ADVANCED TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING

Prof. A. Das and Prof. Partha Chakraborty, IIT Kanpur

Module

I

Topic Preface Pavement Basic concept of pavement analysis and design Lecture - 1 Basic concept of pavement analysis and design Analysis and design of concrete pavements Lecture - 1 Pavement Materials Lecture - 2 Analysis of Concrete Pavement Lecture - 3 Various design approaches Lecture - 4 Design of dowel bars Lecture - 5 Design of tie bars Few other topics on concrete pavements Lecture - 1Design of runway, taxiway and apron Lecture - 2 Reinforced Concrete Pavement Lecture - 3 Concrete pavement shoulder Lecture - 4 Composite Pavements Lecture - 5 Comparative studies of concrete versus bituminous pavement Construction and maintenance of concrete pavement Lecture - 1 Construction of Concrete Pavements Lecture - 2 Construction of joints Lecture - 3 Quality control issues Lecture - 4 Maintenance of concrete pavements Traffic Engineering Basic concepts of traffic Engineering Lecture - 1 Basics of Traffic Engineering - A Recapitulation Lecture - 2 Speed and Density Lecture - 3 Flow Problem Session Uninterrupted Flow - I Theory of Uninterrupted Traffic Flow Lecture - 1 Introduction & Fundamental Relation Lecture - 2 An Introduction to Macroscopic Models Lecture - 3 Macroscopic Models- Linear Model/ Generalized Polynomial Model of u - k relation Lecture - 4 Macroscopic Models - Logarithmic Model of u-k relation/Exponential Model of u-k Relation Lecture - 5 Interrupted Flow Lecture - 1 Introduction to Interruptions Lecture - 2Traffic Flow at Signalized Intersections Lecture - 3Traffic Flow at Unsignalized Intersections Capacity and LOS analysis Lecture - 1 Introduction and capacity of facilities with uninterrupted flow Lecture - 2Capacity at signalized and unsignalized intersections and LOS Transport Planning Traffic Planning Process Lecture - 1 Introduction, transport supply and demand Lecture - 2 Overview of the planning process, role of government

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Basic concept of pavement analysis and design Objectives The objective of this lecture module is to introduce the basic concepts of analysis and design of pavement structure. Also a discussion has been placed as past, present and future perspective of pavement analysis and design Types of pavement structures
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Pavements, in general, can be classified in two major categories: concrete pavement and bituminous pavement. Concrete pavements are generally called rigid pavements and bituminous pavements as flexible pavements. There could be some other types of pavements which are neither rigid, nor flexible, for example, block pavement, composite pavement. A Pavement is a multi-layered structure. The layers are placed horizontal one over other. In general, the strengths of the layers decrease from top towards bottom except some special situation like inverted pavement. The terminologies used to identify various layers of bituminous and concrete pavements are identified in Figs. 1and 2

. Fig. 1 cross section of a typical bituminous pavement (Chakroborty and Das 2003)

Fig. 2 cross section of a typical rigid pavement (Chakroborty and Das 2003)

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The subgrade is a compacted soil layer. The base and sub-base course could be made up of bound or unbound granular layer. As per Indian specifications (MORT&H 2001), some examples of base or

Wet Mix Macadam (WMM) etc. The joint direction could be either along the transverse or longitudinal direction. Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) (IRC:15-2002) The concrete slab is generally of M40 to M50 grade of concrete as per Indian specifications. and is called as paving quality concrete (PQC) (IRC:15-2002).  Construction joint: Construction joints are provided whenever the construction work stops temporarily. in general. subgrade moisture variation. . Wearing course provides impermeability to the pavement surface against water percolation (Chakroborty and Das 2003). Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM) etc. As per Indian specifications (MORT&H 2001). The binder course is made up bituminous material. Generally bound base layers are used for concrete pavement construction. construction joint.• • sub-base layers are: Granular sub-base(GSB). The binder course and wearing course together are called bituminous surfacing.  Warping joint: Warping joints are provided along the longitudinal direction to prevent warping of the concrete slab due to temperature and subgrade moisture variation. The functions of these joints are as follows:  Contraction joint: Contraction joints are provided along the transverse direction to take care of the contraction of concrete slab due to its natural shrinkage. and help to release stresses due to temperature variation. shrinkage of concrete etc. There are various types of joints in concrete pavement. some examples of binder course are: Bituminous Macadam (BM). The wearing course is the top bituminous layer which is comes in contact to the vehicle tyre. Joints in concrete pavement Fig. subgrade. expansion joint and warping joint. consists of three layers.3 Location of joints in concrete pavement • • Joints are the discontinuities in the concrete pavement slab. Water Bound Macadam (WBM).  Expansion joint: Expansion joints are provided along the transverse direction to allow movement (expansion/ contraction) of the concrete slab due to temperature and subgrade moisture variation. base layer and the concrete slab. contraction joint. 3 schematically shows position of various joints.g. Concrete pavement • • • Concrete pavement is. e. As per Indian specification. Fig. some example of such base layers are Dry Lean Concrete (DLC).

rather. thus. and the design is finalized in such a way that the bearing stress does not exceed the bearing capacity of the individual layers. Another pavement design approach considers aspect of bearing capacity of the individual layers. deflection may not be attributed as basic pavement design criteria. which was introduced later as a correction factor. In this method the thickness design charts are developed (based on observation of number of sections). the iron bars along the longitudinal joints are called tie bars andalong the transverse joints are called dowel bars. however this method does not seem to account for traffic repetitions. In 1940 this method was adopted by the U.These discontinuities (joints) could be extended to the full or partial depth of the slab. Another approach recommends limiting recoverable deflection as the criterion for pavement design (Huang 1993). it estimates the number of standard load repetitions that can cause failure. deBruin et al. The pavement design approach is not governed by the maximum amount of load that the pavement can sustain. with reference to the subgrade CBR value for the most critical moisture condition. Failure theories suggest that the failure of a structure is due to excess stress or strain. It is interesting to note that the design initially did not involve traffic as a parameter. more popularly. as well. • • • CBR method of pavement design is one of the earlier pavement design approach developed during 1928-29 (Ullidtz 1986). Corps of Engineers for design of airfield pavements (Horonjeff and Mckelvey 1983). Pavement analysis and design : current perspective Present practice of pavement design involves considerations of three aspects: structural design. it is empirical because the expected life for a given stress/ strain level is estimated from empirical relationships obtained from laboratory or field performance studies. It is mechanistic pavement design because it uses stress/ strain of a pavement structure using mechanics based principle. 2002). Shell 1978. The current practice of pavement design. is known as Mechanistic-Empirical pavement design and is followed by a number of organizations around the world (Asphalt Institute 1999. functional design and drainage design and they are explained briefly in the following: Structural design In structural design the stresses due traffic loading and temperature are estimated.S. Sometimes iron bars are provided across the joints. Austroads 1992. NCHRP 2005. IRC 2001). This method was first proposed by Barbar in 1946. Pavement analysis and design: historical perspective The past pavement design approaches were mostly empirical in nature and were based on experience. and. Estimation of pavement stress/strain Stress/ strain due to load . In some other approach. The method was further improved by considering the CBR values of the individual layers and thereby individual layer thicknesses are obtained. and is still in use (TRH4 1996. Hveem resistance value of pavement materials is used instead of CBR value. and the thickness of the pavement is designed in such a way that these developed stresses/ strains are below the allowable values.

For pavement design purpose, the stress/ strain value of a pavement structure is obtained from structural analysis of the pavement (Ioannides et al. 1998). The stress/ strain values at any point of a pavement structure can be estimated when the elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and the thicknesses of the individual layers are known. The strain values can also measured using strain gauges. Any analysis procedure involves idealization regarding the structure; similarly, measuring strain involves measurement errors - hence the true value of stress/ strain is never known. A concrete pavement slab, in general, has finite dimensions, and thus the analysis approach of concrete pavement becomes different than the analysis of bituminous pavement. For bituminous pavement, in general, the pavement is assumed as infinite in both the directions, whereas for concrete pavement, in general, it is analysed as discrete slabs connected by joints. The concrete pavement is also assumed to have bending moment carrying capacity, whereas flexible pavement is assumed to have no moment carrying capacity.

Stress/ strain due to temperature
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The change of temperature causes the pavement to expand or contract. The restriction of free movement causes temperature stresses. There exists temperature variation across the depth of the pavement - this causes warping stresses. The temperature stress varies across the corner, interior and edge of the concrete slab, also at different times of the day. The most critical combination of load and temperature stress is used as design criteria. The temperature stress in bituminous pavement is insignificant. Hence, temperatire stress, is not considered in pavement design. However, temperature affects the elastic modulus of the bituminous layer, which needs to be duly considered in pavement design.

Estimation of layer thicknesses

The thickness of the pavement is adjusted in such a way that the stress/ strain developed is less than the allowable values obtained from past performance information. The two major modes of structural failure of pavement are fatigue and rutting. o Fatigue: Traffic applies repetitive load to the pavement surface, and the cracks start from bottom the bound layer/ slab and propagate upwards. When the extent of surface cracks reaches a predefined level, the pavement is said to have failed due to flexural fatigue.

Conventionally, for design of concrete pavement stress is used as parameter, and for design of bituminous pavement strain is used as parameter.

Propagation of fatigue cracking

Rutting: Rutting is the accumulation of permanent deformation. This is the manifestation of gradual densification of pavement layers, and shear displacement of the subgrade.

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 The vertical strains on the pavement layers, mainly the vertical strain on the subgrade is assumed to be governing factor for rutting failure. The rutting issue is not considered for concrete pavement design, because it does not have any permanent deformation.

 The fatigue/ rutting equations are developed from field or laboratory studies, where fatigue / rutting lives are obtained with respect to respective stress/ strain for fatigue/ rutting. For a given design life, thus, allowable fatigue and rutting stress/ strains can be estimated using the fatigue/ rutting equations.  The various other types of pavement failures could be shrinkage, thermal fatigue, top down cracking (for bituminous pavement) etc. Design of joints The spacing of the contraction joint is estimated from the shrinkage potential of concrete. The spacing of the expansion joint is estimated from the coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete, maximum change of temperature and the acceptable joint gap. Since, the concrete is good in compression, the experience over last few decades indicates that concrete pavement can be constructed without any provision of expansion joint (ACPA 1992). The dowel bars are designed by assuming that they participate in the load transfer, when the vehicle moves from one slab to other. The tie bars are designed in such way that they have enough strength to tie the two adjacent slabs. The design of dowel bar and tie bar is discussed in detail later Functional design The functional pavement design involves considerations of skid resistance, roughness, surface distresses, reflectivity of pavement surface etc. The functional pavement design considers mainly the surface features of a pavement. Drainage design A road needs to be designed in such a way that the rain/ snow precipitation is drained off the pavement and its surroundings. A suitable surface drainage system for the pavement is designed for this purpose. Some water, however, will percolate into the pavement from its top surface and needs to be taken out of the pavement - this is done by providing an internal drainage system to the pavement. Water will also try to enter into the pavement from bottom due to capillary rise or due to rise in water table. A suitably designed sub-surface drainage system tries to avoid such a problem. Pavement analysis and design: future perspective

Mix design, quality control, construction method and pavement design together determines the performance and longevity of a pavement. The future pavement design is expected to take an integrated design approach considering all these issues together. The parameters associated with pavement design are stochastic in nature. Thus, the two pavement designs (designed deterministically) having same design traffic may have different levels of reliabilities of survival. Thus, reliability issues of pavement design are gradually becoming important considerations (NCHRP 2005). A pavement designer essentially looks for the most economical design, yet considering the structural, functional, and drainage design requirement. The future pavement design practice is expected to consider the cost optimality over the entire life cycle of the pavement (Abaza and Abu-Eisheh 2003).

Recapitulation The present module highlights the basics of analysis and design of bituminous and concrete pavements. Pavements are analysed as layered horizontal structure with given elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio. Concrete pavement, in general, is made up of discrete slabs - therefore, it has joints both in longitudinal and transverse direction. A

functional and drainage considerations. The second part of the lectures focus on the innovative application concepts of the conventional or the modern materials. application potential. Figure-1 shows a typical cross-section of a bituminous mix sample. Bitumen as a pavement material The characterization of bitumen and bituminous mix has been discussed in detail in the web-course Transportation Engineering .pavement is designed from structural. its property ranges from viscous liquid to brittle solid. The compacted mix. the number of repetitions that the pavement can sustain. Then. laid and subsequently compacted to pack the aggregate particles together. the mix is transported to the site. For concrete pavement design. thus. It discusses about the scope. Pagen 1968. and performance expectation of the new highway materials. The deformation of bitumen is loading rate and temperature dependent (Van der Poel. evaluation. During the compaction process the air voids are brought down to its desired level. achieves its strength when it cools down and becomes serviceable as bituminous road . Fatigue and rutting are two major modes of structural failure of pavements. rather. Deshpande and Cebon 1997). Analysis and design of concrete pavements Objectives The lectures in this module propose to introduce the modern materials in pavement construction. The bituminous mix is manufactured by mixing bitumen and aggregates of specified size distribution at some specified elevated temperature. 1955.I Bitumen is a complex material. temperature stresses are also considered along with stresses due to load. A pavement designer does not design a pavement for the ultimate load the pavement can carry. Usage of modern materials in highway construction and their innovative application is expected to bring economy in terms of material cost as well as better reliability in performance. While bitumen shows linear viscoelastic behaviour at small strains. the nonlinear behaviour becomes more prominent at large strains (Monismith and Secor 1962. . Cheung and Cebon 1997).

linear viscoelastic principle (Lee and Kim 1998. cement and water in suitable proportions.Figure-1 A typical cross-section of a bituminous mix sample The mechanical behaviour of bituminous mix has been studied extensively through various tests. so as to capture the complex mechanical behaviour of bituminous mix. . Various attempts have been made by the researchers. The aggregates could be igneous. fine aggregates. However. prediction of response of bituminous mix through mechanics based models. Kim and Little 2004). Sometimes admixtures are also added to achieve specific behaviour/ property of the material. for example based on. 2005) etc. is a difficult task. Abbas et al. The components of cement concrete are briefly introduced in the following.. Components of cement concrete Aggregates Aggregates are naturally available pieces of rocks. Cement Concrete as a pavement material Introduction Cement concrete is a mixture of coarse aggregates. Figure-1 shows a photograph of aggregates being manufactured from a stone query. The details about the physical properties of aggregates have discussed in the webcourse on Transportation Engineering-1 . discrete element analysis (Sadd 2004. elastic visco plastic principle (Uzan 2005). and empirical relationships have been developed for mix design and prediction of the performance of the mix. sedimentary and metamorphic type depending on its origin.

chemical admixture. the raw materials are mixed in dry state. clay and other ingredients. sulphate resistant cement. rest forms the pores of concrete. retarder . iron ore. quick setting cement. sulfonated hydrocarbons and oils etc (Wright . the raw material is passed through rotating kiln inclined with a small angle with the horizontal line. One of the important concrete admixtures used in pavement construction is the air-entraining admixture. high performance cement. Excess porosity reduces strength of the concrete. fats. There are various other types of cements (for example.org 2006). also it provides desirable level of workability. namely dry process and wet process are followed while manufacturing cement. and however presence of porosity is good for the situations where there is a freeze-thaw problem.) and are manufactured to serve specialized purposes. gypsum. and thereby developing porosity to the concrete. whereas in the wet process raw materials are mixed in presence of water to form slurry . The Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is the most popular. natural cement. all-purpose cement. From this clinkers are formed when cooled. Air entrainer. Admixtures Admixtures are generally of two types. After pre-heating. Air entraining admixtures are derived from natural wood resins. expansive cement.Figure 2: A typical stone quarry Cement Cement is manufactured by heating a mixture of limestone. silica fume are the examples of mineral admixtures. Two processes. Water Water participates in the hydration process. In the dry process. For concrete pavement construction. The kiln is progressively hotter towards its lower end. and. cement is produced. OPC is most commonly used. An animated description of the whole process can be obtained elsewhere (cement. and mineral admixture. Portland pozzolanic cement. where the raw material gets molten. high alumina cement. and after grinding the clinkers. About one third of the water added is utilized in the hydration process. white cement etc. accelerators are examples chemical admixture. fly ash.

Plasticizers may be used for concrete pavement construction purposes which maintain workability without having increased the water-cement ratio. temperature affect the performance of fresh mix. and a detailed discussion can be obtained elsewhere (Neville and Brooks 1999). cement. which renders an early strength of concrete Mix design Through mix design. keeping in view the strength. This process is called curing. workability requirements are different. at some requisite temperature and for a suitable period of time. The tests that are conducted on fresh concrete include workability test and air-content test. For pavement construction. workability. These proportions are achieved through iterative experimental procedure in the laboratory. The curing conditions significantly affect the final strength achieved by the concrete. compacting factor test.and Dixon 2004). There are number of methods for mix design of cement concrete. Figure 3: A typical cement concrete batch mixing plant Properties of fresh concrete Ideally a fresh concrete should be workable. if any) are estimated. Figure 3 shows a photograph of a typical concrete batch mixing plant. only in-situ curing methods are applicable. fine aggregates. Calcium chloride is also used sometimes. Air-entraining admixtures provide durability against freeze-thaw situation. suitable proportions of the ingredients (coarse aggregates. Curing of concrete Presence of adequate amount of moisture. their proportions. slump test. the workability enhances. Vee bee test and flow table test etc. the durability and strength decreases. the proportioning operation is performed in the batch mixing plant . as accelerating agent. . Curing compounds are sometimes applied to retain the moisture against evaporation. For large scale production of cement concrete. however. As water cement ratio is increased in concrete. durability and economic considerations. aggregate shape and sizes. is necessary to complete the hydration process of cement. water and admixture. Constituent properties. Water-cement ratio is an important consideration in the mix design process. For final curing of concrete pavements continuous ponding or moistened hessain/ gunny bags are used . Some of tests through which workability of can be estimated are Kelly ball penetration test. Depending on the type of construction. should not segregate or bleed during construction.

bending strength etc. shape and size. dumper truck. Modulus of rupture of concrete is estimated by measuring the maximum bending stress on concrete beam subjected to pure bending in static condition. creep and shrinkage performance. These parameters are of functions of aggregate type. Direct tension test on concrete is performed by applying tension to the cylindrical or dumble shaped samples of concrete. age etc. Poisson's ratio. Indirect tension is applied to concrete samples by split cylinder test. multiplied by the temperature. Maturity of concrete is calculated as the time of curing (in hours). type and quantity of cement and admixtures incorporated. Nf is the number of load applications to failure. Fatigue test is generally performed subjecting the concrete beams with repetitive flexural loading. SR is the stress ratio with reference to 90 days modulus of rupture. The empirically derived fatigue equation by PCA (1974) is the following: (1) and (2) Where. Compressive strength of concrete is the failure compressive stress on cubical or cylindrical samples of concrete. truck mixer. Figure 4 shows a typical truck concrete mixer. Various empirical relationships are suggested to obtain the various strength parameters of concrete (elastic modulus. (in degrees) above some specified reference temperature. a parameter called maturity. Wheel barrow. The equation suggested by AASHTO (1993) is the following: (3) Transportation of concrete The transportation of concrete is to be done in such a way that segregation and premature setting is avoided.) from the compressive strength of concrete. thermal expansion coefficient etc. tensile strength. pipe-line etc. compressive strength. water cement ratio. are the various ways concrete is transported to the construction site. Compressive strength of concrete is related to the combined effect of temperature and time. The more is the stress ratio (defined as the ratio between the bending stress applied to the modulus of rupture) the less is the fatigue life. elastic modulus. . tensile strength. durability. curing. belt conveyor. modulus of rupture.Properties of hardened concrete Tests are conducted on hardened concrete to estimate properties like.

Table 1 presents a partial list of various types of binder modifiers. Binder modification results improvement of one or more properties of the binder (and hence the mix) viz. SEAM 2004 ) Purpose Polymers Fillers to improve bitumen Lime. EMERGING ROAD MATERIALS Modification of Existing Materials Existing materials may require modifications so as to • • • improve engineering properties of material satisfy general specification requirement of locally available material which in turn would prove to be cost effective meet the demand of special purpose materials having specific properties. Some examples of binder (bitumen) modifiers (RILEM 1998. Widyatmoko 2002. ETM 1999. oxidation potential etc. Example: high or low permeability. These issues are discussed here.Figure 4: A typical truck concrete mixer Introduction Road is a costly infrastructure to build and maintain. stripping potential. their purpose and examples. fatigue resistance. Asphalt Handbook 2000. Thus there is always a need ofr development of (i) new road materials as well as (ii) innovative applications of existing/new materials. Table 1. carbon black. rutting resistance. stiffness modulus. enhanced shear strength etc These have been discussed further under two sections as. temperature susceptibility. fly ash Examples . • • binder (bitumen) modification aggregate modification Binder (bitumen) modification Binder (bitumen) modification is done with the help of additives which may or may not react chemically with bitumen.

Elastomers . Polystyrene service temperatures (PS) Ethylene vinyl acetate without compromising (EVA). with fatigue performance Epoxy resins to obtain insoluble. sulphur substitute and to improve fatigue resistance - Extenders Others Shale oil. silicon.Natural . Through binder modification. viscosity and stiffness Polypropylene (PP). for an economical pavement design. Trinidad lake asphalt (TLA) Non Polymers Fibers Plastics -Thermoplastics to increase the Polyethylene (PE). stripping. this particular disadvantage can be avoided.Reclaimed rubbers to reduce temperature susceptibility and Rubber temperature distresses. Polypropylene filler material. andamides) aggregates to act as bitumen Lignin. amines (like to achieve better Organic compounds adhesion of bitumen to arnines. infusible material that do not flow on heating 3. and vice versa. Isobuteneisoprene copolymer (IIR) to reduce viscosity. as Polyester fibers.durability and check rutting Anti-oxidants Anti-stripping additives to check hardening oxidative Zinc anti-oxidants.Synthetic . . age. lead antioxidant. fibers -Thermosets For conventional binders. Styrene-butadieneand binder-aggregate styrene copolymer (SBS).Styrene-butadiene copolymer hardening. both high elastic modulus as well as high fatigue life is desirable. Ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM). bleeding (SBR). inorganic fibers. Polyvinyl of bitumen at normal chloride (PVC). However. gilsonite. Figure 5 presents this concept schematically. phenolics. it is generally observed that the mixes with high stiffness modulus (E) show low fatigue life.

Industrial and Domestic Wastes • • • Industrial and domestic waste products provide a prospective source of alternative materials. Also.As can be seen in Figure 5. it is expected that the performances of the conventional as well as new materials can be tested on a same set-up and be compared. However. pozzolanic substance etc. . The bituminous mixes with modified binder does not allow the mix to be too hard (high E value) or too soft (low E value) at low and high temperatures respectively. researchers are looking for suitable alternative materials. These materials are cheaply available. Aggregate modification • • The marginal or poor quality aggregates can be improved by using some cementing material such as cement. The tests and specifications. lime. Thus the stiffness versus temperature curve takes a 'Sshape' as shown in Figure 5. alternative materials). On the other hand. may differ substantially from those of the conventional materials. new tests are to be devised and new acceptability criteria are to be formed. for example. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS • • • • • Given the fact that good quality aggregates are depleting and cost of material extraction is increasing. Thus. at high temperature the E value becomes too low and the mix becomes soft. with the advent of performance-based tests. their use in road construction provides an efficient solution to the associated problems of pollution and disposal of these wastes. may be inappropriate for evaluation of non-conventional materials ( i.e. particle sizes. for mixes with ordinary binder. although elastic modulus E value is higher initially at low temperatures. grading and chemical structure. This is because the material properties. for an appropriate assessment of these materials. which are applicable for conventional materials. The proportions of the cementing material and other ingredients (like water) can be suitably estimated in the laboratory. at high E value the fatigue performance generally becomes poor.

filler in bituminous mix.. . Sherwood 1995. recycling demolition waste Colliery spoil Spent oil shale Foundry sands Mill tailings Coal mining Petrochemical industry Foundry industry Mineral industry Bulk-fill Bulk-fill Bulk-fill. Javed et al. 1994) Material Fly ash Advantages Disadvantages of Lightweight.. crack-relief layer processing Granular base/sub-base. 2002. May show inconsistent properties . aggregates in bituminous mix Nonferrous slags Mineral industry China clay Bricks industry Table 3. slow strength development pozzolanic properties Higher skid resistance Light weight ( phosphorus slag) Metallic slag . aggregates in bituminous mix. Sherwood 1995. Binder in soil stabilization (ground slag) Construction and Construction industry Base/ Sub-base material. artificial aggregates Base/ Sub-base material. 1994) Waste product Source Possible usage Fly ash Blast slag Thermal station furnace Steel industry power Bulk fill. used as binder in Lack of homogeneity.. Suitability of using industrial waste products in road construction (TFHRC 2004. 2003. Table 2. filler for concrete. Hawkins et al.. aggregate processing Bulk-fill. Okagbue et al. 2003.. Javed et al. bulk fill Cement kiln dust Cement industry Marble dust Waste tyres Glass waste Marble industry Glass industry Used engine oil Automobile industry Air entraining of concrete Automobile industry Rubber modfied bitumen. aggregates in bituminous mix and tile Bulk-fill. Mroueh et al.Steel slag Nonferrous Unsuitable for concrete and fill work beneath slabs. 1999.. Industrial waste product usage in road construction (TFHRC 2004. binder in bituminous mix Filler in bituminous mix Glass-fibre reinforcement. Hamad et al.Table 2 presents a partial list of industrial waste materials that can be used in road construction. Nunes et al. Hamad et al. Table 3 summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of using specific industrial wastes in road construction. presence stabilized base/ sub-base due to sulphates.. 2003. Hawk ins et al. 1996. bulk-fill. 2003. bulk fill Stabilization of base.

