comes from the Greek word, meaning “ from everywhere or from all sides” – it is measured in milligrams or micrograms – its old names are: . chick anti-dermatitis factor; and . filtrate factor

FUNCTIONS: As an important component of coenzyme A, pantothenic acid is needed for “active acetate” or acetylation reactions, oxidation of keto-acids and fatty acids, synthesis of lipids acetylcholine and porphyrine ring. Pantothenic acid is essential for carbohydrates, protein, and fat metabolism as well as for the maintenance of normal growth, healthy skin and integrity of the central nervous system. UTILIZATION: Pantothenic acid is readily absorbed in the small intestines, stored to a limited extent in the liver and kidney, occurs in the blood and tissues in bound form (as coenzyme A). MALNUTRITION: Experimental deficiency states could be observed upon administration of antivitamins (e.g., pantol taurine or phenylpantothenate) in man. The deficiency signs are: insomnia, muscle cramps, tingling sensation of the extremeties, abdominal pain and vomiting. Two examples of other experimental animals that shows varying symptoms:

1. In rats, alopecia or falling hair and scaly dermatitis are characteristics of pantothenic deficiency. 2. In chicks, poor feathering and hatchability, lesions in the legs and nerves are manifestations. FOOD SOURCES: Liver is the highest food source followed by other glandular organs, meats, eggs, milk, cheese and legumes. As long as the other B vitamins and protein sources are adequate, there is no dietary problem for pantothenic acid.


FOLIC ACID (Pteroylglutamic acid/PGA)
is a group of related compounds including folinic acid and folacin with similar biological roles. – is measured in terms of milligrams or micrograms

“Folic” – originated from Latin word meaning leaf or “folium” from which folic acid was extracted. Folacin is the reduced form while folinic acid is the oxidized form. Old names for PGA are: . vitamin M . vitamin B10 and B11 . vitamin Bc . factor U The two forms of food folate are: 1. free 2. conjugated Conjugated folic acid needs digestion with the help of the enzyme conjugase in the small intestines to yield free folate. FUNCTIONS: The main function of PGA is to act as coenzyme factor in reactions involving single carbon fragments. This steps is important in the synthesis of heme (the iron-containing protein of hemoglobin), thymine (component of DNA), purines (nucleoprotein constituent found in all cells) and in methyl – transfer of methionine and choline. UTILIZATION:

In foods, it is present as conjugates of glutamic acid. In the body, it is circulated as a protein conjugate. Little amounts are stored in the liver and any excess is excreted in the urine and feces. Folic acid antivitamins are aminopterin, tetrahydroaminopterin and pteroyl-aspartic acid. MALNUTRITION: Experimental deficiencies can be produced by administration of antagonists. The deficiency sighs are: glossitis, stomatitis, gastrointestinal disturbances, megaloblastic anemia of infancy and macrocytic anemia of pregnancy. Diagnosis of folic acid deficiency is by blood analysis showing the abnormally large blood cells, called megaloblasts. FOOD SOURCES: Green leafy vegetables, liver and other glandular organs, legumes and cereals are among the best food sources. Milk, eggs, poultry and fruits are poor sources.