# A SYLLOGISM

A syllogism (Greek: συλλογισμός – syllogismos – "conclusion," "inference") is a kind of logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two or more others (the premises) of a specific form. In antiquity, two rival theories of the syllogism existed: Aristotelian syllogistic and Stoic syllogistic. Aristotle defines the syllogism as "a discourse in which certain (specific) things having been supposed, something different from the things supposed results of necessity because these things are so." Despite this very general definition, Aristotle limits himself to categorical syllogisms which consist of three categorical propositions in his work Prior Analytics. These included categorical modalsyllogisms. From the Middle Ages onwards, "categorical syllogism" and "syllogism" were mostly used interchangeably, and the present article is concerned with this traditional use of "syllogism" only. The syllogism was at the core of traditional deductive reasoning, where facts are determined by combining existing statements, in contrast to inductive reasoning where facts are determined by repeated observations. Within academic contexts, the syllogism was superseded by first-order predicate logic following the work of Gottlob Frege, in particular his Begriffsschrift (Concept Script) (1879), but syllogisms remain useful in some circumstances, and for general-audience introductions to logic.

Hypothetical syllogism
In classical logic, hypothetical syllogism is a valid argument form which is a syllogismhaving a conditional statement for one or both of its premises. If I do not wake up, then I cannot go to work. If I cannot go to work, then I will not get paid. Therefore, if I do not wake up, then I will not get paid. In propositional logic, hypothetical syllogism is the name of a valid rule of inference[3][4](often abbreviated HS and sometimes also called the chain

argument, chain rule, or the principle of transitivity of implication). Hypothetical

and expressed as a truth-functional tautology or theorem of propositional logic: where . " ". and are propositions expressed in some formal system. The rule may be stated: where the rule is that whenever instances of " on lines of a proof. . Premise 2) The universe began to exist. and also the name of a rule of inference. Premise 1) Everything that begins to exist has a cause. . Formal notation  The hypothetical syllogism rule may be written in sequent notation: where is a metalogical symbol meaning that . SYLLOGISTIC ARGUMENTS #1) ARGUMENT FROM CAUSALITY. and is a syntactic consequence of in some logical system. in that it is also type of syllogism. and " " appear " can be placed on a subsequent line. Hypothetical syllogism is closely related and similar to disjunctive syllogism.syllogism is one of the rules inclassical logic that is not always accepted in certain systems of non-classical logic.

2) We never experience something coming from nothing. Premise 2 is true for three reasons … 1) There cannot be an actual infinite amount of "quantitative" events.space.Therefore. Premise 1) The more complex something is. Therefore. #2) ARGUMENT FROM COMPLEXITY.matter and energy would ultimately have to have been in an eternal state of being). *The "universe" is the entire natural world of time. The cause of the universe would have to be a sentient cause … 1) A non-sentient eternal state of being could never change from that eternal state apart from a volitional source (the actual cause of time.the more likely it is a product of design. Premise 2) Biological complexity is more complex than all man-made design.biological complexity is a product of design. 2) The order and complexity of the effect (the universe) points to an intelligent cause.the LESS it requires an intelligence (which would go against our everyday reasoning).space. 3) Every instance of change requires a cause (ALL of our experience verifies this) and something coming from nothing would in fact be an instance of change. 3) The big bang shows that the universe ultimately began to exist.matter and energy.the universe has a cause. . 2) An actual eternal universe would have reached maximum entropy. Premise 1 is true because to deny it would be tantamount to saying the more complex something is. Premise 1 is true for three reasons … 1) "Nothing" by definition cannot do anything.

There are no inherent chemical properties of matter that would cause life to come from non-life but there ARE inherent chemical properties of matter that would prevent life coming from non-life. God is a spirit who is not made of what he made. Complexity WITHOUT order versus complexity WITH order: A huge jumbled pile of wooden logs would be an example of complexity WITHOUT order whereas DNA would be an example of complexity WITH order.self repairing AND self reproducing.Therefore. 2) The very fact that life forms even have the ability to reproduce shows how much more complex biological complexity is compared to man-made design. The argument from complexity cannot be used against God because … 1) It only applies to things that actually began to exist.biological complexity requires an explanation.Premise 2 is true since even the simplest possible cell would be more complex than an entire modern city. Order WITHOUT specified complexity versus order WITH specified complexity: 1) A distinction needs to be made between repetitive order (such as in crystals) and specified complexity (such as in DNA). Life is self sustaining. Theists do not define God as having a high degree of order among many parts. 2) Crystals form as a result of built in properties reacting to natural laws.the first self-replicating cell would have had to acquire it`s incredible complexity WITHOUT the ability to reproduce. We know that biological complexity began to exist. 2) God is not complex. Something is only complex when it has a high degree of order among many parts. . This argument does not commit a false analogy because … 1) While it is true that life has the ability to reproduce and man-made designs do not.

and meaning that is a syntactic consequence of in some logical system. The breach is not a safety violation. . a three-step argument. It is the rule that: where the rule is that whenever instances of " lines of a proof. " " can be placed on a subsequent line. and " " appear on Disjunctive syllogism is closely related and similar to hypothetical syllogism. disjunctive syllogism (also known as disjunction elimination andor elimination. in that it is also type of syllogism. If we are told that at least one of two statements is true. first. The reason this is called "disjunctive syllogism" is that. If either P or Q is true and P is false. The rule makes it possible to eliminate a disjunction from a logical proof. Therefore. thenQ is true. ". which simply means an "or" statement. "Either P or Q" is a disjunction. we can infer that it has to be the latter that is true. or it is not subject to fines. P and Q are called the statement'sdisjuncts. or abbreviated ∨E).Disjunctive Syllogism In classical logic disjunctive syllogism (historically known as modus tollendo ponens) is a valid argument form which is a syllogism having a disjunctive statement for one of its premises. is a valid rule of inference. Formal notation The disjunctive syllogism rule may be written in sequent notation: where is a metalogical symbol . it contains a logical disjunction. and second. and also the name of a rule of inference. In propositional logic. and also told that it is not the former that is true. it is a syllogism. it is not subject to fines. Either the breach is a safety violation.

and are propositions expressed in some formal system. Therefore.and expressed as a truth-functional tautology or theorem of propositional logic: where . It is not blue. I will choose salad. I will not choose soup. Here is another example: It is either red or blue. it is red. Therefore. Natural language examples Here is an example: Either I will choose soup or I will choose salad. .

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