For conventional road materials. Ground water pollution due to leachate granular fill formation. Processing is done to remove ferrous and nonferrous metals and to achieve the required particle size gradation. volume stability. MSW ash is primarily used as fine aggregate. can be used Requires well organized in collection system concrete works Rubber tires Enhances fatigue life used oil Requires special techniques for fine grinding and mixing with bitumen. used as unbound aggregates Combustion of unburnt coal. specific gravity. a number of tests are conducted and their acceptability is decided based on the test results and the specifications. in terms of its permeability. durability. less affinity to bitumen Some are pozzolanic in nature Presence of poisonous materials (e. can be used in soil roads) in contact because of significant stabilization alkali percentage Used engine oil Good air entertainer.. . can be used as May show inconsistent properties and aggregates granular base demolition waste Blast slag furnace Used in production of cement. hardness.g. safety. The ash can also be stabilized with portland cement or lime to produce stabilized base/sub-base material (TFHRC 2004). Due to the presence of larger fraction of fines. toughness. It is also used as a fill material in road construction.slag Construction More strength. sometimes segregation occurs The incenerated municipal soild waste (MSW). strength. whichever are applicable. purity. temperature susceptibility etc. This ensures the desirable level of performance of the chosen material. shape. after further processing. sulphate attack in case of concrete roads Burning of combustible materials Colliery spoil Spent oil shale Foundry sands Mill tailings Substitute for fine aggregate in Presence of heavy metals in non ferrous bituminous mixes foundry origin.viscosity. can be used as fines in bituminous mixes. cyanide from gold extraction) Cement kiln dust Hardens when exposed to Corrosion of metals (used in concrete moisture.. fatigue.

1. wet mix macadam. built-up spray grout. As an alternative approach. INNOVATIVE APPLICATIONS Innovative applications may be construction method based or design principle based. Figure6 presents a suggested flow chart to evaluate the suitability of industrial waste for potential usage in highway construction. this process does not require any modification to the existing batch mixing plant. cement kiln dust. incenerated refuse etc.known as dry-process.There are a large number tests suggested by various guidelines/ specifications. Road paving with steel slag aggregate show • • good skid resistance mechanical strength able to withstand heavy traffic and surface wearing. also. 2000). Nunes et al. 1996). lean cement concrete etc. The angular shape of the aggregates helps to form strong interlocking structure. tiny crumb rubber pieces can be mixed with aggregates . constitute various specifications for road construction. for example. . have been successfully used to produce synthetic aggregates. at varied proportions. It has good binding properties with bitumen due to its high calcium oxide content (NatSteel 1993).1 Construction Method Based A mixture of aggregate and binding material.3. Research shows improved fatigue performance for this kind of materials (Sibal et al. Mixing bitumen with rubber (natural or crumb form) sometimes poses difficulty. Evaluation industrial waste for suitability in highway construction Health and safety considerations should be given due importance handing industrial waste materials ( Mroueh and Wahlström 2002. Some of the relevant issues are discussed in the following. many industrial and other waste products like fly-ash. Discussion on all these standard specifications have been skipped here. Other alternative materials Steel slag aggregate is a good example of synthetic aggregates obtained from byproducts of industrial processes. rather. Also. bituminous concrete. some specific mixes and their construction methods are discussed.

environmental pollution . Comparison of hot bituminous mix (HBM) and emulsified bituminous mix (EBM) Property Heating HBM Strong heating required. cold) so no Setting time Low Applicability Convenience Energy Clear weather temperatures Relatively difficult construction than Relatively easy construction EBM Relatively higher requirement Relatively lower requirement Inherent anti-stripping agents More costly fire and Free from such hazards Uniqueness Modifiers needed Economy Safety Less costly Hazards from fuming. rainy seasons. the final strength of EBM is comparable to that of HBM. A relative comparison between the EBM and hot bituminous mix (HBM) has been presented in Table 4. hardening occurs EBM oxidativeNo heating required. It may be noted that though the rate of strength gain in EBM is slower (refer Figure 7). oxidative hardening High with high ambient All weather (wet surfaces.Emulsified bituminous mix Cold emulsified bituminous mix (EBM) is gaining more and more acceptance for its environmental friendliness and less hazardous construction process. Table 4.

with the added advantages of flexibility and fatigue resistance (Ramanujam and Kendall. FBM can be compacted immediately and can carry traffic almost immediately after compaction is completed ( Jenkins et al. it is now gaining popularity owing to its good performance. resulting in spontaneous foaming and temporary alteration of the physical properties of the bitumen. water and bitumen.. Foamed bitumen can achieve stiffness comparable to those of cement-treated materials. . ease of construction and compatibility with a wide range of aggregate types (Transportek 1998). the friction between the aggregates is maintained at higher temperatures. FBMs usually lack resistance to abrasion and raveling and are not suitable for wearing/friction course applications. Figure-8 represents schematically the manufacture of FBM. The strength characteristics of FBMs are highly moisture dependent. Although the foamed bitumen technology was developed more than forty years ago. 1999). Usage of FBM results in reduction in binder content and transportation costs.Foamed bituminous mix • • • • • • • • Foamed bituminous mix (FBM) is a foamed mixture of air. FBMs are not as temperature susceptible as HBM. This is because of the relatively low binder content and high void content of foamed bituminous mixes. 2003 ). Since larger aggregates are not coated with binder. as it requires less binder and water than other types of cold mixing methods. It is produced by injecting very small quantity of water into the hot bitumen.

• A weak granular base overlies a reasonably strong subgrade. reflection cracking etc. Maurer et al.. • Can be effectively used in desert road stabilization etc. • Granular base too thin to consider using cementitious binders. bleeding. Ultra-thin whitetopping .. (Jenkins et al. Fiber reinforced bituminous mix Addition of various kinds of fibers to the binder and aggregates during mix preparation process results in fiber reinforced bituminous mix (FRBM). Research shows that FRBMs develop good resistance to aging. fatigue cracking. requirement of specific equipment for mix production. moisture damage. 2003). 1989). 1996. Fibers are generally blended with bitumen binder before mixing it with the aggregates to achieve complete coating and even distribution throughout the mix.. (Serfass and Samanos. 2003 ). Relatively high cost. sensitivity to aggregate grading and stripping risk are some of the disadvantages with the foamed bituminous mix ( Jenkins et al.Schematic presentation of FBM manufacture ( Romanoschi 2003 ) Some specific situations where use of foamed bitumen technology can be considered are: • A pavement which has been repeatedly patched to the extent that pavement repairs are no longer cost effective.

Thick composite section behaviour causes the corner stresses to decrease. aviation taxiways and runways. Due to bonding. Figure -9 Flexible composite pavement using UTW UTW is an excellent resurfacing option for deteriorated bituminous pavements which otherwise require frequent repair or overlays. Following are some of the advantages of a UTW system (CAC 2004. On the other hand. UTW can be designed for low-speed. a thin layer of high-strength. • It provides improved skid resistance. • The UTW concrete resists bitumen aging. Bituminous recycling . Short joint spacing is used to decrease the slab area that can curl or warp thus minimizing the corresponding stresses (MTTP 2004). the neutral axis in concrete shifts from the middle of concrete layer towards its bottom. • Its light colour reflects more light than bituminous pavement.Overlaying technique of pavement rehabilitation is well known and widely practiced. • It is less costly to maintain. In this technique. bus stops and tollbooths. Murison 2002): • It is beneficial for repair of roads and intersections having problems of rutting. milled surface of distressed bituminous concrete pavement to achieve a full or partial bonding. and poor drainage. Bonding makes the two layers behave as a monolithic unit and share the load. • It causes minimal traffic disruption due to faster construction and repair procedure. • Its heat-reflecting property can help to lower the average city temperature. than conventional flexible pavements. • Its small panels are ideal for utility maintenance. This results in a lowering of stresses at the bottom of concrete layer. cracks. • The UTW concrete prevents degradation of bituminous surface due to fuel spills. fiber-reinforced concrete is placed over a clean. downward shifting of neutral axis may cause critical load location to shift from edges to corners thus increasing the corner stresses. low volume traffic areas such as street intersections. ultra thin whitetopping (UTW) of concrete over existing bituminous pavement is a relatively new concept. and does not require frequent resurfacing and repairs. However. A schematic diagram of UTW have been presented in Figure-9.

and compacted. bitumen and aggregates are separated out (partly or fully) and used again. . (iii) hot in-place recycling In hot in-place recycling method the existing asphalt surface is heated. Semi flexible grouted macadam • Grouted Macadam consists of a single sized porous bituminous layer whose voids can be filled with the selected fluid grout or cementitious slurry. Rejuvenators (like road oils and flux oils) are sometimes added for improvement in properties of reclaimed bitumen There are four major technologies exist for bituminous pavement recycling (NCHRP452). Bitumen ages due to oxidation with atmospheric oxygen as a result of which resins get converted into asphaltenes (Petersen. Mix is transported to paving site. if necessary and recycling agent in emulsion form is introduced. and compacted. Fresh thin (soft grade) bitumen having low viscosity can be used to replenish the aged bitumen. Reuse of deteriorated road materials which in turn solves the disposal problem. Reduction in susceptibility to reflection cracking. 1984). (iv) full depth reclamation Here all the bituminous layers and predetermined thickness of underlying material is pulverized. Preservation of the environment. A surface course is applied over it. scarified material combined with aggregate and/or bituminous binder and/or recycling agent and compacted. stabilized with additives. Solution to the problem of scarcity of good quality material. Recycling is based on the fact that bitumen obtained from old deteriorated bituminous pavement. aggregates are tested for their gradation and bitumen is tested for its engineering properties. New overlay may or may not be provided.In recycling method. RAP. To judge the suitability for use as a recycled material. scarified to a depth from 20 to 40 mm. placed. They are (i) hot mix recycling Here recycled asphalt pavement ( RAP) is combined with fresh aggregate and bituminous binder or recycling agent in a hot mix plant. (ii) cold in-place recycling In this the existing pavement is milled up to a depth of 75 to 100mm. The specific benefits of recycling of bituminous pavement can be summarized as: • • • • • • Conservation of energy and construction material. By this process bitumen loses its ductility and becomes more brittle. Prevention of undesirable rise in height of finished surface and preservation of the existing road geometrics. then compacted. The optimum quantity of reclaimed material to be mixed with fresh material is generally determined from mix design process. may still has its residual properties and recycling helps in restoring those residual properties of the bitumen.

mineral fillers. generally sustainability of a pavement structure against fatigue and rutting failures is considered. • High static bearing capacity and wear resistance (as for concrete) by use of cementitious grout. • Flexibility and absence of joints by use of bitumen. • • Structural design considerations. surface sealing. Design Principle Based This section discusses about the design principle based innovative applications of road materials. 2002). depending upon other input parameters viz.• • The porous bituminous skeleton is designed to achieve a high void content while maintaining a thick bitumen coating on the aggregate particles (Zoorob et al. material type etc.. Micro-surfacing • • • • Micro-surfacing is a fast and economical surface treatment technique used for preventive maintenance of bituminous and cement concrete pavements. and. . Austroads 1992. Its thickness may be varied to achieve desired objective(s) such as rut-filling. IRC:37-2001) are available. additives and water. corresponding thickness of bituminous layer can be read from these charts. these design charts generally provide thickness composition of bituminous and granular layers. A number of design thickness combinations of bituminous and granular layers are possible which satisfies the above mentioned requirement. thereby extending the pavement life. for which the critical responses are: (a) the tensile strain at the bottom fibre of bituminous layer and (b) the vertical strain at the top of the subgrade. Micro-surfacing is generally used to restore the top wearing surface of pavement as a maintenance measure.. Discussion has been divided into two parts viz. Grouted macadam gives advantages of both flexible and rigid pavements namely. Polymer modified emulsion. surface texturing. repairing abraded wheel path channels etc (ODOT 2004. cold blended with fine graded aggregates. Miller 2004). A designer can choose any suitable granular layer thickness. Standard design charts developed by various organizations (Shell 1978. gives the high performing micro-surfacing mixture. skid resistance improvement. and Mix design considerations Optimum pavement design thickness In Mechanistic-Empirical pavement design. design life. temperature. noise reduction. traffic. subgrade strength. Asphalt Institute 1981.

Typical pavement design chart POINT A . They are safe. B.Just safe from both rutting and fatigue considerations. POINT E . Das 2004 ). POINT D. POINT C. Similarly. 2001). The reader can point the cursor on the respective points to know about their status. C.Safe from fatigue but insafe from rutting considerations.Safe from rutting but oversafe from fatigue considerations. et al. there could be cost optimal point.Figure 10. where bituminous and granular layer thicknesses are selected such that the total cost of materials used is minimized. Figure 10 illustrates a typical design chart.. Similarly. oversafe or unsafe from fatigue or rutting considerations. 2001. The cost optimal point may or may not coincide with the structurally optimal point (Narasimham et al. which are just safe from fatigue consideration. POINT B. Point F. In the design chart the fatigue curve and the rutting curve intersects at a point (point O in this case) that may be called as structurally balanced design point (Narasimham.Safe from rutting but unsafe from fatigue considerations. Figure 10 shows various points like A.Unsafe from both rutting and fatigue considerations. the rutting curve shown as AOB in Figure 10 represents those points which are just safe from rutting consideration. The design chart consists of two curves: fatigue curve and rutting curve. Thickness of pavement layers chosen according to this point will result in a pavement deign which would fail due to fatigue and rutting simultaneously.Safe from fatigue but oversafe from rutting considerations.Oversafe from both rutting and fatigue considerations POINT O. D. Perpetual pavement . The fatigue curve shown as COD in Figure 10 represents the points. without compromising with the structural adequacy of the pavement. etc.

A perpetual bituminous pavement may be defined as a pavement designed and built to last longer than fifty years without requiring major structural rehabilitation or reconstruction (APA101 2001). The concept of full depth bituminous pavement is in vogue from 1980s in USA. 1997) that thick bituminous pavements tend to show long lasting performance and may require only minor surface repairs. 2001) first implemented concept of perpetual pavement in a rehabilitation planning project. Berkeley (Monismith et al. The intermediate layer is constituted with good quality aggregates and designed to be strongly resistive to rutting. Nunn and his associates of Transport Research Laboratory. is made up of the following layers: • • • The top wearing surface is designed in such a way that it is water-tight as well as removable and hence replaceable. In full depth bituminous pavement. They also produce less noise due to tyre-pavement interaction. Figure 11 Layer composition of a perpetual pavement. California Department of Transportation in collaboration with University of California. A perpetual pavement. The principles based on which it is designed (mix design and structural thickness design) are the following: . UK found (Nunn et al. This pavement may only require periodic replacement of top wearing surface and recycling of old pavement material (TRL 2001. the thickness is so designed that the fatigue and rutting strains developed are below the permissible limit (MS-1 1999 ). then the fatigue life becomes very long... Figure-11 schematically represents the layer composition of a typical perpetual pavement. If the thickness is chosen to be sufficiently large so that the fatigue strain is close to the endurance limit. Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) or Open Graded Friction Course (OGFC) are recommended. A perpetual pavement is a full depth bituminous pavement in most of the cases. and the pavement may be said to have attended 'perpetual life'. AA-2 2001). The bottom part is made resistant to fatigue cracking by making it rich in bitumen and choosing a gradation that has less voids. in general.

higher bitumen content helps to give greater restraint against fatigue cracking. Since fatigue cracks start from bottom of bituminous layer. Therefore the bituminous mixes with temperature susceptible binder should be avoided as surface course. 1997). low vertical subgrade strain would cause low level of rutting... Higher bitumen content increases the thickness of the binder film between aggregates resulting in lower stress in the binder film. The wearing surface should be adequately water-proof. Use of modified binder could be helpful in this regard. which shifts the endurance limit to higher level. Nunn et al. However. with increased amount of binder content. The thickness of the bituminous layer is chosen in such a way that the horizontal tensile strain (εt) developed is less than the endurance limit (refer Figure-12) of the bituminous mix.• • • • The pavement layers are chosen in such a way that they are rut resistive. Rich bottom bituminous pavement Increased binder content above the optimum content can appreciably enhance the fatigue life. The temperature gradient tends to be steeper towards the surface of the pavement (TRL 2001. 1996). It is justifiable to design the pavement as 'bottom rich' (refer to next section). the bituminous mix tends to be softer and thereby its stiffness modulus value may fall. and thus the fatigue life is improved (Sousa et al. Harvey et al. Since subgrade contributes to the major part of rutting. Newcomb 2001) as shown schematically in Figure-12. . The surface should be so designed that it can be repaired or recycled and the whole pavement will not require any major reconstruction (AA-2 2001). This mutually contradictory situation can be handled by using a bituminous pavement layer where it is made richer in binder content towards the bottom layer(s). Figure 12 Idealized diagram of fatigue characteristics of bituminous mixes. 1998. hence its laboratory fatigue life (N) becomes infinity (AA22001. The pavement is chosen to be adequately thick such that the vertical subgrade strain is low. A mix designer's objective would be to achieve both high stiffness and high fatigue life.

This concept has been termed as 'rich bottom pavement' (Monismith et al. Bituminous pavement with cemented base . Out of three possible alternatives. is a high depth pavement whose supporting layers are thicker and stiffer than top layers. This arrangement causes the critical stress/strain plane to be located at the interface of the BC and GAB layers.. According to SARB. 2002). Figure 13 Rich bottom pavement Figure 14 Two grades of bitumen used in two layers Inverted pavements • • • • Inverted pavement system. has shown that an inverted base provides enough structural performance to support traffic loadings up to 100 million Equivalent Single-Axle Loads (ESAL s) with a maximum two inch bitumen riding course (Halsted. this type of system proves to be more cost effective for construction of long lasting pavements. Research by South African Roads Board (SARB 2004) and Georgia Department of Transportation. In Figure-14. quantity of bitumen is used more towards the bottom of the layer. Thus only the top portion of the inverted pavement structure absorbs the traffic loads as compared to conventional design where thick sections are required for load distribution. In Figure-13. Harvey et al. The system consists of a thin bituminous concrete (BC) layer provided on top of a graded aggregate base (GAB) layer. or inverted base. Harvey and Tsai 1996). two different bituminous mixes are used in two layers. alternative-II turns out to be the best alternative. A portland cement-treated stiff base layer is provided at the bottom.. 1997. Figures 13 and 14 provide two such options of achieving this condition. 2001.

The stiffness modulus of cemented layer is generally found to be much higher than granular sub-base. due to shrinkage cracks. . the cemented base layer contributes to some fatigue life. the stiffness modulus falls rapidly. which may give rise to comparative reduction of design thickness of bituminous layer (Das and Pandey 1998).• • • • The cemented bases are derived from aggregates mixed with some binding material. This change in stiffness values at different stages of the design life has been schematically shown in Figure-15(a) and Figure-15(b) presents a typical design chart for design of bituminous pavement with cemented base made up of limesoil mixture. 15 (a) Change of elastic modulus of cemented bases at different phases. it also has some fatigue life. however. unlike the unbound granular base. Thus. Since it is bounded layer.

Voids in Mineral Aggregates (VMA). are used to hold the bitumen in place (Better Roads 2003. Porous bituminous layer consists of gap-graded aggregates (lower percentage fines). This gives a structurally strong mix due to efficient load distribution through the stone-matrix skeleton. and aquaplaning tendency thereby improving the wet skid resistance. But. yet without compromising with the VMA and Marshall-stability requirements. GDOT 1995. A geotextile layer is placed at the bottom to screen off fine soil particles. Porous pavement • • • • • • Porous pavement is a special type of pavement which allows surface water to pass through it. Porous pavement may be effectively used in light traffic areas like parking areas. footpaths. Gap gradation aims at maximizing stoneto-stone contact. held together by a fiber-bitumen blend.A typical design chart of bituminous pavement with cemented base (LS º lime soil) Mix design considerations Non-standard gradation The fatigue life of the mix can be increased by increasing the bitumen content. being fixed for a given gradation and compaction level. Porous pavement has been found (RPL 2001) to be quite effective in reducing noise levels. This may arise possibility of drain-down of low-grade penetration bitumen through the stone matrix . which is undesirable for a mix. airport taxiway and runway shoulders. Stone matrix asphalt Stone matrix asphalt (SMA) is a gap-graded bituminous mix with high percentage of coarse aggregates with high bitumen content. groundwater level and topography of the area is suitable (Michele.. However one can deviate from the specified gradation in order to come up with a new gradation. . playgrounds etc. modifiers. Decoene et al. Pavement structure consists of a top porous bituminous layer placed over a filter layer below which a highly permeable open-graded stone layer (known as reservoir course). thereby keeping the road surface water-free. 1990). The drawback of this method is the absence of medium sized aggregates due to gap gradation. the reservoir course stores the runoff water (in the void spaces in aggregate layers) until it can infiltrate into the soil beneath. which possibly can give rise to better fatigue performance. DEQ 1992). as well as providing drainage outlet to storm water. such as cellulose fibers. USEPA 1999. splash and spray during rains. increase in bitumen content will result in less Air Voids (VA). giving a matrix structure which allows movement of water through its fine voids. Besides load bearing. To check this possibility. 2003. provided that the subsoil drainage.

. in suitable proportions. Cement concrete is a mixture of coarse aggregates. cement and water. workability. thermal expansion coefficient etc are the tests conducted on hardened concrete.pre-stressed concrete pavement. Introduction The concrete pavement can be of three types. such as airport runway pavement. There could be another variety . Various modifications and inovatory applications of pavement materials and pavement design brings in better performance and economy. Poisson's ratio. They are modified from time-to-time to match with the technological advancements. because the reinforcement holds the . Recapitulations Cement is manufactured by heating a mixture of limestone. clay and other ingredients. Through mix design. jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP). and may impair future performance after rehabilitation. durability and economics. Compressive strength. and discuss briefly the provisions prescribed in various design guidelines. suitable proportions of the ingredients of concrete are estimated considering strength. modulus of rupture. fine aggregates. The relative advantages and disadvantages are mentioned in Table-5 (Swanlund and Vanikar 2002). which has specialized application. Table -5 Advantages and disadvantages of various types of concrete pavements (Swanlund and Vanikar 2002) Pavement type Jointed plain pavement (JPCP) Advantages Disadvantages concrete Reliable design and can be Joint maintenance is costly used at all locations. Various design approaches Objective • The objective is this lecture is to introduce the basic principle of concrete pavement design.CLOSING REMARKS Certain standard methods are followed for road design and construction. durability. elastic modulus.dopavement (JRCP) Damage due to pavement cracking is less severe than JPCP. gypsum. Certain modifications in the mix design or structural design can give rise to substantial economy in terms of the longevity of the pavement or the cost of the material concerned. Workability test and aircontent test are the tests generally conducted on fresh concrete. jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP) and continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP). Jointed reinforced concrete Fewer joints than JPCP. creep and shrinkage. tensile strength. iron ore.

2. JPCP is the most popularly used pavement. such as. modulus of rupture etc. 3. The input parameters are either found out experimentally or estimated from various recommendations provided in the design guidelines (ACI 2001. construct. or unbound sub-base layer. It provides uniform support to the concrete slab. k in idealized model represents the spring constant of a dense liquid foundation. Continuously reinforced No joints. in general. Interestingly. are the engineering parameters used for the structural design of the concrete pavement. Concrete slab. a factor called the load safety factor .cracked portion in position. lane traffic. IS-456). Material parameters The elastic modulus. and calculation of axle load repetitions have already been introduced in the other web course on Transportation Engineering-I. The k value is obtained by performing plate load test on the subgrade. hence smooth ride High initial cost. The design approaches for JRCP and CRCP have been discussed elsewhere . It controls shrinkage of concrete slab or swelling of subgrade soil The effective k value that includes the sub-base layer and the subgrade should be used for design of thickness of the concrete slab. The sub-base layer provided below the concrete pavement serves certain purposes (Austroads 2004). Traffic parameters The concept of axle load. vehicle damage factor (VDF) (also known as Truck Factor (MS-1 1999)) is not considered in concrete pavement design. and not directly on subgrade. Design parameters The design parameters can be primarily divided into three categories. stabilized. Statistically suitable design value is to be adopted if there are variations in the input parameters (Chakroborty and Das 2003). Maintenance is costly and difficult. PCA 1984. Austroads 2004) suggest suitable values of effective k when the type and thickness of the sub-base layer is known. material. It limits pumping at joints and slab edges. or by computational means. are constructed on bound. traffic volume. traffic and environmental parameters and are discussed in the following. wheel configuration. Poisson's ratio. 1. ASTM 2003. AASHTO 1993. complex to concrete pavement (CRCP) and long service life. The IRC:58 (2002) provides a table with suggested k values when CBR values of subgrade are known. fatigue life. The present lecture discusses various design approaches for design of JPCP pavements. traffic growth rate. To take care of the variability of traffic axle load measurement. This is due to the fact that typically for concrete pavement design considers the individual damages created by individual axle load groups are considered. The modulus of subgrade reaction (k) is generally used for characterization of subgrade strength. This effective k value can be obtained by performing plate load test on the constructed sub-base. and unpredicted heavy truck load. Various guidelines (IRC:58 2002.

