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This is a course about how towns, cities and urban regions can lead climate actions and achieve great things for their citizens, and for humanity. Climate actions include both mitigation – reducing a city’s contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions – and adaptation – preparing a city for the most likely climate change scenarios. These are broad topics to include in a single course. You will not spend much time on details. Rather, the intention is to explore what it means to create a strong vision of where you want to go, and then to think strategically about the best overall approach to planning, implementation and funding. Be sure to look through the ‘Help’ section to familiarize yourself with the course’s navigation if you haven’t already done so.
Onscreen Text A Strategic Approach to Climate Action
• • • • • • • Towns and cities can LEAD climate actions, achieve great things MITIGATION: Reducing GHG emissions ADAPTATION: Preparing for likely scenarios How to create a strong vision, and strategize about: Planning – taking a holistic, integrated approach Implementation – decision-making tools and processes, forging partnerships Funding – taking advantage of new opportunities
Cities and Climate Change Leadership
and on financing options. WBI offers courses for cities on risk management.org/ei/printpdf/CourseCalendarYeartoPDF/2011) View the World Bank Institutes e-Institute web site. senior decisionmakers. Cities and Climate Change Leadership . representatives of cities. you will learn how to access the best practice websites and literature now available. and dates when each course is available. In addition. click on any of the course titles. For a quick look at what’s included. and the implications for development. availability and cost (http://einstitute. The series offers practical guidance on specific sectors like energy and transportation. Intended audience: Offered globally to project developers. and browse through the courses to learn more about content. (http://einstitute. youth and NGO’s. technical consultants.worldbank.Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 2 of 11 Page 1 of 2 The Series Narration Text To find detailed information on specific climate actions. CDM Programmatic CDM: Opportunities and Challenges: This five-module course takes about 8 hours to complete. this course in an excellent primer for anyone who needs to understand the basic physics of climate change. the groups involved and the effects of climate change on development. This course is the one of a series of courses on cities and climate change. Fundamentals of Climate Change: A plain language overview of all the theory behind climate change. Onscreen Text WBI COURSES Climate Change Related Courses View a calendar with a synopsis for each course available through the World Bank Institute. Intended audience: Carbon market agents. Intended audience: Originally intended for development professionals. identifies potential sectors and analyzes case studies. It addresses the rationale for developing Programme of Activities (PoA) and its rules and structure. You will also have the option to continue learning from other courses available from the World Bank Institute.worldbank. land use planning and the social dimensions of climate change. development practitioners and urban specialists with a general knowledge of CDM/JI project-based mechanisms.org/ei/) CDM/JI: Navigating the Kyoto Protocol Project-Based Mechanisms: This course provides a rigorous introduction to the CDM/JI process and key guidelines and procedures to successfully develop CDM/JI projects.
Intended audience: City officials in developing countries.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTURBANDEVELOPMENT/0. Best Practice Websites a) World Bank Urban Development (http://web.htm) c) • • • • NGOs.worldmayorscouncil.org/categories..gtz. e. Habitat (http://www.00.: World Mayors Council on Climate Change (http://www.g.southsouthnorth.org/) Cities and Climate Change Leadership . UNEP (http://www. Intended audience: Urban planners in rapidly growing. equitable and efficient development outcomes.org/) ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability (http://www.html) b) International agencies. finance access and on decision making under uncertainty to identifying options and establishing priorities to make the city more resilient to climate change impacts and natural disasters. developing cities with limited access to state-of-the-art knowledge and capacity.asp?catid=550).unhabitat. policy and programs stock tacking and gaps analysis. GTZ (http://www.worldbank.iclei.org/) C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (http://www.Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 2 of 11 Page 2 of 2 Other Relevant Courses Sustainable Urban Land Use Planning: This course provides participants with a functional and integrated understanding of the dynamics of urban land use and demonstrates how to effectively utilize policies and planning instruments to manage urban growth and achieve sustainable.c40cities.g.unep.org/) South South North (http://www. Introduction to Safe and Resilient Cities: The e-Learning course will expose city officials and practitioners to cutting edge tools on vulnerability assessment.contentM DK:22923088~menuPK:337184~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:337178.de/en/themen/25486.org/climatechange/). e.
