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S.M. Waghmare1, P.T. Hanamgond2, A. Sreenivas3, R. S. Munnolli1 and P. S. Shinde4

Khanapur clay deposits are quite well known among Karnataka clay deposits that are used in ceramics, bricks and tiles industries. These clay deposits contain mainly kaolinite. The chemical analysis shows high alumina and silica with low iron and titania. These are in situ deposits formed by chemical weathering of Precambrian granites / gneisses under tropical climatic conditions.
INTRODUCTION Clays are the common product of weathering in all the tropical and subtropical regions of world including India. Large clay deposits occur at Belgaum especially in Khanapurtaluk, quite well known for bricks and ceramic industry. Studies on clay deposits of Belgaum and Khanapur have been reported earlier by Geological Survey of India (2006); Annaiya and Muniswamaiah, (1972); Ahmed and Divakara Rao, (1986); and Devraju, et al., (1994). Khanapur clay was studied for its mineralogy, geochemistry and grain size variation.

Figure 1.Location map of the study area along with the sampling locations.

Department of Civil Engg., KLSs VDRIT, Haliyal 581329. Departement of Geology, G.S.Sc. College, Tilakwadi, Belgaum 590 006. 3 Department of Studies in Geology, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003. 1 Department of Chemistry, KLSs VDRIT, Haliyal 581 329. 4 Department of Civil Engg., Jain College of Engineering, Belgaum 590 014.

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The present study area forms a part of Khanapur taluk and covers an area of about 1726, lying between latitude 74 25 to 74 35N and longitude 15 35 to 15 45E, covering the villages Desur, Nittur, Kuppatgiri, Toppinkatti, Idhalhond, Ganebail, Ramgurwadi, Nandihalli etc. Topographically area represents the rugged nature as the area forms a part of the Western Ghats. The area falls under tropical belt and receives significant rainfall of about 250cm per annum. 80% of the rainfall occurs between June to September. Summer is quite warm and the temperature varies between 8-400C, lowest being observed in winter and highest being observed summer. Such variable climate is quite favourable for the formation of clay deposits. GEOLOGY OF THE AREA The area under study entirely stand on granitic (mostly

granodiorite) basements belonging to Archeans located in the western part of western Dharwar craton. These granitic rocks are dated as 3.4 to 2.5 Ga. (Devraju, et al 2007; Gupta, et al 1988). These granites show coarse grained, moderately foliated with orthoclase as phenocrysts. The granitic rocks to the south grades into the tonalitic gneisses and migmatitic gneisses of Ramnagar (Devraju et al, 2007). Most of the clay deposits of the study area are located overlying granitic gneisses occurring due to extensive and deep weathering (Plate 1A). These clays are used for bricks and ceramic materials (Plate 1B, D & E). At places, pegmatite veins with graphic granite structures within the clay deposits (Plate 1C) and the altered bedrock are observed. The clay deposit here occurs as a blanket or cap deposit with varying thickness of about 0.5 to 3.0 m. The lithology of the study area is presented inTable 1.

Table 1.Lithology of the study area (After Devraju et al 2007) lithounits Soil cover/ lateritic capping Zone of concretion/ variegated shale Clay(lithomarge) Altered Bedrock Bedrock Description 0.5 to 3.0m thick. Mixed with corroded pebbles of quartz, ferroginous and pale to brown in colour. Less than 1m thick made up of ferruginous concretion of 1 to 4cm in diameter embedded in clay matrix. More than 10m thick, contains gritty clay and show preservation of rock structure in the lower portion. White to yellowish brown in colour. 2 3m thick. Grit, commonly covered with a thin layer of loose mineral matter made up of quartz, feldspar, clay. Granitic gneisses, mostly granodiorites. Temperature analysis is carried out using the Pc Bhati to understand the melting point of the clay deposits (Table 6). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Chemical weathering in the tropical climate is the important process for the formation of clays. The major elements identified by the chemical analysis are SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MgO, K2O and Na2O (Table 2). The chemical analysis shows that they are rich in silica (SiO2), Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and Iron Oxide (Fe2O3). This forms the major constituents of these clays. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2), Lime (CaO), Magnesia (MgO), Sodium oxide and potassium oxide (Na2O and K2O) are the minor constituents of these clay deposits. Table 2 shows that aluminum has higher concentration compared to iron which indicate that the clays are more suitable for the ceramic and refractory industries, as the presence of aluminum increases the melting temperature of clay and adds to the refractory. 14 June 2013