Design life Design life is the number of years (or number of standard axle repetitions) for which the pavement is being designed. it can withstand virtually infinite number of traffic repetitions (PCA 1984). and erosion distress. Environmental parameters The temperature and the subgrade moisture are the environmental parameters that affect the concrete pavement design. The calculation process is repeated for various axle loads (sometimes. Austroads method (2004). except the AASHTO (1993) provisions. The axle loads are generally divided into different axle load groups and the load stresses are calculated individually. Temperature issues in concrete pavement has been discussed in the lecture 'analysis of concrete pavement' . for example. the trial thickness is changed and the design process is repeated. If the stress ratio is 0. The subgrade moisture level affects the subgrade strength and also it induces curling stresses due to moisture gradient. which is based on empirical approach. For concrete pavements 20 to 40 years may be assumed as the design life (PCA 1984. NCHRP (2004). The stress ratio determines how many repetitions the pavement can sustain (i. If found unsafe. moisture stresses. IRC:58 2002). IRC:58 2002). viz. and the sum of individual damage fractions ( cumulative fatigue damage ) should be less than equal to one for pavement design being safe. A pavement is expected to serve satisfactorily within the design life.(LSF) is generally used in concrete pavement design and is multiplied with the total equivalent standard axle load repetitions (Austroads 2004. Austroads (2004). for various seasons. The design process may also include considerations for temperature stress. IRC:58 (2002) etc. The basic steps involved in the design of concrete pavement method can be summarized as follows: • • • The developed stresses due to load for a trial thickness of the concrete slab are calculated for various loading configuration and the critical one is chosen. the design principles tend to remain similar across different guidelines. NCHRP mechanistic-empirical method (2004) and the Indian Roads Congress (IRC) method (2002) are placed in the following: Portland Cement Association (PCA) Method . Various design approaches A brief discussion on concrete pavement design approaches suggested by various design practices. The ratio between the load stress and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) is known as stress ratio . AASHTO method (1993). or various timings of the day).55 or lower. Basic design principle Though different approaches for concrete pavement design are suggested in various guidelines. PCA (1994). The ratio between the allowable repetitions to the expected traffic repetitions is the damage fraction.e. The temperature variation and the temperature differential induces temperature stresses to the concrete pavement.. allowable traffic repetitions ) for the individual axle load group. PCA method (1984).

the concrete pavement slab thickness. Figure-19 Schematic diagram of Austroads (2004) chart for estimation of effective subgrade strength As per Astroads (2004). Austroads method Austroads method has been adopted from PCA (1984) approach with modifications suited to Australian conditions (Austroads 2004). The rate at which the slab is deflected due to axle load is used as a criterion for erosion. equations are suggested to calculate the allowable traffic repetitions. then the design needs to be revised. If this value is greater than one. compared to thicker slab. Bates test road. A bound mix or lean cement concrete is used as sub-base material. the design is revised by increasing . The cumulative fatigue damage principle is used to estimate the design thickness of the slab. If the allowable traffic is less than the expected traffic. Hence thin slab is more susceptible to erosion. Picket and Ray's work and further theoretical analysis by Finite Element Method (Huang 1993). ASSHO road test. most of the time the stresses generated are subtractive to the load stress. Arlington test (conducted by PCA). and Maryland road test (PCA 1984). because. Figure-19 schematically shows such a chart.The PCA method is based on Westergaard. like. Austroads (2004) suggests minimum values of the base thicknesses to be provided. The possibility of erosion of pavement materials placed below the concrete slab is evaluated. due to repetitive application of traffic load is estimated. The PCA design method is based on the following two considerations (PCA 1984): • • • The fatigue damage on the concrete slab. is designed considering the (i) flexural fatigue of the concrete slab and the (ii) subgrade erosion arising out of repeated deflections. In a similar way the cumulative erosion damage is calculated for individual axle load groups. The data used to develop the PCA method is generated from various road tests. the effective subgrade strength can be obtained from the chart provided. Edge stress between the mid-way of the transverse joint is taken as critical configuration. The stresses due to warping and curling (due to temperature and moisture gradient) are not considered in the fatigue analysis as per PCA recommendation. it can be shown that a thin pavement with smaller deflection basin is subjected to faster rate of deflection. Theoretically. For both the considerations. For a given CBR value of the subgrade and given thickness of cemented sub-base. for a given expected traffic repetitions. For different levels of traffic.

The composite modulus of subgrade reaction ( k) is estimated from modulus of subgrade reaction and elastic modulus of sub-base for various seasons and the depth of rigid foundation and the thickness of the sub-base. pavement material engineering parameters. drainage condition. The order of variation of temperature stress is just the reverse of this. joint load transfer efficiency. strain and displacement values are obtained.5 and the pavement is deemed to have failed when the PSI value reaches 2. has adopted the Westergaard's equation to estimate load stress and Brdabury's equation to estimate temperature stress. AASHTO method The AASHTO method (1993) for design of concrete pavement has evolved from the AASHO road test (AASHO 1962). average daily traffic. percentage sunshine. traffic growth rate. wind speed.5. heat capacity etc. it is recommended that the design needs to be done for edge stress condition and subsequently check needs to be performed for corner stress condition so as to finalize the design. 2004). precipitation. drainage. NCHRP mechanistic-empirical (M-E) method The NCHRP (2004) has recently developed concrete pavement design procedure based on mechanistic-empirical (M-E) approach. but the temperature profile is linearized to enhance computational efficiency (NCHRP 2004). IRC:58 (2002). This approach attempts to reduce the extent of empiricism prevalent in the existing AASHTO (1993) guidelines. ground water depth. lesser in edge and least in the interior. for example. This proposed NCHRP pavement design system is modular in nature. the design revised. hydraulic conductivity. As per IRC:58 (2002). Suggested values are also available for given moisture content. relative humidity. cracking) and smoothness and predicted. loss of serviceability. the design approach can be modified by parts (as and when new knowledge is available) without disrupting the overall design procedure. This approach also can take care of various wheel-axle load configuration (Khanum et al. plasticity index etc. If these predicted performance parameters does not satisfy the required performance for a given reliability. The design approach includes a large data-base as input parameters. The temperature stress is considered in this method. that is. hourly weather data on air temperature. The load stress is highest at the corner of the slab. The resilient moduli of the subgrade and sub-base materials are determined in the laboratory simulating the seasonal moisture content and stress situation. properties of concrete. As per this approach trial thickness of the slab is first assumed. The concrete shoulders adopted are of integral type or structural type . The following are the steps followed as per IRC:58 (2002) guideline for the design of concrete pavement: . and the stress. subgrade and sub-base strength. Design equation as well nomographs are available to estimate the slab thickness ( D) from these input parameters. the performance of the pavement in terms of distresses (such as faulting. thermal conductivity. Indian Roads Congress (IRC) method The Indian Roads Congress (IRC) guidelines. overall standard deviation and reliability are the input parameters considered in the pavement design. Pavement performance in terms of present serviceability index ( PSI ).the slab thickness. From these values. The PSI value of the fresh pavement is assumed as 4. cumulative traffic. traffic composition. infiltration. The AASHTO pavement design follows an empirical approach.

A trial thickness of the concrete slab is assumed. If there is a bound sub-base layer over the subgrade. The stresses due to temperature and/or moisture gradient are ignored in PCA (1994) and Austroads (2002) guidelines. The sum of edge stress due to load for the highest axle load group and the temperature stress should be less than the MOR of concrete. Austroads (2004). Faulting and smoothness are the other considerations in the design. the AASHTO (1993) approach of pavement design is purely empirical. the load stresses are primarily considered. Westergaard's corner stress formula is for estimation of corner stress due to load. a suitable value of effective k is to be adopted. and the corner stress due to temperature is assumed to be zero.• • • • • The input parameters are obtained to formulate the design problem. otherwise the design is revised. NCHRP (2004). whereas. While considering the cumulative fatigue damage (in M-E approach). Design of dowel bars Objective The objective of this lecture is to introduce the concept of design of dowel bars. The cumulative fatigue damage principle for fatigue is applied to check the adequacy of the slab thickness. The adequacy of corner stress is checked with respect to MOR value and accordingly the design is finalized. IRC:58 (2002) are based on M-E approach. The joint spacing and the slab dimensions are decided. The edge stress is estimated for various axle loads from the given charts. Figure20 schematically shows such a chart. The design guidelines such as PCA (1994). Cumulative damage principle is employed to evaluate the expected level of damage. . Figure-20 Schematic diagram of IRC:58 chart for estimation of load stress at the edge (IRC:58 2002) Recapitulation • • • The fatigue and erosion damages are generally considered as primary structural factors which govern the concrete pavement design by mechanistic-empirical (ME) approach. but are considered in IRC:58 (2002) and NCHRP (2004) guidelines.

Around half of the length of this bar is embedded in one of the concrete slabs and the remaining portion is bonded in the other adjacent slab. .Introduction Dowel bars are placed at the transverse joints of concrete pavement and they take part in partial wheel load transfer from one slab to its adjacent slab. in the lecture on 'analysis of concrete pavement' . Differential settlement may further cause breakage of slabs due to impact loading of the vehicles. the deflection of the dowel bar at the face of the joint. b d = dowel bar width (i. The void space may get filled with water and corrosion action to the dowel bars may get aggravated. kd = modulus of dowel support. can be obtained as (Friberg 1940): (26) where.e. y o. and is called as the relative stiffness of the beam on the elastic foundation. The dowel bars also allow axial thermal expansion and contraction of the concrete slab along the axis of the dowel. and a point load. k = spring constant. By putting appropriate boundary conditions to that equation. relative stiffness of the dowel bar resting on concrete (assumed as elastic foundation). Thus. Such a situation develops stress concentration and failure may take place rapidly. the load transfer mechanism tends to fail and the differential settlement of the concrete slab may occur (Porter 2001). representing beam on elastic foundation. Subsequently. Timoshenko and Lessels 1925 ): (25) where. E = elastic modulus of the beam and I = moment of inertia of the beam section. the following solution emerges for Winker's foundation (Porter 2001. From Equation 1. Mo. . y = the deflection along the x direction. P. The performance of the dowel bar system drastically falls when voids are created between the dowel bars and the concrete slab (Porter 2001). One end of the bar is kept free for the movement during expansion and contraction of the slab due to change in temperature. Analysis of dowel bar Analysis Recall the formulation developed as Equation 13 . for a semi-infinite beam with a moment. the design adequacy of dowel bar system and proper placement to the concrete pavement slab is an important consideration. The bars are generally made up of mild-steel-round-bars of short length.

width) of the dowel bar in mm. The force transmitted being somewhat difficult to measure. the value of σbd needs to be kept lower than the allowable bearing stress of concrete. Though the above equation assumes dowel bar to be semi-infinite. can be expressed as the product of modulus of dowel support ( kd) and the deflection at the face of joint ( yo) (Porter 2001). the bearing stress developed. the dowel bar system should be able to transfer the whole load applied to it. σ bd. σ bd. However. . ACPA 1991 ) suggest that the load transfer efficiency varies between 35 to 50%. voids developed due to repetitive loading reduce the joint load transfer efficiency ( JLTE ) of the dowel bar. Various researches and documents (Porter 2001. fck = characteristic compressive strength of concrete in MPa and bd is the diameter (i.e. Thus. specified as (ACI 1956. Pd = load transferred through the dowel bar and z =joint width.diameter). i. Ed = elastic modulus of the dowel bar. the JLTE can be defined as the percentage of the deflection of the unloaded slab with reference to the deflection of the loaded slab. Porter (2001) showed that Equation (26) gives a reasonably good estimate of deflection obtained from more rigorous analysis. falling weight deflectometer ( FWD ) is used for this purpose) is applied near the transverse dowelled joint of a slab. Pa is the load applied to the dowel bar. Ioannides and Korovesis 1992 ) where. σbd is expressed in MPa. joint load transfer efficiency is sometimes measured in terms ratio of deflections. Figure 1 schematically shows two extreme situations as JLTE = 0% and JLTE = 100%. (27) For a successful dowel bar design. The JLTE (expressed in percentage) of a dowel bar can be defined as (Porter 2001. Yoder and Witczak 1975.e. If impact loading (generally. I d = moment of inertia of the dowel bar. Joint load transfer efficiency Ideally. IRC:58 2002): (28) where. Porter 2001.

where the relative deflection of the joints is not allowed to exceed some maximum specified value. Obviously. viz. rather. it is meant to estimate the dowel bar diameter and spacing. (These dowel bars are placed at some designed interval). Tabatabaie et al. it is shared by a group of dowel bars.Figue-21 Schematic diagram explaining the deflection based load transfer efficiency (Chakroborty and Das 2003) Distribution of load A part of the load applied is shared by the dowel bar system. and the other is estimated. Problem A design wheel load of 65kN is applied on to the concrete pavement slab. Hence case (i) would govern the design of dowel bar. case (ii) the wheel is at the middle. Dowel bars are generally designed from two considerations: (i) Bearing stress approach. Essentially. From design point of view. It is also suggested that the load may be taken as linearly varying with maximum share taken by the dowel bar which is just vertically below the wheel. where the developed bearing stress is set equal to or less than the allowable bearing stress. and (ii) Relative deflection approach. this load is not shared by only one dowel bar. and (ii) how is this load shared across the various participating dowel bars. the maximum load shared by a dowel bar in case (i) will be more than case (ii) . Design of dowel bar By the term design of dowel bar . it is important to know (i) how many dowel bars participate in load transfer. Example design An example on design of dowel bar system from bearing stress consideration is presented in the following.8 it should be taken as 1. Fridberg (1940) suggested that a length of up to 1. the wheel can be placed in two ways over the transverse edge of the slab. (Porter 2001) suggested that instead of taking the factor as 1. Thus.8 × radius of relative stiffness (refer to Equation (11) of the lecture 'analysis of concrete pavement' for definition) participate in the load transfer. and 50% of . One of them can be assumed as known or fixed.0 . case (i) the wheel at one edge or.

Assuming. thus it is suggested that a dowel bar with elliptical cross-section will provide more effective area for distribution of stress (Porter 2001). 32mm diameter dowel bars are used. . the load carried by the dowel bar which is just below the wheel. 0. Thus. Pd=15437. dowel bar of 32 mm may be provided with 300mm center-to-center. radius of relative stiffness ( l) of the concrete slab as 950mm. dowel bar spacing as 300 mm center-to-center. The allowable bearing stress (σ ba ) can be obtained from Equation (28) as: = 29.23 MPa Assume. Solution Assume.0 x 10 5 N/mm2 and modulus of dowel support (kd) as 415N/mm 3 .the load is assumed to be transmitted through the dowel bar system. Thus. one can write the load distribution equation of the dowel bar system as: or.0238 per mm From Equation (27). thus the design is safe. criterion) . Closing remarks The side of the dowel bar does not take any shear force. This has been schematically explained in Figure 22. in 950 mm of effective length (using Tabatabaie et al. 4 dowel bars can be placed.5 N Now. Assume the characteristic compressive strength (fck) of concrete (used in the concrete pavement) is 40MPa. the developed bearing stress in dowel bar = N/mm2 = 27. Design the dowel bar system.20 MPa It is noted that < . the transverse joint width ( z ) is 15 mm. Elastic modulus of steel (E) as 2. is P d.

considering the situation when dowel bars fails to perform load transfer ( Porter and Guinn 2002 ). Elliptical cross-section has more effective area for shear stress distribution (Porter 2001) While designing the thickness of the concrete pavement. generally the stresses at edge. Tie bars supposedly do not transfer any wheel load. usage of fiber reinforced polymer dowel bars. Introduction Tie bars are used across the longitudinal joint of concrete pavement. The purpose of tie bar is to hold the concrete slabs together (refer Figure 23). estimation of modulus of dowel reaction. Corrosion of the dowel bars. Only a part of the wheel load is transmitted through the 'participating' dowel bars. Recapitulation • • • Dowel bars are placed at the transverse joints of concrete pavement and they take part in load transfer from one slab to the adjacent slab. Design of tie bars Objective Objective of this lecture is to introduce the design concepts of tie bar. dowel-slab interaction and their fatigue (Porter and Guinn 2002) are some of the emerging issues which demand further research and understanding. The dowel bars also allow axial thermal expansion and contraction of the concrete slab along the axis of the dowel. corner and interior are considered. the stresses at the edge of the transverse joint also need to checked. Loads carried by the other participating dowel bars decrease proportionately as these move away from the point of load application. The dowel bar which is just vertically below the wheel carries the maximum load.Figure 22. The dowel bar system is designed from the bearing stress and deflection criteria. . However.

The weight of concrete slab per unit length can be written as. from Equation (29) and (30). The tensile force developed in the tie bar should not exceed the bond strength between the tie bar and the concrete.Figure 23: Schematic diagram showing location of tie bar in pavement cross-section Design principle The tie bars are designed to withstand tensile stresses. cubic meter). considering one end of the tie bar. B = width of the slab. the spacing of tie bar can be found out so as to the requirement of steel per unit length. A st= cross-sectional area of steel per unit length (say per meter). w = weight of slab per unit volume (say. Thus. Estimation of spacing and length of tie bar is explained in the following. (30) where. Estimation of spacing of tie bar Since the purpose of the tie bar is to tie concrete slabs together. (29) where μ = co-efficient of friction between concrete slab and the sub-base. otherwise it can be pulled out of concrete. Estimation of length of tie bar Consider a single tie bar. the area of steel per unit length of longitudinal joint is obtained by equating the total friction to the total tension developed in the tie bar system (as explained in Figure 24). . Thus. the maximum tensile force in the tie bar is made equal to the force required to overcome frictional force between the bottom of the adjoining pavement slab and the soil subgrade. Figure 24: Estimation of area of steel for tie bar Thus. σ st = allowable working stress in tension for the steel used as tie bar. and h = height of the slab. (31) Assuming suitable diameter of tie bar. W = weight of the concrete slab per unit length (say per meter). the area of steel per unit length.

and some are non-critical areas . total length of the tie bar. Design of runway. Similarly. the critical areas are those portions where the aircraft speed is low. Introduction The airfield pavement includes runway. The area of steel required is estimated by equating the maximum tensile force in the tie bar system with the force required to overcome frictional force between the bottom of the adjoining pavement slab and the soil subgrade. taxiway and apron Objective Objective of this lecture is to introduce the basic concepts of airfield pavement design and to perceive the conceptual similarity (or differences) across various guidelines for pavement design. shoulders and apron) of the airfield pavements. More thickness is required for the pavement in critical areas. In the non-critical areas. Sb = allowable bond strength between the concrete and the tie bar. Thus. shoulder and the apron. can be written as. or the aircraft is in rest. also due to larger lateral wander the stress repetitions at a particular spot is small (FAA 2006. As a general guideline. Thus. the air craft is partly air-borne.(32) where. recommended for design of airfield pavements.e. Recapitulation • • The spacing of tie bar is estimated from the area of the steel required per unit length of the longitudinal joint. design thickness for non-critical areas turns out to be less than the critical areas. PCA 1995). Same design chart is. For high speed (i. l = length of tie bar inside the concrete slab. for example. and some factors are prescribed for adjustment of thicknesses for the individual components (i. the central portion of the runway. taxiway. (33) where z = allowance due to inaccurate centering of the tie bar. Some of the portions of these components are identified as critical areas . Input parameters The various parameters used in pavement design have already been discussed in the section 'design parameters' of the lecture ' various design approaches' . generally. The length of the tie bar is estimated by equating the tensile force developed in a tie bar with the bond strength between the tie bar and the concrete slab. the . as = cross-sectional area of one tie-bar. small time of contact).e. runway. P = perimeter of one tie bar. taxiway. the asphalt shows higher strength ( creep modulus) than slow speed movement.

U. Naval Facilities Engineering command and Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency have recently developed a combined manual for design of airfield pavement as Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC 2001) as a modified version of this design approach. sub-base.S. dual wheel. A is the measured tyre contact area (in inch2). where the thickness of the pavement is so adjusted that the shear stress developed at a given level is equal to the allowable shear stress of that layer. tyre pressure. α is the load repetition factor. Army Corps of Engineers. and base layer the individual thickness composition are obtained. when data on runway performance was collected and analysed for various airports (Horonjeff 1975). From the known CBR values of the subgrade.000 lbs or more. Bituminous pavement design methods Some of the methods for design of bituminous airfield pavement structures are (i) Corps of Engineers (CoE) method (ii) Federal Aviation Administration method (FAA) and (iii) The Asphalt Institute method and are discussed briefly in the following: Corps of Engineers (CoE) method This method was developed during the World War-II. Design charts are available for design of pavements for gross aircraft weight of 30. and number of load repetitions (Horonjeff 1975). lateral wander). . T.) used for ESWL calculation. Some theoretical basis of the CBR method was proposed later on. dual. Thus. dual wheel tandem axle etc. drainage and frost damage conditions. base etc. A typical pavement design is presented in Figure 25. The total thickness above a particular layer is determined by the CBR value (in percentage) of the layer. fatigue behaviour of bound layer(s)) and environmental factors (temperature. the total thickness above the subgrade. load repetition. can be found out by knowing the CBR of the respective layers. but purely empirical. It is generally assumed that 95% of the gross weight of the aircraft is carried by the main landing gear and 5% is carried by the nose gear (FAA 2006). The total thickness. is estimated as: here.parameters involved in the airfield pavement thickness design process are the aircraft gear loading (gear configuration. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) method The FAA uses modified CBR method for design bituminous pavement (FAA 2006). As per the FAA method. subrgade moisture). The design life is assumed generally assumed as 20 years. The values of α is suggested for various gear assembly (single wheel. the subgrade soil is categorized based on the soil classification group. material properties (stiffness of individual layers. sub-base. for single. ESWL is the equivalent single wheel load of the gear load assembly (in pounds). wheel load. This method is simple. and dual tandem aircrafts.

Different types of materials can be used as base/ sub-base. and Wa is the single wheel load of main gear of any aircraft. R a is the departure of any aircraft adjusted for the gear configuration. the individual thickness composition are obtained. and accordingly some variations are observed in the design thickness. all the departures are summed up.Figure 25: A schematic bituminous pavement design chart as per FAA (2006) The following is the design procedure followed as per the FAA method (FAA 2006): • • • The subgrade CBR value. From the known CBR values of the subgrade. The asphalt thicknesses are generally specified for the critical and non-critical areas. o The departures of individual aircrafts adjusted for the gear configuration of the design aircraft are further adjusted for the wheel loads. as follows: o The departures of different aircrafts which have different gear configurations are converted to equivalent departure of the design aircraft. sub-base. gross take-off weight. and base layer. This is done by using the following empirical formula: (35) where. Pavement design is performed for this total equivalent departure with the help of the specific design chart applicable for the design aircraft . The aircraft whose corresponding data results in the maximum thickness is designated as the design aircraft . • Having obtained the equivalent departures of the design aircraft adjusted for gear configuration and wheel load. This is done by two sequential steps. Rd is the equivalent departure of the design aircraft. Various factors are suggested by the FAA (2006) using which departure of any gear configuration can be converted to departure of another gear configuration. W d is the single wheel load of main gear of the design aircraft. by multiplying with suitable factors. The individual design charts (for various categories of aircrafts) are used to find out the total pavement thickness values for different aircrafts. main gear weight and annual departure of the individual aircrafts are used as the input to the design. Having obtained the design aircraft. the annual departure data of the individual air-crafts are converted to equivalent annual departure of the design aircraft. . The dashed line indicates the order of progression.

o The frost susceptible subgrade soil may be replaced with non-frost susceptible soil. The field calibrated fatigue/ rutting equations are obtained by relating the initial critical strains and the number of repetitions it take for the failure due to fatigue or rutting.• To take care of the frost problem (freeze-thaw). the two modes of structural failure are considered to be governing the pavement design. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) method The standard design curve assumes aircraft wheels are either placed parallel to or perpendicular to pavement joint. Mechanistic-empirical (M-E) method is used for design of pavement. o The thickness of the pavement can be made at least equal to the depth of frost penetration. A worksheet software for design of bituminous airfield pavement as per FAA can be downloaded from the FAA website The Asphalt Institute Method Asphalt Institute (MS-11 1987) recommends full depth asphalt pavement for air-field pavement (for gross aircraft weight higher than 60. The edge stress is calculated as per Westergaard's analysis and assumes that load transfer joints reduces the stress by 25% ( Thuma and Lafrenz 2003 ). either of the following three approaches can be used for design purpose. The method allows reduction of slab thickness if the subgrade strength is high. Westergaard analysis of edge stress calculation is employed. Concrete pavement design methods Some of the methods for design of concrete airfield pavement structures are (i) Corps of Engineers (CoE) method (ii) Federal Aviation Administration method (FAA) and (iii) Portland Cement Association (PCA) method and are discussed briefly in the following: US Army Corps of Engineers (CoE) method The CoE method uses fatigue equation developed from full scale load tests conducted during 60's and 70's (Smith et al. the freezing index of the site is obtained. In M-E approach the thicknesses of the pavement layers (asphalt surfacing and base/ sub-base) are adjusted in such a way that the developed fatigue and rutting strains are comparable to the allowable strains. first. 2002). The current Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC 2002) considers fatigue of pavement slab due to edge stress. The allowable fatigue and rutting strains. The horizontal tensile strain below the bituminous layer and vertical strain on the subgrade are considered as causative factor for fatigue and rutting respectively. These are fatigue and rutting failure. It is assumed that 25% of the edge stress is carried by the joints at the edges (FAA 2006). As per the M-E design method.000lbs). Now. The following are the considerations for design of concrete pavement as per FAA (2006): . are obtained from the field calibrated fatigue and rutting equations. for a design traffic. Predictive charts are developed to estimate the depth of frost penetration for various soil types and freezing index. o Adequate pavement thickness may be provided assuming subgrade will have reduced strength during thawed condition.

Similar strategies are adopted. apron hangar etc. Provisions are also provided for jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP) and continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP). effective modulus of subgrade reaction. as discussed for design of bituminous pavement by FAA method. Standard schemes are recommended (FAA 2006) for providing contraction. A typical concrete pavement design chart as per FAA (2006) is schematically presented in Figure 26. Design charts are available. such as runway. to take care of the frost penetration problem. as discussed above for the design of bituminous pavements. The dashed line indicates the order of progression. load. concrete flexural strength. 2002. or sub-base (granular or stabilized) is put over the subgrade. Packard 1995). similar to the Figure 19. is applied to find out the design aircraft . If the subgrade is multi-layered. the effective modulus of subgrade reaction needs to be determined. gross weight of the design aircraft and the annual departure of the design aircraft. construction and expansion joints to the pavement. presented in the lecture on 'various design approaches'. The cumulative fatigue damage principle is employed to arrive at the design thickness of the slab. The PCA method (Packard 1995) requires the (i) concrete properties (ii) effective strength of subgrade (or subgrade-sub-base combination) (iii) type of aircraft. Charts are provided.• • • • • The modulus of subgrade reaction is estimated by performing plate load test on the subgrade. Use of 90 days strength test results of concrete is generally recommended for design purpose. Same concept. and approximate frequency and (iv) type of pavement being designed. A worksheet software for design of concrete airfield pavement as per FAA can be downloaded from the FAA website: Figure 26: A schematic concrete pavement design chart as per FAA (2006) Portland Cement Association (PCA) method The fatigue equation of PCA method is developed from laboratory testing of fatigue behaviour of concrete beams (Smith et al. the effective modulus of subgrade reaction . taxiway. The design procedure can be summarized as follows: • The modulus of subgrade reaction is estimated by performing plate load test on the subgrade. which involves the input parameters as. If the subgrade is multi-layered. or sub-base (granular or stabilized) is put over the subgrade.