php?main_page=product_info&cPath=0&products_id=23661) Social Dimensions of Climate Change (http://publications.pdf) Climate Finance (http://climatechange. Onscreen Text Key Reference Material for the Course Climate Resilient Cities. A Primer on Reducing Vulnerabilities to Disasters (http://publications.org/index.org/index. With the right leadership and some detailed planning guidelines.Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 3 of 11 Page 1 of 2 Target Audience and References Narration Text This Triple C Leadership course is intended for senior and middle-level decision makers.org/content/development-climate-finance) Cities and Climate Change Leadership . and for guidance on how to obtain copies for your library. or to create a Climate Action Plan from scratch.org/index. The course can be used to refine and expand your existing plans for climate action. Smaller cities and towns have more freedom of movement and more opportunity to gather together and work as a single team.iied. If you have already developed a climate action plan or have set targets. For a quick look at the key reference materials. applying new lessons and tools to your specific situation.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=0&products_id=23961) Eco2 Cities: Ecological Cities and Economic Cities (http://publications. urban management or city operations. but they still need to educate their staff and partners with respect best practices worldwide. including anyone who is closely involved with urban development. all sizes of cities can quickly turn visions into actions.org/pdfs/G02718. click on any of the titles.worldbank. the course can help you build on this past work.worldbank.org/index. Larger cities may have more resources for starters.worldbank. The course is suitable for towns and cities of all sizes.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=0&products_id=23596) The Carbon Finance Toolkit: Ensuring Benefits for Communities (http://pubs.worldbank.worldbank. The course content is an amalgamation of recent World Bank publications and research.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=0&products_id=23053) Cities and Climate Change: An Urgent Agenda (http://publications.
and how it plans to get there. water. land use. In all other respects the features of a climate action plan will vary according to local context. a climate action plan might be a single document. to strategies. Policies include changes to the built environment and protection of ecological assets.Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 3 of 11 Page 2 of 2 What exactly do we mean by a Climate Action Plan? A climate action plan is a strategy both for mitigating climate change and for adapting to climate change. energy. where it wants to go. It spells out where a city is at now. The Plan usually includes strategies for getting key stakeholders to adopt synergistic policies that will create the needed overall change. A climate action plan might be a set of targets and some general directions for policy. It may be a cross-cutting policy. along with local capacity development and institutional reform. or it might be a detailed strategic plan that moves all the way from goals and targets. to implementation. waste. or a suite of plans: one for mitigation measures. to the final commissioning. or a divided into sub-plans for each sector: transport. Cities and Climate Change Leadership . Depending upon the city. another for adaptation measures. monitoring and reporting. Goals and targets are addressed for both mitigation and adaptation.
and accessing financing more efficiently • • • • • • • • Cities and Climate Change Leadership . Onscreen Text Lessons from around the world • • Cities have been taking leadership role for a long time David Cadman – Vancouver city Councilor and President. has been promoting climate action for many years. strategic approaches to adaptation and mitigation. the course gives special attention to change management – offering practical. What is becoming clear to Mr. Cadman and his organization is that cities are at the forefront of mitigation and adaptation planning. ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability ICLEI: 1. Cadman as he describes what he sees as the emerging leadership role for cities.Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 4 of 11 Page 1 of 1 City-based Leadership Narration Text Cities have been taking an important leadership role in climate change for many years already. Vancouver City Councilor and President of Local Governments for Sustainability (or ICLEI). OR cities can come together and learn from each other Somewhere. David Cadman. Because of the leadership focus. and local leadership is a challenging but essential factor for success.200 city members worldwide Course has specific focus on cities’ leadership role and change management World governed by nations but most live in cities Can wait for national and sub-national levels to get things done. ICLEI has over 1200 city members worldwide. Some of the skills you may find especially valuable are listed. Please listen briefly to Mr. a city has faced same problems as your own city National governments cannot implement change without cities Speed of learning is much faster than expected Key hurdles remain: national governments. many of whom have already set targets and developed climate action plans.