Method of study: 12 representative samples were collected from several villages around Khanapur taluk from the working mine pits (Figure 1). All the samples represent the clay horizon. Five samples were subjected to chemical analysis (Table 2). Further, all the samples were subjected to pipette analysis to determine the percentage of sand silt and clay within the clay deposit (Table 3). Plotting this data on the triangular diagram using USDA classification, the type of clay is determined. The sand fraction obtained by the pipette analysis, was subjected to mechanical analysis using sieve shaker. The results of grain size parameters using Folk and Ward (1957) have been presented in Table 4. The parameters like mean, sorting, skewness, and kurtosis are calculated. Further, the clay fraction obtained from the pipette analysis is subjected to the Infrared analysis to understand the mineralogical composition (Table 5). The interpretation of the IR peaks was done using using Vander Marel and Beutle spacer (1976). MEJ, Vol. 14, No. 11

Plate 1. Clay deposit (A), making up bricks (B) using the insitu clay; weathered pegmatite intrusion along with the clay deposit (C); variety of ceramic toys (D); and Ceramic pipes prepared from clays. MEJ, Vol. 14, No. 11 15 June 2013

Table 2: Chemical analysis results of the clay sample Mineral Alumina Silica Iron Oxide Titanium Dioxide Lime Magnesia Potassium and Sodium Loss on ignition Chemical composition Al2O3 SiO2 Fe2O3 TiO2 CaO MgO K2O and Na2O Balanced Soil cover 14.3 57.2 10.7 1.8 1.6 1.3 1.5 Sample 3 18.0 59.6 6.9 1.0 0.4 0.1 3.0 Sample 6 24.7 60.2 2.8 0.5 0.9 0.3 1.8 Sample 9 21.3 62.4 21.3 4.4 0.8 0.7 0.2

Pipette Analysis: The pipette analysis was performed following Folk (1974) and the percentage of sand, silt and clay for all the samples is presented in Table 3 and Figure 2. Table 3: Percentage of sand, silt and clay. Sample No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Sand% 56.32 59.56 70.54 77.64 82.72 49.44 86.02 27.50 32.80 27.90 38.56 31.28 Clay% 27.60 19.60 24.40 15.20 13.60 32.80 9.20 23.33 32.67 31.33 20.67 24.67 Silt% 16.08 20.84 5.06 7.16 3.68 17.76 4.78 49.17 34.53 40.77 40.77 44.05

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Figure 2. Triangular plot of sand-silt-clay percent for classifying Khanapur clays In the ceramic industries the clay and silt are considered together as clay. The data also shows that the clay and silt percentage is more than 50% which infers its being suitable as the raw material for brick and tile industries. From the pipette analysis data triangular diagram (figure 2) for sand, silt and clay has been plotted and is used for classification of the type of clay using the USDA (United State Department of Agriculture) Classification. This shows that the samples 1, 3 and 6 are of sandy clay loam type; samples 2, 4 and 5 are of sandy loam type; sample 7 falls under loamy sand; samples 9 and 10 are of clay loam type; and samples 8, 11 and 12 are of loam type. Sieve Analysis: The sand fraction obtained from the pipette analysis is subjected to sieve analysis to understand the grain size variation. The textural analysis shows that the average mean size varies between 1.23 to 1.9 and the average sorting is between 1.06 to 1.31. This indicates that the grains are medium in size and poorly sorted in nature. Majority of the samples show positively skewed nature. The kurtosis values show that the grains are very platykurtic to platykurtic.

