensive). ..................... is the reversible process, characterized by the fact that the system at each instant is close to equilibrium. (Quasi-static) The force per unit area exerted by the body on its surface is known as ............. (pressure) The ................. of a substance is the space occupied by it. (volume) A measurement of the relative degree of hotness of coldness of a body is known as ................ (temperature) The sum of the internal energy and the external work done by the gas is known as .................. (enthalpy) The part of the heat energy stored in the gas and used for raising its temperature is known as .................... of the gas. (internal energy) A centrifugal fan forms ................... system. (Open) State whether the zeroth law of thermodynamics defines.............. (temperature).

B. STATE TRUE OR FALSE

(True) Centrifugal pump is an example of an open thermodynamic system.1. 19. 1. (False) Specific volume is an extensive property. 10. 3. (False) Zeroth law of thermodynamics is the basis for pressure measurement. 17. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS. only energy transfer is there. 15. (True) Entropy of the universe remains constant. 7. 5. (True) Heat is not a property of the system. a defined region in space. a specified region of constant volume. 21. (False) In a reversible cycle. 9. (False) Specific heat is an extensive property. A thermodynamic system refers to a. . (True) Enthalpy is the total heat content of the system. 22. 23. neither mass nor energy transfer takes place across the boundary. a prescribed and identifiable quantity of matter. 6. (False) Internal energy of a substance depends upon its temperature. (True) Heat always flows from a body of lower temperature to a body of high temperature. c. (False) I an irreversible process there is a loss of heat. (False) Work is a path function. (True) In a closed thermodynamic system. (True) C. (False) Enthalpy is a point function. (True) Free expansion is a reversible process. there is only transfer of heat and work. 20. 2. 4. (False) Units of volumes is in litres. (False) A centrifugal pump forms a closed system. 8. b. (True) Heat is a path function. In an open system. 18. (True) In a closed system. 11. A system comprising a single phase is called an open system. only mass transfer is there even though there may be no energy transfer. the entropy of the system increases. mass and energy both cross boundary of the system. (True) Heat and work are path functions and exact differentials. 13. d. transfer of mass and /or energy takes place. 2. a. d. 12. (False) In a closed system. mass remains same b. 14. a specified mass in fluid flow c. (False) Zeroth law is related to temperature. 16.

. In an open system. measurement. None of these. point function. there is transfer of both mass and energy across the system boundaries. c. mass content of the system remains same.... Choose the open thermodynamic system. a. velocity b. Mass is not allowed to cross the boundary but energy does occur across the boundary. In exact c. 11. a. In differential heat and work would be described mathematically as a. Which of the following is not a property of the system? a. pressure c. Zeroth law of thermodynamics forms the basis of . 12. nor energy. Temperature c. pressure c. a. None of these 8. only mass c. point function 4. Heat b. temperature b. d.. Work is a. only energy d... a property d. b. Zeroth law of the thermodynamics helps in the measurement of a. exact d.. discontinuity b. neither mass.. transfer of mass and/or energy takes place. None of these. volume d. pressure d. In a closed thermodynamic system. a. pressure c. temperature d.. pressure c..... work b. 7.. 13. Internal energy of a substance depends upon a. b.3. a path function c. d. Zeroth law of thermodynamics forms the basis of measurement of the following. An isolated thermodynamic system exists when there is transfer of . c. . across the system boundaries. there is only mass transfer even though there may not be any energy transfer.. heat exchange. There is only energy transfer 10. a point function b. discontinuity b.. Volume 6. temperature d. 5. both mass and energy b. a..... temperature 9.. there is only transfer of mass but no heat energy is transferred ... a property d.