wherever this can be arranged. or to follow links to background information on topics new to you or of special interest. The learning experience is more rewarding if the Lessons are spread out over several days or weeks according to a prearranged schedule. Cities and Climate Change Leadership .Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 5 of 11 Page 1 of 1 Course Structure Narration Text The course is divided into three Modules. This will take you on a logical progression through the planning process. Each Module is divided into three Lessons. Such an incremental approach allows for important reflection time and better retention. although times vary. from What? to Where? to How? While moving through the course. as shown here. Modules are stand-alone. you should proceed in numerical order. you will have the opportunity to take extra time to check out some of the references. Otherwise. Onscreen Text Recommended: An Incremental Approach to Completing the Course One option is to complete one or two Lessons every day during the work week. It also provides opportunities to combine the self-paced learning and exercises within the course with group discussion or group exercises. or you may already have a schedule to follow that will synchronize your learning with group discussions. and can be taken in any order. You may want to use the course to address an issue of special concern. Every Lesson requires approximately 40 minutes. at the beginning of your day perhaps. and finish the course in one or two weeks.
how to learn quickly by participating in city-based networks. act before the window of opportunity disappears • Contribute to national targets: ‘nations talk. and basic procedures for managing change. city-based approach to decision-making.Understand how Climate Action will Benefit your City • Develop strong arguments for advancing your development agenda. But don’t get side-tracked now – you might get lost! During the course you may also choose to listen to some of the video segments included within each lesson.1 Act Now . If you are not already well connected to these rich sources of information. You will also learn about an integrated approach to design and a long-term. Onscreen Text Module One – What does climate action mean for our city’s development agenda? Module One explores the purpose of climate action. then you may want to jump to Module 2 for a more nuts and bolts perspective on how to get started with your mitigation and adaptation work. Click directly on a square to see the titles for each Lesson. and a point-form summary of the learning objectives. Roll your cursor over each of the squares – one two or three . case studies and other resources. including co benefits and synergies • Avoid the cost of delay. Lesson 1.Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 6 of 11 Page 1 of 3 Tour Narration Text Use this optional ‘tour’ to scan the contents of each Module and Lesson. and to develop a ‘feel’ for the entire course. Module 1 also includes a basic introduction to the types of technological and institutional changes that may be required by cities. If you are not so interested in these fundamentals. as they elaborate on the issues under discussion. In this way the course serves as a chart or map to help you navigate through the ‘ocean of information’ on climate change now available on the web. you will want to take a few excursions. Each lesson includes links to city networks and partners that offer tools. You will find lots of information on how to ‘mainstream’ climate action and capture ‘co-benefits’.and read through the pop-up summary for the Module. and how to collaborate with partners at all levels. cities act’ Cities and Climate Change Leadership . Video clips provide an opportunity to learn directly from experienced city officials or other experts.
learning continuously and quickly • Take advantage of technical assistance at every scale: regional. You will learn how to employ a range of plausible but diverse climate scenarios. standards.Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 6 of 11 Page 2 of 3 Lesson 1. economic system and social systems • Use maps and indicators to present and compare risk factors.3 Act Differently . international Lesson 1. and a climate resilient city.2 Survey of Threats and Vulnerabilities • Learn the basics about climate modeling. and how you compare. and the necessity of a City-based approach to decision-making Module Two: Where are we now. national. based upon global models and historical records. including physical and institutional changes • Develop a full leadership team • Appreciate the diversity of technologies that may need to be adopted and managed • Consider the importance of the long view. and evaluate the exposure and vulnerability of various city systems. You will define climate threats for the city. Cities and Climate Change Leadership . You will become familiar with the latest approaches for establishing a ‘baseline’ for energy flows and greenhouse gas emissions. tools and work requirements for a GHG emissions inventory Lesson 2. using a variety of methods for risk mapping and risk assessment. and how your city can create robust climate change scenarios • Identify the most significant potential threats • Assess the exposure and vulnerability to climate threats for the city’s physical environment. and where do we want to go? Module Two explores the mechanics of getting started. and develop a suitable team and institutional structure for completing the work. Ultimately visions and targets will be formulated. establishing a pathway to a low-carbon and resource efficient economy. Lesson 2. City-based Approach • Learn what it takes to mainstream. update and share key information • Describe the institutional context for energy systems • Describe energy systems including the local energy assets • Understand the procedures.2 Act Together – Improve your capacity for Climate Action by working closely with others • Develop financial partnerships that can help you access substantial new resources • Participate in a ‘community of practice’. both for mitigation and adaptation.1 A Survey of Energy and Emissions • Appreciate the critical role of surveying and research as part of climate action • Expand your city’s Information and Decision Support System to meet specific needs • Consider how to organize. networking with others.Mainstream Climate Action as part of an Integrated. so you know better where you stand.