Table 3: Grain Size Parameters of the sand fraction Sample Number 1 2 3 4 Mean 1.834 1.709 1.725 1.813 Sorting 1.276 1.261 1.223 1.231 Skewness 0.236 0.309 0.190 0.047 Kurtosis 0.722 0.650 0.653 0.584

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5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

1.670 1.229 1.338 1.814 1.330 1.699 1.894 1.572

1.059 1.104 1.126 1.307 1.161 1.207 1.287 1.151

-0.031 0.737 0.579 0.264 0.688 0.232 0.093 0.258

0.794 0.867 0.787 0.597 0.782 0.632 0.586 0.682

Mineralogy: The mineralogical study of the clays is carried out with the help of infrared spectroscopy. The obtained IR peaks (Figure 3) shows that the Kaolin and the Smectite are the major component in the clays,while the minerals

like Mica, Silica, Feldspar, Aluminous minerals (Gibbsite, Diaspore, Bohemite), Carbonate, Chlorite, Manganese are present as minor components.

Figure 3: Infrared Peaks of the clay samples of the study area. Table 5. Infrared spectroscopy peak values of the clay fraction of the study area. Mineral Infrared Spectroscopy Peaks (Wavelength in cm-1) 429 to 430, 471 to 472, 537 to 538, 693 to 694, 753 to 754, 798.8, 793.1, 913 to 914, 1030 to 1035, 1008.2, All 12 samples Sample Number

Kaolin 1118.9, 1032.3, 1007.9, 1031.5, 3620 to 3699 MEJ, Vol. 14, No. 11


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Smectite Mica Silica Interstratified Feldspar Aluminous minerals Carbonate Chlorite Manganese

467 to 470, 792, 914.6, 1030 to 1033, 1107 to 1109, 1012.2 534.5, 752.9, 912 to 913, 1033.0, 1012.2, 1030.4, 1000.9, 3663.0, 3620.8 694 to 695, 798.8. 914.0, 427.6, 536 to 538 641.5, 751.9 912 to 913 1110.9, 2921 to 2922,3651.8 752.9, 1045.9, 3440.2 536.3, 695 to 696, 1113.3

All 12 samples 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11 2, 4, 7, 8, 10, 11. 2, 4, 6, 7, 9 4, 6, 7 7, 8, 10, 11 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10 3, 5, 6 1, 3, 12

Temperature Analysis: Temperature resistance is the one of theimportant property of the ceramic minerals and thus of the clay, which determines the quality of the ceramic

product. Temperature analysis is carried out with the help of Pc Bhatti, the results of which are given in Table 6.

Table 6.Temperature analysis of the clays of the study area. Sample No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Temperature 1670C 1600C 1543C 1636C 1050C 1650C Sample Number 7 8 9 10 11 12 REFERENCES
1. Ahemad S.M and Divakar Rao, 1986.Physico chemical and mineralogical studies on some of the clay mineral deposits of Karnataka, India. Jour. Geol. Soc. India. V. 27(3), pp 298 302. Annaiya and Muniswamaiah, 1972. Fire-clay deposits in the Mining Lease Block (no. 467) of M/s Mysore Stoneware Pipes and Potteries (P) Ltd. in KadleguddaBhimasamudra area, Chitradurga District, TN104.M9 A27 no. 54. Devraju T.C., Ali Khoshroo and Ugarkar A.G., 1994. Mineralogy, geochemistry, and genesis of clay deposits in Belgaum, Dharwad and Chitradurga District, Karnataka. Jour. Geol. Soc. India. V.44, pp 157 - 165. Devaraju T. C., Alapieti T. T., Kaukonen R. J., Sudhakara T. L. and Anathamurthy K. S. 2007. Geochemistry of the PGE mineralized petrological units of the Hanumalapur segment of the Channagiri mafic-ultramafic complex,