(c) 14. Mass c. exhaust stroke of an I. (a) 8. d. Intensive Property . (a) 12. 18. (d) 4. Which among the following is a specific property of the system? a. Density b. (b) 5.C. All of these 20. turbine d. Open system and Isolated System. Pressure d. For a system to be in the thermodynamic equilibrium. (c) 6.a. Thermal equilibrium b. Which among the following is an extensive property? a. (b) 13. Temperature d. steam generator b. Define thermodynamic system and explain the difference between: a. (b) 19. bomb calorimeter b. (d) 20. Energy 16. What do you mean by thermodynamics? 2. None of these. What do you mean by property and explain the difference between: a. Which of the properties given below is an intensive property? a. (d) 9. Length b. Mass d. mechanical equilibrium d. (a) 17. Pressure c. (c) 16. Temperature d. Potential energy C. chemical. Which among the following is not a property of the system? a. Chemical equilibrium c. 15. Choose the closed system: a. (c) 2. automobile storage battery c. Heat b. 19. (c) 3. (d) REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. (d) 10. engine. (b) 11. the system and surroundings are to be in a. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS: 1. b. None of these 14. mechanical and thermal equilibrium. Homogenous System and 3. Temperature c. steam nozzle c. (c) 15. Viscosity b. Density 17. None of these. Which of the properties given below is an extensive property? a. Pressure c. Temperature d. Temperature c. Pressure b. (a) 7. Closed system. (b) 18.

.. The relation between two specific heat of a gas is ...b... provided .. b. and 600 F into R (Ans.... c. 22... If the vacuum gauge connected to a condenser reads 70 cm of mercury. 4. inversely . Fahrenheit Scale (Ans...... the units of „P‟ are .. One gram mole of all gases occupy a volume of .... 4.... The gas laws apply to ..... 5. LAWS OF PERFECT GASES OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS A.. 5... Cp – Cv= R 5 N/m2 6. FILL IN THE BLANKS 1. 2. According to Boyle‟s law . Quasi static process......71 kj/kgK. gases only. as its pressure.... Thermodynamic equilibrium... What will be the absolute pressure? a.... the volume of a given mass of gas varies... A barometer reads 760 mm of mercury.. Write the value of absolute zero on: a... remaining constant. Problems for Practice 1. Find the change in internal temperature rise of the gas is 100 C.4 Litres... b. 1/273 pressure 7.. at NTP. Centigrade scale b... 3.. remains constant. In characteristic gas equation PV = mRT...... of its original volume at ) C for energy 1 c rise in temperature. A perfect gas expands by .... Distinguish between reversible and irreversible process with examples. Zeroth law of thermodynamics.... 520 R) 2........ Temperature. Find the enthalpy of the system if the specific heat at constant volume is 0. -273 C – 460 F) 3. 2 kg of gas is heated in a closed container from 50 C to 100 C. Extensive Property 4.. Define a...... If the pressure gauge connected to a compressor reads 15 bars... (Perfect) Gas constant . Convert 350 C into K... 308 K..

. 2. None of these.... Boyle‟s law states that... . at constant volume. State which of the equation give characteristic equation of a gas .... MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS: 1. the pressure of the gas varies directly with temperature. (True) 4... (True) In SI system... in Boyle‟s law. 2. pressure is constant... volume of a given gas is directly proportional to its temperature when pressure is constant.. the volume of the gas varies directly with temperature.. Area under temperature entropy gives: (c) a. (c) a. Universal gas constant (Ru) is the product of .. (False) 3... The value of Cp for gas is always more than its Cv. The gas constant R is equal to the difference of two specific heats. (True) 5..8. kJ/kg K 9.. Under constant temperature conditions the product of pressure and volume of a given mass of gas is always constant... the value of universal gas constant is equal to 83. kJ/kg mol K.314 kJ/kg mol K 10.... (False) 6... d. The value of universal gas constant is same for all gases..... (True) 7.. Gas law is not applicable to vapours. (PV =RT.. (False) 10.. By combining Boyle‟s law and Charles‟ law. Unit and value of universal gas constant (Ru) in SI System are . (True) 9.. c. Power D. (PV-mRT) B. PV r=0 or PV n = C). Work C... b. the volume of a given mass of a gas held at constant temperature is directly proportional to its pressure. The term NTP stands for Nominal.14 J/mol K.. we have . and . Gas laws are applicable to gases as well as vapours.********** (False) 11. PV= mRT. (False) 8... 8.. Heat b. (False) C. STATE TRUE OR FALSE 1. Temperature and Pressure. In Charles‟ law....) 11.. Gas constant has same value for all gases..... (molecular weight and characteristic gas constant... Unit of gas constant R is . at constant pressure.

