Zayid Ibn Thabit - M Lecker | Muhammad | Medina

Zayd B.

Thābit, "A Jew with Two Sidelocks": Judaism and Literacy in Pre-Islamic Medina (Yathrib) Author(s): Michael Lecker Source: Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 56, No. 4 (Oct., 1997), pp. 259-273 Published by: The University of Chicago Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/545994 Accessed: 24/04/2010 07:53
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1378/ 1959-1383/1964.TheJewish Foundation of Islam (New York. Gatje. Hasson for this reference.Bidaya. Zayd was educated by the Jews and might well have been brought up as a Jew. ed. 24-25. 28 July-1 August 1996). THABIT. Hebrew University. and ed.fulan. the typically Jewish sidelocks? 4 La-qad qara'tu l-Quradnwa-Zayd hidha ghulam dhu dhu'abatayni yalcabu bayna sibydni l-yahid fi l-maktab. [1400/1980]). GrunNeuwirth. Jerusalem I. 0022-2968/5604-0002$2. at pp. 103-4. we have evidence that Zayd in his early years learned the Arabic script. Mascld is said to have disparaginglyreferredto Zayd b. the personal rivalries with which the caliph cUthmanb. p. p. 20.ZAYD B. Torrey. 1933).4 * This paper was presented at the Seventh International Colloquium "From Jahiliyya to Islam" (Jerusalem. 1962).2He reportedly said: I read the Qur'an while this Zayd was still a boy with two locks of hair3playing among the Jewish children in the literacy (or Torah) school (maktab). 1 Cf. al-Suyuti.in particularHaraldMotzki. T Welch (London and Henley.e. and probably the Aramaic/Syriac script as well.e. Charles C. (I thankI. I wish to thank the participants." drifj der arabischen Philologie. MuhammadAbu l-Fadl Ibrahim(Cairo.Ubayy was the first who wrote Qur'anic verses dictated by the Prophet (huwa awwal man kataba l-wahy bayna yaday rasuli llah [s]). 341 (< Ibn Abi Khaythama). pp. reprint. "A JEW WITH TWO SIDELOCKS": JUDAISM AND LITERACY IN PRE-ISLAMICMEDINA (YATHRIB)* MICHAEL LECKER. vol. vol. Ibn Abi 1-Hadid. Dodge. even though we know nothing in regard to them". 2. Ibn Kathir. by A. All rights reserved. Zayd b. trans.. I submit that for an unknown length of time between the ages of six and eleven.) Cf. of whom the former is mentioned as the scribe of many of the Prophet's letters. Muslim Education in Medieval Times (Washington. II. While we cannot of course be certain that Ibn Mascid actually made this insulting comment.Beirut.." 259 . p. Reportedly. 4 (1997)] ? 1997 by The University of Chicago. and CAliMuhammad al-awa'il. 31: "Schools of some sort must have been ancient institutions in the Hijaz. p. more precisely. INTRODUCTION b. Ibrahimal-CAdawi CUmar (Cairo. 1407/1987). from a member of a Jewish group called the Banu Masika which lived in the lower part or safila of Medina. Thabit as CABDALLAH a former Jewish boy with two sidelocks. Gatje. 1: "At the time of the Prophet Muhammadno organized system of education existed in Arabia. ed. in H.. DISPARAGING COMMENTS ABOUT ZAYD B. 3 I. between his father's death in the Battle of Bucath and the Hijra. Literaturwissenschaft (Wiesbaden. The Qur'dn and Its Exegesis. CAffan three over this matter among Companions of the Prophet Muhammadwho were among scholars of their time. THABIT'S ASSOCIATION WITH THE JEWS The backdropof this discussion is the preparationof the official edition of the Qur'an is credited.00.Sharh nahj al-balagha. Thabit'sselection by the caliph for the the most prominent task of preparingthis edition1 embitteredtwo older competitors. Mascid. 96-135. ed. "Koran. 1976). i..Al-Wasadilila macrifat [JNES 56 no. A. pp. vol. for their helpful comments. 129. 26. 2d ed. p. 5. 2 Ubayy is even said to have been the first [Muslim] who wrote at the end of a letter the formula wakatabafulan b. Kacb and CAbdallah b. Ubayy b. B. 1987).

271-76.v. Sprenger. 11 The reference was brought to my attention by M. 3. 8 J.) A similar utteranceis ascribed to Ibn Masc'd. s. my Muslims. he had been Jewish:"I . 1995). About him. see J. which are mere variations on the theme "Ibn Masiid's (unbecoming) reaction to cUthman'sselection of Zayd. 8. 2. 14-17. Tabarani. in which Zayd is not mentioned even once. Thabit was still a Jew with two locks of hair"(dhu'abatani) [i. s. 146. gave him precedence over the latter. n. 53 below) was critical of Ibn MasCid's reaction (Masahif p.v. pp. pp. and Shalabi (Cairo. see Istfab. ed.. On Ibn Mas'ifd. 2d ed. (Berlin. 20 [with the correct word order]).7Ubayy in fact argued that his longer acquaintance with the Qur'anic text. of which Zayd is said to have written more than any other Companion. p.Besides Qur'anic verses. a representativeof the official Umayyad point of view who counted among his teachers at least two of Zayd's offspring. 1348/ 1930). Hanbal. Nagel. 873b] that al-Zubayrb. p.in fact. Thdbitkatiba 1-wahy. p. that there are no precise indications as to when the Islamic kuttab was first established. p. Das Leben und die Lehre des Mohammad.. Al-Zuhri. ed. 1. "Land Property and Jihad. 12 Qila li-CAbdillah: aId taqra'u CaGlqird'ati Zayd? Qala: ma li wa-li-Zayd wa-li-qiraiati Zayd? la-qad akhadhtu min fi rasuli llahi [s] sab'ina sira wa-inna Zaydb. the former was of the Hudayla. 2d ed. vol. he was of the Asad b. 1995). Mas'id]: "Would you not read [the Qur'an] according to the reading of Zayd?" He said: "What business do I have with Zayd and the reading of Zayd? I took from the mouth of the Messenger of God seventy suras. does not inspire much trust in the statement concerning the letters." One of these versions is of particularimportancefor us here:10 Ibn Mascid claimed that his own qiradaor readof the was to that of Qur'an ing superior Zayd. 7 See p. 68. J. writes that "kuttdbhas also been known to designate Jewish heder-type schools in Arabic speaking countries. 5. p. See also MasCOdi. 5. 9.Kablr. 123-24..8(As we shall see.. al-Jahshiyari. Fadadil al-sahdba. p. El. 9 A. p. a son and a grandson (see p. 17-18. 4. See a specific case of the formercategory in Kabir. 6 Ibid. 108. 271-72. 1401/1980). Ibn Shabba. pp. L: "Ibn Masfid verbarg seine Eifersucht gegen Zayd nicht. Kister to whom I am also indebtedfor comments on a draft of this study. Ghanm.12 5 Mizzi. Of course. 262.9 It exists in several versions (with isnads going back to Ibn MasCud's companions). CAbd al-'Uzzf). vol. 132-33.1. p. at pp. 1869). 17. Two Muqaddimas. Ibn Mascfid (Vadet erroneously says [p.-C. 1.. vol. 2d ed. sidelocks]. see Masahif. Kuttab. 134. 8. 19. M." 10 Some of the versions are quoted.)5and Zayd belonged to different subgroups of the Malik b. Thabitla-yahudilahu dhuadbatani. Muhammad CAbbas(Mecca. 150 . however. 1403/ 1983). al-Najjar (a subdivision of the Khazraj).e.p." in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 34 (1991): 270-311. El.H. See also Ahmad b. However. p. 3. n. p." adding. n. Wasiyy Allah b..e. he reportedly wrote many of the Prophet's letters. Zayd is said to have written for the Prophet both Qur'anic verses (al-wahy) and letters to the kings. al-Saqqa. The sympathy of the author of Masahif was. however. vol.. Ubayy himself graduated-a decade or more before Zayd-from the same school. 567b. teasingly] to 'Abdallah [b. al-'Awwam belonged to the Zuhrasubdivision of Quraysh. p..6while the latter was of the CAbd CAwfb. going back to a time when Zayd was still playing with Jewish boys. Tanblh. he [Zayd] was only appointed [to preparethe edition of the Qur'an] because he was the Messenger of God's scribe". doch wuBte er nichts Erhebliches gegen seinen Text vorzubringen. 1. p. 391: wa-ahlu l-Madina yusammuna Zayd b.Jews and Pagans: Studies on Early Islamic Medina (Leiden. al-Nasa'i. al-Abyari.260 JOURNAL OF NEAR EASTERN STUDIES Ubayy (who probably died in the early thirties of the first century A. 258-91). Medinensische Einschibe in mekkanischenSuren (Gottingen. 12.Al-Wuzard'wal-kuttdb. Ubayy was also alluding to Zayd's study at the Jewish maktab(or kuttab). It was said [i. vol. a perusal of the sections in Ibn Sacd dealing with the Prophet'sletters and the tribal delegations which came to him (vol. for example. adding that before Zayd embracedIslam. Landau. in Masdhif pp. 1008. 127. when Zayd b. T. see also Kister. Cf. Vadet. Zayd] was not. vol. with Ibn Mas'id who "was a Badri while the other one [i.e. 1. vol.not just to his playing there. see p. 29 below. namely. But there can be little doubt that the Islamic kuttab was the continuation of its Jewish predecessor. 58 below. Sunan (Cairo. 283: yaktubuila 1-muluk wa-yujlbu bi-hadrati l-nabiyyi (s).pp.