2 Strategies for Adaptation • Apply a strategic planning process similar to that used for mitigation • Integrated Disaster Risk Management • Reduce poverty • Increase resilience. This begins with long-term mitigation and adaption strategies. You will learn how to leverage public funds. increase sources of financing. education. research. Your strategy planning will benefit from procedures for engaging public.1 Strategies for Mitigation • Appreciate benefits of strategic planning • Define the scale of action. programs and plans for mitigation and adaptation • Communicate a positive message on climate action • Minimize costs and maximize green growth • Apply principles of adaptive management Cities and Climate Change Leadership . Implementation is a combination of policy tools. structural reforms and institutional capacities. and from tools for engaging public and professionals. get started with no regrets • Engage partners. Lesson 3.3 Guidelines for Implementation • Use full policy toolkit • Make the best use of city powers • Leverage public investments • Consider popular policies. market reform. assess opportunities. including robust systems and adaptive capacity Lesson 3. Lesson 3.Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 6 of 11 Page 3 of 3 Lesson 2. The strategies will benefit from an appropriate management framework for exploring opportunities and identifying priorities. explore options for each sector • Identify and sequence the priorities • Develop a supporting policy environment including enabling policies. A step-by-step process moves from ‘first steps’ to transitional strategies to advanced strategies. including regulations. adopt a mitigation framework. and to adapt and learn as time goes by.3 Visions and Targets • Envision your city enjoying the benefits of a low carbon and resource efficient economy • Envision your city as resilient in the face of existing climate variability and long-term climate change • Set targets for implementing climate actions and achieving long-term goals Module Three: How do we get there? Module three explores methods and tools for implementing climate action. fiscal measures and demonstration projects.
Take a couple of minutes to read more on the big picture – what climate change really means for cities. but some things are simple and worth remembering. existing climate variability represents the greatest single threat to the prosperity and sustainability of cities and their inhabitants. Rapid climate change is not a pleasant scenario. to dislocation of populations as they retreat from flooding. When human influences coincide with existing climate cycles. Even today. social unrest. it is changes in weather. the greatest migrations of people. that are responsible for the greatest loss of wealth . It’s a complex subject. the greatest loss of life. it is worth knowing that climate variability has always been a threat to cities. large-scale industrial agriculture. usually as a consequence of existing climate variability. Human activity adds another variable. Cities are especially vulnerable because of their high levels of resource consumption and their many dependencies. History tells us that civilizations commonly rise and fall with changes in climate. prolonged droughts. and livelihoods. economic collapse and possibly even war for those regions most affected. of all possible disasters. wild fires. food shortages. Climate events over the next few decades will in turn. The number and size of cities is another recent development that increases the risk. you may want to take a quick look at the big picture: what climate change means to cities. The potential for further destabilizing climate through emissions of greenhouse gases is a huge risk. with a million towns and cities spread all over the globe. coral bleaching and loss of fish stocks. with occasional rapid reversals. cities and ecologies. Deforestation. climate will change as it always has. then we get a ‘perfect storm’. So it is not unreasonable for cities and their managers to give serious attention to climate.Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 7 of 11 Page 1 of 2 The Climate in Context Narration Text Before diving into the Course Modules and Lessons. Sudden and extreme climate events are certain to impact all cities. What is surprising is that in an urban era. For example. At risk are homes. disease. Online Text Big Picture for Cities and Climate Change Broadly speaking. we continue to ignore or understate the importance of climate. Greenhouse gas emissions increase the risk of rapid changes within the next century. urbanization. and precaution is warranted. In addition. and especially atmospheric pollution with particulates. Cities and Climate Change Leadership . gradually. This is nothing new.
Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 7 of 11 Page 2 of 2 For fun. 100 years – Global temperatures over the past three decades are above the1901–2000 average. 2. Oscillating ocean currents (el Niño and La Niña) Cities and Climate Change Leadership . Average global temperatures over the past decade are warmer than temperatures have been in the last: • 50 years • 100 years • 400 years • 1000 years • 10. 3. Droughts – Prolonged droughts are especially costly because they damage the land and lead to starvation and migration. What phenomenon is associated with climate changes that regularly occur over a cycle of 3 to 7 years? • Oscillating ocean currents (el Niño and La Niña) • Solar activity (sun spots). One of these natural disasters is responsible for 10 times the economic loss of all others combined. Which is it? • Typhoons and Tropical storms • Tsunamis • Earthquakes • Volcanoes (vulcanization) • Droughts • Floods • Fires and smoke • Land slides 2. cosmic rays and cloud formation • Periodic variations in the Earth’s orbit • Volcanic activity (vulcanization) • Fluctuations in brightness of sun • Heated arguments during local elections 1. test your knowledge of the big picture (answers are at bottom of page) 1.000 years 3.
com/files/flash/science/features/earth/climate/en/bathtub/index. and the less you contribute to temperature rises. developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A rise signifies illness. ecosystem health and weather events. view the Climate Challenge video (developed by SEED. provides a somber account of the projected impacts of global warming on food and water supplies. every city needs new policies to support these types of changes in the near term as part of a pathway to a low-carbon economy. The earth’s temperature rise is similar to body temperature for people. providing high quality public transit. It takes a long time to get the GHG out of the atmosphere – think of a bathtub with a slow leak. The two-track solution for cities is mitigation and adaptation. compact neighborhoods. temperatures are expected to rise. and designing mixed. how crop yields progressively drop as average global temperature rises. Or for a visual image you will not likely forget. A rise over two degrees Celsius becomes life-threatening – for a person or for a civilization.Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 8 of 11 Page 1 of 2 Two-track Solution Narration Text The chart shown here. Regardless of how much and how quickly we invest in mitigation. switching to renewable energy technologies. http://www. Cities and Climate Change Leadership . In general. The faster you move. There is a general consensus that a rise of over two degrees Celsius on average will lead to unacceptably severe consequences. For cities. mitigation typically translates into investments in more efficient types of infrastructure and buildings. the lower will be the costs in the long run.htm?width=5 69&height=383&popup=true).planetseed. Notice for example.
cities have no choice but to adapt. over the next few decades. and further delays in removing the emissions. adaptation might mean relocating housing and roads. and planting green strips for cooling local air temperatures and capturing storm water. and planting wind breaks throughout neighbourhoods. For coastal cities. the lower the costs Adaptation – Coastal Cities • Replanting. restoring wetlands and shorelines. For cities.Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 8 of 11 Page 2 of 2 Because of the delays in reducing emissions. we will be lucky to limit global warming to two degrees Celsius. For inland cities. In addition. adaptation might mean designing buildings that can stay cool naturally. The long-term solution is a resilient city that is prepared for both the likely changes and for the surprises Onscreen Text Mitigation and Adaptation Mitigation – Typical steps • Efficient infrastructure and buildings • Renewable energy • Quality transit • Compact neighbourhoods • The faster you move. protecting flood plains. all cities need to adopt technologies that are intrinsically more robust and adaptable. You will never know what the future may bring. restoration of coastlines and floodplains • Relocating housing • New growth management plans • Wind breaks and other green infrastructure Adaptation – Inland Cities • Water efficiency and contingencies • Local food production • Urban forestry Resilient Cities • Prepared for likely changes • Adaptable and ready for surprise Cities and Climate Change Leadership . improving water use efficiency. This means that. growing more food locally. adaptation varies a lot with your location.
