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Acceleration Lab: Investigating Motion on an Inclined Slope

Dominic Ebona
SPH-3UI Ms. Blais Amanda Isusi Ugalde and Winston Li

Performed: October 5, 2011 Due: October 14, 2011

Purpose, Materials and Procedure


The purpose, materials, and the procedure can be found on the attached lab sheet.

Observations
Table 1 Average velocity of the dynamics cart rolling down an inclined slope Displacement Time (mm [down]) (s) 868.5 1.75 868.5 1.78 868.5 1.63 Displacement of the dynamics cart from starting position Average Velocity (mm/s [down]) 496 488 533

Trial Number 1 2 3 Table 2

Time from Start Position from Start Time from Start (s) (mm [down]) (s) 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.1 2.5 1.3 0.2 13.0 1.4 0.3 30.5 1.5 0.4 55.0 1.6 0.5 86.0 1.7 0.6 122.9 1.8 0.7 166.4 1.9 0.8 215.9 2.0 0.9 271.1 2.1 1.0 333.6 2.2 1.1 399.6 Table 3 Velocity of the dynamics cart per 0.10 s interval Displacement per 0.10 s Interval (mm [down]) 0.0 2.5 10.5 17.5 24.5 31.0 36.9 43.5 49.5 55.2 62.5 66.0 Velocity (mm/s [down]) 0 25 105 175 245 310 369 435 495 552 625 660 Displacement per 0.10 s Interval (mm [down]) 73.0 77.9 83.2 88.4 93.0 98.5 100.0 102.0 104.0 102.0 101.0

Position from Start (mm [down]) 472.6 550.5 633.7 722.1 815.7 913.6 1013.6 1115.6 1219.6 1321.6 1422.6

Velocity (mm/s [down]) 730 779 832 884 930 985 1000 1020 1040 1020 1010

Fig 1

Acceleration of Dynamics Cart Rolling Down an Inclined Slope


1600 1400 1200

Position from Start (mm [down])

1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 Time from Start (s) 2 2.5

Fig 2

Acceleration of Dynamics Cart Rolling Down an Inclined Slope


1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 0.5 1 Time (s) 1.5 2 2.5

Velocity (mm/s [down])

Discussion
1. a) Calculate the average of the three trials for average velocity using the data from Table 1. Why did you perform 3 trials? (2 marks) [ [ ] ] [ ] [ ]

The average velocity, according to the trials, is 506 mm/s [down]. We performed three trials in this experiment for two reasons. For one, it was to ensure that we didnt make any mistakes. The more times you repeat an experiment, the easier it is to find outliers in the results. It minimizes the chances of error by replication. It also helps us find an average result in the experiment. Performing multiple trials helps us find the closest actual value by finding the average result. b) Using the position-time graph, draw and calculate the slope that will indicate the average velocity of the cart. (2 marks) [ [ ] ]

The average velocity, according to the position-time graph, is 646.64 mm/s [down]. c) Compare the average velocities determined in parts a) and b) above and account for any differences. (1 mark) Average velocity of trials: 506 mm/s [down] Average velocity from graph: 646.64 mm/s [down] Difference: 141 mm/s [down] 2. Describe the shape of the line in the position-time graph and the velocity-time graphs. Since both graphs represent the motion of the same cart, why is the shape of the lines different? (2 marks) The position-time graph has a smooth, gradual curve, which starts increasing slowly and increases greater each time. The velocity-time graph has a fairly straight line, increasing constantly as the time increases, until it reaches its maximum speed, where the line decreases constantly as time goes on. Both graphs represent the acceleration of the dynamics cart. However, the two graphs are measuring two different things.

The position-time graph, where the line was a smooth curve, measured its position relative to its starting point. Because of its acceleration due to gravity, its distance increased as each second passed, therefore creating a curve on the graph. The velocity-time graph, where the line was mostly straight, measured its velocity relative to its time. Because of acceleration due to gravity, it constantly accelerated at a certain amount, meaning that its velocity would have increased at a constant amount as well, giving the graph a fairly straight line. 3. a) Referring to the velocity-time graph, describe the motion of the cart during all parts of the trip. (1 mark) The cart starts from rest and constantly accelerates with a rate of 520.0 mm/s2 [down] for 2.0 s. Then, it decelerates at a constant rate of -150.0 mm/s2 [down] for 0.2 s. b) Using the velocity-time graph, calculate the carts rate of acceleration. (Indicate on your graph which points you are using for your calculation). (2 marks) [ [ ] ]

The rate of acceleration is 520.0 mm/s2 [down] for the first part of the trip. [ [ ] ] [ ]

For the second part of the trip, the rate of acceleration is -150.0 mm/s2 [down].

4. If the acceleration remained constant, how fast would the cart be travelling after 1.00 minutes? Express your answer in km/h. What conditions would need to exist for the cart to actually reach this velocity? (3 marks) ( ) ( )( )

The cart would be travelling at a speed of 112.3 km/h after 1.00 minutes, if the acceleration remained constant.

Many conditions need to exist in order for this velocity to be reached. The ramp or wooden board that the cart rolls on must be extended long enough for the cart to reach that speed in one minute. The slope and the angle of the board should also remain as similar to the original experiment, except on a greater scale. The ramp should be free of obstacles so that it does not affect the acceleration of the cart in any way. The cart itself must be able to stay on the board for the entire minute and not fall off. The force of gravity should also be the same, meaning that this must be done near where the lab was performed.