ed. 3.) See also TMD. p. Arazi for this refer..sura wa-inna Zayd b. ed. I now realize that "seventy" is probably the 65 [in Hebrew]. Thabit. vol. 411. 1385/1965). "'Do Not Assimilate Yourselves . 5 (md li rather benign version of Ibn Mascid's saying:. 1406/1986).Al-Mu'taTanahi (Cairo. p.. CAnbasa?). 2. 154 (ma land wa-lial-wahy wa-jdmic al-Qur'dn (Damascus. wa-inna Zaydan la-dhu dhuadbatayni yalcabu bi-l"What have I to do with you. Thabit ghuldm lahu dhukuntughuldman li dhudcbatdni. Thabit dhi dhuadbaTahir Ahmad al-Zawi and Mahmud Muhammad al. 13 For the dhu'dbatdni of young Labid b. Mukht.vol. Zimmer. two locks of hair usually mark the young age of their owner. however. vol. p. n.. p.dafiratdni yursiluhumd min ward'i ud. vol. 30. adding: wa-inna Zaydan la-ghuldmfi 1-kuttdb. 8. See also Judges 11:12: mah li va-lakh. 39 (CAbdallah al-Hamid b. al-Din.. see Ibn al-AthirMajd Rahmanb.15 I could not find this version of Ibn Mascid's utterance outside of Ibn Shabba's Ta'rikh al-Madina al-munawwara. Zaydan dhu dhu'abatayni/wa-inna Zaydan lahu dhu14 Lahu . 2. Ibn Mas'cid says: I read from the mouth of the Messenger of God seventy siras.'4 In the Ansari environment to which Zayd belonged.18 Also attested to is a combination of kuttab and one dhu'aba (i. Yahya al-Yamani [Hyderabad. 1969). 228 (instead of Hamza b. p. 1.: Ld qaddimas." Madina (see below).1381/1962]. Tabarani. p. phosis of Jewish Customs (Jerusalem.. 355.fa-qala: la-qad akhadhtuminfl rasuli lldhi (s) bid'an ence. Thabit still had two dhu'abas and was playing in Medina. 71: wa-minhu lif wa-l-mukhtalif. CAbdallah b. at p. read.. Ibn Mas'ud speaks of seventy-three in JerusalemStudies in Arabic and Islam suras. 11. Mascid (Cairo.. vol. vol. Sharh al-qasdaid al-sabc al-tiwdl vol. Thabit lahu dhuadbatdnifl cus.. La-qad qara'tu minfi rasuli llah (s) sabcina b. 2. p. Anas b. 63p. 307 (md land On p.1. Zayd b. 339: Ibn Sacd. 1996). Bakkar). Thabit avoids this version. 127. 14.vol. p. on p.. p. -8: khataband CAbdullihb.e. For example. 1986). wa-lakum). 1006. (I thank A. p. 2.Mukht. THABIT. See also 'dbataniyalcabu maca l-ghilmdn. 506. 1. [b. ed. 4. Society or more than seventy. p. CAbd alalso called qarnani or qussatani. E. or over the (Ibn Mas'ud learnedfrom the Prophetmore thanninety. n. p. Mustadrak. p. Sukayna al-Shihabi (Damas. 1. "A JEW WITH TWO SIDELOCKS" 261 The proximity of yahidi to dhuDabatani shows that in this case Ibn Mas'id is supposed to have referredto the typically Jewish sidelocks called in Hebrew pe'ot (sing. l-kuttab. vol.TMD. 672: wa-inna wa-laka qarndni aw qussatdni.16 Some versions of Ibn Masiid's saying preserve the dual form dhu'abatdni. . Tahdhib. Malik. Dawudi quotes from Ibn Shabba's book a wa-laka ya CUbdda).13Even two locks tucked behind one's ears are not necessarily proof of one's Jewishness: Ibn Mas'ud himself is said to have had two locks of hair (dafiratini) behind his ears. MasC'd-cAbd h(u)nayhi.'abatdni yalcabu maca l-sibyan. Malik]: wa-anta yawma'idhin ghulam al-Qadir (Beirut.Al-lkmdl. p. al-Daraqutni. katib Mas'ud cf. vol. this hairstyle was considered an emulation of a Jewish custom: In the very early period after the death of the Prophet some young boys kept their side curls uncut. Tabari.ZAYD B. 379. al-Zubayr]: p. TMD. ed. 17. 3. pe'a). vol. Tashabbahu'. vol. see Ibn al-Anbari. 6: qdla CUrwa wa-sabcina sura wa-Zayd b. Al-Nihaya fi gharib al-hadith wa-l-athar. and Its Customs: Studies in the History and Metamorinstead of Ibn Sacd. 2. Regarding the phrase used by Ibn Dawudi. 9. when Zayd b. 4.vol. 150. TMD. Muwaffaq b. 6 Safwan CAdnan correct reading). 46. vol. See also Ahmad. p.Even a modern monograph about Zayd b. 1. 18 . Malik was enraged when he saw a young boy with such curls and ordered him to shave them immediately because this was the fashion of the Jews.tayni yalcabu maca l-sibydn. 70. p.Muslim scholarsmust have consideredit ratherdistasteful. CAbd hadithAnas [b. 17 Ibn Shabba. Cf. 12 (1989): 321-53. a lock of hair hanging down loosely from the middle of the head to the back. 3. Mukht. Admittedly." . 191): .17 One version associates dhu'dbatani or two locks of hair with kuttab (i.e..Cf. siras.Kablr. read: Khamr/ The two locks of hair typical of young boys were Khumayrb.. 324. 19 below. pp. Rabi'a. although its author no doubt saw it in Ibn Shabba'sbook. 3. 11. wa-Zayd b. Malik. 1411/1990). 1. the Jewish literacy/Torah school).vol. In Two Mu15 Kister. Ibn Makula.

vol. 1006. 202-3 (Anas was then aqra'a Caldqiraiatihi fl sulb rajul kifir. 9. of Kinda. al-Salam Hiarun(Cairo. 1. 190.e. Kacb al-Ahbar: sendsyou his regards andinformsyou that A mancameto CAbdallah andsaid:"Kacb [b. A. Wensinck.H. 3d ed. Jdmic baydn al1981). In the version of Cilm wa-fadlihi. When Ibn Mas'id died in 32/652-53 or In A.24 was forty-three. andwhenthe Messenger of Godcameto Medina.. This is based on the claim that at the quoted above: la-qad aslamtu wa-innahu la-fi sulb ra. 441 (other versions of this saying quoted by al-Zuhrivia a grandsonof Ibn mention A. p. about Bishr b. vol. According to some. Kabir. pp. at p.. 2. 109.p. 448. p. those who presented Zayd to the Prophet] said: "[This is] 19 Qara'tu min fi rasuli llahi (s) sabcina sura wa. 1. Ibn Masc'd's prohibition to query Siffin. 3. CAbd the Ahl al-Kitdb. 389.). Nubalda. he was then fifteen years old. Ibn Masciid'sabusive remarkregardingZayd's former faith is reminiscent of a comment attributedto him regardingthe famous Jewish convert. 1986). vol. see Tabahere "Jewish"? CAllb. I was brought Messenger to the Messenger of God. 1. 1. Zaid b.E. Ahmad. Abu Nucaym alIsfahani. 32. vol.Society 115 (1995): 635-50. Malik (al1387/1967). ..). rived at Medina.1. wa-inna lladhi yas'aluna an al-sahdba. vol. p. 27 Dhahabi. 3. 4) his participationwas conjul kafir. Ibn CAbdal-Barr. Cf. 2.Kablr.. Zayd died in 45/665-66 aged fifty-six. 51 and 55).H. s.H. Zayd. For instance: "I read . Tabarani." in The Journal of the American Oriental Thabit. 135. 31.H. 520. reprint.Battle of the Ditch (A. Muzfhim. He [IbnMas'iud] brought"' was still a Jew. 48 and calculate his age Masc'd's brother(CUbaydallah Mas'ud) gives Ibn Mascid far less credit than the one then as fifty-nine. Zayd (who is not explicitly mentioned) was at that time in the loins of an unbeliever. . and they [i.. cf. MuC'wiya al-Bakka'i in Usd al-ghaba. when Zayd was still a boy" (wa-Zaydsabi). who was ten when the Prophetar21 La-qad qara'tu Caldrasuli llah (s) sabcina sura. the former Jew. CAbdallah b. Thabit Dhahabi. p. 7.. 9.25 According to Waqidi. 1006. 139. 414. 1. al-AshCathb. 1. Thabitlahu dhuaibafi l-kuttib. Hilyat al-awliyda (Cairo. 20 Ibn Shabba. Waqidi. 126. Abu l-Ashbal al-Zuhayri (althis report found in Ahmad. p. 33/653-54. Ibn Mascid merely refers to the fact that Zayd was still a young boy when he himself was already an authority on the Qur'an. p. Waqcat 1321/1903-1330/1912)."23 At this point some furtherbiographical details are in place. -10. Mizzi. 5. 4. cUtbab. vol. For the use of wa-lahu dhu'aba in the wa-inna Zayd b. 1401/ p. 36).262 JOURNAL OF NEAR EASTERN STUDIES forehead. 10. -7. 88. 1. nine. fi rasuli lldhi (s)? 1969]. 24 TMD. 73. 125. p. Nubald3. p. ibid. vol. 1. etc. vol. 3. vol. vol. p. Cf. Abi Talib is said to have called rani. n. vol. wa-and adacu ma akhadhtumin wa-l-acsar. 1. 2. 28. see my article "Judaism among Kinda and the Ridda vol. he was sixty-three.e. 22 La-qad qara'tu minfi rasili llah (s) sabc'na sura Zayd b.21or was still a nonbeliever-he did not yet believe in God. 804. 427.22 Incidentally.I was eleven. ed.19 In some versions.. 641. 5.20According to other versions. pp. Ma'rifat al-qurrad al-kibdr Cala l-tabaqdt la-sabi mina l-sibydn. alvol. 1st ed. MuhammadSayyid Jad al-Haqq[Cairo. Nasr b. others date his death to A. El. It is noteworthy that the version 26 Dhahabi. Masciid] not that 'Reckon those who this versewas not revealedconcerning rejoicein whatthey have you: said: "Inform him that it was revealedwhen he . p.d. n.. vol. 1414/1994). the Dammam. ed. ed. 135-39.1.. See Tabari." see the entry bihi. 1. Ibn Shabba. Macrifat fa-qala li la-qad ahsanta. 39. p. Macrifat al-sahaba. The age difference between Ibn Mas'id and Zayd was roughly twenty years.1. see TwoMuqaddimas. either ten. 1. 197. vol.Beirut. p. It was five years before the Hijra of the of God. vol. kdfir. he was over sixty years old. also ghulam lahu dhu'aba. p. i. 800. p. p. vol. J. Thabit la-kdfir bi-'llah md dmana sense of "he was then a young boy. But cf. 20. ed. mundfiqb. Yet b. vol.26 In an alleged autobiographical Zayd lost his father in the Battle of Bucath (617 C. Does kdfirmean firmed. or eight years old). cus. 9. pp. who was eleven years old when the Prophet came to Medina.4 (where the context of Ibn Masc'd's utterance is missing): . p. 12. Isaba. . Qays. 23 Akhbiruhuannaha nazalat wa-huwa yahudi.27 report Zayd says: The Battle of Buc'th took place when I was six years old. Cf. Jami' al-baydn fl tafsir al-Quradn (Bulaq. Sukayna al-Shihabi (Damaswords wa-Zayd sabi are missing. p. wa-Zayd b.v. vol.. 25 Zayd was one year older than Anas b. [Qur'an3:188]. 2. 2.