This process is repeated for various aircrafts and the highest value of the thickness is chosen as the design thickness. (ii) Federal Aviation Administration method (FAA). (iii) The Asphalt Institute method etc. Charts are provided. These approaches estimates the flexural stresses in concrete slab which is modeled to be resting on elastic springs. and based on CBR value and thickness relationship.7 to 2. and if the values are less than some specified value (350 psi). From careful estimate of the present and future traffic. and considers fatigue and rutting failure of the pavement. From the pavement design chart. REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT Objectives . the design thickness slab thickness is estimated for a particular type of aircraft.0 for critical areas and 1. similar to the Figure 19. Figure 27: A schematic concrete pavement design chart as per PCA (1995) Recapitulation • • Some of the methods for design of bituminous airfield pavement structures are (i) Corps of Engineers (CoE) method. it is assumed that these do not add to the fatigue of the pavement slab. The stresses created due to less critical aircrafts are also checked (by using the design charts in the reverse direction).4 to 1. Some of the methods for design of concrete airfield pavement structures are (i) Corps of Engineers (CoE) method. (ii) Federal Aviation Administration method (FAA). The working stress is obtained by dividing the modulus of rupture of concrete with the safety factor chosen for individual aircrafts. Suggested values of safety factor range from 1. The dashed line indicates the order of progression. Figure 27 presents a typical pavement design chart as PCA (1995). The cumulative fatigue damage principle is employed to arrive at the design thickness of the slab. (iii) Portland Cement Association (PCA) method etc. The CoE and FAA methods are primarily empirical. The Asphalt Institute method is mechanistic empirical. an appropriate safety factor is estimated for each of the aircraft types.• • • needs to be determined. presented in the lecture on 'various design approaches'.7 for non-critical areas. The cumulative fatigue damage principle is employed to arrive at the design thickness of the slab.

Though theoretical equations have been developed for design of reinforcement. some empirical relations are used to estimate the amount of reinforcement (Austroads 2004. generally.25% of the cross-sectional area of the slab. Pre-stressed concrete pavement has a very specialized application. there is an effective increase of the slab thickness due to provision of steel reinforcement (IRC:101 1991). The basic slab thickness is designed as per the plain cement concrete pavement design procedure 1 . and thereby ingress of water and grit is prevented (IRC:101 1991). For JRCP longitudinal steel reinforcement is about 0. Introduction Reinforced concrete pavement could mainly be of three types: jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP). IRC:101 1991). Since. for CRCP it is about 06 to 1. IRC:SP:46 1997). Generally reinforcement is placed 50 mm below the surface (IRC:58 1988). its position in the concrete slab is not important. IRC:101 1991). and less at the edges or corners. The requirement of steel reinforcement can be calculated on the basis of maximum force that can overcome the frictional force between the concrete slab and the layer just below it.The objective of this lecture is to present a brief introduction to reinforced concrete pavements. For steel fibre reinforcement the amount of fibre used is generally 0. due to provision of steel reinforcement. It does not allow crack to become wider (Austroads 2004).5% (IRC:SP:46 1997). PCA 1995. therefore. Recapitulation . the reinforcement provided in concrete pavement is not for contributing towards flexural strength. however. The shrinkage stress is maximum at the middle.15 to 0. The JRCP and CRCP pavements are schematically shown in Figure-28.75 to 1. Nominal transverse reinforcement is provided to control transverse cracking in both JRCP and CRCP. Reinforcement in the concrete slabs is mainly provided for counteracting the shrinkage (and associated cracks) due to temperature and moisture changes (PCA 1995). Figure-28: Schematic diagram of JRCP and CRCP pavement (ACPA 2005) Design principle Welded wire fabric or deformed bars or steel fibres are used for reinforcement purpose (Swanlund and Vanikar 2002. continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) and pre-stressed concrete pavement. and sometimes used for airport runway pavements.0% (Swanlund and Vanikar 2002.

CONCRETE PAVEMENT SHOULDER Objectives Objective of this lecture is to introduce various types of shoulders of concrete pavements. In this lecture. The basic thickness design of pavement is designed as plain concrete pavement. • The shoulder carries traffic in special situations. Paved shoulder Paved shoulder prevents water percolation into the subgrade of the pavement more effectively than unpaved shoulder. A design traffic of 2-2. The slope is kept steeper than the main carriageway. Various empirical formulae have been suggested to calculate the percentage of reinforcement. • The shoulder is sometimes used as foot-path. serves a number of purposes to the pavement. CRCP and pre-stressed concrete pavement.they are discussed in the following. known as integral concrete shoulder (Austroards 2004). Types of concrete pavement shoulder The shoulder to the concrete pavement could be unpaved or paved. such as (Chakroborty and Das 2003): • Prevents intrusion of water to the pavement layers. JRCP. though they are not intended to carry traffic directly.5% of the main carriageway traffic is generally used for design of concrete pavement shoulders (Ababio-Owusu et al. Introduction Pavement shoulders. different types of shoulders of the concrete pavement are briefly introduced. • When construction activity is going on the main carriageway. This is a preferred design than disjointed concrete shoulder. shoulder may be used as temporary driving lanes. and sometimes accommodate vehicle parking. again. 2003). This is necessary for proper and quick drainage of the surface run-off. and their role as a part of the pavement structure.• • • There are could be three categories of reinforced concrete pavement. and gives psychological comfort to the drivers. it should be well-shaped and attention should be paid to keep it in shape during maintenance operation. the paved shoulders could be concrete or bituminous . The purpose of reinforcement is mainly to prevent shrinkage cracks and to hold the cracked portion together. Concrete shoulder The existing concrete slab can be widened (with same or lowered thickness) beyond the carriage-way width to form a paved shoulder. because this substantially reduces the stress and deflection of the carriage-way slab . or bikeway. Unpaved shoulder If shoulder is unpaved.

Bituminous shoulder The bituminous shoulder is less expensive than concrete shoulder and provides desirable contrast between the carriageway and the shoulder. The concrete and bituminous pavements have their individual advantages and disadvantages which have been discussed elsewhere. if properly designed. Thus. The composite pavement. Infiltration of moisture through the joint causes fast deterioration of the asphalt shoulder (Swanlund and Vanikar 2002) Recapitulation • • • The shoulder to the concrete pavement could be unpaved or paved. but proper maintenance of the joint between the concrete carriageway and bituminous shoulder is difficult. the composite pavement evolves due to rehabilitation projects where overlay is applied to the pavement. Figure 29 schematically presents some examples of composite pavement. thus. Though there could be composite pavements for fresh pavement constructions. can be divided into two categories. there is a possibility that the overall pavement design be economical. This is called a sandwich pavement. It is believed that composite pavement. (i) concrete overlay over bituminous pavement and (ii) bituminous overlay over concrete pavement. Benekohal et al.(Swanlund and Vanikar 2002. Field investigations show that pavement with widened slab concrete shoulder exhibit little faulting and transverse cracking (Swanlund and Vanikar 2002). However. The bituminous shoulder is cheaper than concrete one. and the lower portion of the top overlay is made up of unbound granular material. ntroduction Composite pavement comprises of two or more pavement layers one of which is bituminous and the other is concrete. where overlay consists of two layers. can take of the disadvantages associated with the individual types of the pavements. most of the time. COMPOSITE PAVEMENTS Objective The objective of this lecture is introduce pavement analysis and design considerations for composite pavements. . the joint (longitudinal) between the concrete carriageway and the shoulder is difficult to maintain. 1990) and shoulder drop-off failure is almost eliminated (FHWA 1990). Integral concrete shoulder substantially reduces the stress and deflection of the carriageway slab. The paved shoulders could be bituminous or concrete type. There could another category of pavement.

. then. If it is assumed that there is no deformation along the thickness of plate. Kerr foundation etc. Subgrade layer The subgrade can be assumed as Boussinesq half-space which is infinite along x and y direction and semi-infinite along z (depth) direction (Jumikis 1969). A Burmister layer transfers the load through grain-to-grain interaction and it does not have flexural rigidity (Verstraeten 1967). Concrete layer The load in applied to concrete slab is resisted by bending action. concrete. The subgrade may also be modelled as elastic spring. (iii) equilibrium equation and suitable (iv) boundary conditions. Burmister layer. The theory of plate bending is generally used in the analysis. The basic characteristics of these layers can be mentioned as follows: Burmister layer The granular layer and the bituminous layer can be modelled as Burmister layer. Individual layers From mechanics point of view. Such an analysis problem will require (i) strain-displacement relationship. The basic assumption of thin plate (known as Kirchhoff plate ) bending theory is that the thickness of the plate (h) is small as compared to the other dimensions and thus the effect of and on bending is negligible. as Winkler spring bed. Pasternak foundation. subgrade layer and concrete layer . (ii) constitutive law. one needs to combine the individual models (Ioannides and Khazanovich 1998) of these layers to develop a formulation for composite pavement. for example. For simplicity in modeling the individual layers can be considered to be made up of homogenous. isotropic and elastic material. For detailed discussion on formulation of rigid pavement. It is assumed that this layer is infinite along the x and y direction and single circular loading may be considered as axi-symmetric about z axis. the lecture on analysis of concrete pavement may be referred. granular.σ z = 0 at any point across the depth. and accordingly the different solutions can be obtained.Figure 29: Examples of different types of composite pavements General formulation for composite pavement Since the composite pavement is a combination of bituminous. and subgrade layer. a composite pavement can be thought to be composed of three basic types of layers (Ioannides and Khazanovich 1998) viz.

(7) At the surface When top surface is Busmister layer. The boundary conditions for various interfaces may be mentioned as follows (Ioannides and Khazanovich 1998): (1) At interface between two Burmister layers and and smooth interface) (for rough or (for rough interface) . provided pressure. otherwise. if . where is the vertical stress of the spring. . having developed the governing equations of the individual layers. is the net vertical . layer is not surface layer. smooth and interface) (for The superscript t indicates top and b indicates bottom of the interface. where. (5) At interface between Burmister layer and spring bed and . the analysis can be performed by using suitable boundary conditions. p is the pressure applied on . otherwise circular area Also. (6) At interface between two plates . is the vertical deflection of the plate. (2) At interface between Burmister layer and rigid base (for rough or smooth surface) (for rough interface) and (3) For Boussinesq half space at and also. The superscript i indicates the ith layer. u indicates the horizontal displacement and indicates the vertical displacement.Boundary conditions Composite pavement is made up of a combination of these layers. When top surface is cement concrete slab. if . Thus. at (for smooth interface) (4) At interface between Burmister layer and cement concrete slab and where. . (for pure bending).

the composite pavement is designed as overlay. are derived from experience. For performing this exercise. NCHRP 2005) recommend similar procedure for estimating the concrete overlay thickness over existing bituminous pavement. These factors are estimated from traffic data.e. n is a factor which takes care of the bonding condition of the overlay. FAA (2006) etc. it is suggested that. The engineering properties of the proposed overlay (modulus. by performing non-destructive testing (NDT). or. As a simplified approach. Poisson's ratio) can be obtained from laboratory study. or some serviceability criteria. This may be called as the effective thickness of the existing pavement. the whole bituminous pavement can be idealized as spring foundation. or. Poisson's ratio) needs to be known. as applicable. The conventional overlay design applicable to composite pavement by (i) empirical and (ii) mechanistic approach and (iii) a special type of composite pavement as thin concrete pavement over bituminous pavement (known as ultra-thin white topping ) are discussed in the following: Overlay design by empirical approach The pavement thickness. the engineering parameters of the existing pavement layers (thickness. are variants of this principle. for estimating the bituminous overlay thickness over existing concrete pavement. The recommendations in Asphalt Institute (1983). C = factor to convert the existing pavement thickness to equivalent effective pavement thickness (either concrete or bituminous). The UTW pavement system is analysed as a three-layer model (UTW layer. bituminous layer and a base layer with equivalent modulus) assuming a degree of bonding between . Ultra-thin white topping High strength concrete mixed with fibers are generally used as ultra-thin rigid overlay over existing bituminous pavement and is known as ultra-thin white-topping (UTW). and the existing thickness is discounted to a some lower value than the original by using suitable factor(s). vice versa. (36) where. Overlay design by mechanistic approach As per this approach. and the overlay thickness is adjusted so that the values are less than or equal to the allowable. modulus. h0 = the overlay thickness (either concrete or bituminous). Some guidelines (FAA 2006. The difference (i.Design approach As mentioned earlier. as new pavement design. the thickness deficiency ) between these two determines the overlay thickness. the composite pavement with some assumed overlay thickness is analysed mechanistically (as explained in the formulation). and the effective modulus of subgrade reaction can be obtained from field study. and can be obtained through non-destructive testing. generally. required to extend pavement life by a given overlay design period is estimated by using deflection. hd = estimated overlay thickness (either concrete or bituminous). F = empirical conversion factor for converting bituminous thickness to concrete thickness. or. Thus. estimated strain. AASHTO (1993). The critical stress-strain parameters at the critical locations are obtained..

Design and construction of composite pavements need more precision and understanding. where the thickness deficiency is estimated by deflection testing or other NDT methods. which is estimated as 4% of the total road length (CAC 2005a). by empirical approach. Figure 30: Stress distribution in bonded and unbonded layers (Goel and Das 2004) Closing remarks Composite pavements have recorded excellent to poor performance in different types of projects employing various combinations (NCHRP 2001. the corner stress can be reduced by providing adequately thick bituminous layer as support to the UTW layer (Murison and Smith 2002). COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF CONCRETE VERSUS BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT Objectives The objective of this lecture is to present a comparison between the concrete pavements and the bituminous pavements. Bonding in UTW makes the two layers (UTW and bituminous layer) behave as a monolithic unit and share the load. Recapitulation • Composite pavement comprises of two or more pavement layers one of which is bituminous and the other is concrete. The neutral axis in concrete shifts from the middle of concrete layer towards its bottom (refer Figure-30). the following situations develop: • • Stress at the bottom of concrete layer reduces. The basic structures of the concrete (rigid) pavement and bituminous (flexible) pavement have been presented in the lecture entitled "basic concepts of pavement analysis and design. the concrete layer can be made significantly thinner for the same loading as compared to a conventional white-topping overlay which generally has no or partial bond to the underlying bituminous layer (Goel and Das 2004).the pavement layers (Murison and Smith 2002). In Canada. • Composite pavement generally designed as overlay on existing pavement. The famous Autobahn roads in Germany were made up of concrete . Due to this shifting of neutral axis. In USA about 94% of the surfaced roads are made up of bituminous surfacing (NAPA 2005). Qubec has the greatest number of kilometers of concrete pavement. This however increases the corner stress at the top of the concrete layer. In mechanistic based approach. Thus. In such a situation. The overlay can be designed. 2005). the general formulation of the proposed composite pavement structure. This may result in a possibility that the corner stress becomes critical than edge stress. is presented to find out the overlay thickness so that critical stress/strain parameters are within allowable limits.

It is postulated that since bituminous pavement undergoes deflection due to application of load. some concrete roads were built during 1920s and 30s. 2001. With the development of the concept of perpetual bituminous pavement . Therefore. Is concrete pavement better than bituminous pavement ? • • • • • • • • • Yes. The heavy truck movement shows substantial fuel saving (ranging from 6 to 20% for different studies) while plying on the concrete road compared to asphalt road (CAC 2005b). Unless there is design failure. The concrete road in Hyderabad. The pavement construction of 56 km Delhi-Mathura road was a major modern concrete road construction project (Jain and Sharma 1995) completed in 1997 (HRB 2005). on the other hand. Yes. . and therefore does not result into 'heat island' effect as observed in cities where bituminous roads are predominant (CPAM 2005). The Mumbai-Pune expressway (concrete pavement) was opened to traffic in 2002 (HRB 2005). It as well offers a better visibility on rainy nights (CPAM 2005). Concrete provides better and durable skid resistance. no weight carrying restriction needs to be imposed during the freeze-thaw season for those countries/ regions wherever it occurs (CAC 2005a). It reflects major part of the sunlight.thus there is a saving in concrete pavement. some energy is absorbed for deflecting the pavement. The concrete pavement virtually does not show any rutting. which otherwise could have been utilized to propel the vehicle (Zaniewski 1989) . Only re-texturing of the top surface may have to be done routinely. India is self-sufficient in cement manufacturing.pavements (TFHRC 2001. These have been discussed in the following. Yes. In India. Von Quintus 2001). because of its better light reflecting characteristics than bituminous pavement (CAC 2005a). The performance of the concrete pavement remains unaffected during the freeze-thaw condition compared to normal weather conditions. APA 2005b). Yes. it is possible to design bituminous pavement which will survive for fifty years or more with minor maintenance (Monismith et al. Yes. Yes. The concrete and bituminous pavements have their individual advantages and disadvantages. the concrete pavement virtually does not require any maintenance. is obtained from crude petroleum. bulk amount of which is imported (CMA 2001). Jain and Sharma 1995). A well designed and well maintained bituminous pavement lasts for many years. 2001. Considering Indian context. There are instances where bituminous pavements are performing extremely well for 25 to 35 years without any rehabilitation (NAPA 2005. driving on concrete pavement remains comfortable almost throughout the design period(CAC 2005a). The longevity of the concrete pavement is high (it is generally designed for 30 to 40 years). The concrete pavement renders improved visibility conditions during night time. existing roads are mostly bituminous. Newcomb et al. A number of concrete pavement stretches are being constructed in India in recent times. FHWA 2005). Yes. Chandni Chowk (Delhi) and Marine Drive (Bombay) were built in 1928. It is generally less slippery in wet weather than bituminous pavement (CPAM 2005). Is bituminous pavement better than concrete pavement ? • Yes. 1936 and 1939 respectively (Jain 2003. Yes. Bitumen. Concrete does not release odourous petroleum products to the air as that of bitumen (CPAM 2005). Yes. Therefore.

Yes. Holtz and Eighmy 2000. bituminous material recyclibility. along with various inherent advantages of recycling. Yes. Bituminous pavements are generally not affected by the de-icing materials (APA 2005b). durable skid resistance. whereas failure in concrete pavement could be sudden.• • • • • • • • • Yes. skid. longevity. heat reflecting characteristics etc. • The bituminous pavement is advantageous over concrete pavement because of its joint-less smooth surface. possibility of quick repair. The choice should rather be governed by the project specific evaluation among these two alternatives. heavy duty traffic. better night-time visibility. also prevents undue increase in the road elevation which otherwise causes drainage and associated problems in urban roads. studies show that the overall life cycle cost of bituminous pavement is also low (Eurobitumen 2005. The bituminous pavement is joint-less. and curing time is less and therefore can be opened to traffic soon (APA 2005a). the traffic on a new pavement could not be estimated reliably (Das and Pandey 1999). roughness level etc (APA 2005b). it can be said that it is not possible to choose (between bituminous and concrete pavements) which one is the best option. The failure of bituminous pavement is gradual. Yes. It can be designed according to the requirement of permissible noise. and therefore provides a smooth ride surface (APA 2005b). Because the bituminous pavements have a greater flexibility of customized design. Pavement design with stage construction becomes quite useful when. there is a fund constraint. CONSTRUCTION OF JOINTS Introduction The various types of joints and their functions have been introduced in the lecture entitled 'basic concepts of pavement analysis and design. Yes. . Schematic diagrams of some of the typical joint configurations have been presented in Figure-39. It is also possibly not a good idea to look for which one is superior to the other. and other possible combinations. there are some studies which have found it otherwise (Ohio 2005). Recyclibility of asphalt. surface permeability. The bituminous pavement repair is quick. APAI 2005. Ikeda and Kimura 1997 ). Yes. Yes. lower noise level from vehicle-tyre interaction etc. APA 2005a). Recapitulation • The concrete pavement is advantageous over bituminous pavement because of its fuel saving. lesser life cycle cost. The bituminous pavement produces less sound than concrete pavement (CAC 2005a. Not only the initial investment for bituminous pavement construction is less than concrete pavement. Asphalt is 100% recyclable. free-thaw resistance. Yes. It allows stage construction (APAI 2005. It is the most recycled material in the construction industry in various countries (APA 2005c. Closing remarks As seen from the above discussions. However. APA 2005a). low rutting potential. APA 2005a). or. Yes. The wear and tear to the vehicle tyres are also less from bituminous pavements compared to concrete pavements (NAPA 2005b). provision for stage construction.

Sawing is done as concrete achieves adequate strength. The timing of sawing is important. and if sawing is late. The transverse and longitudinal joints in sub-base and those of in the concrete pavement are generally placed in staggered way. shrinkage cracks will appear (refer Figure-40). (a) Expansion joint with dowel bar (b) Contraction joint as dummy joint (c) Contraction joint with dowel bar (d) Longitudinal joint as plain butt joint (e) Longitudinal joint with tie bar (f) Tongue and groove longitudinal joint Figure-39 Schematic diagram of some typical joint configurations. contraction joints are generally sawed type (could be tied or untied). Premature sawing will cause spalling and raveling of concrete.the initial saw cut is further widened in the second stage of sawing. usually after 4 to 12 hours after placement (Swanlund and Vanikar 2002) of concrete. Formed joints could be keyed or butt-type and can be of tied or untied variety. concrete pavement joints could be formed or sawed. Sawing is generally done in two stages . .From construction point of view. Expansion joints are in general formed and tied.

a single material is used to both fill and seal. Suitable primer is sometimes applied to ensure good bonding between the cut surface and the sealant (IRC:15-2002). Three basic categories of joint sealants are (i) hot poured liquid sealants (example. rubber materials ) (ii) cold poured liquid sealants (example. polymer. typically made up of foam like material. Then. Beaker rod of circular cross-section. polyurethanes. and a term joint sealant has subsequently evolved (ACPA 2005). extruded neoprene rubber ). is inserted to the joints before putting sealants. joint sealers are poured over the joint fillers. bituminous. As per the present day practice. Schematic diagram of contraction joint with field poured and preformed type of sealants have been presented in Figure-41. Prior to filling. polysulfides.40 Joint sawing time window. so as to prevent water to percolate through the joints and also to make a smooth surface for travel. silicone ) and (iii) preformed elastomeric sealants (example. Joint sealant Each joint has some gap. the joint is cleaned by compressed air jets (MORT&H 2001). .Figure. The height of filled joint sealant should be less than the thickness of the concrete slab. Elastomeric sealants exert resistive force towards the movement of the joints. This joint gap is filled up by joint fillers . Joint sealants should be poured into the groove/ gap when the gapis in maximum expanded form.

Joint finishing After putting the joint sealant. flat pate or overbanding are the various methods of finishing the surface. (a) Initial joint cutting (b) Widening of initial joint cut . The technique adopted for surface finish depends on the type of sealant used. finishing the surface is essential so as to prevent rough ride. Traffic should be allowed only after the sealing material is adequately set. Figure-42 presents photograph of various stages of concrete pavement joint construction. Squeegee.Figure-41 Schematic diagram of contraction joint with field poured and preformed type of sealants.

Most of the time. Quality assurance is the overall plan that guarantees the quality of the construction process. and does not involve subjective judgment while taking a decision. Some of the basic varieties of joint sealants are hot poured liquid. one is quality assurance (QA) and the other is quality control (QC). cold poured liquid and preformed elastomeric sealants. laying. Two terms are often mentioned with reference to the quality control issues. pavement in the present case) will perform satisfactorily during its service period. Introduction Construction of pavement involves processes like. substantially reduces dispute cases (Livneh 2002). Thus. would provide necessary confidence that the constructed facility (i. Elastomeric sealants exert resistive force towards the movement of the joints. transportation. Recapitulation • • • • Concrete pavement joints could be formed or sawed. the more will be the spread of such distribution. curing. Jamil Ahmed. joint sealants should be poured into the joint gap when it is in maximum expanded form.(c) Insertion of baker rod (d) Filling joint with sealant Figure. quality control is performed through statistical parameters. acquiring of material. and thereby. compaction. can be represented with a set of individual values of the prameter recorded during the construction. Ideally.e. finishing etc. failing of which concrete will either spall or crack.42 Various stages of joint construction ( photo courtesy: Mr. Quality control is the series of . For sawing proper selection of time window is important. Consulting Engineering Service. in turn. any parameter which is assumed to be indicative of quality. The poorer is the quality control in a particular project. New Delhi ). Quality control issues Objective The objective of this lecture is to introduce the concept of statistical quality control applied to pavement construction. mixing. Quality control through statistical parameter brings in more flexibility in quality acceptance / rejection . At every stage there exists some variability with the construction materials as well as with the processes involved. This. These values may be represented in the form of a distribution.

warranty based specification (Hancher 1994) etc. Table-6 and 7 summarizes some of the pavement material and pavement construction parameters (respectively). density. method/recipe based specification. The frequencies of the various tests for achieving quality assurance are generally specified in the respective guidelines. density. smoothness. field moisture content. with reference to a typical concrete pavement construction. strength gradation. strength. Table-6 and 7 . Various tests A good construction practice involves uninterrupted control on the material and construction process. flexural fatigue Table-7 Some quality control tests during construction of concrete pavement Construction item Quality control tests Subgrade. slump. subbase and Moisture content. performance related or performance based specification (Anderson et al. Various types of specifications are in use in different construction practices. end result specification. Table-6 Some quality control tests for pavement material related to concrete pavement Material testing Soil Aggregates Fresh concrete Hardened concrete Quality control tests Subgrade modulus. Various tests A good construction practice involves uninterrupted control on the material and construction process. gradation. material and workmanship based specification. This is done by maintaining records of various engineering parameters before. shape Unit weight. 1990). durability. skid resistance Different pavement construction parameters are recorded depending on the recommendations of the particular specification being followed for the construction project. during and after the construction process. level of compaction Profile. Air content. maximum dry density. This frequency of testing is decided by considering the cost of the testing and reliability achieved with the acquired data (McCabe et al. base slope Concrete paving Joint/ surface Thickness. The frequency value for a specific test is generally recommended in the construction guideline itself. 1999.tests and measurements which are taken during the construction so as to ensure its quality (TRB 2005). This is done by maintaining records of various engineering parameters before. optimum moisture content Moisture absorption. during and after the construction process. temperature compressive strength. Some of these specifications are. toughness. water content. thickness. 2002).

flexural fatigue Table-7 Some quality control tests during construction of concrete pavement Construction item Quality control tests Subgrade. . optimum moisture content Moisture absorption. durability. toughness. with reference to a typical concrete pavement construction. The frequencies of the various tests for achieving quality assurance are generally specified in the respective guidelines. base slope Concrete paving Joint/ surface Thickness. field moisture content. temperature compressive strength. Some of these specifications are. one can perform goodness-of-fit test and obtain the type of known probability distribution it resembles the most. performance related or performance based specification (Anderson et al.summarizes some of the pavement material and pavement construction parameters (respectively). maximum dry density. strength gradation. The frequency value for a specific test is generally recommended in the construction guideline itself. This frequency of testing is decided by considering the cost of the testing and reliability achieved with the acquired data (McCabe et al. strength. thickness. Table-6 Some quality control tests for pavement material related to concrete pavement Material testing Soil Aggregates Fresh concrete Hardened concrete Quality control tests Subgrade modulus. level of compaction Profile. subbase and Moisture content. end result specification. slump. shape Unit weight. 1999. Statistical analysis The quality control data can be represented in the form a time series (control chart) plot (refer Figure-43(a)) or can be represented in the form of histogram plot (refer Figure43(b)). method/recipe based specification. water content. material and workmanship based specification. density. 1990). From the histogram plot. Various types of specifications are in use in different construction practices. warranty based specification (Hancher 1994) etc. density. smoothness. skid resistance Different pavement construction parameters are recorded depending on the recommendations of the particular specification being followed for the construction project. Air content. 2002). gradation.