pressure 7. True 6. 848 mkgf/kg mole/kg b. For all perfect gases.5 c. N/m2 2. kJ/kg mol K.4 Litres 4. 848 J/kg K 8. The ration of specific heats – is (a) __________________________ 10. 1/273. 1. 1.27 J/kg K c. Charles‟ Law 4. True 9. 8314 mkg/kg mole/K 7. kJ/kg K 6. Joule‟s Law C.2 Answer: A. False 10. This statement is referred to as: (d) a. True 2. Boyle‟s Law d. the change in volume is 1/273 of original volume at 0 C for every 1 C change in temperature. False 5. Gay Lussac‟s Law b. In the characteristic gas equation: PV= mRT. perfect 5. 6. the gas constant R for air has the value (b) a. The relation of the specific heats is (b) a. 427 J/kg K b. STATE TRUE OR FALSE 1. Cp=Cv =R 8. FILL IN THE BLANKS 1. 735 mkgf/kg mole/K d.4 d. False 3.314 kJ/kg mol K 10. inversely 9. False . 1. 1. False 7. True 4. Cp=Cv d. Cp=Cv C. molecular weight and characteristic gas constant.3. 29. None of these 9. 11. PV=mRT B. True 8. The value of universal gas constant is (c) a. temperature. 8. 287 J/kg K d. 427 mkgf/kg mole/K c. The ratio of specific heat – for air is: (b) a. Cp=Cv b. 5.3 b. PV/mT 22. while pressure remains constant.

Calculate the final pressure of the gas. (b) 4. (c) 7(b) 3. The volume of 5 kg of a gas at 300 Pa and 370 K is 7 m3. 5. False C. Problems for Practice 1.5 m3) 3. (d) 8. (c) 6. 3. R for nitrogen is 0. Boyle‟ s law b. (Ans. Charles‟ law c.297 Kj/kg K. If a gas having volume. (Ans. Explain a. Regnault‟s law.5 m3. 111. 4. A steel contaier of 2 m3 capacity stores nitrogen at a pressure of 50 bar and 300 C temperature. 131 4280 C) 4. temperature and pressure as 0. (c) 9. Avagodro‟s law d. Certain gas is compressed in a piston cylinder arrangement from 10 m3 and 5 bar to 5 m3 . Calculate the volume occupied by a given mass of air having temperature of 245 C if the same mass of air occupies 2 m3 at 23 C.12 kg. What will be the temperature of the gas after compression?. What will be the characteristic gas constant of the gas? 5. Explain the difference between gas constant and universal gas constant. 2. 10 bar). (c) 2. 55. (Ans. There is no change in temperature.6 kg/m3 . (a) 10. (Ans. How do we obtain characteristic gas equation after combining the Boyle‟s and Charles‟ law. (a) 5.11. Derive and expression for the relationship of two specific heats of a perfect gas and the characteristic gas constant. Calculate (a) mass of the gas (b) density of the gas. 25 C and 210 kPa respectively is compressed to 0. The pressure of the air remains constant. 3. (b) Review Questions 1. 2. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1.19 m3 at 750 kPa. Define perfect gas or ideals gas.

6. Change in internal energy is……….. 7. During a free expansion process. 9. isothermal and hyperbolic processes are………. Fill In The Blanks 1. The entropy of the universe tends to be minimum. internal energy of a gas………. enrtopy remains constant. STATE TRUE OR FALSE 1.during free expansion process. (False 10. (work) (constant temperature) A process in which no heat transfer takes place between the surroundings and the system but work transfer to place is known as…………. In isothermal process. 5. Work done during polytrophic process is……. 9. transfer of heat energy takes place. In adiabatic process. (Identical) 10. 2. Entropy remains constant during throttling process. 4. the entropy of the system increase. (True) (False) (True) (False) (False) (True) (True) (False) The entropy may be expressed as a function of pressure and temperature. An isochoric process can also be called a constant pressure process. Internal energy is a point function. Isentropic flow is ideal fluid flow. (Free) (entropy) (Zero) (Remains constant) For perfect gases. 3. 8. Ina reversible cycle. B.. 4. During an isentropic process…………is constant. 2. 5. (pressure) An adiabatic system can exchange energy in the form of………….. (False) . 3. 8. 7. (Adiabatic process) The work done in constant volume process is………….expansion. The polytypic index is unity for………process. 6.only.Thermodynamic Processes ON Gases Objective Questions A. Work done is maximum during Constant…………. Work done in free expansion process is zero.