p. Kharija (d. Isaba. 4.CAmr Zayd's stepfather.34 the mastery of whichZayd was considered an authorityon calendrical calculations. TMD.. 1967).e. 448 (CUmara jokingly stole Zayd's weapons at the Battle of the Ditch). 1992). 8. p. Zaid b. al-BirTni. 165 (during the Tabuik expedition. vol. al-Najjar was taken from CUmara and given to Zayd). the banner of the Malik b.. 8. 214. 2.Studies in Arabic Literary Papyri. Chronology. Habib. Incidentally. pp. Ibn Sacd. vol. Wensinck. they came to Zayd b. pp. n. A. 1. 5. vol.37 BY A JEW IN PRE-ISLAMIC MEDINA III. 257-58. Camilo Alvarez de Morales and Fernando Gir6n Irueste (Madrid. s. El.Istibsar.he was called 'the rabbi of the community'. Waqidi. p. pp. cf. 38 Not their language.35 as the following report implies-he received from a Jewish teacher: Zayd's son. ARABICTUTORING Further evidence about Zayd's education takes us beyond the Jewish maktab/kuttab mentioned above.. 29 Ibn Qudama. pp. Hazm. 69 f. 2." in Oriens 35 (1996): 57-64. vol. 96. wa-kana yadiru fi l-sana. vol. 2. 35 Cf. p. Das Leben und die Lehre des Mohammad. vol. 265.31 b. 37 Tabarani. 5. Mukht. p."I was not yet permitted [to fight]in the Battlesof BadrandUhudbut was allowed[to fight]in the Battleof the Ditch. 419-20. see Ibn Sacd. in the Islamic period).29 husband.one of Zayd's sons married a daughter of CAmr b. p.36 reported that 'Ashura' was celebrated at different times during the year ("it went aroundthe year. 8. Hazm who belonged to the same subgroup of the Malik b. 397-99. TMD (Dar al-Fikr). as correctly observed by A. 2d ed. 2. Hazm. 30 On whom see El. s. vol. Bilal used to make the call to prayer from the roof of her house until the Prophet [b. Ghanm. p.. Mukhtasarfi l-tibb.256: 'No Compulsion is There in Religion'. wrote: "His quickness of understanding. the rabbi of this nation (habr hadhihi l-umma) died.. Kabir. his sagacity and his knowledge are praised by his contemporaries. 313. "A JEW WITH TWO SIDELOCKS" 263 a boy of the Khazraj who readsixteensuras. 3. Abu Hurayrareportedly remarked:"Today. xxxix. 3. pp. His brother. namely.. 579.33a field of magic also practiced by the Jews of Medina.v. 34 CAbd al-Malik b. El. Thabit and enquired of him (about it). 3.32The stepfatherhimself was considered an CAmr." i. about its time). E. 1923). perhaps God will make Ibn CAbbashis successor". Cf. See also Waqidi. 8. N. . when the Nadir were expelled from Medina. Kharija. 138: . He is said to have learned "the script of the Jews"38 (or Aramaic/Syriac 28 Muntazam.. owned a court (ddr) in Damascus. 11-12. fa-kana l-nds ya'tuna fulanan alyahudiyya fa-yas'alunahu. 36 Mizzi. A. a Medinan who transmitted hadith from his father and was described as kathir alhadith. 7. Thabit. Ibn Sacd. 5. p. 31 Ibn Sacd. 420: kana bayti atwala bayt hawla l-masjid fa-kdna Bildl yu'adhdhinu fawqahu min awwali md adhdhana ild an band rasulu llah masjidahu fa-kdna yu'adhdhinu bacdu 'ala zahri 1masjid wa-qad ruficalahu shay'fawqa zahrihi. 15.vol. 73. 1st ed. Moberg. s.28 Zayd's widowed mother.v. p. CUmara was raised by the Jewish Nadir as a Jew. THABIT. The people used to come to so-and-so the Jew and ask him (i.v. 15. Masahif. 8. p.marriedCUmara b.vol. vol. TMD (Dar al-Fikr). vol. Habib's Mukhtasarfi Note h propos CAbd l-tibb. p. Hazm. the Prophet settled in the CAwfb..e. 8-13. expert on amulets."But it would seem that the term habr was used here with reference to Zayd's knowledge of Jewish matters.. 391. 2d ed. fa-lammd mdta l-yahudi ataw Zayd b. vol. When the Jew died. vol. 1. Hazm al-Ansari and Qur'an. the CAbd midst of the people of the Najjar. al-Nawar bint Malik of the CAdib. pp. al-Najjar. merits some attention. ed.ed. J. Sprenger. 33 Isdba. went with them. vol. Rabah]30 constructed his mosque. Zayd's mother boasted that her house (bayt) was the tallest among those surroundingthe Prophet's mosque (or his "place of prayer"). 2d ed. "CAmr b. 1. then a boy of eleven. pp. Nasil. 144. p. 1003. my article "The Bewitching of the ProphetMuhammadby the Jews: A al-Malik b. b.ZAYD B. vol. Thabit fa-sa'aluhu. 99/717 or 100/718). 362. Abbott." in al-Qantara 13 (1992): 561-69. Zayd's statement that he was the Prophet'sneighbor emphasizes that he was always at hand: kuntu jdra rasuli lldh (s) fa-kana idhd nazala l-wahy arsala ilayya fakatabtu l-wahy. al-Najjar as her deceased As is well known. vol. p. When Zayd died. Qur'dnic Commentary and Tradition(Chicago. Sachau (Leipzig. 32 See my article.

(I thank E. 6. de Goeje (Leiden. 1968). 1. namely. 159. 2: . the name Matika in the phrase masjid Bant Matika is probablya corruption of Masika ("the mosque located in the former territory of the Banu Mgsika"). p. p. a certain woman (al-Shacthad)mentioned in verses by Hassan b. the books of the Jews. 9060).. 1345/1927-1394/1974). Ibn al-Athir.hum]fi khamsaCashrata layla hatta kana yaclamu ma harrafi wa-baddalu (the choice of words is clearly polemical.. -5 (. 1892). (Cairo. al-Samhudi. s.. fi l-qarya."in Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 6 (1985): 29-62. Taratib idariyya. CArafat (London. it is less likely that there were in this village two institutions of this kind. Kharija. El. The Islamizationof the term is reflected in Lisan al-'arab (Beirut. Muhammad b.264 JOURNAL OF NEAR EASTERN STUDIES or Hebrew. Hamad al-Jasir (Riyad. Yasir. al-aghani. Isaba. Sallam b. is p. 4 Cf." in Quaderni di studi arabi 11 (1993): 149-62. 62. 727. vol. Thabit yatacallamu fi madaris [var. p. 402. It is perhaps possible to identify the man who was Zayd's teacher (or "headmaster"). 3d ed. s. at p. has at this point: madaris basila.d. Finhas b. W. vol. Since there is evidence that al-Quff was the village of the Qaynuqac. 41 See my article "Muhammadat Medina: A Geographical Approach.v. 1. as well as one who reads. Tardtib iddriyya: fa-taCallama k. who provides details about the location of the village's remains. 2d ed. see E. one assumes that the midras of the Masika was identical to the bayt al-midras of the Qaynuqacmentioned elsewhere. vol. ed. p. see al-Thalabi. 17.vol. 176. E." pp. Ibn Sacd < Waqidi. or read repeatedly. ..Ibn Rusta. 1st ed. perhaps more plausibly.. Whereas the Qaynuqacmay well have been the dominant component in the population of al-Quff. Khulasat al-wafd biakhbar dar al-mustafa (Medina. 1971). Xerographic edition of the Zahiriyya MS (Amman. ed. M. 1. Tahrif). 821/1418). n. 160-61. 7. Diwdn. al-Yaman and 'Ammar b. 305. CAzura3. see my article "Hudhayfab. ed.t. Hassan b.. at p. 158. 43 Wa-kdna Abtu l-Shacthad qad ra'asa l-yahida llati tall bayta l-dirasa li-l-tawrat wa-kdnadhd qadrfihim. Thabit was the daughter of CAmr. The information about CAmr valid even if the woman in question was. wa-kana lahumu l-utumani lladhanifi l-Quff.. 169-70. vol.. 204. Her father was the head of the Jews who were in charge of the House of Torah Study and was a man of stature among them. 656. the midras of the Jews is their house in which the Book of the Law revealed to Moses is repeatedly read. 40 According to the Arab lexicographers. F Buhl. has: midras Masika] faCallamahu kitabahum [sic. p. fol. 1401/1981). both were independent groups. p. Kdmil.39But masila is a corruption of Masika: Zayd received his instruction at the midras of a Jewish clan called Masika. W. 19.43 A crucial report by Waqidi about literacy in pre-Islamic Medina lists Zayd along with other Arabs who were literate before Islam (and obviously learned to read at different periods). see below) in madaris (variant: midras) masila. vol. p. It is quoted in the Subh al-aCsha of al-Qalqashandi (d. vol. 164.). or their synagogue. al-Kashfwa-l-bayan (MS Br. 1. as some argued. 1392/1972). 39. which was completed in 814/1412:44 39 TMD. p. 44 C. 1. vol. Jewish Converts to Islam. or their house in which the Book of God is read. quoting this report from Ibn 'Asakir.v. 1863-93). The plural form madaris is also attested to in the report about the encounter between Abu Bakr and the Jewish leader.40 The Masika inhabited a village called al-Quff41 in the lower partor safila of Medina. 6 (printed:masila). 510a. 109a:fadakhala AbuiBakr dhata yawm madarisahum. p. p.v. al-Kalkashandi. 80a: wa-l-midrasu l-baytu lladhi yudrasufihi l-Qur'an. Abi Bakr b. vol. The precise relationship between the Masika and the Qaynuqacis not clear. Lane. 'Amr b. Either the former were a subgroup of the latter or. EI. var.) For bayt maddrisihim mentioned with regard to the same encounter.. CAbdallahb. K. or reads repeatedly. or studies. 559. 1. midras] mdsila [TMD (Dar al-Fikr). In Kitdb al-mandsik waamdkinturuqal-hajj wa-maCalim al-jazlra.Al-AClaq al-nafisa.b. SamhTdi.from the Jewish Banu Masika whose houses were in the area of al-Quff.42including the Masika. Kohlberg for this reference.1. masila. p. cf. Lib. 2. the village was also inhabited by other Jewish groups. 208. 871b. p. the daughter of another Jewish leader. Arabic-English Lexicon (London. Bosworth.pp. s. Thabit. p. According to Zayd's above-mentioned son. 6. Hazm): kana Zayd b. 1. Mishkam of the Nadir. my article "Hudhayfa b. Abu l-Faraj al-Isfahani. al-Yaman.