Figure 43(a) Example of time series plot

Figure 43(b) Example of histogram plot In simplistic way, the statistical quality control can be performed in the following manner. The standard deviation of a particular parameter of a given type of project is a characteristic to that type of projects and may be assumed to be known. This can be termed as true standard deviation. This standard deviation value is obtained from prior experience of similar such projects. By knowing the standard deviation of the concerned parameter, one can calculate (provided the parameter is normally distributed) the number of samples to be tested (in other words frequency of testing), so that the population mean can be confidently estimated. If this mean value is outside the specified tolerance limit , the contractor may be penalized . Conversely the average test result is better than the expected, then the contractor may get bonus . Various disincentive and incentive pay factors are suggested in various construction specifications to estimate the bill payable to the contractor (TRB 2005). It may be noted that even if the quality of a parameter is adjudged as acceptable or nonacceptable based on the mean value , there is always a probability that some samples would have behaved otherwise (Livneh 2002). This is explained further in Figure-2. Figure-44(a) shows a situation where the estimated population mean value is lesser than the specification lower limit, hence, the quality is assumed to be unacceptable. However, as shown in Figure-44(a), there is a probability of α that it is wrongly rejected. Similarly, Figure-44(b) shows a situation where the estimated population mean is higher than the specification lower limit, hence it is accepted. However, as shown in Figure44(b) there is a probability of β that it is wrongly accepted. α is called the contractor's risk and α is called agency's risk. The objective of developing a quality assurance scheme is to recommend suitable sample size such that the agency's risk, as well as the contractor's risk, are minimized (Livneh 2002). At the same time, large sample size involves higher cost towards quality control process (e.g. costs towards acquiring data, data processing, testing), therefore this aspect also needs to be looked into.

Figure 44(a) Contractor's risk

Figure 44(b) Agency's risk

Recapitulation Some parameters are identified during the construction process as the quality control parameters. Values of these parameters are noted at a specified frequency. The population mean of each parameter is estimated from the collected sample data. The quality of construction for each parameter is assessed considering the specified limits(s) and the estimated mean value. Accordingly, the pay factors for the construction items are decided. MAINTENANCE OF CONCRETE PAVEMENTS Objectives This objective of this lecture is to discuss the maintenance issues specific to concrete pavement. Introduction Any in-service pavement shows signs of distresses, and subsequently requires maintenance to retain its serviceability. Various distresses that may occur to the concrete pavement can be, in general, classified as follows (TFHRC 2006): 1. Cracking  Corner breaks  Longitudinal cracking  Transverse cracking 2. Joint deficiencies  Joint seal damage  Spalling of joints

3. Surface defects  Map cracking and scaling  Polished aggregate  Popouts  Loss of skid resistance 4. Miscellaneous distresses  Blowups  Lane-to-shoulder drop-off and separation
  

Patch Punch out Water bleeding and pumping

Pictorial description and discussion on various types of pavement distresses can be obtained from reference TFHRC 2006. The following section discusses various maintenance actions undertaken on concrete pavement towards rehabilitation and preservation of concrete pavements. Rehabilitation and preservation of concrete pavements Repair of early distresses Some of the early distresses in concrete pavement and their maintenance actions are discussed in the following: Plastic shrinkage cracking: Plastic shrinkage cracks appear in the form of parallel surface cracks on the surface due to rapid evaporation of water from the surface. The depth of such cracks can be estimated through coring technique . This can be repaired by sealing the surface cracks by injecting low viscosity epoxy, high molecular weight methacrylate (IPRF 2003) etc. Edge slump: When the slip-form paver moves forward, the edge of concrete slab being un-supported, sometimes slumps at isolated locations. This edge slump seriously affects the performance of the constructed pavement. The repair can be done by separately placing fresh concrete (and not mortar) to the affected portions. Such repair should be conducted before application of any curing compound (IPRF 2003). Joint spalling: Joint spalling may occur due to (i) early joint sawing, (ii) use of wrong blade type, or (iii) poor operation of the sawing equipment. Reforming manually the affected portions with fresh concrete is recommended for isolated joint spalling problems. Full depth cracking: Full depth cracking of newly constructed pavement can occur due to one or combination of the following reasons (IPRF 2003): Provide a link to the 'Slip form paving system' discussed in lecture 'construction of concrete pavement' • Late transverse joint sawing or insufficient depth of sawing. • Misaligned dowel bars. • Excessive curling and/or warping. • Rapid surface cooling. • Early age loading by construction equipment. • Excessive drying shrinkage. • Excessive base frictional restraint.

Closing remarks The proper timing at which maintenance needs to be initiated. 1996 ). but the voids are filled by under-sealing. One of the popular ways of treating loss of support is by slab stabilization. Sometimes certain limiting values are suggested on the functional or structural serviceability (say. Sometimes. if required. cleaned and bonding and patching materials are applied (ACPA 1998). with suitable additives. and not by any impact-type tool. texturing etc are done as required (ACPA 1995). sub-sealing or pressure grouting (ACPA 1994). Surface irregularities and loss of skid resistance: The improvement of skid resistance and removal of surface irregularities can be done by grinding and grooving . severe joint spalling etc (ACPA 1995). Moropoulou et al. Blocking of the whole joint with pressure grouting could be another alternative.e. joint sealing. Hot or cold poured liquid sealants can be used for resealing purpose.joint resealing is an appropriate action (ACPA 1993). Concrete is removed by sawing and light hammering from the chosen rectangular area. crack-stitching can be performed. (ii) ambient temperature. Loss of support: The locations of loss of support can be detected by falling weight deflectometer. Equipment fitted with closely spaced diamond blades/ discs are used for this purpose (ACPA 2000.Complete replacement of the affected slab is generally recommended for such a situation. Villemagne et al. New set of dowel bars (or wedging system ) can be placed by machining by impact or by sawing (Villemagne et al. sawing. is an important consideration. 1998. The removal of the affected slab should be done panel by panel using some saw cutting tool (IPRF 2003). is adopted for the full depth. (iv) expected performance etc (ACPA 1998). The type of the material chosen is based on (i) curing time. in terms of present serviceability rating. replacement of dowel bars is a difficult. finishing. and the joints are still functional etc. Epoxy coated dowel bar/ tie bars are suitably replaced in their designed positions. but the joint seals are showing signs of failure (i. 1996). Weak load transfer at joints : Weak load transfer at the joints happen due to failure of dowel bars. missing or debonded sealant) . where slab is not lifted. Same procedure. Full depth repair takes care of blowups. Conventional portland cement. maintenance of pavement is initiated . (iii) depth of cracks. 1996) or thin concrete overlay . polyurethane etc. like infrared thermography. spalling or fatigue cracking is less severe. If the serviceability rating falls below (or exceeds) certain specified limits. Full depth cracking: Full depth repair is recommended for cracks extended to the full depth of the pavements. Repair of other common distresses Joint seal failure: If the pavement is not badly deteriorated. ground penetrating radar etc (Gordon et al. international roughness index etc. Partial depth cracking: Partial depth repairing is done when the distress is confined to upper surface of the slab. or other non-destructive techniques. and the side walls of the joints need to be cleaned and made free from dust and moisture before applying fresh sealants. Compacting. riding quality related defects are treated with suitable bituminous surfacing (Villemagne et al. However. polymer based concrete or other cementations materials are used for repair purpose. Examples of these grouting materials are flyash grouts. For cracks of low severity.) conditions of the pavement. The repair area can be decided by sounding technique with the help of a simple hammer. curing. 2001). longitudinal cracking. which helps to hold the cracks tightly (ACPA 1997). is generally used for full depth repair. costly and time-taking process. which involves applying steel reinforced cement. asphalt. as that of partial depth repair. The old sealant needs to be removed. Conventional portland cement concrete. corner breaks. transverse cracking.

Here we shall look at the vehicular traffic on roadways. certain limiting values of structural or functional serviceability conditions are suggested. surface defects and other types. Strict adherence to lanes is referred to as maintaining proper lane discipline. Let us also assume that time = 0. Joint filling.Recapitulation • • • • Various distresses of concrete pavement can be grossly categorized as. Sometimes. Maintenance strategies adopted for treatment of early stage distress of concrete pavement are generally different than the treatment of distresses which show up gradually with the movement of traffic. . Slab replacement is generally suggested for major distresses. We shall study in traffic engineering how to analyze vehicular traffic on roadways and how to design various facilities which aid in the smooth flow of traffic. however. maintenance of pavement is initiated. if the serviceability rating falls below/ exceeds certain specified limits. First. In India often drivers do not maintain proper lane discipline. Most of the structural repair techniques of concrete pavement generally involve application of fresh concrete or other types binding agents. cracking. This type of road is called a one-way road.A Recapitulation In this section we shall use a narrow definition of Traffic Engineering. In the above example there are two streams moving in the same direction. Hence as vehicles move up they trace a path on a corresponding Time-Distance plot. re-texturing can be considered as some of the functional maintenance strategies. Let us now look at Vehicles A and B in Figure3 (press the arrow button). Let us also assume that distance of a vehicle is measured from the line marked L-L. BASIC CONCEPT OF TRAFFIC ENGINEERING Basics of Traffic Engineering . when vehicle A is at L-L. Selection of proper timing for maintenance activity is an important consideration. joint deficiencies. re-grooving. the streams move in opposing directions. This is a two way road. we shall recapitulate some things we learnt in Transportation Engineering I Figure-1: A two lane one-way road where L1 and L2 are two lanes.

If u i represents spot speed of vehicle i (say at time 't') then it is equal to the slope of the distance time line for the i th vehicle at time 't'. Such a speed is called Spot speed. if we trace the path of many vehicles. we get a distance-time plot. Basic Concepts of Speed Typically speed of individual vehicles are measured at an instant or over a very short period of time. The terms speed. as shown in Figure 5. The figure also explains various other traffic engineering terms. These parameters are explained in detail in the following lectures.Similarly. For example see the definition of u 6 in Figure 5 (reproduced from Lecture 1). flow and density are important as these parameters describe the state of a traffic stream. .

5) .5 kmph (this is plotted as a vertical line of height 8 on a x-axis value of 50 kmph.In order to determine a representative speed for the entire stream typically the average speed of vehicles over a certain period of time (usually not more than 15 minutes) is determined.5 kmph and 50. Time Mean Speed Space Mean Speed is a more appropriate measure of the stream conditions as it gives the average stream speed as the average of average speed of individual vehicles over a certain distance. Two types of averages are typically determined. Various speed studies have been done and it has been seen that speed is distributed Normally (in order to learn more about Normal distribution click here) around the observed mean.5-50.the mid point of the class 49. Advanced Concepts As can be expected the speeds are not all the same. The figure states that at this site 8 times out of 195 observations the speed was between 49. individual u i 's are actually distributed randomly around a certain average value. Figure 6(a) shows a typical frequency distribution of speed on not-so-free-flowing expressway.

49. Basic Concepts of Density . In order to fit the normal distribution the mean and standard deviation of the observed data are set equal to the mean and standard deviation of the theoretical distribution.5 to 49.5 to 50. Figure 6(b). simulation of traffic streams .5 kmph. In this case it is meaningful to superimpose the density function on the relative frequency graphs i.5 kmph. Studying speed distributions is important from various standpoints. Also shown in the figure is a superimposed plot of a normal distribution fitted to the data. as the class intervals are of unit length. Relative frequency of a particular data is the frequency of that divided by the total number of observations.Figure 6(b) shows the same information as a relative frequency (drawn as vertical lines) versus speed plot. like 48.e. etc (Click here if you still don't understand). etc. like selection of design speed vis-a-vis speed limit.

This indicates that at T there were 5 vehicles between 0 and D.e. Sometimes microscopic measure of flow (i. Notice. For example. It can be seen from Figure 5 (reproduced from lecture 1). It is of good interest to the service providers and not much to the individual drivers. this means that someone standing at D from time = 0 to time = T will count 8 vehicles crossing him/her. as stated earlier. As per the data given in Figure 5 (reproduced from lecture 1). in a way . is a point measure. Note 8 is the number of times the time-distance plots cross the line drawn at D between 0 and T. Time Headway) is of interest to individual drivers (we shall see this later).It is measured at a given time over a specified distance.The distance heading is shown in Figure 5 (reproduced from lecture1) and indicates the distance between (similar points of) two consecutive vehicles. unlike density. that parameter speed and density (which implied proximity of other vehicles) are of interest to and do affect the behaviour of drivers. Individual distance headways however are all different and vary with time.Density is defined as the number of vehicles per unit length. that flow is equal to the reciprocal of the average time headway. is related to the average distance headways. It. Density is also equal to the reciprocal of average distance headway. .The units of flow is vehicles per hour(vph) or vehicles per hour per lane(vphpl). over a period of T is 8/T vph. A good and detailed description of distance headways will be provided in the discussion on Traffic Flow Theory.as per the data given in Figure 5 the density at time T measured over a distance of D is 5/D vehicles per km. Advanced Concepts Density by definition is an average measure. Physically. measures how many vehicles are being serviced by the road. It is defined as the number of vehicles that cross a section of the roadway per unit time. Note that 5 is the number of times the distance-time lines cross the vertical line at time = T. the flow across a section at a distance D. Flow. Basic Concepts of Flow Flow.

a brief description is provided through the following table. As is expected not all time-headways are the same. Generally. Studying the probability distribution of headways helps in studying time losses at signalized intersection. The study of headways distribution is also extremely important in order to able to simulate traffic streams realistically. delays at unsignalized intersection delays at merging operations and various other things. Here. 'h' represents the variable headway.Advanced Concepts Microscopically flow is related to time headways. represents the mean of the observed headway data and h s represents the standard deviation of the observed headway data. A lot work has been done on headway distributions. Studying the distribution of time headways therefore becomes imperative. time headways are simply referred to as headways. . In the table. the Pearson Type III family of distribution is used to represent headway distributions.

Hence the parameters of the Erlang distribution is k = 4. λ = 1. This fitted Erlang distribution is shown in Figure 7(b).63.46 second and the standard deviation is 1.An example of a typical frequency and relative frequency headway distribution for headway is shown in Figure 7(a) and 7(c) respectively. The comparison of the predicted relative frequency and the observed relative frequency (try to remember the definition of relative frequency) is shown in Figure 7(c).196 seconds. The mean headway for the data is 2. .

Movement of vehicles on expressways and certain arterial sections can be classified as uninterrupted traffic flow. all flows except at or near intersections can be said to be within the scope of uninterrupted traffic flow. Our discussion on uninterrupted traffic flow is divided into four sections. this section is titled "Microscopic Models". The fourth section analyzes situations when two different traffic streams meet. Fundamental Relation The fundamental relation of traffic flow is valid for interrupted as well as uninterrupted traffic flow. In fact. to some extent.UNINTERRUPTED FLOW Introduction & Fundamental Relation: Theory of Uninterrupted Traffic Flow Uninterrupted traffic flow refers to flow of those streams where vehicular motion is not interrupted by stoppages. Consider the following traffic stream. . The second section talks about certain macroscopic relations between speed and density. The first section presents the fundamental relation of traffic flow. It is discussed here as this is the first instance we discuss models of traffic flow. The third section deals with viewing the traffic stream as an outcome of interactions between drivers.

Now. Now. Road and Kalpi Road in and around Kanpur. Figure 2 shows some typical speed-density plots from three different Indian sites exhibiting uninterrupted flow. That is. the number of vehicles between V1 and Vn (including both). For simplicity. Hence it is expected that density and speed will be inversely related. That is. t = 0 the first vehicle he/she would count is V 1. An Introduction to Macroscopic Models In example 3 of Problem Session 1 we saw that the speed and distance headway are related. t = 0. density = k vpkm). in this case. N is given by N = u (the distance between A-A and B-B) x k(density) Hence in one hour the observer will count N or u x k vehicles. These sites were on G. density is inversely related to distance headway. Since. Hence in one hour the observer will count all vehicles between A-A and B-B. q in vph (vehicles per hour). Also assume that the average speed of the stream is u kmph. . assume that each vehicle in the stream is moving with u kmph. in Northern India. Hence. it will count all vehicles over the distance u km (see Figure). By definition.Assume that vehicle V1 is touching section A-A and vehicle V n is touching B-B at time. q = N or q=uxk The last equation.e. speed also reduced. there are k vpkm (i. number of vehicles counted in an hour is flow. As distance headway reduced. Further assume that the density of vehicles between A-A and B-B is k vpkm (vehicles per km). which says flow of a traffic stream is equal to average speed of the stream times the average density of the stream is called the fundamental relation of traffic flow. Vn is u km away from A-A and since every vehicle is moving with u kmph V n will reach A-A exactly at t = 1 hr (press replay button to see).T. Now. if an observer standing at A-A starts counting vehicles at time. as per our initial assumption.

density and speed are inversely related. Over the last seven decades various types of models have been developed.As you can see. Macroscopic models of traffic flow primarily deals with developing models of relation between speed and density. as expected. Here we discuss three types of models: .

Greenshields model with the boundary conditions become Clarification An example of how the linear relation may fit a u-k data set is given in Figure 3. Figure4 shows various lines going through the same data as shown in Fig 2(a).Linear Model/ Generalized Polynomial Model of u . . it is the average speed at which vehicles move when there are very few vehicles on the road. a better method needs to be evolved to determine the best fit line. All of them "looks" like they are acceptable fits but each one gives very different estimate of u f and kj. proposed that u = a + bk with the boundary conditions that when k = 0. Also note that k j is defined as jam density and represents that density at which jam conditions exist and no vehicles can move. Logarithmic 3. Obviously. Note. the estimated values of u f and kj. Linear/Generalized Polynomial 2. u = u f and when k = kj . A related issue here is how to find the best fit line.1. Visually. Exponential Macroscopic Models. given the data. based on limited data.k relation Linear Model Greenshields [1]. it looks like an acceptable fit.(from the figure) are kmph and passenger cars per km. Note uf is defined as the free flow speed. Figure 3 shows a linear fit to the data shown in Figure 2(a). u = 0.

62 mph. Also note 1 kmph = 0. As can be seen from the nomograph. b) when u f = 58 mph (93 kmp).79 and b = l = 2. From this point one moves to the left. . For a preview into definitions of optimal speed and optimal density click here. in this case a and d are chosen from expectations on optimal density and optimal flow. Note that for this case a = m = 0. a) and l(i. u0 and optimal density. The nomograph is reproduced here as Figure 5. the model is valid only for and d > 1.55... This point gives the values of a (i. at this point one moves horizontally (parallel to x-axis) to the right till the line intersects the vertical line of the previous paragraph. given ones estimate of u f one locates the point in the top left area of the nomograph and moves vertically down till one reaches ones estimate of u 0 . Easa and May [5] developed a nomograph which uses estimates of u f. This procedure is quite unique to this model (as it is not regression based). optimal speed. Given an estimate of kj one locates the appropriate point on the lower right of the nomograph.Generalized Polynomial Model The generalized polynomial evolved from the work done by Gazis et al [2. m in nomograph) and b (referred to as l in nomograph).e. The reasons for this will be explained under microscopic theory of traffic flow. the generalized polynomial model looks like The model has four parameters (namely a. one starts from two directions. This then will show you how to get m(i.3] and May & Keller [4].e. similar procedures can also be used for the linear model and the other models described later [Think how this can be done]. In order to understand the process better press the animate button on the nomograph.e. u0 = 30 mph (48 kph) kj= 182 vpm (113 vpkm) and k0= 50 vph (31 vpkm). Further. Clarification Typically. k0 to obtain a (referred to as m in the nomograph) and b (referred to as l in the nomograph). kj. Using the same boundary conditions as before it can be shown that b = u f and c = kj.c and d) it reduces to the linear model when a = 0 and d =2. Mathematically. parallel to the x-axis till one reaches ones estimate of k 0. At this point one moves vertically up (parallel to this y-axis) At the same time.b.

of course is a major drawback of the logarithmic model. Although. a and b) estimates will not have the properties ordinarily expected from linear regression estimate techniques. This. This implies that in the logarithmic model free flow speed is infinite. this will give the best fit line the parameter (i. [For further classification to the previous statement see the link on best fit or refer to any good book on econometrics].e. As k tends to zero. where c = a ln b and k = ln k where A = -a Note once C and A are obtained (see best fit) one can get a = -A and . The following shows how a logarithmic model can be fitted to a u-k data.Figure : 5 Nomograph developed by Easa and May to determine a and b n order to see a realistic example of how the above method works click here (being developed) .Logarithmic Model of u-k relation/Exponential Model of u-k Relation Logarithmic Model of u-k relation The logarithmic model is of the form 0 It was first proposed by Greenberg [6] in 1959. or or or u = a ln b . u tends to infinity. u = c + AK. Using the boundary condition that u = 0 when k = k j one can deduce that b = k j Clarification The other boundary condition that u = u f when k = 0 cannot be used here. as per this model.a ln k u = c . Macroscopic Models . In order to estimate the parameters.ak. However it is strongly suggested that the reader visit this link after going through this section completely. a and b one can use linear regression to obtain the best fit line.

This implies two things: (i) the logarithmic model may not be a good model to fit to the given data. this is an unacceptable estimate. Typically. from the figure it is clear that c = 59.The following figures (Figure 6) shows the best fit logarithmic model to the data given in Figure 2(c). the parameter b is assumed and parameters a and c are estimated from a given set of data on u and k. Later the Northwestern model emerged with b = 2. Figure 6(a) shows a plot of u versus ln k(or k). Before leaving the section it must be pointed out that the parameter "a" has a physical meaning. . Exponential Model of u-k Relation These models are of the form Undowood [7] initially proposed an exponential model with b = 1. and (ii) the best fit line is not always the line which gives the best traffic parameter values]. [although this line is a best fit notice that kj estimate is 3979 pc per km.31 units and A = 735 units (can you tell what the units are?) Figure 6(b) shows the same data and the same logarithmic model on a plot of speed versus density. Towards the end of this section we revisit this model to see what "a" means.

One can rewrite the above model as or or Note that b is a pre-defined value (like 1 for Undewoods model and 2 for Northwestern model). the observations on the properties of the estimates apply.(can you tell what the units are?) .0002units. u = u f . as in the previous case. we get a = uf. Figure 7 shows the best fit Northwestern model (i. Once A and B are estimated.5787 units and -0. again. In figure 7(a) the plot is between ln u versus k 2/2 From the plot the values of A and B are 3.e. b = 2) for the data shown in Figure 2(b).Using the boundary condition that when k=0. Like in the previous case one can use linear regression to estimate a and c. a and c can be obtained as a = e A and .

density). However. Figure 1 Speed . Is this acceptable? Next we look at macroscopic models of u .e.k (flow .flow relation generally observed from the field .flow) and q . These macroscopic models are directly obtained from the macroscopic u . versus k. before looking at the connection between the u-k relation and the u-q and q-k relations. that these relations are still the topic of research and new observations and understandings of the process are still emerging. Also try to figure out what happens to density when u tends to zero.k relations. their general nature and idealized views are presented.Figure 7(b) plots the same Northwestern model (i. Uninterrupted Flow Introduction As stated earlier the speed-flow (u-q) relations and flow-density (q-k) relations can be obtained from using the u-k relation and the relation. Figures 1 and 2 show some typical u-q and q-k plots that are generally observed on roads.q (speed . The discussion here has been kept traditional because the purpose is to introduce the reader to these relations and not necessarily to make the readers experts in the area of flow theory. It must be understood here. ) on a graph of u Before leaving this section it must be pointed out that c has a physical meaning and will be discussed later. first.

these are the top and bottom portions. In either of the curves two portions are clearly visible.Figure 2 Flow . 3. 2. As this is an introductory lecture on this topic the idealizations shown in Figure 3 and 4 are used for the rest of the discussion. The figures show that a maximum value exists for flow. Figure 3 Traditional idealization of the speed .density relation generally observed from the field Few points emerge from these plots: 1. the points are closely packed where as in the bottom portion the spread is much more. The clarity in the figures is least around the capacity value. and in Figure 2 these are the left and right portions. There always seem to be fewer points just after capacity than anywhere else on the curve The observed relations (as depicted in Figures 1 and 2) have traditionally been idealized as those shown in Figures 3 and 4. In Figure 1. This is known as capacity. Similar observation can be made from Figure 2 when one compares the left and right portions. 4. Figures 5 and 6 show a more recent idealization of the relations depicted in Figures 1 and 2. In the top portion of Figure 1. q. q max .flow relation . 5.

In order to show this. two examples are taken. As mentioned before. the value of maximum q is often written as q max and referred to as capacity. uo. 2. ko are referred to as optimal speed and optimal density and are by definition the speed or density at which the flow is maximum.Figure 4 Traditional idealization of the flow .density relation The reader must also note the following: 1. q = 0 when either u = uf or k = kj (the reader should satisfy himself/herself as to why it is so). 3. Let us now look at how one can obtain a u-q or q-k relation given the u-k relation.density relation Figure 5 A more modern idealization of the speed - flow relation Figure 6 A more modern idealization of the flow . .