but also lifestyles. to transform the way we use energy and to deliver a sustainable future. resilient cities is to make climate mitigation and adaptation a standard part of every development project. and more equitable. According to the International Energy Agency we now need a revolution in how energy is used. Much of what is needed for climate action is simply good urban planning and design. Onscreen Text We need “urgently to set in motion an energy and environmental revolution. It ensures that all opportunities are taken. The only practical approach to low carbon. Cities drive 70 to 80% of energy consumption. Historically. The good news is that trade-offs are not so necessary. Trade-offs are seldom required It is difficult to mainstream climate action when cities face pressing needs for poverty reduction and for improving health. and that climate action becomes second nature. changes to energy systems have completing transformed cities – changing their preferred location. To use climate action and climate finance to make cities more affordable. The transformation will not only affect energy and transportation technologies. Transformation Cities have an incredibly important role to play as the world community grapples with climate change. Making cities ‘climate friendly’ will bring many co-benefits.” (IEA. size. more livable. This is referred to as mainstreaming. It doesn’t make sense to trade-off essential development in exchange for climate action. We will look much closer at how and why to mainstream climate action in the first Module of the course. and a low carbon future implies a big change in energy sources and technologies. security and overall quality of life. It should be possible to fully integrate climate action with city’s development agenda. form and competitiveness. take some time to explore key ideas and challenges that you will delve into more deeply in this course. 2009 Energy Outlook) Mainstreaming is the ultimate solution Climate change is a pervasive force that cuts across all sectors and continues for decades.Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 9 of 11 Page 1 of 2 New Terms and Key Opportunities Narration Text To complete this Introduction. Cities and Climate Change Leadership . density.
City-based leadership means taking advantage of these new financial resources to achieve many goals at once. Cities and Climate Change Leadership . Much of the new investment will need to focus on cities.Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 9 of 11 Page 2 of 2 New Funding Opportunities Financing such a revolution is estimated to require Trillions of dollars over the next 10 years . Such an investment is barely within the capacity of the global financial system. Many new funding mechanisms are being planned. and especially the rapidly growing cities in developing countries.
(World Development Report: http://wdr2011. (WDR 2010). are you ready to ride the wave? To mainstream mitigation and adaptation? To use the new funding opportunities and technical assistance to advance your entire development agenda? These are challenging times. A climate-smart world is possible in our time – yet.org/fulltext) Are you ready? Cities and Climate Change Leadership . As this tidal wave of new support becomes available. the challenge is to “act now. act together and act differently.worldbank. act together and act differently. affecting such a transformation requires us to act now. Onscreen Text Tackling the immense and multidimensional challenge of climate change demands extraordinary ingenuity and cooperation. In the words of the World Bank 2010 World Development Report.Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 10 of 11 Page 1 of 1 The Leadership Challenge Narration Text These concepts raise important questions.” Hopefully this course can serve as your personal guide to action.
• Both of above. Cities and Climate Change Leadership .) 1. Some degree of global warming seems unavoidable. • All of above. Why are cities at the forefront of Climate Action? • Cities are home to a majority of people. 2. Why? • GHG emissions are excessive.Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 11 of 11 Page 1 of 2 Knowledge Quiz Narration Text Select the correct answer to each of the following three questions. • Cities are interdependent and especially vulnerable to climate change. Mainstreaming refers to what type of practice? • Integrating mitigation and adaptation into a single plan. • Cities are the large majority of the energy is consumed. 3. • It takes time to remove GHG from the atmosphere. • Applying climate actions across all sectors. Once you have finished. • Addressing mitigation and adaptation as part of every investment and all policy development. • Adaptation requires local knowledge. it’s time to start a module. Onscreen Text (Answers can be found on the next page.
(You are partly right. (You are partly right. It’s about input AND output rates. try again) • It takes time to remove GHG from the atmosphere. (Partly right. but try again) • All of above. Why? • GHG emissions are excessive. (Correct. Some degree of global warming seems unavoidable. try again) • Addressing mitigation and adaptation as part of every investment and all policy development. Mainstreaming refers to what type of practice? • Integrating mitigation and adaptation into a single plan. (Correct. Why are cities at the forefront of Climate Action? • Cities are home to a majority of people. it is about changing standard practice) 3. but try again) • Cities are interdependent and especially vulnerable to climate change. but try again) • Cities are the large majority of the energy is consumed. it is a combination of their size. (Partly right. try again) • Both of above. try again) • Applying climate actions across all sectors. (Partly right.Cities and Climate Change – Introduction: A Strategic Approach to Climate Change Screen 11 of 11 Page 2 of 2 Quiz Answers 1. but try again) • Adaptation requires local knowledge. influence and diversity) Cities and Climate Change Leadership . (You are partly right. (Partly right. (Correct.) 2. (You are partly right.
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