CAmr(d. Futiih. Sacd b. 1. Sacid b. the sons of Sacid b. Zurara 51 Cf. qdla: kanati limuhu] l-sibydn bi-l-Madinafi 1-zamanil-awwal. The the obscure Sacid b. however. Reste arabischen Heidentums. bid'ata Casharayaktubuna. Malik. Thabit-who could write in both Arabic and Hebrew-Rafi' b. CAdi. Durr al-manthurfi l-tafsir bi-l-ma'thur (Cairo. 1407/1987). and Bashir b. N. 46 Literally. be-'arav (Tel Aviv. wrongly an yuCallimahul-kitaba wa-l-sibaha wa-l-ramy. His grandfather. Kathir [!] wa-Aws b. 5. at p. 61. pp. pp. p. Th. and archery. . Ubayy al-munafiq. p. Hudayr. CUbdda b. 102-8) < Sacd b. at the same time restating two of the three names only found in this b. Qays b. read: Cullima]kitdba (Beirut.. wa-Sacd b. whom he identified as Ibn Abi Sabra (= Abu Bakr b. Jabr. p. al-Najjar]:45 Literacy (al-kitaba)46 in Arabic among the Aws and Khazraj was rare. The editor of the more recent 1896). pp.Berlin. 194. 65-66. see Dhahabi. it is as if the Jew's command Yet from the Futiuh of Arabic and the students' study of it were unrelatedto each other. Shams al-Din. in al-Suyiti. i.l-carabiyya wa-kana tacallamahu [-sic. 1910). p. rawd 1. cUbada (who appears at the beginning of the list. See .. pp. "A JEW WITH TWO SIDELOCKS" 265 Waqidi reported [the following]. minhum Sa'cd b. ed. 1914/ vol. Yisra'el Qahd was a mundfiq. Lammens. Muhammad Husayn Shams al-Din bacdu l-yahud qad Callama[sic. -4: kdna l-kitab bi-l48 Subh al-acsha (Cairo.CAmr(or p. Sacd belonged to a sub.Sacd b. cUbada.ZAYD B. 58-120. 2d ed. J. and Juden in Arabien zur Zeit Mohammeds(Berlin. Sacd. cUbada and CAbdallah And "theperfectmen"(al-kamala) amongthem-"a perfectman"was one who combinedliterwith [theskills of] shootingandswimming51-wereRaficb. 5. s. Leszynsky. 2d ed. Sacid [of the Malik b. Qahd). pp.. Z. 3. Sacid b. (Berlin. 141/758-59).Ubayy b.Le berceau de l'Islam: LArabie wa-l-Mundhirb. brew]. cAmr/ tion. occidentale a la veille de l'hegire (Rome. Wellhammad b. p. 139. Sad. pp. Yahya. where the Subh al-acshd places b. p.. brother. Geschichte des Qorans. Carabiyyafi l-Aws wa-l-Khazraj qalilan wa-kana vol. Macn b. al-Najjar called CUbayd b.49The latter version. wa-Abi CAbs b. They were: Sacid b. 1. See also Jawad CAli. 1919).for example. F Buhl. al-Rabic.Jews. and the munafiq. Kacb. H. Malik. Sacid. 316."On Sacd b. 118. Hudayr. Ghanm. p.Sacdb. 152) quotes from replaced Masika with Masikha. "Isgroup of the Malik b.47Aws b. Qays b. vol. Sa'cd. Leipzig. wa-Bashir b. alfakana yucallimuha l-sibyana. When Islam came.a group of the Azd. 330. fa-jdaa l-Isldm wa-fihim Rablc . Faris. pp.Istibsar. Baladhuri. 49 Baladhuri's report was mentioned by J. wa-MaCnb. 1961). Khawli. Die see Mizzi. Masika was instructedin it (Cullimaha) some ten of them were literate. CAbdallahb. AlTa'rikh al-'arab qabla l-Islam (Baghdad. 482. reprint. with an isnad of his going back to Sacd b. the art of writing. 68. see my Muslims. Abbott. 14-15: . Ibn Qudama. is corruptwith regardto the link between the unspecified Jew and his young Arab students. 244-45. Abi Sabra al-Qurashi al-CAmiri. THABIT. swimming. on Sacd. idem. pp. p. which contains no mention of Masika. acy (al-kitab) 45 Elsewhere Waqidi (vol. . Hirschberg.CAbdallah Futiih adds the following passage about an important social concept common in preIslamic Medina. 1944).. who was "Yahya's hausen. al-Madina. Khawli. Malik. 1897. Moccwia Ier (Paris. Zurara). 1914). 86a. Noldeke. Note a father's obligation to teach his son literacy. Schwally (Leipzig. n. Obermann. 194. p. 1908). lamic Origins: A Study in Background and FoundaThaclaba b. Historical Texts (Chicago. 28.al-Mundhir b. 33.50 in the of literate Arabs who are not listed the Subh al-acsha: version we learn names three Sacd b. R. A Jew of the Yahud and used to teach it to the [Arab]children.. CAmr. 15: haqqu l-walad Calal-wdlid edition of the Subh al-acsha." in N. Kacb. Ubayy: source. p. 21.Qays b.. 2. vol. 7. 93. Usayd b. ed. 49697. vol.e. 1957). 25 [in Heand Pagans. 1946). pp. wa-CAbdullah b.v.Abfi CAbsb. Ubayy. 59. CAbdRabbihi. Nubala. wa-Ubayy b.48 Another version of Waqidi'sreportis found in Baladhuri'sFutiih al-buldan. 3. 3. 1950-60). H. fal-kitaba l-carabiyyaqalllan [sic] fi l-Aws wa-l-Khazraj ja'a l-Islam wa-fi 1-Awswa-l-KhazrajCidda yaktubuna wa-kana yahudi min yahid Masika qad Cullimaha wa-hum Sacd b. vol. 1331/1913-1338/1919). vol.El. 468-81 (Yahya). The Arab Heritage (Princeton. A. 473. Dulaym . 50 47 Erroneously printed:Abu CAbsb. vol. CAmr. 10. F. wa-Usayd b. 491-92. 1. Etudes sur le regne du calife Omaiyade Thabit-yaktubu l-kitabaynijamFan l-carabiyyawa-lCibrdniyya-wa-RafiCb.Mizzi. Kathir. read: yucalWaqidi bi-sanadihi ila Sacd b. London. Studies in Arabic Literary Papyri. 15. Adl. 262-65. vol. Zayd b.Isaba.1. vol. 1st ed. Zurara. Mu. wa-Zayd b.