(c) 4. (d) 2. The internal energy of a perfect gas does not change during: (A) Adiabatic process (C) Isothermal process (B) Isobaric process (D) Isochoric process. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. (a) .C. (B) Product of pressure and volume is constant. Which aspect is true in an isochoric process. The expression ******** gives the measure of work during. (c) 5. volume and temperature. (C) Force expansion takes place. (A) Absolute temperature only (C) Pressure and volume (B) Pressure only (D) Pressure. (A) Non flow reversible process (C) Open system and any process (B) steady flow reversible process (D) any system and any process. Work done during constant volume process is (A) Maximum (C)Positive (B) Zero (D) Negative (b) 3. (A) No transfer of mass and energy. The internal energy of an ideal gas is a function of. (D) Work output is zero.

Under what condition the change in the enthalpy of a system equals the heat supplied? (A) Constant temperature (C) Constant pressure (B) Constant Volume (D) none of these. When heat is supplied to air in a cylinder fitted with a frictionless piston held by a constant weight<the process is known as. (A) Isochoric (C) Isothermal (B) Isobaric (D) adiabatic. the value of**** for air is. (c) 9. (c) (A)************ (C)************ (B) **************** (D) *************** Answers__________________________ .75 (C) 1. the exponent **** is the ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to specific heat at constant volume. (A) 0. the work done is equal to. (d) 7.12 (D) 1. (B) 1. In adiabatic process. Which parameter remains Constant during a reversible isothermal process? (b) (A) Enthalpy (C) Internal energy (B) Entropy (D) Rate of heat exchange.4 10.6 (c) During adiabatic expansion process ***** constant. 8.6. the equation PV y = constant.

Remains constant 9. True 6. An isothermal expansion.True 4.True 9. The polytrophic expansion. Adiabatic process 7.A. change in internal energy and heat transferred during a constant pressure process. Explain: 5. Zero 3.(C) 5. Work 5.False 5. Constant temperature 4.(B) Review Questions 1.(A) 6. Derive an expression for work done. Briefly explain the various thermodynamic processes. Derive an expression for work done for the following process: a.False C. 3. b.(C) 3. Identical 8. **** 6. Free 10.False 10.(C) 9. 4. FILL IN THE BLANKS 1.(D) 2. .False 8. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1.(d) 7.True 3. (B) 8.(D) 4. Throttling process 7. Free expansion process. Isentropic process 6. An adiabatic expansion c. STATE TRUE OR FALSE 1. 2. Pressure 2. False 2.(C) 10. Entropy B. False 7.

calculate the work done during the expansion process if the pressure at the end of expansion is 1 bar absolute.05 bar absolute. Find the amount of heat added or rejected. Adiabatically. 247 kJ.13 m3 .3. 0) 3. 1.4 and the polytrophic index n as 1. (Ans. 5. It is compressed polytropically to a volume of 0.75 bar and 0. . Isothermally b. kg of a gas at a pressure of 9 bar is expanded adiabatically to a pressure of 2 bar.. 2.PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE 1. What will be the work done during the expansion and change in internal energy if the initial temperature of the gas is 350 C. If this expansion takes place polytropically with n = 1. Find the volume and temperature at the end of expansion. find the work done and absorbed or rejected by the air for each of the following methods of carrying out the process.5 kg of air is having pressure and volume of 6. absolute pressure of a certain gas is 8. 4. 6 kJ.005 kJ/kg K and C v = 0.2 kJ. 182. Find the final volume of the gas.5 har and the nitinal volume is 0. If this air is expanded to a volume of 1. -220 4 kJ). The cylinder of an engine has 0. 297 kJ. if this gas is expended according the PV 1-7 = constant until the ressure is 1. 234.045 m3 .02 m3 of air when the pressure and temperature are 10 bar and 25 C respectively.23 m3 and pressure is 2 bar. (Ans.5.714 kJ/kg K (Ans.013 m3 and pressure of 40 bar.2. a.23 m3 respectively. Take y for the gas as 1. 1. Take Cp = 1. 15 kJ work is done on the gas). The volume of a gas is 0.