As per Greenshields' model Hence. Figure 7: The q-k relation implied by Greenshields' linear u-k relation . This then is the implied q-k relation. Or. The shapes of the q-k and u-q relations obtained from the linear model are shown in Figures 7 and 8.Example 1 Determine the implied u-q and q-k relations for a linear (or Greenshields') u-k relation. Or. In order to obtain the u-q relation one can proceed as follows: Starting from Greenshields' model one could write: Hence.

Further. The process of determining this is illustrated using only the q-k relation. Hence. First. by using the u-q relation one can obtain . Note that the above expressions for optimum speed and density are only true for linear u-k relation. As per Greenberg's model . max ) the derivative must . Example 2 Determine the implied u-q and q-k relation for a logarithmic (or Greenberg's) u-k relation. .Figure 8: The u-q relation implied by Greenshields' linear u-k relation Few more observations can be made from the above relations. At q = q max . Therefore. it can be easily seen that . As shown before. or Similarly. therefore at k = k o (note at this point q = q be zero. let us see at what speed and density do the flow become maximum.

Hence. The shapes of the q-k and u-q relations obtained from the logarithmic model are shown in Figures 9 and 10. let us see at what speed and density do the flow become maximum. Hence. Figure 9: The q-k relation implied by Greenberg's logarithmic u-k relation Figure 10: The u-q relation implied by Greenberg's logarithmic u-k relation Few more observations can be made from the above relations. As shown before. This then is the implied q-k relation. First. The process of determining this is illustrated using only the u-q relation. . In order to obtain the u-q relation one can proceed as follows: Starting from Greenberg's model one could write: Hence.

The rate at which this demarcation point moves (the direction of motion of the vehicles is taken as the positive direction) is referred to as the speed of the shock wave. respectively. and flow = qB) a shock wave is started. speed = u A . therefore at u = uo (note at this point q = qmax ) the derivative must be zero. . This demarcation point may move forward or backward or stay at the same place with respect to the road. For example. speed =uB . There are various ramifications of such interruptions on traffic flow and these are discussed in the next section on shock waves. In order to see the generation and movement of shock waves consider the distancetime graph shown in Figure 1. The second and third study the traffic flow at signalized and unsignalized intersections. These are the interruptions that take place at signalized and unsignalized intersections. The shock wave is basically the movement of the point that demarcates the two stream conditions. Traffic interruptions are collectively a general situation used to denote conditions where a stream of traffic flowing under certain conditions of speed and density meets another stream flowing under some other condition of speed and density.At q = q max . and flow = qA) meets another stream flowing under different conditions (say. Further. it can be easily seen that Interrupted Traffic Flow Introduction to Interruptions In this lecture the flow of traffic under traffic interruptions is studied. the first studies shock waves. or It is left to the reader to show that for this case . the former traffic stream will face a traffic interruption. density = kA. there are three subsections. if traffic flowing at high speed meets another stream flowing at a greater density and lower speed. . two kinds of traffic interruptions are of special interest. Within this general description of traffic interruptions. In this section. Shock Waves Whenever a stream of traffic flowing under certain stream conditions (say. . Therefore. density = kB.

and q = 0 a shock wave should and does emanate. kA. After a while at point Q the slow moving vehicle leaves the traffic stream and the congested condition created by the slow moving vehicle is released. and the line denoting the motion of the first vehicle to get released after the departure of the slow moving vehicle. Interestingly. Obviously. also represent a flow condition. say. qC meets u = uf. Hence when the stream condition u B . qB from the flow conditions uC. (ii) the point at which it ends. the point that demarcates the flow conditions u B . the dotted line denoting the motion of the slow moving vehicle. This slow moving vehicle slows the traffic and creates another flow condition denoted by uB . k = 0. the vacant area in the figure bounded by the line denoting the motion of last vehicle to go without being caught behind the slow moving vehicle. qA meet the flow conditions uC. kB. hence. Similarly. qC starting Shock wave 3 (see figure 1 ). namely the free flow conditions. qC). and q = 0 From the above discussion it is clear that the key parameters of a shock wave are (i) the point at which it starts. qB. kC. kB. kC. k = 0. A slow moving vehicle with speed u B (whose distance-time plot is shown as a dotted line) enters a traffic stream originally moving at uA . But this time the flow conditions uA . and q = 0. the time-distance diagram of the first vehicle that is released is the timedistance diagram of the shock wave that emanates when flow condition u C. From the graph it can be seen that there exists a line (a bold line marked Shock wave 1) that is the locus of the point that demarcates the two flow conditions at any given time. At some time these two shock waves meet signalling the end of the flow conditions u B . qB meets the stream condition u = uf . qB. at some other stream condition (denoted by u C. and . kC. The locus of this point is marked as Shock wave 2 in the figure. kB. The only difference here is that the point which demarcates the two conditions is the same as the point representing the slow moving vehicle. kB. kA.Figure 1 This figure is drawn for the following situation. k = 0. qC also causes a shock wave. qA. kC. the shock wave that emanates here moves with the slow moving vehicle and the time-distance diagram of this shock wave is the same as the time-distance diagram of the slow moving vehicle. In the figure this zone is indicated as a stream with conditions u = uf (the free flow speed).

Now. the only parameter which needs to be studied in detail is the speed of the shock wave which forms the topic of the next subsection. of these. kB. Since vehicles are neither created nor destroyed in the process of crossing over. the above equation also has a simple graphical interpretation. Speed of shock waves Let a stream flowing under condition A (with u A . As will be apparent later. Rearranging the terms and substituting obtained: by . Then relative to the shock wave vehicles in condition A are moving and those in condition B are moving at a speed of . Similarly. recall that the shock wave is a demarcation between the two conditions. kA. Note that. some vehicles are crossing over the shock wave from one condition to the other.(iii) the speed of the shock wave. and qB). it can be said that in a time duration of the number of vehicles crossing over the shock wave from condition B is . Further. physically. it states that the speed of the shock wave is given by the slope of the line joining the points representing the two conditions (on a graph) whose confluence gives rise to the shock wave. Assume that the speed of the resultant shock wave is at a speed of . Therefore. the following expression can be (1) It should be noted that the above equation for speed of shock wave can also be obtained using principles of geometry from a distance-time plot of the type shown in Figure 1. Hence. . the number of vehicles crossing over the shock wave from the perspectives of conditions A and B must be equal. it can be said that in a time duration of the number of vehicles crossing over the shock wave from condition A is . Figure 2 shows this graphically. and qA) meet another stream flowing under condition B (with u B .

e. (ii) the stationary shock. 3: Illustration of different types of shock waves on a plot... (i) the forward moving shock wave. the first type of shock wave will occur when a stream with lower flow and lower density meets a stream with higher flow and higher density or when a stream with higher flow and higher density meets a stream with lower flow and lower density. speed of shock wave is zero (see Figure 3 (b)).e.Fig. The third kind of shock waves will occur when a stream with higher flow and lower density meets a stream with lower flow and higher density or when a stream with lower flow and higher density meets a stream with higher flow and lower density.. Stationary shock waves will occur when the streams meeting have the same flow value but different densities. i. and (iii) the backward moving shock wave. 2: Illustration of the speed of shock waves on a There can be three types of shock waves: plot.e. speed of shock wave is positive (see Figure 3 (a)). i. i. speed of shock wave is negative (see Figure 3 (c)). As can be seen from the figure3. . Fig.

Shock Waves Example Traffic is moving on a one way road at q A = 1000 vph . Determine (i) the speed of all shock waves generated (ii) the starting point of the platoon (behind the truck) forming shock wave (iii) the starting point of the platoon dissipating shock wave (iv) the ending points of the platoon forming and platoon dissipating shock waves (v) the maximum length of the platoon. The platoon behind the truck then releases itself at capacity conditions. and kA = 16 vpkm.In the following web page an example is worked out in order to show how knowledge of shock waves can be used to obtain different traffic flow parameters of interest and also to illustrate how we can obtain information about where a shock wave starts and where it ends (which are the other two parameters related to the description of a shock wave). A truck enters the stream at a point P (which is at a distance of 1 km from an upstream benchmark point BM) at a speed of uB = 16 kmph. Solution Consider the distance-time diagram shown in Figure 4 plotted for the scenario described in the problem. q C = 1400 vph and kC = 44 vpkm. However. Due to the decreased speed the density behind the truck increases to 75 vpkm. After 10 minutes. strictly speaking the complete diagram is not necessary for solving the problem. . This diagram is shown here to help the reader understand the problem better. an understanding of the physical scenario is of definite help. and (vi) the time it takes for the platoon to dissipate. and also plot the (vii) location of the front of the platoon and the rear of the platoon versus time. and (viii) length of the platoon versus time. the truck leaves the stream.

Fig 4: Distance time diagram illustrating the example problem on shock waves. It starts at Point Q (i.e.45 kmph = = = 14.67) km downstream of Point P.39 kmph is denoted as SW ) = = = -6. . where the truck leaves the stream) and 10 minutes (note the truck remains in the stream for 10 minutes) after the truck entered the traffic stream. It starts at Point P and at the time when the truck enters the stream. (i) Speeds of the various shock waves generated (shock wave can be obtained directly by using Equation 1 as follows: = = = 3.8 kmph ii) Shock wave 1 is the platoon forming shock wave. (iii) Shock wave 2 is the platoon dissipating shock wave.29 kmph = = = 16 kmph = = = 31. Point Q is 16 x (10/60) = 2..

The length is maximum at 10 minutes after the platoon starts forming. This condition will end whenever Shock waves 1 and 2 meet.29 km downstream of BM. Out of this for the first 10 minutes the platoon only grows (and there is no dissipation). Thus. The slope of Line 2 is basically the rate of dissipation of the platoon. this need not be calculated since one knows the maximum length of the platoon and when the platoon completely dissipates. time is assumed to be zero when Shock wave 1 starts.1= 75 x 2. In terms of number of vehicles the maximum length of the platoon is kB x 2.1=157. the slope of Line 2 is equal to U SW2 .61 kmph.84 minutes after the start of platoon formation.61kmph. (v) The maximum length of the platoon will be at the instant where Shock wave 2 is just about to start. as determined in part (v).(iv) Both shock waves 1 and 2 will end if the platoon condition (i.381 = 2. (vii) Figure 5 (a) shows the required plot.39 = 12. however. Say they meet at time t hours after the start of Shock wave 1. Lines 1 and 2 represent the front of the platoon and Line 3 represent the rear of the platoon.5 ≈ 158 vehicles. where their positions must be the same. the length of the platoon grows at a speed of 16 . Their positions at time can be determined from their starting positions and distances by which these travel during time t. time is assumed to be zero when Shock wave 1 starts.84 minutes for the platoon to dissipate. and the slope of Line 3 is equal to USW1. (viii) Figure 5 (b) shows the required plot.67 km from BM. Hence. one can write the following or. condition B) ends. the distances are as measured from BM.61 x (10/60) = 2. The platoon at any given time is defined by the length between the front of the platoon (Shock wave 4) and the rear of the platoon (Shock wave 1). the two shock waves end 22. In the figure. Hence. Further. (vi) In part (iv) it was determined that the platoon ceases to exist 22. In the plot. the slope of Line 1 is equal to U SW4 . Slope of Line 1 is equal to the rate of growth of the platoon. This value.1 km.84 minutes after the start of Shock wave 1 and at a distance of 1+ 3. In the plot. . Hence the maximum length is equal to 12.3. knowing that P is 1 km from BM and Q is 3. Hence it takes 12..e. is 12.39 x 0.

Fig. obviously. During the cycle length. there are various kinds of time sharing strategies like pre-timed. the vehicles of that movement can use the intersection. Invariably during the change over from green to red an amber signal is shown to warn the driver that a red signal is impending. in this section the pre-timed signalization and its effect on flow is studied. are not studied here as the basic traffic flow analysis process is the same as that of the pre-timed strategy. In the pre-timed signalization. In a manner of speaking. various strategies are used to control the flow of traffic at an intersection in order to improve the safety and efficiency of traffic flow. During the amber time for a movement. the common space is periodically given to certain flows while the other conflicting streams are barred from entry at that time. and fully actuated signalizations. where the time sharing mechanism changes more frequently than in the pre-timed strategy. the common space is time-shared among the various flows. At such a location. Of course. signalization is the most common. the safety and efficiency at such locations will be low. If left on its own. the time for which a particular stream can utilize the intersection is referred to as the green time for that stream or movement. The space which is common to all these roads is referred to as the intersection. the sum of green. 5: (a) Plot of platoon front and rear locations versus time for the example. Traffic Flow at Signalized Intersections An intersection is a location where two or more roads carrying traffic streams in different directions cross. Although. the flow at an intersection will always be chaotic. The other strategies. This fixed interval is referred to as the cycle length. different traffic streams compete with one another for the use of the common space or the intersection. and (b) Plot of length of platoon versus time for the example. At a signalized intersection. partially actuated. the time sharing between the different conflicting flows occurs according to a pre-defined strategy which repeats at a fixed interval. A detailed discussion and design of . Hence. Among the strategies that are used. the time during which a particular movement cannot utilize the intersection is referred to as the red time for that movement. amber and red times for a particular movement is equal to the cycle time.

Flow characteristics at signalized intersection The interruption to traffic flow at a signalized intersection is orderly and deterministic. All vehicles on this stream come to a stop and remain stopped (thereby forming a queue) till the light turns green. λ is the reciprocal of the mean or average headway. Such arrival pattern is seen at isolated intersections. or (iii) mixed arrivals. Obviously. The above brief introduction is given here in order to initiate the reader to the various terminology used in signalized intersection analysis and design. f(h) (for all h > 0) is given as (3) An assumption (or observation) of negative exponential distribution for headways also implies that the vehicle arrival process is a Poisson process. at a signalized intersection. (ii) grouped arrivals. i. That is. if h is headway between vehicles. The type of interruption and its effect on the flow is described in the next several web pages. there is interruption to flow of traffic. the probability that the number of vehicles Nt. then the probability that a particular headway is between H 1 and H2 is given by (2) where. Given this interruption pattern. In these cases the inter-arrival times (or headways) are often distributed more or less according to the negative exponential distribution. the first two processes are described. Movement of vehicles continue unabated till the light turns amber at which point vehicles close to the intersection generally go through while the ones farther away from the intersection initiate maneuvers to come to a stop. In this subsection. Consider the following scenario. The negative exponential probability density function. intersections at locations where there are no other upstream intersections in the vicinity (say within 3 to 4 km). and (iv) the delay to vehicles.pre-timed signalization is provided in the next lecture. The same pattern follows for every cycle. The above expression is derived by integrating the negative exponential probability density function (for headways in this case) between H1 and H2. That is. The signal has just turned red for a particular stream or movement. Arrival process at signalized intersection Arrival processes at intersections could be of three kinds (i) random arrivals. that arrive in a time interval t. The last section in this topic analyzes the related matter of capacity and level of service at signalized intersections. is equal to k is given by: .e. In random arrivals vehicles seem to arrive at the intersection randomly. The next subsection analyzes the other two processes. the following processes become important for analysis: (i) the arrival process of vehicles (ii) the departure process of vehicles (iii) the queue of vehicles. Once the light turns green the first vehicle in the queue departs followed by the other vehicles..

The next to cross the intersection is the second vehicle in the queue and so on. the time gaps between successive vehicles when they cross a pre-specified point on the intersection (generally the stop line on the road). This phenomenon occurs because vehicles arriving at the intersection are the ones which have been released by an earlier intersection and therefore are in a platoon.. Hence. then an interesting and expected pattern emerges.(4) where. λ is the reciprocal of the mean or average headway or. this value basically states the maximum number of vehicles that can ever be released during a specified green time and (ii) the initial headways are larger than hs. the ordinate value for an abscissa value of 1 indicates the time-gap between the light turning green and the first vehicle crossing the pre-specified point in the intersection. i. yet the distance is not large enough for the entire platoon to disperse. it is the mean or average arrival rate. Fig. some vehicles still arrive in a grouped manner. referred to as the saturation headway. the arrival cannot be characterized either as purely random or as purely grouped. Further. Departure process at signalized intersection When a signal turns green from red the first of the stopped vehicles initiate manoeuvres to move and cross the intersection. 6: A typical plot of departure headways versus position in queue at a signalized intersection. alternatively. Grouped arrivals are seen at intersections which are located close to (say within 2 km) another upstream intersection. Figure 6 shows a typical plot of headways versus position in queue. From the figure6. In such cases. This is because the distance between the upstream intersection and the intersection being studied is large enough for many of the released vehicles to disperse from the discharged platoon and arrive independently. two features emerge: (i) the headway stabilizes to a value h s. the initial vehicles take a longer time due to perception / . The second feature highlights that although vehicles can move at a headway of h s. Mixed arrivals are seen at intersections which are located at intermediate distances (say between 2 to 4 km) from another upstream intersection.e. If one measures the headways. Here. The ordinate value for an abscissa value of gives the headway between the and vehicles in the queue when they cross the pre-specified point in the intersection. arrival process seems to be uniform and vehicles can be assumed to arrive at reasonably constant headways.

(5) Near the end of the departure process some time is also lost. Cycle II. is primarily due to the fact that drivers are never aware of the remaining amber time. That is. These slots represent the cycles at the intersection. Fig. referred to as movement lost time (or sometimes as clearance lost time). similarly the G represents the duration of effective green (i. the time is divided into slots named Cycle I.reaction time (to the light turning green) and the extra time taken to accelerate to a reasonable speed (note that the latter vehicles more or less achieve this speed when they cross the specified point as they start moving from a distance further upstream from the specified point. the time during which no vehicle on this particular approach crosses the intersection).e. ls. Consider the plot shown in Figure 7. The R represents the duration of effective red (i. the other shows the cumulative number of departures from the given approach at the signalized intersection. the abscissa is time and the ordinate is the cumulative number of arrivals as well as the cumulative number of departures for a given stream (or approach) at an intersection. Each cycle is further subdivided into R and G. Delay and queue analysis at signalized intersections In this section the delay faced by vehicles at signalized intersections and the queues developed at signalized intersections are studied. This happens because invariably some part of the amber time remains unutilized because vehicles come to a stop even when some part of the amber time is still remaining. and so on. . some time is lost due to the fact that the initial vehicles take longer than h s. l m . There are two lines in the figure. On the abscissa.. One shows a typical graph for cumulative number of arrivals on the given approach at a signalized intersection. In this figure. In a sense then. The sum of these excess times is referred to as the startup lost time.e. 7: A typical plot of cumulative number of arrivals and departures on an approach to a signalized intersection.. the time during which vehicles on this particular approach crosses the intersection). This loss of time.

variance of queue lengths. The average delay to vehicles for this case can then be easily determined from the figure shown in Figure 8. such a description of the analyses procedures is provided Delay analysis at signalized intersection To begin with assume that the arrival process is deterministic and vehicle arrive at a uniform rate. the total number of vehicles that arrive in a period is less than the total number of vehicles that can be served by the system. green times. will give the delay faced by the n th vehicle to arrive at the intersection. and the like can also be obtained. These two assumptions mean that the arrival rate is such that all the vehicles that come in a cycle are cleared within the same cycle (like the situation in Cycle I of Figure 7). are known. The total delay divided by the total number of arrivals will provide the average delay. uniform arrival rate approach to an intersection. For example. red times. Similarly. obtaining such graphs for each and every intersection at all times is not feasible. In the following. This implies that the queue lengths at any given time can be obtained easily from the figure and hence the parameters such as average queue length. The horizontal distance at a value of n on the ordinate. However. Hence it is imperative that we analyze the delay to vehicles and queues with an aim to derive equations which can give these quantities once data on arrival rates. Further. The figure shows a typical cumulative arrival/departure graph against time for an unsaturated. The slope of the cumulative arrival line is .Figure 7 gives a reasonably complete picture of the arrival and departure processes at the intersection. Hence summing all such horizontal distances (or equivalently the area between the two lines) will give the total delay faced by all the vehicles arriving at the intersection. that is. we can obtain information about both delay and queues. assume that the system in unsaturated. the vertical distance between the two lines at time t will give the queue length at the intersection approach at time t. Fig. The slope of the cumulative departure line is sometimes zero (when the light is red) and sometimes (when the light is green). . where is the saturation flow rate obtained as the reciprocal of the saturation headway explained earlier. cycle lengths. the queues on the approach can be easily determined from this figure. etc. is expressed as vehicles per hour of green per lane or vphgpl. From such a plot. 8: A typical plot of cumulative number of arrivals and departures on an unsaturated. for example. uniform arrival rate approach to a signalized intersection. where is the uniform arrival rate in vehicles per unit time.

where. the total number of vehicles that arrived. can be obtained as: (9) However. the following can be written: (7) From the figure..From the figure 8 (where C is the duration of the cycle length and g the duration of the effective green period) it can be seen that the total delay (under the assumptions stated above). . is given by (6) Assuming that n is large enough so that the discrete sum of d(i) is equal to the area of the triangle in the figure. There may be periods of over-saturation during which the arrivals from one cycle spill over to the next and so on. can be written as Hence. and the assumption that arrival rate is still deterministic and uniform. an approach to an intersection may not always stay unsaturated. C greater than sg. Under this assumption. .e. the plot of cumulative arrivals/departures versus time can be drawn (see Figure 8). C the . A similar situation can be seen in Cycle II of Figure 7. (8) From the above and noting that n. In the figure it is assumed that the arrival rate from 0 to time T is . is average delay under the above assumptions. and that is large enough to cause oversaturation (i. can be easily determined by noting that Determining from the above relation. the maximum number of vehicles that can be served during a cycle).

However. 9: A typical plot of cumulative number of arrivals and departures on an oversaturated. . under these assumptions is the sum of the average delay due to Area I and the average delay due to Area II. If the slope of the dashed line is taken as (and noting that the slope of the inclined part of the cumulative departure line is .e. is given by the sum of the area marked with horizontal stripes (Area I) and the area marked with inclined stripes (Area II). i. . . From the figure 9 it can be seen that the total delay under these assumptions.e. uniform arrival rate approach to a signalized intersection. The average delay due to Area II can be easily determined by assuming the dashed line as the cumulative arrival line and using Equation 9.Fig. i. This implies that the average delay. as for in Equation 9 we can write the average delay due (10) . first the slope of the dashed line needs to be determined and later substituted for in Equation 9. the saturation flow rate) then or Substituting this expression of to Area II.

One of the relations often used in determining delay is due to Webster [259]. Thus the average delay. Hence. where is the number of vehicles to arrive till time T). are minimal). the average arrival rate is such that . then = Slope of the dashed line. more often than not the arrival is not deterministic. for example. etc. time in this case) between Point P and the dashed line is taken as Z. Hence. a horizontal line from P and the dashed line is given by Zn/2. (11) or where. From this it can be said that the average delay for vehicles arriving between time 0 and T is Z/2 (Note that the area of the triangle formed by the cumulative arrival line. average queue length. represents the maximum number of vehicles that can cross the intersection from a given approach per unit time. the average delay due to Area I to vehicles arriving between times T and M is Z/2. Following the same logic as above. cycle to cycle variations in average delay. Assumption of stochastic arrivals lead us to analysis which is beyond the scope of this section. . departures occur uniformly and at a maximum rate of . only the relations generally used to determine delay under the above assumptions are described. If one assumes the vertical distance of Point P from the dashed line as y. however. Based on these assumptions and some simulation runs (where the arrival and departure processes at a . it can be said that the average delay due to Area I is Z/2 irrespective of when a vehicle arrives.e. If the horizontal distance (i.The average delay due to Area I can be determined by looking at the average time between the cumulative arrival line and the dashed line.. it is stochastic. the time between the cumulative arrival line and the dashed line decreases linearly from Z to 0 over a time period of T to M. in this text. is given as (12) In reality. Webster assumed that the arrivals are according to a Poisson distribution. and that the queueing process runs under similar arrival and departure conditions long enough for the system to stabilize to a steady state (where. σ and hence. Once it is assumed that the arrival is stochastic the above relations cannot be used and can at best function as approximate estimates. then it can be said that the time between the cumulative arrival line and the dashed line increases linearly from 0 to Z over a time period of 0 to T. Similarly.

In the 1998 HCM [103] the calculation of delay has been further modified.8) while their estimates are much lower when /C is high (say greater than 0. That expression is not provided here as it uses many site specific empirical constants which are not valid for Indian conditions Queue analysis at signalized intersections An involved discussion on analysis of queues at signalized intersections is not possible in this text as it requires substantial knowledge of stochastic queuing processes. In practice. All of them predict values which are close to when /C is not high (say less than 0. The 1985 Highway capacity manual of USA [104] proposes the use of one such expression for delay. : (13) The first term in the equation is the same as that given in Equation 9. (14) The 1985 HCM [104] cautions users against using this relation for . certain characteristics of the arrival and departure processes from the point of view of queueing analysis are presented here so that the interested reader may pursue this topic further. It is seen that this term is often between 5 and15 per cent of the sum of the first two terms. this implies an increase in the chances of oversaturation when the stochasticity in the arrival rate causes the number of arrivals to be greater than ). the third term is a correction factor obtained from simulation studies. One possible reason for this is that the derivation of the quantity assumes steady-state behaviour. when /C values are close to one (that is. . In general. Hence the following simplified form of the above equation is sometimes used. reproduced here as Equation 14.signalized intersection are simulated for various arrival pattern and signal settings) Webster proposed the following expression for average delay. C is close to . the second term is the additional term which results from analyzing the process by assuming stochastic arrivals.95). However. it is found that the estimates of delay are not good for the entire range of /C values. Other researchers around the world have developed other equations which are supposed to predict delays more realistically. The relation was developed based on a large database on intersection delay. which is never achieved at real intersections as oversaturation by design occurs only in short spells. . overestimates the average delay.