pp. Muhammad b. At that time Zayd b. 49 (regardingQur'an 2:269). fayawma'idhin tacallama l-kitaba Zayd b. The following report goes back to Zayd himself through his son.. M. Hikmat al-ishrdq ild kuttdb al-afaq. 3. Thdbit fi jamdaa min ghilmati l-ansdr. vol. p. TMD. 50 (< al-Zubayr b. 1. Yahydal-Muktib al-Kufi. links Zayd's literacy to the same circumstances: fa-kana Zayd b. ed.Ibn al-Kalbi.Zayd) a report on the Prophet's dictation of the Qur'an to Zayd. Some. in Nawadir al-makhtutat. Qala Zayd: fa-kuntu mimman Cullimal-kitab.vol. 4i. Muscab b. which he acquired before Islam (fa-jd'a l-Islam wa-fi 1-Aws wa-l-Khazraj Cidda yaktubana). And there were among them [i. See also TMD. Umayya b. Thabit is credited with the knowledge of two languages (or rather two scripts). while among the Ansar there was nobody who was proficient at writing. ed. Abi C'Aisha). came crying to his father. 2 (Cairo.A reportin Maqrizi. pp. Arabic and Hebrew. 73: man lam yakun lahu fidai fa-l-yuCallim rajulayni mina I-muslimina l-kitabata. E. p. One account (slightly smacking of anti-Ansari polemics) links Zayd's literacy in Arabic to the aftermath of the Battle of Badr: Some of the [Meccan] captives were literate. the captives] some who had no money. Mut5c al-Tarabishi(Damascus. Murtadaal-Zabidi. pp. Elsewhere the number of Muslims to be trainedby each captive is said to have been two. Hud. vol. 48-49. yatlubu bi-dhahl Badr) and released the boy from furtherstudy. p. ed.ayr.e. 171. among other young Ansar. Muhammadal-KhuzaCi. 1400/1979). 84-85. 52 contains this curious statement: wa-kana l-Hakam (= CAbdallah) b.52 Also Zayd's study of "the Jewish script" was said to have taken place after the Hijra. the object is al-Hakam/CAbdallah] yucallimu l-hikma bi-l-Madina. or at Mu:ta. 2. the onetime qddi of Medina. The latter said. ed. vol. Hasan al-Misri (Riyad. CAbd Shams (said to have been killed at Badr. anotherreport in the same source. p.CAbdallahb. Salim-CAbdallah b. 398-99) reported (< his father. 239 (quoting Al-Durr al-manthiir). p. Prophetis said to have ordered CAbdallah/al-Hakam SaCid/AbiUhayha b. quoted in Yacla b. Thabit mimman Cullima. 174) (he was killed at Mu'ta). It is of course no accident that Zayd's son was involved in transmitting reportsabout his father. 1413/1993). p. vol. see al-Suli. the Prophet. In Ibn Sacd. 173 (hereafter GAS). Thabit. or at Yamama. 1405/1985). p. Zayd's grandson. The following report possibly belongs here: the b. p. vol. Jamc al-Hdfiz Abi Nucaym al-Isfahdni. p. Sulaymanb. 1967). 10. 53: wakdnayucallimul-hikmabi-l-Madina. Sulayman < his grandfather. Zayd (d. pp. 53 See p. Ta'rikh. 482-83.. 1406/1986). 2. 52 Wa-kana fi l-asrd man yaktubu wa-lam yakunfi l-ansdr ahad yuhsinu l-kitiba fa-kana minhumman Id mala lahu fa-yuqbalu minhu an yuCallima Cashara mina l-ghilmdni l-kitaba wa-yukhalld sabiluhu. p.Al-Zuhri received from an unspecified grandson of Zayd (< his father. Kharija:53 also Taratibidariyya. Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums.e.Sulaymanb. Khalifa b. 313/925). 1. Ahmad Hasan Basaj (Beirut. Khawli. 132/749). al-Samit and Hudayr al-Kata'ib (jHudayr-of-the-Battalions). It seems that in this context hikmacan only mean "literacy. p. Takhrlj Ihsan CAbbas (Beirut. Those among the people of Yathrib who combined these skills in the Jahiliyya [i. unlike the others. singer (Jerusalem.vol. 175 (who says about the Yamama version: wa-huwa akthar). ed. p. 44: wa-jacalahu [i.who was one of al-Zuhri'steachers. 433.. CAbdallahal-Zubayri. and Aws b. Adab alkuttab. The grandson in question was probably SaCId b.the last-mentioned version was the one held by most people) to teach literacy in Medina.. "that infidel. 34. Kharija (Mizzi. ed. CAbd al-Salam Harun. TMD.Mizzi. 11. vol. Only Zayd b. 22 we find in the same context a report of cAmir al-Shacbi containing the following explanation: wakana ahl Makkayaktubina wa-ahlu l-Madina la yaktubana. 66. Ansdb al-ashrif. 2d ed. L6vi-Provencal (Cairo. see Isaba.ed. having been beaten by his Qurashiteacher. 5. Masdnid Abi YahydFirds b.266 JOURNAL OF NEAR EASTERN STUDIES Usayd b. so the instruction of ten young men in the skill of writing was accepted from them as a precondition for setting them free. he seeks to avenge the blood of those killed at Badr"(alkhabith. p. p. Naji Hasan (Beirut. 36 above. p. Sezgin. Sacid yuCallimul-hikma. Imtac. al-'As b. they died before the Hijra] were Suwayd b. Ubayy.e. vol. 1 (Leiden. vol. See also Taratibiddriyya. 1415/1994). again from al-Shacbi. 101 tells of an Ansari boy who. p. ed. F. 34 (CAbdallah b. . al-dalalat al-samciyya. 2. however. vol. ed. vol. 130 = vol.Jamharat al-nasab. vol. vol. 1407/1986). 1968)." For hikma in the sense of khatt or writing see Taratib iddriyya. Khayyat. Ihsan cAbbas (Beirut. claimed that he only became literate after the Hijra.ed. Usd al-ghdba. Schloesal-Baladhuri. 91 (< Abu Ma'shar: he was killed at Yamama). 1953). p. 1. vol. this is quoted from the Musnad of Abu 1-CAbbas al-Thaqafi al-Sarraj(d. Suhayl Zakkar (Damascus. p. 1938). Bakkar: he was killed at Badr). 34. 1393/1973). learned how to write. 103. 4b. Kitab nasab Quraysh. n.

aw qala: l-siryaniyya?. CUbayd. innahuya'tini kutub min unas la uhibbu an yaqra'ahd ahad. 2. REFLECTIONS OF WAQIDI'S LIST OF LITERATE ARABS IN IBN SACD'S TABAQAT Waqidi was Ibn Sacd'smain source. pp.56A different motive is given in another report (again said to go back to Zayd himself):57 The Messenger of God told me: "There are letters coming to me from certain people which I do not want anyone to read.the latter option is tendentious and apologetic: it substitutes for Zayd's pre-Hijra education in the Jewish institution a study of the Arabic script from a QurashiArab and a study of the Aramaic script (probably in the same institution) at the Prophet'sbehest. 108. 5. 214: inni la dmanuhum an yubaddilu kitabi. Thabit was the interpreter(turjumdn) of the Messenger of God and his scribe [who wrote his letters] to the kings. Mizzi. vol. p. while according to another view. 5. 474. Ethiopic.vol. 1408/1988). Mizzi. Humayd. adduces this legendary report:"Zayd b. ed. Fa-tacallamtuhdfi sabcata Cashara yawman = al-Muntakhab min musnad CAbd b. IV.Kablr.writ[i.vol. 11: amarani rasulu llahi (s) an atacallama lahu kitaba yahud wa-qala Ii: inni la dmanu yahudan Caldkitabi. He learned Persian from Khusro's messenger within eighteen days and Greek (al-ramiyya). cUbada of the Sacida (Khazraj). vol. 28. 12. 613. 1.55 A fuller version of this report provides an historical context: the Prophet'sorder that Zayd should learn kitab yahud was given shortly after the Hijra. 3. Masahif. 10. vol..fa-lam yamurra bi nisf shahr hatta tacallamtuhu fa-kuntu aktubu lahu ild yahud.59 2. Tabarani. 362-63. Muntazam. p. 593-94. Maqrizi. 60 Wa-kanal-Mundhiryaktububi-l-carabiyyaqabla l-Isldm. ibid. and Coptic from the slaves (khadam) of the Messenger of God. . similarly. in Isdba. 1. p. 214. correspondence ten in their script]. p. 194. 29. 9. 155: innahu ya'tini kutub mina l-nds wa-la uhibbu an yaqra'ahd kull ahad. Tabari. 113 [where his name is vocalized: CAbd b. Ibn Sa'd.. vol. p. Humayd (on whom see GAS. and hence most of the relevant entries in the latter's Tabaqdtreflect the evidence included in Waqidi's list of literate Arabs: 1." And I learned it within seventeen days. 59 Wa-kana Sacd fi l-jdhiliyya yaktubu bi-lCarabiyya. "A JEW WITH TWO SIDELOCKS" 267 me to studyfor him the scriptof the Jews. 555. I read their letter... Imtac. vol. 4. Zayd is said to have known seventeen suras by heart. following the Prophet's examination of the boy's command of Qur'an. vol.60 Kharija) about Zayd's writing of the wahy. pp. 5. Presumably. and when they wrote to him. See. 2. 561. p. Cf. wa-idhd katabii ilayhi qara'tu kitabahum. he learned both after the Hijra. wa-kana man ahsana dhalika summiya l-kamila. CUbayd(see the following footnote): qdla li l-nabi (s): inni aktubu ila qawmfa-akhdfu an yazidii Calayyaaw yanqusu. 19. the version quoted from the Musnad of CAbdb. CAmr of the Saida. vol.54Not even half a month passed until I learned it and I used to write for him to the Jews. 58 Ibn Sacd. 1. andhe said to me: "I The Messengerof God ordered to my correspondence" do not trustthe Jews withregard withthe Jews. fa-hal tastatiCuan tatacallama kitdba l-siryaniyya? Muntazam. CUbaydallah. Hamid!]). Futiih. 54 Cf.e. THABIT. 2. Zayd learned the Arabic script and the Aramaic/Syriac/ Hebrew script before the Hijra in the Jewish maktab/kuttib/midras. p. p.wa-kanati l-kitdbafi l-carab qalilan [sic]. wa-kana yuhsinu l-cawm wa-l-ramy." Some dated the Prophet's order to A. 3. see Masdhif. 4: the Prophet explained that he feared "lest the Jews alter his letter" (la amanu an yubaddilu kitabi). Are you capable of studying the Hebrew script"-or perhaps he said: "the Aramaic/Syriac script?" I said: "Yes. 187. Subhi alBadri al-Samarra>i and Mahmuid Muhammadal-Sacidi (Cairo. p. with an isnad going back to Zayd himself via Thabit b. Sacd b. pp. p. Zayd was al-Zuhri'ssource for a report about Zayd's search for a missing verse. Tahdhib.. Al-Mundhir b. fa-hal tastati'u an tacallama kitaba l-'ibraniyya.. p.He was Zayd's mawla and pupil. p. wa-kanatil-kitabafi l-arab qalilan [sic]. 57 read probably: Through Thabit b. Thabit b. 55 Baladhuri. vol. 1. 56 In this version. 3.fa-tacallami l-sirydniyya. vol. 358: . Kharijab.58 So according to one view. p.H. 2.ZAYD B. pp.