(a). (a) 12. TRUE OR FALSE 1. True 6. False 7. Explain the following: a. FILL IN THE BLANSK 1. True 3. False. False 2. (b) 9. (a) 4. (a) 6. False 2. (c) 5. 5. Describe the construction and working of a reciprocating air compressor. 8. compress. (d) 10. Venturimeter TYPE-II. (b) 7. 10 or 12 TYPE-III. (d) 3.Components of Pneumatic System Answers TYPE-I. (d) 2. Single acting compressor b. 6. Prssure 3. 3. Why is an external power input needed to drive a compressor? What are the uses of compressed gases? Why are intercoolers used? What is the function of pressure switch in an air compressor? What is the advantage of a screw compressor over a reciprocating compressor? What is role of “capacity” of air tank in compressor selection? Explain the basic working principle of a compressor. Multi stage compressor . MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS: 1. List the basic components of of pneumatic system and explain them. (c) 8. 2. Filter. 4. 7. 4. (b) 11. regulator and lubricator 4. Double acting compressor c. Single stage compressor d. Review Question 1. True 5. Solid contaminants 5. Classify air compressors.

These three units together are called service unit or FRL unit. find an important place in the pneumatic system along with a third componnent i. iii. e. Hence to enable supply of clean. Centrifugal compressor e. 2. 1. Rotary compressor b. (b) show symbolic representation 8. Some of the common application are listed below: i. For lifting the material from one level to another level. . The system performance and accuracy depends highly on the pressure-stability of the air supply. it is also a fact that the pressure of the air seldom remains stable due to the possibility of line fluctuations. What are the application of air cylinders? Ans. Feeding of work pieces to machine. an airline lubricator. Diaphragm type compressor Explain the construction and working of the following: a. the air that is supplied to the system form the compressor is further contaminated by virtue of generation of contaminants.e. downstream. Ans. Write a note on necessity of filter regulator and lubricator (FRL) in pneumatic circuit. Air filter. For operating the cutters. Air cylinders are widely used in industry for various applications. Moreover. Lubricator. the air requires to be filtered. Roots blower compressor c. Vane blower compressor. ii. (a) shows pictorial view of the FRL unit and fig. Fig. Screw compressor d. pure and contamination free compressed air.9. An air line filter and a pressure regulator therefore. Pressure regulator and 3. Hence the three main elements of an FRL unit are. 7. The air that is sucked by the air compressor is not clean because of the presence of various types of contaminants in the atmosphere. The main function of the lubricator is to provide the air with a lubricating film of oil.

... bars.. .. axial compressor b... vane blower compressor d.. Type-II TRUE OR FALSE: 1. Air compressors are used to raise the pressure.. to the system. Pipeline diameter has no role in the functioning of pneumatic system..... In a single acting compressor the suction and compression of air takes place on both side of piston..... For guiding the tools in jigs etc. The volume of air delivered by the compressor is called free air delivery..... TYPE-III..... 3....... For purpose of clamping. 2. Air compressor is a machine used to ..... roots blower compressor b.. 7.. Air filters are used to prevent the entrance of .. 2... 6.. etc.. All lubricators follow the principle of orifice meter.... v.. An air compressor raises the pressure of air... the air and to raise its. Lubricators follow the principle of.. drafts.... Single stage air-cooled compressors for intermittant services are available for pressure upto ..... The positive displacement compressor is a... FRL unit means . both (a) and (b) . Objective Type Questions Type-I FILL IN THE BLANKS: 1.. . 5...... vi... In press work To operate simple tools like punches.. 5.. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS: 1... vii.iv..... 4...... Cylinder for pneumatic and hydraulic systems are similar in design and operation. 4. 3.