). Some researchers (see for example Kikuchi et al. that is. However. its unit is vehicle seconds. This area divided by the total number of arrivals obviously gives the average delay. Matters can be further complicated if there is a permitted phase in the signal (as is sometimes the case for turning movements) where a vehicle can cross the intersection (during the non-green time) if a sufficient gap in the opposing stream exists. Collecting data on average delay In this section a procedure which can be easily used to collect data on stopped delay at a signalized intersection is described. have attempted to determine the probability distribution of queues through a Markov chain analysis of the queueing process. the aim should be to answer questions like. Total area between cumulative arrivals and departure plots where all the variables are as explained in figure 7 Hence the average delay can be obtained as The data collection procedure uses the above relation to evaluate the average delay. the theory of queues available so far is not able to model the queueing process at a signalized intersection in a simple manner. The procedure relies on the principle that the area between the cumulative arrival and departure plots (see figure 7) gives the total time that all the vehicles spend stopped at the intersection.The primary purpose of doing a queueing analysis at a signalized intersection is to be able to determine the probability distribution of queues that form. The method relies on determining the area by observing the queue lengths at short . then it can be easily seen that the service time duration (to which the departure process is integrally connected) is not negative exponential. In fact the service time is either zero (if one reaches the top of the queue when the light is green) or equal to the duration of the red period (if one is the next to the last vehicle to have crossed the intersection). what is more important is an idea of the queue length distribution so that one can determine lengths of auxiliary lanes (see next lecture for details) for pre-designated values of probability of overflow (where the queue of vehicles is larger than the space provided by the auxiliary lane) and probability of blockage (where the queue of vehicles on the lane adjacent to the auxiliary lane is so large that it blocks the entrance to the auxiliary lane). The primary reason for this is that the departure process is not a Poisson process. The interested reader may refer to Kikuchi et al. data on delay and saturation flow rates may need to be collected. however. That is. what is the probability that there will be vehicles in a particular queue at any time.'s work cited above for a good understanding of the analysis procedure. procedures for collecting data on delay and saturation flow rates are described. the probability of either of these service times being the service time of a particular vehicle is not easy to calculate. Data collection at signalized intersection At signalized intersections. other than collecting data on arrival rate and pattern (which can be done in the usual manner of counting volume and recording time headways). This is important since not only values such as average queue length are important. The area can be obtained by summing either all the delays or all the queue lengths. If one assumes (and correctly so) the time a vehicle waits at the top of the queue to be its service time. In this section.

13 Step 4. See Figure13. Decide the time period P for which the data will be collected. The area obtained using is generally seen to be more than the actual area.e. In general. Step 3. which is a figure similar to Figure 7. Let the number of intervals in P be m. Decide the interval of time I at which. the queue length at the intersection will be counted. and counting the total number of vehicles during the entire test period. Estimate the area as . Continue counting till P is over. The saturation headway. Also over the time P. as suggested in the subsection on DEPARTURE PROCESS. is the headway at which latter vehicles discharging from a queue cross the stop line.intervals of time over the entire experiment time period. i. Fig. the HCM [103] suggests that the average value of the saturation headway s i for sample i can be obtained using . The procedure is explained step-by-step as follows: Step 1. The cycle length C should not be an integral multiple of I. count the total number of vehicles that arrive at the intersection. Step 2. Estimate the average delay as Collecting data on saturation flow rate The saturation flow rate is the reciprocal of the saturation headway. Count the queue length qi at the end of each interval. and hence the estimate obtained here is reduced by 10% in order to get a closer estimate of the true area.

3. According to the HCM [103]. s = 1440 vphgpl. Solution The following parameter values are provided:g = 30 s. The assumption here is that from the fourth vehicle onwards all vehicles more or less maintain the saturation headway. Hence we can use Eq 9 to determine the average delay. The approach under consideration has one lane. (ii) Figure15 gives the plot of cumulative arrivals and departures versus time. 5. c = (g/C)s= 720 vph. plot the cumulative number of arrivals and departures versus time. Determine the percentage of time for which there exists a queue on this approach. C = 30 + 30 = 60 s . Therefore. (iii) Between 0-120 s the intersection is operating under unsaturated conditions. Determine the delays to the fourth and the sixtieth vehicles that arrive at the intersection. Determine the average queue length between 120 and 420 s. Further. Determine the average delay to vehicles arriving between 0-120 s. 10. 1.i is the time at which the jth vehicle of the queue crosses the stop line for the i th sample. 8. . Assuming arrival and departure processes to be continuous. and T. (i) Figure 14 gives the plot of arrival rate of vehicles versus time. and 0 vph between 240-420 s. from 120-240 s = 1800 vph. and from 240-420 s = 0 vph. 1800 vph between 120-240 s. Determine the average delay to vehicles arriving between 120-240 s. At what time does the queue length first become equal to the maximum? 9. Determine the maximum queue length on this approach. Plot the arrival rate of vehicles versus time. the time for which there exists a flow higher than . Determine the average delay to vehicles arriving between 0-240 s. from 0-120 s = 360 vph. Assume that at time = 0 s the light for the approach has just turned red.where Tj. 2. 7. Note. The saturation flow rate for this approach is 1440 vphgpl. 4. is 120 s. Determine the maximum delay faced by a vehicle on this approach. the arrival is deterministic and uniform. and L stands for the last vehicle in the queue. the effective green time and effective red time are 30 s each. The arrival rate of vehicles on this approach is 360 vph between 0120 s. 6. the average value of the saturation headway should be estimated as the mean of all s after repeated sampling Example for signalized intersection On an approach to a signalized intersection.

We can also determine the average delay directly from the graph (see Figure16). Hence we can use Equation 12 to determine the average delay. by noting that. Thus. Therefore. We can also determine the average delay directly from the graph. . The arrival is deterministic and uniform. Average delay = Area of Triangle I or II Number of arrivals in a cycle (iv) Between 120-240 s the intersection is operating under oversaturated conditions. 14: Plot of arrival rate versus time.Fig. by noting that the area of either Triangle I or Triangle II in Figure 16 (which is the same as Figure 15 but with few extra annotations) divided by the total number of arrivals during a cycle will give the average delay.

where. Hence.Fig. 15: Plot of cumulative number of arrivals and departures of vehicles versus time. (v) The average delay to all the vehicles between 0-240 s can be obtained by dividing the total delay (faced by all vehicles) by the total number of vehicles. is the number of vehicles that arrive during 0-120 s is the average delay to a vehicle coming during 0-120 s is the number of vehicles that arrive during 120-240 s is the average delay to a vehicle arriving during 120-240 s. . we can also find the average delay here from the graph (the reader should do this). Of course. Hence.

the percentage of time for which there is no queue at the intersection is (40/420)100 = 9. The departure rate of vehicles is 1440/3600 = 0. For the rest of the time.4 = 40 s.arrival time = 40 -40 = 0 s The same observation can be made from Figure 16. the time of arrival of the fourth vehicle is 4/0. (viii) As can be seen from Figure 16 the maximum queue length is 36 vehicles. (vii) As can be seen from the Figure 16 the maximum delay is 180 seconds. Fig 16.(vi) The arrival rate of vehicles from 0 to 120 seconds is 360 vph or 0. (Since the departure time is less than the start of the next red.52 = 90. there is a queue at the intersection. by noting that. At time = 240 s.1 = 40 seconds. The delay to the sixtieth vehicle can also be read from Figure 16 as 144 seconds. Assuming that the fourth vehicle arrives before 120 seconds. Hence. the assumption is valid. the queue length first becomes equal to 36 vehicles. 100 .48% (x) We can determine the average queue length directly from Figure 16. The time of departure of the fourth vehicle. (ix) As can be seen from Figure 16 there are no queues from 40-60 s and from 100-120 s.1 vps. Example: Plot of cumulative number of arrivals and departures of vehicles versus time. Hence the percentage of time when there exists a queue is . (Hence the assumption is not violated).52. assuming that the fourth vehicle gets discharged during the first green.) The delay to the fourth vehicle therefore is departure time . is 30 + 4/0. .4 vps.9.

physically there is no reason why a narrower lane should impact driver behaviour yet the closeness of the edges affect a driver in such a way that a driver drives slower than usual. one transportation facility differs from another in the way vehicular streams behave at these facilities. (ii) capacity at intersections. etc. the intention of these lectures is not to provide details of how capacity is computed but to bring forward the factors that impact capacity and the principles on which capacity computations should be based. Most of the time the reason for the impact is that drivers are affected psychologically by the presence or absence of a certain feature. q . they are "vehicle carrying ability" and "transportation facility. whether the feature affects the speed-density relation (recall that speed-density relation is a product of driver behaviour). like expressways." In other words it is the flow ." Vehicle carrying ability typically implies the number of vehicles that can be "processed" or "transported. i. The purpose of capacity analysis is to see whether any of them affect capacity and if so what type of relation exists between them. In the case of facilities which offer uninterrupted traffic flow. (ii) the width of lanes. that all of the features mentioned above does have an impact on the speed-density relation and therefore on the capacity. In the rest of this module. . (iv) signalized intersections. only then will one be able to design a facility which is adequate for a given demand (which typically would be in units of flow ). Examples. and others. and (iii) level of service. the design features are (i) the number of lanes. It has been observed.e. the concepts of capacity and level-of-service are presented under three sub-headings: (i) capacity for facilities with uninterrupted traffic flow. Capacity analysis is that field of traffic engineering which tries to relate the design features of a transportation facility to the capacity it offers. capacity of a facility is the maximum flow at the facility. Hence. it must be said that a detailed description of capacity is beyond the scope of this course. For example. the general gradients. and (iv) layout (like the frequency of curves and their curvatures.. The question as to whether a design feature affects capacity is ultimately related to whether the design feature has any impact on the behaviour of drivers. only a course specifically dedicated to traffic flow theory can do justice to this vast area of study. (iii) interchanges. (or arterial sections with large inter-signal spacing). Capacity at facilities with uninterrupted traffic flow Capacity is qmax and occurs at u = u 0 and k = k0. Typically. Further. (v) unsignalized intersections. From an engineering standpoint it is imperative that one knows what the capacity of a particular facility is. Two terms in the above definition needs further clarification. (iii) the width of shoulders. in its broadest sense refers to the maximum vehicle carrying ability of a transportation facility.). The reason for not going into specific details of how capacity is computed is that Indian provisions for capacity computations are still in its infancy and codes in this regard are still in their formative stages Finally. although. (ii) two-lane roads.Capacity and LOS analysis Introduction and capacity of facilities with uninterrupted flow Introduction Capacity. of such facilities include: (i) multi-lane expressways. A transportation facility is any engineering structure created for the purpose of transporting people or goods from one place to another.

in a nut-shell. like in the previous point. and more importantly. the speed at any given density is expected to be lower on the narrow road. However. 3. Further. Wider lanes increase capacity (per lane). some observations on capacity of roads with different design features are listed: 1. grades (or slopes in the vertical direction) affect capacity because it sometimes affect the performance of vehicles. is the basis on which capacity is determined by this method. the scope of capacity analysis is narrow. chances are that both free flow speed and jam density will be lesser in the case of the narrow lane width road than in the case for a wide lane width road. however. beyond a certain value the width of the shoulder does not affect capacity. This speed-flow diagram is then . Various tables and charts are presented which allow the engineer to determine what the free speed will be on a road with certain characteristics. Hence being able to predict the free speed on a road with given specifications will allow one to determine the capacity of the road. In the following.For example. In this sense. In order to give the reader some idea of how these observations have been taken into account in working relations we discuss a method used by one of the most detailed capacity manuals. Wider shoulders increase capacity. Figure 1: Conceptual u-k relations on lanes (roads) with different widths Lower speeds at every density then would imply that flow at any density (or speed) will be lower for the narrower road and hence capacity will also be lower. In the HCM method it is assumed that free speed ( uf ) of a stream on a given road indicates how drivers will behave over the entire range of density on that road. Different speed-flow diagrams are provided and one needs to choose that which closely matches the free speed expected on the given road. flat roads increase capacity. recent trends show that traffic engineers are trying to determine the entire speed-density (or speed-flow) relationship with changing design features. horizontal curves always affect the way a driver drives because of the impact of the centrifugal acceleration and because of restricted sight distances. the width of the lane stops playing any role in increasing capacity. 2. This is because individual drivers will drive at a lesser speed at a given distance headway than they would have done on the wider road possibly due to a higher perception of threat to ones safety on the narrow road. Straight. if the u-k relations on two roads with varying lane (road) widths are plotted then conceptually they may look something like what is shown in Figure 1. beyond a certain value. The analysis of capacity concentrates on determining how the capacity value changes when any of the design features (like lane width) changes. This. namely the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) published by the Transportation Research Board of USA. As can be seen. (The reason for using straight lines for the u-k relation is purely to make the figure easier to comprehend).

. The equivalency factors are referred to as passenger car (i. if on an approach. right-turn. Next these methods.. For example. Figure 2 shows a typical signalized intersection. Hence when a stream contains different types of vehicles then the vehicles in the stream are converted to automobiles using an equivalency factor. Yet on the road carrying traffic from south to north all the movements share the same road space and are not separated. if a truck is considered to be equal to 2.e. If the percentage of heavy vehicles (like trucks and buses) is more then it is expected that the total number of vehicles that cross a section will be lesser than in the case where all vehicles are. if lane width is far removed from the ideal condition then one could define a proportion by which the capacity has to be reduced for such a departure. Other methods for determining capacity are also viable. it must be pointed out that the maximum number of vehicles that can cross a section (i. In fact. what is more appropriate is to talk about the capacity of individual approaches. define factors which reflect the proportion by which capacity has to be reduced for a given departure from the ideal condition. there are methods which define an ideal condition (in terms of road width. The determination of equivalency factors is an issue which needs attention from researchers in the area and is beyond the scope of this lecture. In this case it is best to talk about the capacity of the approach (which is the road from south to north). say. the product of all such reduction factors (from different parameters which are non-ideal) are determined and used as the factor by which the ideal capacity is reduced to reflect the capacity for nonideal conditions.e. Here it is best to talk about capacity of the right-turn movement and the capacity of the through + left-turn movements separately. shoulder width. movements (like through.assumed to be the one for the given road.5 automobiles then if a stream has 100 trucks per hour it is assumed that instead of trucks the stream has 250 automobiles per hour. Typically. The capacity is simply read as the maximum flow as per the selected speed-flow diagram. Before leaving this discussion. automobile) equivalency factors. etc. Generally the passenger car equivalency factors for all types of vehicles are determined. Capacity at signalized and unsignalized intersections and LOS Capacity at signalized intersections The idea of signalized intersections was introduced in Module VII of this lecture series.) are separated spatially (like right-turn vehicles on a separate right-turn lane) and temporally (like separate green times for different movements) then it is appropriate to talk about capacity of each movement. flow) obviously depends on the vehicle mix of the traffic stream. For example. These factors are used to convert a stream with a given mix of vehicles to an equivalent stream with only automobiles. For example. Typically.) and a capacity value for this condition (often referred to as the ideal capacity ). Hence. the analysis of capacity is done assuming that all vehicles are automobiles. it is not meaningful to talk about the capacity of the intersection. automobiles. etc. It may be recalled that at an intersection more than one road (referred to as approach) meet. In this intersection the road carrying traffic from east to west have right-turn movements separated (both spatially and temporally) from other movements. in general.

The determination of saturation flow is akin to the determination of capacity at facilities with uninterrupted flow. the time between successive greens on the same approach.Figure 2 n the rest of this lecture. the passenger car equivalencies of different vehicles generally are different from the corresponding values in the case of uninterrupted flow Capacity at signalized and unsignalized intersections and LOS Capacity at unsignalized intersections It is suggested that the reader recapitulate the discussions in Module VII under unsignalized intersections.e. However. Saturation flow. gives the maximum number of vehicles that are expected cross a point on the approach i in an hour if the approach has green time for the entire hour. The capacity of an approach depends on the saturation flow and effective green time to cycle time ratio . It can also depend on the gradient of the approach and the available sight distances at the approach. Saturation flow primarily depends on the number of lanes (or width of the road if lanes are not demarcated). It may be beneficial to the reader if the contents under departure process at signalized intersections in Module VII are read with this section.. If the effective green time (i. we shall generally take the approach as the basic entity (as that is more appropriate for Indian conditions) and talk about the capacity of an approach.e. si . The idea of saturation flow was introduced in Module VII. As before issues of vehicle mix exist at intersections and can be taken care of in similar fashion. . the green time minus the lost times . The above relation does not need further explanation as the ratio basically denotes the fraction of time (say in an hour) the vehicles on approach i are allowed to move. also see Module VII) is C then the capacity on the given approach is The unit of capacity is vph.see Module VII for a description of lost times) on an approach i is gi and the cycle time (i. typically the unit of si is vphg (vehicles per hour of green).. type of movement and the types of movements which share an approach.

Obviously then. These situations can occur more frequently if the number of movements sharing the approach is more. These factors are sometimes incorporated in capacity calculations in a manner outlined below. it is evident that it is best to proceed from an understanding of the factors on which the capacity of a movement at an unsignalized intersection depends to an understanding of the capacity of an approach. Given the TM and the intersection geometry. a lane (or an approach) may be shared by more than one movement. Step 1: The movement whose capacity is to be determined is identified (this is referred to as the test movement. To the right turning vehicle these gaps (which are of use to the through vehicles) are of no interest. For each such higher priority . The determination is typically done through empirical or quasi-theoretical curves. For example. In effect. it may happen that a particular gap of interest to a given movement never gets used because the vehicle of that movement is caught behind vehicles of other movements (to whom the gap may not be of interest) sharing the same approach. movement) at an unsignalized intersection moves by accepting gaps in the conflicting streams. Often. the more the number of conflicting streams the lower is the gap availability. Thus the capacity of a movement depends on: (i) number of conflicting movement and conflicting volume.As in the case of signalized intersections. the higher the volume in the conflicting streams the lower is the availability of acceptable gaps. TM). it is meaningful only to talk about capacities of different movements or approaches to the unsignalized intersection. Hence. all conflicting streams are identified. That is. Further. The factors on which capacity of a movement depends are: Gap availability: Any traffic stream (or more specifically. all streams which are higher in the hierarchy (and compete with TM for gaps) are identified. Hierarchical position: Not all gaps available for use can. Therefore. a vehicle wanting to go straight (which generally has available gaps all the time) may not be able to do so because a right turning vehicle is ahead of it. As stated earlier. the smaller is the number of acceptable gaps. even if a particular movement has a lot of available gaps it may get to use only a few of them because of its position in the hierarchy. and not about the intersection as a whole. and (iii) hierarchical position of the movement amongst all movements vying for a gap at the intersection. The movements which are higher in this hierarchy get a preference over the movements lower in the hierarchy when it comes to actually using an available gap. In such cases. The discussion is limited to principles only. (ii) critical gap size. at unsignalized intersections. Given the earlier description of the flow characteristics at such intersections (see Module VII). Step 3: Given the hierarchical position of TM. even if a gap is available (an unclaimed by others) it may not be used because the vehicle which could have used it had other vehicles (from other movements) ahead of it in the queue. similarly. the total number of gaps available for use by a movement depends on the number and volume of conflicting streams and the size of the critical gap. there exists a hierarchy of movements at any unsignalized intersection. greater the size of the critical gap. the lower the priority of a movement the more it is impeded from using a gap because the chances of higher priority movements wanting to use the same gap are more. Step 2: Based on the conflicting volumes and the critical gap size an estimate of the total available gaps for TM is determined. however be used by the vehicles of a movement.

Level of service (LOS) . Different parameters have been suggested for different facilities as the indicative parameter. is not inconvenienced. Again. These two processes are really not independent of one another but are two sides of the same activity of efficiently utilizing the available resources. these impedance factors are determined from empirical observations. transport supply and demand Introduction Transportation planning is an area which deals with the process of planning new facilities and the process of determining how best to utilize the available facilities. if it is between kA and kB then it is LOS (B) and so on. It must be said that the limits are often ad hoc and does not have very strong basis. . Even the selection of a single parameter as an indicator may be questioned. In such cases. etc. in a way. one can think of transportation planning as a macroscopic study of the inter-relationship between demand and supply of transport facilities.movement. they have to be extremely alert at all times. if an approach has only one movement then the capacity of the approach is same as the capacity of the movement. Often different movements share an approach. Traffic Planning Process Introduction. LOS (F) on the other hand.The concept Level of service of a facility at a given time is defined as the conditions (as perceived by the driver) under which a driver is operating at that facility. Typically at the end of these steps one can approximate the capacity of the TM. LOS(A) stands for a situation where the driver can drive without being impacted by other vehicles. For example. Obviously. sometimes gaps are not utilized as the vehicle which could have utilized the gap is stuck behind others. states the number of times that movement uses a gap which TM could also have used. nonetheless they remain. has no freedom to maneuver. can freely choose his speed. Each category defines a set of conditions which describes the ease or difficulty with which drivers can operate. is a situation where congestion is unbearable. For example. etc. Delay has been suggested as the parameter at signalized intersections. typically cut-off values are decided for each of the LOS categories.LOS(A) through LOS(F). Typically the LOS is divided into six categories --. drivers are subjected to stop-and-go traffic. density has often been suggested as the parameter which can act as an indicator for LOS on facilities with uninterrupted traffic. For example. Interested readers may look at various codes that exist around the world for an idea of the prevailing practices. The impedance factor from a particular movement. The crux of the matter however is to define a measurable traffic parameter which can tell a traffic engineer (who is not in the stream) how a driver in the stream at a given time might be feeling. Once a parameter has been identified. These values are used in conjunction with the capacities of all the movements (obtained at the end of Step 3) which share an approach to determine the capacity (often referred to as shared capacity) of the approach. The chances of this happening depend on how many different types of movement share an approach and what are the relative volumes of these movements. and so on. Alternatively. it may be decided that if density is less than kA then LOS is A. an impedance factor is determined.

parking lots. transportation demand and its pattern have a lot to do with where people's origins and destinations are. Any transportation planner must understand this and land-use planning and transportation facilities planning must go hand in hand. For example. for example. The study becomes all the more important because transportation is one of the few engineering areas where demand depends on supply and vice versa. etc. What is interesting. Transportation planning. given the load (which is the demand) civil engineers have the task of designing a structure (something which meets the requirements). residential. agricultural. livelihood (going to office). or given the requirements of water in a particular area a civil engineer had to design the size of the channel or pipe. This interplay (also shown in Figure 1) leads to a unique (at least in civil engineering) situation where land-use impacts demand which in turn impacts land-use. like education (going to school). which primarily deals with providing services like roads. Similar is the case with transportation engineering.Traditionally. engineering (in any discipline) deals with devising techniques to better handle the needs (or demand). intersections. if peoples' homes are located in the suburbs and the offices are located in the city center then one can expect a lot of demand on the arterials which link the city center to the suburbs. Role of government in transportation planning (Goal setting) 4. Hence. The interdependence of transport supply and demand 2. in engineering the demand is always assumed to be known and fixed. Evaluation of alternatives (Impact analysis) Interdependence of transport supply and demand The demand for transportation is a derived demand. land-use could be commercial. and the cycle continues. Study of needs or requirement (Demand analysis) 5. transportation demand and the land-use pattern (land-use is a word used to describe what use a particular parcel of land is being put to. That is. looks at both transportation demand and transportation supply to evolve better plans to provide mobility to goods and people. . In the next few lectures the following topics will be covered: 1. etc. The demand does not exist because people gain directly from moving around (except in those rare cases when people go on a joy ride) but because people have to move in order to satisfy some other requirement. Unfortunately. industrial. For example. For example. engineering has been involved with only the supply side analysis. this course does not offer us the scope to discuss this issue further.) of an area are integrally connected. is that land-use of a particular parcel of land is impacted by the transportation facilities in and around that parcel. on the other hand. how many travels on a road depend on how good the road is which is again driven by the demand there is for the road. which cater to a given demand. The facilities in turn are impacted by the requirements (or transportation demand). Overview of the planning process 3. In other words. For example. Development of alternatives (Supply analysis) 6.

Overview of the planning process. build grade-separated intersections. the goals and policies set by the elected officials or government bodies. introduce rapid transit. Demand analysis is the topic of the next two modules. Given the two inputs.Figure 1: The inter-relationship between land-use. and the requirements from the transportation infrastructure over the planning horizon. namely. role of government The following diagram gives a good overview of the transportation planning process: Figure 2 : Overview of the transportation planning process As can be see from the figure. and transportation infrastructure. The latter is an outcome of studies which predict transportation demand. knowledge of traffic engineering is used to develop various alternative plans which achieve the goals (these plans could be like signalize intersections. . transportation demand. the planning process takes in two inputs.

the first method does not cost much and is much easier to implement. Laws relating to land-use also fall under this category. the government had come up with a policy of connecting all reasonable sized villages with the nearest road through an all-weather thoroughfare. laws allowing private parties to run airlines in India could be thought of as an offshoot of the goal to improve air-connectivity in India. Finally. introduction of modes which use clean fuels or renewable energy sources. In the following various demand management strategies are described. Development of alternatives (Supply analysis) As stated before. For example. else the planning process continues till an acceptable plan is formulated or the goals modified to realistic levels. if an acceptable plan is found then the process ends with the initiation of an implementation guideline. can alleviate congestion and hence reduce pollution) if at the same time these bodies promise to phase out older autos from the roads (see this also helps the governments agenda to improve air-quality) Demand analysis. in the recent years. For example.). Often these goals are stated through enactments or declaration of schemes. Role of Government The government plays a role in transportation planning in three different ways: (i) The government sets the goals and objectives which drive transportation infrastructure planning and development. For example. and various other socio-economic characteristics of that area. demographic data. The student should note that for various problems effective demand management is as good a solution as improvements in the facilities. etc. development of alternatives include designing. supply analysis and evaluation Demand analysis Demand analysis deals with predicting the flow on road sections in an area given the land-use data.etc. they need to be evaluated and this is done through various impact analyses. Yet. However. This may be referred to as supply side analysis and is largely within the purview of traffic engineering. These will be briefly described in Lecture 3. like removal of older vehicles. Once the alternatives are in place. (ii) The government develops laws which have an indirect impact on transportation planning process. For example. the laws relating to clean air may give rise to various impacts on the planning process. say. development of means to reduce congestion. timing and spatial distribution of transportation demand (which is. encouragement of public transport. Another such goal was to develop high speed road connections between all metropolitan cities. building and operating traffic and mass transit facilities. the government may come up with a scheme where local bodies can be allocated more funds to widen existing roads (which. The list is not . For example. These are the subject matter of traffic engineering and are therefore not discussed here. This is the subject of the next two modules and hence is not discussed here. (iii) The government leads the planners in certain directions by allocating funds preferentially. Demand management is any action intended to influence the intensity. in recent times. the number of people wanting to go from one place to another). effective demand management has also become a strategy which is used as an alternative solution for certain problems or for achieving certain goals. congestion on certain roads can be reduced if schools and offices do not start at the same time which is the same goal one would achieve by widening the road.

by reorienting landuse the government can impact the demand on the network. For example. Hence. For example. the government can decide that only land lying on the outskirts of a city (and preferably near less traveled roads) can be used for office complexes. If so. Typically. if demand on a particular road around 9:00 am is 1000 vph (out of which 300 vph are due to school going kids and the rest due to office goers) then by staggering the school and office start times the peak demand may come down to only 700 vph. Employers can provide incentives to employees who use the public transport by subsidizing the monthly passes. hence the role of employers as demand managers. (iii)Employer incentives and dis-incentives: Employers can play a crucial role in managing transportation demand (this is in addition to Point (i) mentioned above). There can be many other innovative ways in which tolls can be used to control demand. For example. or shifting to public transport. (ii) Pricing: For example. Technical feasibility studies relate to studying whether the alternative being evaluated is technically feasible with the given level of expertise available. Evaluation of alternatives Alternative solutions are evaluated using criteria which can be divided into two distinct groups. hence an alternative which envisages connecting two cities 200 kms apart in half-an-hour through high speed commuter trains is not technically feasible.complete and innovative techniques are developed every now and then to control demand effectively. Most employers provide free car-parks for their employees. The first group consists of those that study the feasibility of implementing the alternative. tolls could be introduced for single-occupancy vehicles trying to access the business district during the morning peak hours. It must be realized that demand management becomes important during the peak travel hours and that during these hours the largest percentage of people on the road are office goers. Financial feasibility studies relate to whether the capital required for implementing and operating the alternative is prohibitively high. discontinuation of this perquisite has definite impacts on how many people come to office in their own vehicles. this again may encourage employees to shift to public transport. demand on transportation networks are impacted by the land-use pattern in the adjoining areas. There are various other ways in which employers can impact the way their employees commute to office. It is not very difficult to see that this strategy works on the demand in the long run and cannot effect any change to the demand pattern in the short run. Demand management strategies: (i) Alternative work schedules: This strategy reduces the peaks in demand by spreading the demand over a wider time window. (iv) Land-use reorientation: As has been discussed. even if a project is extremely . such reorientation can be achieved through what are known as zoning laws (regulations specifying the legitimate uses of different parcels of land). trains with very high speeds are not possible. This kind of congestion pricing dissuades people from coming in their own vehicles to office and encourages car-pooling. and second group consists of those that study the various impacts that will follow if the alternative is implemented. Feasibility studies The two major criteria that have to be used in order to establish the feasibility of implementing a project are: (i) technical feasibility and (ii) financial feasibility.