Samhudi. pp. Umm Sacd (Jamila). Jabrof the Haritha(Aws). 8. TMD.68 8. CAwf(Aws). 1. wa-kanat qadi jtamacat fi Usayd. who led the Aws in the Battle of Bucath in which he was killed. Ibn Sad. 10. p. Aws b. both of which were necessary for the state administration. His entry also includes evidence about his father. 1057-60). namely. 3. Isaba. Ibn Sa'd. 153. Ka'b of the Najjar (Khazraj). . 262-64. 62 Wa-kana yaktubufi l-Islami l-wahy li-rasili lldhi (s). 522. wa-kana l-kdmil Cindahumfi l-jdhiliyya wa-awwali l-Islami lladhi yaktububi-l-carabiyyawa-yuhsinu l-cawmwa-lramy. wa-amara lldhu tabdraka wa-tacala rasulahu an yaqra'a Cala Ubayy l-Qur'ana. li-anna ahla l-jdhiliyya kanu yaquiluna li-man kina katiban shdciran[!]: l-kamil. 498. 621. p.72 (Ibn Ubayy) belonged former the the was latter's over. a client of the CAmr 7. 1. 166 (both are listed as Badris). Isaba.66'Umar b. Zayd b.61Later in his entry Ibn Sacd mentions Ubayy's role in writing down Qur'anic verses at the time of the Prophet (which confirms his literacy) and the claim. Sacd b. 2.. 3. 14. p. 67 Ibid. 3. while about the son it is said: wakana . ibid. Rafic b. Khawlt. Concerning the father. 3. 63 Wa-kdnaRafic b. vol. 1. eight boys and four girls. Wa-kana yaktububi-l-carabiyya fi l-jahiliyya. whereas Aws lived to the time of cUthman. 25.. 15: wa-kana yuqalu liRafi' b. 450. p. Ubayy b. wa-kanati l-kitaba f l-Carabqalilatan. nephew. Ibn Sad. al-Khattaband cUthmanb. Nubalda. p. Malik of the Zurayq (Khazraj). Thabit married his daughter.65 6. p. cAffan employed him as a tax collector (yusaddiqu l-nds). 72 Ibid. vol. Ibn Ubayy died after a short illness at the time of the Prophet (Waqidi. Ibn Abi l-Huqayq. 1. vol. 136.69 His literacy is supportedby the reportthat 9.74 61 Wa-kana Ubayy yaktubufi l-jahiliyya qabla 1Islam. For Hudayr'scommand in Bucgth. 71 Waqidi. 680-81. 5. see Ibn al-Athir. 3. Hudayr al-Kata'ib (see p. vol. wakanati l-kitabafi l-qawmqalilan [sic]. Abu cAbsb. yucaddu min Cuqaladihimwa-dhawi ra'yihim. Sacd of the Harith (Khazraj). vol. 206.62 4. 140.71 Aws and CAbdallah b. one expects to find literacy combined with arithmetic. ibid. pp. p. vol. 1. p. Malik: l-kdmil. CAbdallah b. doubtless coming from Ubayy's own family. bacda abihi sharifanfi qawmihifi l-jahiliyya wa-fi l-Islam. p.73 10. . vol. Macn b. Cf. al-Rabic was killed in the Battle of Uhud. p. Bashir b. Ibn Sacd. 465. 70 Wa-kana Aws b.70 the Prophet asked him to inscribe the Hudaybiyya treaty. he was among those sent to Khaybar to assassinate the Nadir leader. 1. Wa-kana Sacd yaktubufi l-jahiliyya. CAdiof the Ball.. vol. After the Hijra. the two adopted different attitudes towards the Jews: while Ibn Ubayy remained loyal to his alliance with them (which earned him the title mundfiq). 622.1. 3. vol. p.1. Ibn Sacd. p. In due course. wa-kana abihu Hudayru l-kata'ib yuCrafu bi-dhalika aydan wa-yusamma bihi.. 3. 522. vol. see my Muslims. wa-kdnatil-kitabafi l-carabqalilatan. 1. p. Ibn Sad. vol. Hud. Khawli of the CAwf(Khazraj).67Indeed. p. wa-kanati l-kitabafi l-arab qalilan [sic]. 14. p. According to some. 3. Ubayy (Ibn Ubayy). vol. 73 Being the son of Jamila bint Ubayy. 428. wa-kana l-kamil fi l-jahiliyyati lladhi yaktubu wa-yuhsinu l-'awm wa-l-ramy. Sacdb. that God Himself ordered the Prophet to dictate the Qur'dn to him. 1. Aws supported the Prophet.. 4. vol. wa-kdnayuhsinu l-cawm wa-l-ramy... 65 Wa-kdnayaktubu bi-l-Carabiyyaqabla l-Isldm. 610. Ubayy to a subdivision of the known as the CAwf moreBanu 1-Hubla. 3. 3.. Jews and Pagans. who was born several months after her father's death. On Macn. vol. 154. p. 382. wa-qala rasulu llah (s): aqra'u ummati Ubayy. 2. Kamil. Khawli mina l-kamala. vol. Note that Rafi' was marriedto the sister of anotherliterate Arab. vol. 68 Cf. Ibn Sacd. wa-kanatil-kitdbafi l-carabqalilan [sic].. 604. al-Rabic of the Harith (Khazraj).wa-kana qadi jtamaCadhalikafi Aws b. vol. 542. pp. The marriagetook place many years before the Hijra: two of their sons are said to have participatedin the Battle of Badr. wa-kanati l-kitabafi l-arab qalilatan.64 b. pp. p. vol. 531. 66 Wa-kanaAbi CAbs yaktubu bi-l-carabiyya qabla l-Islam. wa-kdna Rafic ka-dhalika. 74 Wa-kana Bashir yaktubu bi-l-carabiyya fi 1jahiliyya wa-kanati l-kitaba fi l-arab qaltlan [sic]. p. Hudayr of the CAbdal-Ashhal (Aws). -2.268 JOURNAL OF NEAR EASTERN STUDIES 3.63 5. Usayd b. It was a fruitful marriage:she bore Zayd twelve children. Mdlik mina l-kamala.it is reported: wa-kana. 1. p. vol. 7 (the Prophet pra's to God to teach Mucawiya al-kitab wa-l-hisab). 64 . Dhahabi. 542. p. vol. 1. 8 above). Mukht. wa-kana yusammd man kanat hddhihi l-khisdlfihi: l-kamil. 477. Ibn Sacd. 1. 8. . sharifan fi l-jdhiliyya.ayr. ibid. vol.