Temperature 1633C 1050C 1060C 1642C 1530C 1622C

CONCLUSION The Khanapur clay deposits are studied to investigate the chemical, mineralogical, grain size and melting point of the clay deposits. Mineralogical study shows that the these clays contain high quantity of the Kaolin and smectite along with some of the minerals like Mica, Silica, Feldspar, Aluminous minerals, Carbonate, Chlorite, Manganese. These clays have high melting point which varies between 1600-1700C. The clays of these area are used extensively because of the higher content of alumina and less iron content which indicate these clays are very well suitable for ceramic industries and refractory industries. The study confirms the use of Khanapur clay for ceramic industries like bricks, Tiles, Ceramic Products like Fire bricks, Ceramic pipes, ceramic Moulds etc. Acknowledgement The authors are thankful to Shri.V.A.Joshi (MEAI LM), Ceramic Industries, Khanapur, for his help and guidance. MEJ, Vol. 14, No. 11 19




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WestrernDharwarCraton, South India, Jour. Geol. Soc. India. V.70, pp 535-556. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Doeglas D.J., 1946. Interpretation of the results of mechanical analysis, Jour. Sed. Petro V.16, pp 1940. Folk, R. L., 1974. Petrology of Sedimentary rocks. Pub: Hemphill Publishing Company, Austin Texas, 185p. Geological Survey of India, Geology and mineral resources of the states of India. Misc. Pub. No.30, 61p. Griffiths, J. C. 1951. Scientific method in analysis of sediments; McGraw Hill book co. Inc, New York, p508. Gupta, J.N., Pandey, B.K., Prasad, P.N., Yadav, G.S., Ramesh Kumar, K. and Rao, S.S., 1988. Rb-Sr geochemistry of some granitic rocks around Arbail.

The article entitled Accurate measurement in mine survey is key of successful blasting by A. K. Mishra is timely. This author has highlighted the role of survey in blasting technique which is noteworthy by every professional in mining. The coverage in the News from mining world is broad and deep. I am pleased to get the Mining Engineers Journal by 1st or 2nd day of every month. Please keep up the standard of the journal and also try to improve it with additional features. K. U. Rao, Hyderabad In the past, the mining was controlled by mining professionals and therefore it was in a better shape. In present times, mining is controlled by non-mining professionals, and mining is interfered by judiciary systems. Ironically, in current times, mining professionals get credit only for organizing seminars and discuss problems; mining professionals prepare proceedings and recommendations and furnish them to non-mining persons. With this background, we can guess the future of mining. Obviously, this trend has to change. The greatest debacle and hindrance in development in mining activity is initiated by public hearing methods, which are more political and non-technical. The mining professionals have to work collectively to propagate ideas, technologies and other factors beneficial to mining profession at local, State and national levels. We have to use advanced state-of-the-art technologies during exploration as well as mining, production and beneficiation of the ores. We have to promote and practice eco-friendly mining and implement suitable CSR activities. Above all, we have to adopt speedy and transparent approval processes for the grant of mineral concessions. Dr. S. K. Sarangi, President, MEAI. (Bhubaneswar)

10. Haydn H. Murray, 2007. Applied Clay Mineralogy Occurrences, Processing and Application of Kaolins, Bentonites, Palygorskite-Sepiolite, and Common Clays (Elsevier Publication), 188p. 11. Van der Marel H. W and Beutlespacher H, 1976. Atlas of Infrared spectroscopy of clay minerals and their admixtures, (Elsevier Science Ltd) 396 pp.

Modern mining technologies adopted by Indian mining companies are not highlighted in a way that such methods can be profitably followed by others as also for effective conservation of the valuable natural resources. These resources may vary as gold or base-metal ores or limestone in cement industry. Mining Engineers Journal invites papers / articles highlighting the mining practices for publication in this Journal. Papers / Articles with photographs / Tables / Maps / Diagrams in soft copies may be e-mailed to <meai1957@> or <>.

- Editor

Information on modern methods in metallurgy and ore beneficiation is not well communicated within the scientific community in current times. Flow of communication between the professionals in these fields should happen, in order that our natural resources are put to effective use. With this aim Mining Engineers Journal invites papers / articles from the practitioners of Ore Beneficiation and Metallurgy, for publication in this journal. Papers / Articles with photographs / Tables / Maps / Diagrams in soft copies may be e-mailed to <meai1957@> or <>.

- Editor
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