# Code No: R5221202

1

II B.Tech. I I Semester (R05) Supplementary Examinations, April/May 2009 COMPUTER GRAPHICS (Common to Information Technology and Computer Science & Systems Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. Explain the construction of the following devices with suitable sketches and their operating characterstics (a) Raster- refresh devices (b) Vector- refresh devices. [8+8]

2. (a) Write an algorithm for generating the intermediate points using Bresenham?s algorithm when two-end points are given as input. (b) Write an algorithm for polyline function which calls the above algorithm, given any number (n) of input points. A single point to be plotted when n=1. [8+8] 3. Show that the transformation matrix for a reﬂection about the line y = -x is equivalent to a reﬂection relative to the y-axis followed by a counter clockwise rotation of 900 . [16] 4. (a) Explain the procedure to determine whether a polygon edge intersects a window edge or not. (b) Justify that the Sutherland-Hodgeman algorithm is suitable for clipping concave polygons also. [8+8] 5. Determine the quadratic Bezier blending functions for three control points. Plot each function and label the maximum and minimum values. [16] 6. Prove that the multiplication of three-dimensional transformation matrices for each of the following sequence of operations is commutative. (a) Any two successive translations (b) Any two successive saling operations (c) Any two successive rotations about any one of the coordinate axes. 7. (a) Explain about the octree method for visible surface detection. (b) Write an algorithm for back-face detection using a perspective projection to view visible faces of a convex polyhedron. [8+8] 8. (a) Explain how the linear interpolation is implemented when the key-frame positions of an object are given. (b) Describe linear list notation of animation languages. [16] [16]

Code No: R5221202

2

II B.Tech. II Semester (R05) Supplementary Examinations, April/May 2009 COMPUTER GRAPHICS (Common to Information Technology and Computer Science & Systems Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) How much time is spent in scanning across each row of pixels during screen refresh on a raster system with a resolution of 1280 by 1024 and a refresh rate of 60 frames per second. Assume horizontal and vertical retrace times are negligible. (b) Discuss about the applications of computer graphics in the area of image processing. [10+6] 2. (a) Write the modiﬁed version of boundary-ﬁll algorithm for a 4-connected region to avoid excessive stacking by incorporating scan-line methods. (b) Devise a parallel method for implementing line-type function. [8+8] 3. Determine the form of the transformation matrix for a reﬂection about an arbitrary line deﬁned with equation y = m x+b. [16] 4. (a) What are the stages involved in Window-to-viewport coordinate transformation. Explain about each stage. (b) What is the procedure followed in point clipping with respect to a rectangular window. 5. (a) Analyse the eﬀect on a B-spline of having in sequence four collinear control points. (b) Find the conditions under which two joined Hermite curves have C 1 continuity.[8+8] 6. Let an axis of rotation L be speciﬁed by a direction vector V and a location point P. Find the transformation for a rotation of θ0 about L. [16] 7. (a) If the camera viewing direction is V and the surface normal of plane is N, how to determine whether the surface visible with respect to viewing direction or not. (b) Explain the depth-buﬀer method for elimination of hidden surfaces. 8. (a) List and explain about the steps of animation. (b) What are the various types of interpolation used in animation. [8+8] [16] [10+6]

Code No: R5221202

3

II B.Tech. II Semester (R05) Supplementary Examinations, April/May 2009 COMPUTER GRAPHICS (Common to Information Technology and Computer Science & Systems Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. List the operating characterstics of (a) Raster refresh systems (b) Vector refresh systems (c) Plasma panel (d) LCDs. [4×4=16]

2. (a) Show graphically that an ellipse has four-way symmetry by plotting four points on the ellipse: x = a cos θ + h, y = b sin θ + k where a =2, b=1, h=0 and k=0. (b) When 8-way symmetry of circle is used to obtain a full circle from pixel coordinates generated from ﬁrst octant, does overstrike occur? Where? [8+8] 3. Determine the form of the transformation matrix for a reﬂection about an arbitrary line deﬁned with equation y = m x+b. [16] 4. (a) What are the steps involved in Cohen-Sutherland algorithm for line clipping. (b) Distinguish between Cohen-Sutherland and Sutherland-Hodgeman algorithms. [8+8] 5. (a) What are the elements of Geometry matrix vector proposed by Hermite for curve generation. (b) What are the elements of Geometry vector proposed by Bazier for curve generation? [8+8] 6. Find a transformation Av which aligns a given vector V with the vector K along the positive z-axis. [16] 7. (a) Explain the depth-sorting algorithm for visible surface detection. (b) What are the special cases in determining the depth-order of surfaces? Explain the procedure to resolve them with suitable examples. [8+8] 8. What are the issues involved in design of a story board layout with accompanying key frames for an animation of a single polyhedron. [16]

Code No: R5221202

4

II B.Tech. II Semester (R05) Supplementary Examinations, April/May 2009 COMPUTER GRAPHICS (Common to Information Technology and Computer Science & Systems Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Consider a non interlaced raster monitor with a resolution of n by m (m scan lines and n pixels per scan line), a refresh rate of r frames per second, a horizontal retrace time of t horiz and vertical retrace time of tvert. What is the fraction of total refresh time per frame spent in retrace of the electron beam. (b) Explain the applications for large-screen displays. What graphical output devices support it? [12+4] 2. (a) List the algorithm steps for ellipse generation using mid-point ellipse generation. (b) Explain how the interior and exterior regions are identiﬁed using odd party rule. [8+8] 3. Prove that the multiplication matrices for each of the following sequence of operations is commutative [16] (a) Two successive rotations (b) Two successive translations (c) Two successive scalings. 4. (a) What are the basic transformation techniques used in Window-to-Viewport transformation? Derive the viewing transformation matrix. (b) What is the signiﬁcance of 4-bit region code is Cohen-Sutherland algorithm? [8+8] 5. If the equation for a plane surface is expressed in the form Ax+By+Cz+D=0. Explain the procedure to calculate the parameters A, B, C and D using Cramer’s rule if the three successive polygon vertices are given as input. [16] 6. Derive the transformation which aligns the vector V = I + J + K such that it aligns with vector K along Z-axis. [16] 7. (a) If the camera viewing direction is V and the surface normal of plane is N, how to determine whether the surface visible with respect to viewing direction or not. (b) Explain the depth-buﬀer method for elimination of hidden surfaces. [16] 8. What are the issues involved in design of a story board layout with accompanying key frames for an animation of a single polyhedron. [16]