Latadif almacdrif. the word asma is missing. On p. vol. On p.. no." And he became angry. Read: "Ibn Rawaha entered and did what you see. p. 128. Isaba. 60-61. pp. 345. Ubayy. -4. 274. Jabir--Abdallah b. 22.. cf. p. quoting Waqidi (. see Isaba. the word law is missing. 80 Wa-kana. p. vol. "A JEW WITH TWO SIDELOCKS" 269 11. Misbah mudi. Zayd b." 82 Mascudi. vol. 13. 3. On p. 3. 344. Watha'iq. 350 (erroneously written Jurash. 5.81was literate: he "used to write down for the Prophet the quantity computed by conjecture of the fruit on the palm-trees of the Hijaz" (yaktubukharsa l-Hijaz). 1376/1957-). 1. No such person could be traced in the sources. Thabit's entry in Ibn Sacd77 does not include the typical passage about literacy found in most of the relevant entries. instead of fa-asbaca. at p. Jabal. 504. 167. but it does contain two reports on the Prophet'sorder that he should learn Hebrew/Syriac. 306. For obvious reasons. 5.. 608-12. p. at least in the versions available to us now. Ibn Sa'd. yaktubufi l-jahiliyya. Sacd (no.82 17. Read ra'aytu annahu law kana Cindahu tayil. p. vol. Istibsdr. wa-kanati l-kitabafi l-Carab qalilan [sic]. 526. 78 Wa-kana." On p. pp. 40 (khars tamri l-Hijdz). 3. p. qalilan). p. al-Yaman. is incomplete.. 1402/1981). Finally. Rawaaha of the Harith(Khazraj). al-Baladhuri. 76 Sacd was a munafiq. 340. The name Sacid could have been a corruptionof Ascad. 1867). vol. read Hadas). pp. 266-67. de Jong (Leiden. 59 (fi islamihi shakk wa-fi annahu akhu Ascad b. p. 81 See my article "Hudhayfab. 41. 79 Ibn Sacd. SaCdb. A. p. Zayd of the Harith (Khazraj)we find evidence of his wrote the Prophet'sletter to the Hadas. vol. 80.79 15. Muhammad Hamidullah (Cairo. Read atabarra'u min asma l-shayatini kulliha. .. pp. ed. Hudhayfab. Bihdr alanwar (Tehran. 531. 1.. MuhammadBaqir al-Majlisi." in Le Museon 106 (1993): 331-46. 1959). yaktubu bi-l-carabiyya qabla 1Islam. a former Jew.. 1. Then he reflected and said: "Had there been. 1.is meant here. Perhaps the ya' of SaC'd is superfluous and Ascad's infamous brother. 1. al-Yaman. 536. Hamidullah. wa-kanati 1kitaba fi l-arab qalilatan.83is listed as one of the Prophet'sscribes.. In the entry on CAbdallah b. read fa-asbaha. Zurara. 3. 282. Mucadhb. 77 Ibn Sad. vol. THABIT.76 12.Bidaya. CAbdallah vision of the Lakhm. Tanbih. On CAbdallah. p. Ibn Qudama. 3. 13.80 More literate Arabs can be added from other sources. 339.ZAYD B. pp. Zurara'sentry in Ibn Sacd75 includes no mention of literacy. vol. Mizzi. 1. 248 (sadaqat al-tamr). OTHERLITERATE ARABS IN PRE-ISLAMIC MEDINA Waqidi'slist of literate Arabs. Zurara nazar). TMD(CAbdallah b. 157. a few words were left out.p. Incidentally. ed. Sacid b. vol.. Ibn Sacd. Similar evidence appearsin the entry on CAbdallah b. 10 above) was married to CAbdallah b. Ambros kindly drew my attention to several errors which escaped me when I proofreadthe abovementioned article. Tabarani.78Indeed. 2. A. Zayd). but Ascad b. 3. The first two are of course particularly interesting for our discussion: 16. Literacy is again combined here with an official position: the Prophet sent CAbdallah to Khaybaras evaluator of its produce of dates. p. Rawaha's sister. 344. 4. CAmra. probablya formerJew. 1379/1960). 83 See again my article "Hudhayfa b. 2. Ansab alashrf. 84 Al-YaCqubi. Cf. Bashir b. as can be shown by reference to two furtherentries in Ibn Sacd: 14. vol. Abu Mansur 'Abd al-Malik b." p.84 75 Ibn Sacd. ed. vol. 10. p.Ta'rikh(Beirut. Ibn Kathir. 1. P. see my article "Idol Worship in Pre-Islamic Medina (Yathrib). pp. 3. p.. Ibn Sacd has no entry on the munafiqCAbdallah b. 1.. 1.. vol. 4. Zurara. 5. 152. Sukayna al-Shihabi and Mutac al-Tarabishi (Damascus. -5. vol. p. 1. 358-62. V. 3. 97-98.. ibid. Muhammad al-Tha'alibi. a subdipre-Islamic literacy. vol.Kabir. al-Yaman. vol.

ed. p. 36 has Ibn Ubayy's son. 88 Whose mention as the Prophet's scribe must have caused some unease. Salul. 18. p. Maslama of the Haritha (Aws). The same passage is also quoted in Ibn Qudama Muwaffaq al-Din. vol. vol. ed. For the transmission technique called kitaba/mukataba. appears in Waqidi's list of literate Arabs. Malik of the CAdi b.)88 19. vol.. vol. 134 (where there is no mention of kitab). vol. 90. vol. Kurkis CAwwad (Beirut. vol. Wathadiq. vol. 387. 711. according to his own testimony. and to Qatan b. cUbada b. Qays b. Taha CAbdal-Rgauf Sacd (Cairo. ed. In addition. 69 (wa-dhakara. TaDrikh Wasit. 69.92 21. and alSuhayli (d.. 55-58. al-Tabyin fi ansab alQurashiyyin. 1972). al-unuf. al-Suyuti. pp. Obviously. Ubayy. 1406/1986). 1071). 87 Ibn Sad. 286. it is also suggested by the fact that at the 85 Ibn Sad.'Abdallah b. 120-21. 4. 395 (wa-kana min khawassihi). pp. 256. pp. Manil al-tdlibfi sharh tiwal al-ghard'ib. the son's entry in Ibn Sacd. Ibn al-Salah. 80. 1. p. 4. they were both literate. 44 (Qatan). His entry in Ibn Sacd85 contains no reference to literacy.).91 i. CAbdallah b. dhalika CUmar Shabba wa-ghayruhu[?] fi kitab al-kuttdb). [1399/1979]). 91 Tahdhib. In addition.Isaba. 5. Thabit is listed al-Najjar Zayd belonged. 546. 5.93 22. p. the above-mentioned Ubayy b. and. Shabba fi kitabi l-kuttab lahu). 394 (kitabatan).d. p. Ibn Shabba'sbook (YaqOt. pp. 63-64. vol. 3. ed. vol. Shabba lists him among the Prophet'sscribes. Salul. Arqam of the Harith(Khazraj)and Anas b. pp. 94 Ibn Qudama. 92 Ibn Hajaral-CAsqalani. no. He was Zayd b. 4. cAbdallahb. 259.Istibsar. pp. 139-40. Ibn Sacd. Thabit is listed among the Prophet'sscribes in Mizzi. Sahl al-Wasiti. Muhammad Nayif al-Dulaymi(Beirut. vol. pp.270 JOURNAL OF NEAR EASTERN STUDIES 18.pp.vol. 590. vol. among the Prophet'sscribes. 484. vol.see Isaba. Rawaha.d. 96 Abu Dawud al-Sijistani. p. pp. 196. 89 Later. not the son. p.Hamidullah. 1. 5. Maslama and others] CUmarb. Misbah mudi'. vol. p. vol. 1371/1952). Tadrib al-rawi. includes no mention of literacy.. it is not mentioned in GAS. p. p. p. Zayd b. see Aslam B. Harithaof the Kalb. 3. 251-52.n. rather surprisingly. CAbdal-Wahhab 'Abd al-Latif (Cairo. Bidaya. Cf. p. 1301/1884. Muhammadb.89 His entry in Ibn SaCd90 contains no mention of literacy. read instead of Murra:Mahra. 4. the father. Ghanm. Sunan. vol. Mizzi. Usd al-ghaba. p. vol. Ubayy b. ed.e. p. 1. 28. p. 15355. Ibn Kathir. see al-Hakim al-Naysaburi. pp. p. 443-45. Shammas of the Harith (Khazraj) wrote the Prophet'sletters to the delegation of the Thumala and the Huddan. pp. Anas is said to have been one of those who dictated or wrote down the Qur'an at the time of cUthman. p. whereas the passage in the Istl'ab quoted from Ibn Shabba'sKitab alkuttab has "'Abdallah b. see p.ed. 7. 36 (dhakarahum[= Muhammadb.Mucjamal-udaba.96Although both entries about cUbada in Ibn Sacd97 do not mention literacy. Nur al-Din CItr (Medina. but in his Kitdb al-kuttab 'Umar b. 93 Ibn Sad. n. reprint. CUlim al-hadith. Thabit's son-in-law. Mu'azzam Husayn (Hyderabad. pp. 1. 3. 1. p. CAwfb. Tahdhib. ed. 3. 1. Mahmud Muhammadal-Tanahi (Mecca. vol. 354. p. Afsa of the Aslam. vol. 2. 341-42 (Thumala and al-Huddan). 353-54.87(Among the Prophet's scribes listed by Ibn Shabba we also find. 237 (Callamtu nasan min ahli l-suffa l-kitab wa-l-Qur'an). the Istfaib by Ibn CAbdal-Barr (d. 'Abdallah b.95 23. See also Ibn al-Athir Majd al-Din. As we have seen. 4. 90 Ibn Sad. vol. 345-46) was available in al-Andalus during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Ubayy b. Ihsan 'Abbas [Beirut. 97 Ibn Sacd. 463/ b. he wrote one of the Prophet'sletters. vol. 2. al-Rawd:. Zayd settled in Kufa. al-Samit of the CAwf(Khazraj). 4. n. On Anas. p. vol. 1391/1971).86Indeed. 1993]. and 20. pp. Ibn Qudama. 9. 13. Macrifat Culum al-hadith. AbuiAyyub al-Ansari of the CAbd the subgroup of the Malik b. Thabit b. 94-95. vol. Rawaha. 260-61." the quotation from the same source in Suhayli. 540-42. 3. ed. 1. ed. 2093. Fath al-bari sharh sahih al-Bukhari (Bulaq. became a close supporter of CAli and fought on his side in Siffin.Medina. pp. Kacb. vol. to CUmayr(a) b. 25 above. 581/1185). 286. Zayd grew up orphan cAbdallahb. Misbdhmudi. 16-17. 1408/1988). 86 Ibn Shabba is quoted in two books by Andalusian authors. 6. among others.94 to which b. vol. taught literacy (kitdb) and Qur'Dnto some of the ahl al-suffa. reprint.Istibsar. 137. Indeed. In Ibn Kathir. For furtherevidence that Anas was literate. but Anas transmittedhadlth from him using the kitaba or mukatabatechnique. p. Biddya. p. . 1392/1972).. Beirut. 95 Misbah mudi'. 1. Ahmad Sacd cAli (Cairo. 1397/1977). 2. alwas an who in the care of the above-mentioned Najjar (Khazraj).vol. On CUmayr(a). 1.

see Kister. for example. 1. Aws). p. 174. Aws)-literate 11. SaCdb. ed. 354 (bacathahu Cald lsadaqat). vol. vol.Khazraj)-literate 8. 1391/1971). vol. Usayd b. pp. al-Samit (CAwf.100 to convert their Arab in students and certain cases. Studies in Arabic Literary Papyri. and Shalabi (Beirut. Khazraj)-literate 9. vol. al-Salm. p. Hudayr (CAbd al-Ashhal. . Khaythama(Ghanm b. CAbd al-Mundhir(Umayya b. 257-58. AsCadb. KaCb: kana qabla l-Isldm habran min ahbari l-yahud. 1980]. 1373/19541378/1959). 98 Mustadrak. PRE-ISLAMIC LITERACY AND THE CAQABA MEETING At the second. 3. Aws) or: Abui1-Haythamb. al-Saqqa. Khazraj) 6. . Khazraj)-literate 4. p. CAbdallah b. Rafi' b. Rifaca b. Futuh misr wa-akhbaruhd. al-Mundhirb. Ubayy. THABIT. Rawaha (Harith. they succeeded. in idem. with additional notes. CAmr b.98 It is perhapsrelevant for us here that b. wanahnu ummiyyunayaqra'u bacdund Caldbacd. there were reportedlytwelve nuqaba' or tribal representatives.nine of the Khazrajand three of the Aws. Khazraj)-literate 10.' 2. al-Tayyihan(a client of the CAbd al-Ashhal. Thabit. They studied at the maktab/kuttabor midras of Masika. Geiger. 86-87. al-Bayhaqi. CAqaba meeting. 238 quotes from Bukhgri ([Cairo. al-Abyari. 100About the oral translationof the Torahat the time of Muhammad (which continued a pre-Islamic practice). A. where literacy must have been The Jews supposedly taught throughtexts from the Old Testamentin Arabic translation. 1922). Haram (Salima.ZAYD B. vol."' in Israel Oriental Studies 2 (1972): 215-39 (reprinted. 101 Al-Zirikli. n. three of whom were of the so-called perfect ones. al-RabiC(Harith. However. 3. 21.10' VI. Al-AClzm. 1. al-Bara' b. 6. Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume aufgenommen? (Bonn. pp. Sacd b. where idol worship was still predominant. SaCdb. 1405/ 1985). CUbada(Sacida. vol. 272: kunndfi l-masjid nataqarrau. "A JEW WITH TWO SIDELOCKS" 271 time of the Prophet he officiated as a tax-collector. Khazraj)-literate 3. 1833). no. "'Haddithu Canbani isradila wa-la haraja.102 The twelve nuqaba' included seven literate men.Al-Sira al-nabawiyya. 2d ed.were members of a monotheistic elite educated by the Jews. 2. probably including attempted young that of Zayd b. Aws) 12. p. 102Ibn Hisham. Zurara(Najjar. 82 may be pushing the evidence a bit too far when he says about Ubayy b. .ed.CAbdallah of the Jewish Qaynuqac. Khazraj)-literate 5. like his fellow literate tribesmanfrom the CAwf. Khazraj) 2. See also Abbott. It can be argued that the literate Arabs who helped the Prophet Muhammad obtain a foothold in Medina.d. A comparison between the list of nuqabdaand that of literate Arabs produced significant results.]. al-Samit in Ibn CAbd al-Hakam. was an ally cUbada. Khazraj) 7. Macruir (Salima. Torrey (New Haven. CUbadab. Studies in Jdhiliyya and Early Islam [London. ed. or great. 14) who at p. CAbdal-MuCti Qalcaji (Beirut. CAbdallah b. CAmr (Sacida. Malik (Zurayq. 9 See.99 Furtherresearch will probably guide us to more literate Arabs in pre-Islamic Medina. p. (Cairo. p. Daladil alnubuwwa. Zayd. 25) that "the Jews [literally: the People of the Book] used to read the Torah in Hebrew and interpret it to the people of Islam in Arabic" (kana ahlu l-kitab yaqraiina l-tarwat bi-l-'ibraniyya wa-yufassirinaha bi-l-'arabiyya li-ahli l-Islam). compare the reportgoing back to cUbada b.

Macrifatal-sahCiba. 1974.WathdPiq. Siyar acUlmalit et al. Beirut. Hdjj cUthman. Ed. Beirut. 5th ed. Muhammad AMi 1-Fadl Ibrahim. al-Tabarani. Reprint. 1374/1955. 1401/1981-1409/1988. 1894. Ed. Istci'b. Beirut. al-MasCiidi. Istibsdr. 2d ed. Ed. Hamidullal. cAbdallahal-Namari. Ai-Tanbth wa-i-ishrif. Cairo. Mizzi. cAll. Mahmild Muhammad Shakir. n. Beirut. Ibn Qudama. MuhammadCIzzal-Din. MuhammadcAzim al-Din. Tanbth. vol. Cairo. 1408/1988. Imtec.AMu1-Hasan cAll b.Leiden. Reprint. LbnQudama. 1385/1965-1386/1966. Al-Mustadrak cal i1-sahthayni ft i-hadith. Kcamil. 1380/1960-1388/1968. 1405/1985. Ed. Samhtidi. Ed. Masc'idi. AbiM Al-Isaba ft tamytzal-sahaba.Ed. Beirut. Muntazam. Beirut.Ta9rikh al-Madina al-munawwara. Cairo. Fahim Muhammad Shaltilt. Jabir.Futiih al-buldtan. min al-sahaba CAllNuwayhid. Riyad. de Goeje. M. AM l-1lHajjaj Ytisuf. de Goeje. CAbd al-Rahmanb. Balhdhuri.Al-Misbach al-mudt9 ft kuttcb al-nabi. Hanbal. Wafri9 ai-mustafti. cAll b. Ibn al-KathIr. cAll Muhammadal-Bijawi.Al-IsttCeibft macrifat al-ashcb. In idem. cUmar. n. Ahmad. al-Isfahani. Yahydb. A. .d. al-Balddhuri. LbnCAbd al-Barr. al-Mizzi. Materials for the History of the Textof the Qur9dn. Cairo. Muai-waft bi-akhblr dCir hammad Muhyi al-Din CAbd al-Hamid. Cairo. CAl Muhammadal-Bijawi.d. Ahmad b. Hamdi CAbd al-Majid al-Salafi. Tahdhibal-kamaii fi asma' ai-rijiil. I-Fadl Ahmad b. NubalUi'. 1941. Beirut. Cairo 1400/1980-1405/1985.Futiih. Ibn Shabba. Leiden. 1380/1960-1387/1967.AM 1CAbbdsAhmad b. M. 1399/1979. Muhammad.Ytisuf b. cUmar. Mustadrak. Ed. Musnad. Ibn Hajar. Medina. al-Dhahabi. Tabari. fl Ibn Sacd. al-NaysabMri. Muhammad.Ed. Al-Kamilfi 1-ta'rikh. Ed. Macrifatal-sahiiba. Hudayda. CUthman.Majmifat al-wathdiiq al-siydsiyya. cAll Taqi al-Din. Kittb al-masihif Ed. Cairo. Ed. al-Ansari. 1968. al-Husayn. 1392/1972. TabaranI. Ta9rtkhal-rusul wa-l-muliik. MuhammadCAbdal-Qadir CAtaand Mustafa 'Abd al-Qadir cAta. al-Maqrizi. 1392/1972. al-Tabari. Misbth mudt9. 1401/1981.Beirut. Lbnal-Jawzi.AMuI-Qasim Sulayman b. Muhammadb. Mecca.Al-Tabaqdtal-kubri. Ahmad b. Ai-Mu9jamai-Kabtr. Leiden. Dhahabi. ImUical-asmdc bi-md li-l-rastil mina i-anba9 wa-i-amwal wa-l-hafada wa-i-matCi. Ibn Athir. Ahmad. Ibn Sacd. Ai-Muntazamfi ta'rtkh ai-muiiik wa1-umam. Al-Istibsir nasab al-ansdr. 1. Ibn Shabba. Ibn al-Athir.Kabtr. MasOhif Ibn Abi Dawtid al-Sijistani. al-Samhtidi.Ed. MuhammadRadi b.CAbdallah al-MaqdisIMuwaffaq al-Din. cAli al-CAsqaldni. Beirut. Beirut. Reprint. 1405/1985-1413/1992. AM 1-HasanCAllb.Beirut. Jeffery. cAli b.Ismacil b. Isdba. LbnKathir. Maqrizi. Shucayb al-Arnaw Hamidullah. Ed. Bidcya. Abti 'Abdallah Muhammadb. 1412/1992.Al-Bidh7ya wa-i-nihaya ft 1-ta9rtkh. Ed. AMu Nucaym. 1863-66. nubalJ'. 1405/1985. Reprint.272 JOURNAL OF NEAR EASTERN STUDIES ABBREVIATIONS OF ARABIC TEXTS Ahmad.AMiicAbdallah al-Hakim. 1937. Ed. Ahmad b. Ed. 1313/1895. Bashshar cAwwadMacriif.

"A JEWWITH 273 Tahdhib. 1346. Kitcb al-maghtizi. Ibn Manz5r. n. Nizdm al-huki7ma al-taratib al-ididriyya. 1280/1863. cAbdalldh Waqidi. 1415/1995. 2d ed.CIzzal-Din. Riihiyya alNahhds et al. 1404/1984-1409/1989. . 1972. Hyderabad. TMD (Dar al-Fikr). Ed.Two SIDELoCKs" ZAYDB.Rabat. TaDrikh madinat Dimashq.A. Jeffery. Beirut. Damascus.Ed. al-Waqidi. Muhammadb. Ed. al-Kattani. GharamaalCAmrawi.CAbd al-nabawiyya al-musammd al-Hayy. Jones. CUmarb. al-0Asqalani. Usd al-ghdba fi macrifat al-sahaba. Mukhtasar ta'rikh Dimashq li-Ibn 'Asakir. Cairo. THABIT.Abtu London. Tahdhibal-tahdhib. 1325/1907. Reprint. Usd al-ghdba. TMD. TwoMuqaddimasto the QurDanic Sciences. TwoMuqaddimas. Ibn CAsakir.Ta'rikhMadinat Dimashq. Abli 1-Hasan'Ali b. Muhammad. Ibn cAsakir. Mukht. Cairo. Ibn al-Athir. Beirut. M.Ibn Hajar. 1966. TMD.d. Tariltibidciriyya. CUmar.

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