(ii) environmental impact. which requires huge amount of land. Yet. So. In all the impact analyses described here. The transportation system is a major source of air-pollution. may displace people) and sometimes they are displaced because they can no longer afford to live in the same locality any more. describing these. The transportation sector is one of the largest consumers of petroleum products. Environmental impact: The impacts on the following areas should be studied --. the impact is also positive. one point may be mentioned. development of a good road to an area may increase the land values of that area and also bring in well-to-do families as settlers. an important underlying principle is whether the negative impacts and benefits of a particular project are incident upon the same group of people. (iii) energy consumption (especially if the source is non-renewable). Impact analysis Broadly speaking. any transportation project should be evaluated for its (i) land-use and demographic impact. These are briefly discussed in the following. Often construction of transportation facilities and the associated pollution results in change in the ecosystem primarily due to the loss or degradation of habitat for both the flora and fauna of an area. and (iii) economic impact. Inappropriate disposal of motor oil is also taking a toll on water quality . like roads. tarmac. their evaluation is necessary. (ii) noise. even if the benefits outweigh the costs one should always ask the question as to who are benefited and who are inconvenienced. The negative impacts of large consumption of non-renewable energy forms have been well documented and are not described here. (iv) water quality. the problem is further compounded by indiscriminate use of legal and illegal horns. Often the contribution increases if congestion exists. The effects are complex and long term. Sometimes. It has been proved that sustained exposure to high levels of noise is detrimental to the physical and mental health of humans. People are often displaced because of the project itself (like building an airport. Before. Land-use and demographic impact: The impact of transportation projects on land-use have been described earlier and is not repeated here. parking lots. The problem becomes particularly severe in urban areas where the proportion of such surfaces is high. etc. and (v) habitat.(i) airquality. Transportation facilities often produce high levels of noise and vibration. Pollutants are typically of the following kinds: (a) carbon monoxide (b) hydrocarbons (c) oxides of nitrogen (d) oxides of sulphur (e) particulate matter (f) ground-level ozone and (g) some air toxins. For example. In India. . Most transportation facilities have impervious surfaces. These then stand as impediments to groundwater recharge as most of the water falling on its surface is converted to runoff. It should be realized that often the benefits are enjoyed by one group of people and the negative impacts are borne by another group of people. This may increase the cost of living in the area and poorer original inhabitants may have to move away.beneficial it cannot be considered because the money for implementing it is not available. The other impacts of transportation projects are related to displacement of people and other social issues.

Hence. and so on. vegetables. The next two modules deal with transportation demand analyses Demand Analysis – I Introduction This lecture introduces the topic of transportation demand and its determination. Inefficient transportation costs the society dearly in terms of lost time (in delays and congestions) and therefore lost productivity. A cursory look at the flourishing economies of the world and their transportation facilities establishes the positive correlation between the two beyond any doubt. intersections. is the demand for trips that exist in any area. prices of all commodities go up if the transportation becomes costlier. Often a large proportion of a household's budget is spent on heads which are affected by transportation either directly or indirectly. On the other hand. The lecture is divided into three sections. such as roads.Economic impact: That transportation effects economy is a well-known fact. Transportation demand. however. market. prices of certain commodities go up if certain transportation links are disrupted. etc. parking lots. describes the nature of presents the sequential method of determining of the data collection . expenses on trips to school. The demand for transportation forms the primary input in any decision related to creation and management of transportation and traffic facilities. are indirectly affected by the efficiency of the transportation system. The first section transportation demand and how it can be analyzed. For example. 3. are directly related to transportation. The importance of analyzing the transportation demand in order to be able to predict the expected number of trips in a given network cannot be overstated. In the long run. In the following some points are given to provide some idea to the reader as to why transportation has a strong effect on economy. etc. 4. expenses on grocery. work. may or may not materialize into physical trips (vehicular or pedestrian) -.the most frequently used transportation demand. cheap and reliable transportation frees up substantial portion of a household's income which can now be spent elsewhere.and some of it generally remains latent and is referred to as hidden demand. simply stated. Transportation impacts the economic health of a region by improving its accessibility to other regions and therefore to newer and possibly better paying jobs. Pollution related to transportation also has negative impact on the economy of the society as medical expenses and time lost due to sickness increase. Finally it briefly describes some mechanisms employed in travel demand analysis. In the short term. transit system. 2. All of this demand. 1. Then it demand analysis technique -.

The effect of land use on transportation demand is not necessarily a one-way effect but rather a part of cycle in which land use changes transportation needs which in turn change land use. the analysis of travel demand is done separately for different trip-purposes. does not necessarily decide every time whether to go to work or not. the above discussion throws light on some of the factors which affect travel demand.. i. such as wheat. some more understanding of travel demand is necessary before one can analyze the demand and can.e. it is not surprising that two of the major aspects in travel demand analysis are land use and trip purpose.1: Relationship between land use and transportation demand. how to go. with some degree of confidence. a trip (which is the basic quantity in travel . etc. is a derived demand. one demands to be transported not because he/she just wants to move (except for those rare cases when the person goes out for a joy ride!) but because he/she wants to achieve some other purpose such as reaching school. an individual makes a large number of decisions. travel demand is primarily generated by the population's need to work. On the other hand. That is. entertain (themselves).Transportation demand. Although. clothing. a person hardly exercises any choice for work trips. coffee. Fig. unlike demand for other commodities. Figure 1 shows a simple schematic of how land use and transportation demand are related. the need for achieving some goal (like reaching office or a shop) creates the need to travel. Travel demand behaviour changes with the trip purpose. can obviously be extended to other types of trips such as shopping trips. housing. the travel demand behaviour for work trips varies considerably from that of recreational trips. etc. Hence. predict the volume on various links of a network. A person obviously does not decide where to go to work (generally it is fixed over a period of time for a large section of the population). Generally. Land use refers to the pattern of land usage in an area. or office or a movie theater. study. For example. socialize. In other words. Trip purpose refers to the purpose for which the trip is being undertaken. even the choice of route and mode are not daily decisions. Given the effect of trip purpose on travel demand behaviour. This example. Consequently. for recreational trips. Therefore. such as whether to go or not. etc. Land use affects transportation demand through generation and distribution of trips. where to go.

or an initial choice of destination is changed because it cannot be reached by the desirable mode of transport. such as work trips. are in a series) is possibly not the most appealing. It is possibly a truer picture of reality if the decision making framework is assumed to have feedback loops. unlike in Figure 2. such as shopping trips. Generally it is assumed. The trip-maker on any given trip takes a definite decision on which route to take so as to reach the destination. this decision may not exist. Although. The trip-maker. for certain kinds of trip purpose. Again. it is difficult to ascertain whether there exists any definite sequence in which these decisions are made. is only available to those who have access to different modes and are not captive users of any particular mode. This decision. the decision to travel is changed because an appropriate destination does not exist. Although. Analysis techniques which assume that such a sequence exists are referred to as sequential demand analysis techniques. The decision on the choice of destination. even today transportation demand is analyzed sequentially. The decision on the choice of route.demand) materializes after the trip-maker makes certain decisions. there may be certain alternative locations to choose from. primarily for the ease of analysis rather than anything else. given his/her requirements. One such possible structure is shown in Figure 3.e. The decision on the choice of mode. The trip-maker also takes a decision as to what mode of transport to use for a given trip. Fig. that the decisions are made in a strict sequence as shown in Figure 2. the assumption that the four major decisions (see Figure 2) of a trip-maker follow a strict sequence (i. makes a conscious decision to travel so that the requirements can be met. this decision is available to only those trip -makers who have access to modes which can use different routes as per the wishes of the trip maker. there are feedback loops indicating that decisions taken earlier can be changed based on a latter decision. Quite often. yet for other kinds of trips. there is unanimity on the fact that the above decisions can aptly capture the entire trip-making behaviour of an individual and hence can be used to analyze travel demand pattern of an area. The trip maker also makes a decision as to where he/she wants to go. These decisions can be broadly classified as follows: • • • • The decision to travel. For example. 2 : Schematic representation of the assumption of sequential decision making. Such modes would generally include personal automobiles or two wheelers.. however. In this structure. the decision to .

travel may be aborted because at the mode choice stage if it is realized that none of the available modes suit the requirements.

Fig. 3 : An example of the assumption of non-sequential decision making.

s stated earlier, even though the assumption of the existence of a strict sequence in the decision-making process of a potential trip-maker may be debatable, generally sequential demand analysis is used to determine the travel demand. As will be seen throughout this lecture, even with this simplifying assumption of sequential decision making, the analysis of transportation demand remains sufficiently complex. Figure 4 shows a schematic of the sequential demand analysis procedure. The figure attempts to not only illustrate the logic of the analysis procedure but also gives the names of the different classes of models used to mathematically describe each decision-making phase of the analysis procedure. Each of these classes of models is described in detail in the next webpages. Before presenting the models, a general overview of the entire process is provided. In this analysis procedure, first the entire study area is divided into various zones. These zones are generally obtained from the land-use pattern of the area. Next, for each zone the total number of trips generated in that zone are estimated using the trip-generation models. The outputs of the trip-generation models are then used to determine the number of trips between all zone pairs using the trip-distribution models. Given the tripdistribution pattern (which is often referred to as the origin-destination (O-D) matrix), the relative shares of these trips for the different modes are estimated using the modechoice models. Finally, the traffic-assignment models estimate the volume on each link of the network by determining the routes that will be used by the trips.

Fig. 4 : Sequential demand analysis procedure

Trip-generation Models The trip-generation models strive to predict the number of trips generated by a zone. These models try to mathematically describe the decision-to-travel phase of the sequential demand analysis procedure. It may be mentioned here that typically the term trip-generation is used to mean trip production -- generally the trips made from households --and trip attraction -- the trips made to a particular urban location or activity. However, it is felt that analysis of trip attractions should not be within the purview of trip-generation models which attempt to quantify a populations urge or propensity to travel. Rather, trip attractions are an outcome of the destination-choice phase of travel behaviour. Similar concerns about trip attractions being part of the trip generation phase of urban demand analysis have been also voiced in Kanafani [132]. In keeping with this, the present section discusses trip-generation primarily in the context of trip productions. Trip attractions are assumed to be an outcome of the destinationchoice phase and are discussed in the section on trip- distribution models. There are basically two different model structures for trip generation models -- the cross-classification models and the regression models. However, both these model

structures incorporate the same basic factors which affect the trip generation of a zone; the models only differ in their characterization of these factors. The factors (for any given trip purpose) which affect the trip generation of a zone are:

The number of potential trip-makers in the zone; this data could be captured by variables like residential density, average household occupancy, age distribution of occupants, and so forth. The propensity of a potential trip-maker to make a trip; this is related to automobile ownership, accessibility to public transportation, and the like. For example, persons who own automobiles make more non-work trips than persons who do not own automobiles. Accessibility of the zone to potential destinations for a given trip-purpose satisfaction; variables like distance to potential destinations can capture this factor. For example, persons who live close to various recreational facilities may make more number of recreational trips than persons who live in areas which do not have nearby recreational facilities.

The Cross-classification Model The cross-classification model, sometimes referred to as category-analysis model, is based on the assumption that the number of trips generated by similar households or households belonging to the same category is the same. According to this model if in Zone there are households in category and if is the average rate of trip generation per household in category k then the relation of trips generated (or produced) by Zone i, Ti is given by (1) The model predicts the trips produced by a zone by simply aggregating the total trips produced by all the households in that zone. However, two basic questions need to be answered here: (i) how do we define similar households, or alternatively how do we define categories of households, and (ii) how do we determine the rate of tripgeneration for a given category of households. The answer to both these questions is: through empirical observations and analysis . What is done is that, first, data on demographic characteristics and trip -making behaviour of a large number of households are collected. This data is then analyzed to see what characteristics of the households are important in defining a homogeneous group -- the households which produce approximately the same number of trips. Based on the above analysis, tables are made which define each category of households by listing its properties in terms of different demographic variables. For example, a particular category of households may be defined as households with 3 to 4 members in the age group 6 to 60, with income in the range of Rs. 30,000 to Rs. 40,000 per month, and one automobile. Finally, for each category of household the average number of trips generated are listed. The listing of the definition of categories and the associated trip -generation rates are generally referred to as trip tables. This method of analysis although simple in its structure has few difficulties. The foremost is the problem with defining categories correctly -- at best it is very difficult. There are other problems like handling additional data on trip-generation behaviour -the trip tables are not amenable to simple updating but generally have to be completely revamped every time new data is available.

automobile ownership.Regression model In this model an additive functional form is assumed to exist between the factors which affect trip-generation and the number of trips generated. The degree to which the in-situ attributes of the destination zone attract trip makers. This is possibly the single largest factor as to why trip-generation models cannot very well predict the number of trips generated The trip-distribution models strive to predict the number of trips that will be made between a pair of zones for a particular trip-purpose. However. Four different models are presented here. most of them incorporate the same basic factors which affect the number of trips between an origin zone and a destination zone. the type of offices. Generally. . none of the present models incorporate variables which reflect the accessibility factor. the parameters are determined by using some parameter estimation technique like Ordinary Least Squares or Maximum Likelihood Technique on empirically obtained data on variables and . As can be seen using this model to determine the number of trips generated by a zone is a simple matter when all the parameters of the regression function are known. These are (i) Gravity model. travel time. number of members in a household. and (iv) Entropy Model. These factors could be. are parameters of the regression function and is the value of the variable (such as income. and so forth. The attributes which gain importance vary with the trip purpose. Discussion: Generally the models of trip-generation include variables which reflect the number of potential trip makers and the propensity of potential trip-makers to make a trip. On the other hand. There are various models of trip distribution. Gujarati [95] and Wonnacot and Wonnacot [263]. if one is modeling the number of work trips attracted to a zone then the type of attributes of the zone which assume importance will be the number of offices. and the like. travel distance. These models try to mathematically describe the destination-choice phase of the sequential demand analysis procedure. The factors that inhibit travel between a pair of zones. one may refer to any book on introductory statistical methods or basic econometrics. a linear function of the following form is used: (2) where. For a good description of regression analysis and the parameter estimation techniques mentioned here. (ii) Intervening opportunities model. For example. for example. Obviously. (iii) Choice model. and the like) for the i th zone. and so on. However. number of retail outlets. The factors (for any given trip-purpose) which affect the number of trips between two zones are: • • • The number of trips produced by the origin zone. travel cost. if one is modeling the number of shopping trips attracted to a zone then the type of attributes of the zone which assume importance will be the total shopping floor area. The models differ in their characterization of these factors and in the way these factors are assumed to affect the trip distribution.

The expression may be thought of as a factor which distributes the total trips produced by a zone among all the possible destination zones. the expression for in Equation 3. When such a substitution is done the gravity model is typically written as (7) Very often. is obtained: (6) Sometimes. in this case the following two constraints are imposed on the gravity model to obtain the two calibration constants. the number of trips attracted to a zone (when such data is independently available).Gravity model The Gravity model uses the following basic form to determine the trips between an origin zone i and a destination zone j. is basically the trip attractions of Zone j. That is. the following relation. the sum of the expression over all destinations should be equal to unity. Ti is the total number of trips being produced by origin zone i aj is a set of in-situ attributes of the destination zone j which attract trip makers dij is a set of factors which inhibit travel between two zones is a calibration constant and Note that are positive monotonically increasing functions. is used as a surrogate for . In this sense. On imposition of the two constraints. (5) Substituting. often referred to as the origin constrained gravity model. in the gravity model. (4) The above equation implies that. . Thus. the constants obtained as: and are (8) . (3) tij = where.

The trips problem description f(aj) = 0. Example depends on Consider the following six-zone model of a town. where and .(9) Obviously. using this model requires an iterative solution technique as and vice versa. the shopping trips produced (per day) and the travel distances are as shown in Table 1. shopping trips attracted (per day). as per the . and 3 are fully residential areas and Zones 4. The shopping areas. Determine the trip distribution between the zones for the following different scenarios: (a) Use the origin-constrained gravity model. 2. Also note. The cells which have a ``-'' imply that those data are irrelevant to the problem. .01 x (shopping area in m2) + 10.01 and constant term of 10. and are given by Equation 6. (b) Use the origin-destination constrained gravity model with same relevant assumptions same as those in (a). assuming to be a linear function of the shopping area (in square meters) with a slope of 0. Zones 1. Also assume to be dij2 where dij is the distance in km. Table 1 : Data for the example on Gravity Model Zone 1 2 3 4 5 6 Shop Area ( 1000 2000 3000 ) Trips Produced 1000 1000 2000 Trips Attracted 800 2000 1200 Distance (km) to 1 4 2 7 2 3 1 6 3 5 2 6 4 4 3 5 5 2 1 2 6 7 6 6 - Solution (a) The trips of interest here are . 5 and 6 are purely shopping areas.

the only difference from (a) is that the trips are given by Equation 7 and the constants of Equation 7 are given by Equations 8 and 9. and . the following tij values are obtained: and and obtained are as follows: The reader must verify that for the above trips Discussion: It may be pointed out here that the expression in Equation 6 may be viewed as . Using these values of . and Final values of . and .(b) In this case. The final values of Final values of . the probability that destination j is chosen from origin i. then the Maximum likelihood technique can be used to . The process continues till all the and values converge. The initial value of Kig is assumed to be the square root of the corresponding values obtained in (a). Once such a view is taken. These values of Kig are used in Equation 9 to obtain a set of Kig values which are in turn used in Equation 8 to obtain a new set of Kig values. and and and and and and and in Equation 7.

The inverse proportionality to closer opportunities can be interpreted as proportionality to the probability that none of the closer destinations (opportunities) are chosen. Thus.estimate the parameters of the gravity model. If observations on the trip distribution between different origin-destination pairs are made and denoted as . This increase is proportional to the probability that no destination is chosen by the jth destination and the amount of additional opportunities. J : Total number of destinations. Based on the postulate. the in-situ attractive properties of the destination are modeled as opportunities and the impedances are measured in terms of the number of opportunities which are closer. πij: Probability that the jth destination is chosen from the ith origin. j =1 for the nearest destination and j = J for the farthest. is that the probability of choice of a particular destination (from a given origin for a particular trip purpose) is proportional to the opportunities for trip-purpose satisfaction at the destination and inversely proportional to all such opportunities that are closer to the origin. j: Index indicating the position of a destination (from the given origin). the following expression can be written: (11) This relation states that a small addition in opportunities after the jth destination causes a correspondingly small increase in the probability . the following notation are used: L: Constant of proportionality (or calibration constant). :Cumulative function of opportunities up to and including the origin i. destination from : Probability that a destination is chosen from the ith origin by the time the jth destination is reached. then the likelihood function can be written as (10) Other constraints like could be accounted for by adding the constraint to the likelihood function and constructing a Lagrangian The postulate of travel behaviour on which this model is based. In order to formulate the postulate as a mathematical model. Using we get (since it is assumed that ) and solving the differential equation (12) . from Stouffer [221]. in this model.

(The reader should verify these claims). three destinations exist. In order to correct this anomaly. the π ij obtained in Equation 12 is modified by adding a constraint which states that a destination must be chosen from the set of available destinations thereby precluding the possibility of not choosing any destination. poses a problem in the sequential demand analysis framework because if no destination is chosen then it leads to a situation where a trip is produced but does not go anywhere. This. is given by. by definition. The shopping areas available in each of the zones and their distances from Zone A are given in Table 2. The destinations are Zones X. In fact.0 4.0 12.0 Solution First. .0 2. are obtained the trips between i and j can be obtained as: (15) Example For the 1200 shopping trips from Zone A.0 Distance from Zone A (in km) 7. in this case. j = 2 for Zone X. P(J)or (ii) Once the . . and j = 3 for Zone Y. j = 3. however. Mathematically this can be done in one of two ways.) X Y Z 2. the destinations should be arranged from the closest to the farthest. written as .and since.0 4. j = 1 for Zone Z. Table 2 : Data for the example 2 on intervening opportunities model Zone Shopping area (in '000 sq. could be interpreted as the probability that no destination is chosen.m. Assuming a proportionality constant of 0. . both leading to the same result. and Z. we have (13) Note. nothing guarantees that . Y. In either case the (14) Note that the denominator can be looked upon as either (i) the probability a destination is chosen. We could use the Bayes theorem and determine the probability that destination j is chosen given that a destination is chosen or we could simply normalize the π ij's obtained in Equation 13 by dividing the individual π ij's with modified πij. Since there are only 3 destinations.35 and assuming a thousand square meter of shopping area as one opportunity determine the trip distribution from Zone A. however.

On the other hand. . Mathematically. The likelihood function is similar to that given in Equation 10. and and . The deterministic component is the approximate utility that can be obtained from the destination. the answer to the question as to which destination provides a greater utility will be probabilistic. (16) Since is a stochastic quantity. . Using Equation 14 the . However. . the trip distribution from Zone A is given by Discussion: Since the model gives the probability of choosing a destination from a given origin we may employ the maximum likelihood technique to calibrate the constant L. For a more detailed discussion on intervening opportunity models one may see Kanafani [132] or Stouffer [221] or Ruiter [197] Destination Choice Models The postulate of travel behaviour on which this model is based is that destination j will be chosen from origin i for a particular trip-purpose if the perceived utility derived from choosing j is greater than the perceived utility derived from choosing any other destination. Vi (j) need to be determined. Mathematically.Next. It is further assumed that. Keeping this in mind the basic postulate of travel behaviour is modified thus: the probability that destination j will be chosen from origin i for a particular trip-purpose is equal to the probability that the perceived utility derived from j is greater than the perceived utility derived from each of the other destinations. the utility derived from destination j by an individual (or a group of similar individuals) in origin i has two components: (i) the deterministic component. (17) That is. it is seen that assumption of a constant L is not very good for most problems. . the stochastic component can be thought of as an approximation of the random variability assumed to be present in the utility because of the fact that this is a quantity which is perceived by humans. A varying L adds complexity to the model and its calibration. and (ii) the stochastic component. and . are calculated as follows: Therefore. given the destination's in-situ attributes and the impedances.

. however.e. It is. we obtains (20) probabilities are: and the trip distribution is given by: Discussion: Instead of assuming a Gumbel distribution for the random terms.Once πij are obtained. the trip distribution between any i and j can be obtained by multiplying Ti by πij. clear from the above equations that the exact nature of π ij will depend on the assumptions about the nature of the 's. determine and . Solution For the given data. (18) then the resulting expression for πij can be obtained as follows: then Now realizing that when k = j. This model is. and and . Example For the data given in the Example 2 and assuming the trip distribution using the multinomial logit model. i. a lot more cumbersome than the Logit model. if it is assumed that they are distributed normally then the resulting form for π ij is called the Probit model. Hence. . (ii) that they are independent. If it is assumed that (i) 's are distributed identically for each k. however. . then we can rewrite Equation 18 as (19) Now substituting or (21) The form for πij given in Equation 21 is known as the multinomial logit model. and (iii) that they are distributed according to the Gumbel distribution. the .

the entropy model does not strive to predict the trip distribution by modeling the human behavioral aspects related to choosing a destination.For a detailed and extensive discussion on the Probit model one may refer to Kanafani [132]. However. attempts to determine a distribution of trips which is most likely to occur assuming that each trip occurs independently of another. The Entropy model of trip distribution. Some of the constraints which are often included in the maximum entropy model are . is not a behavioral model. therefore. the problem. Another point which may be mentioned here is about the calibration of destination choice models. can be obtained is: (22) In the entropy models it is assumed that the likelihood of a particular trip-distribution matrix occurring is proportional to the number of ways the matrix can be obtained. . For a total number of Q trips in a network. That is. Note that the likelihood function will the same as that given in Equation 10. the above is equivalent to solving (26) Since . This model. a given trip-distribution matrix can be obtained through different combination of the decisions. . Since the choice models give the probability of choosing a destination from a given origin. this is equivalent to solving (24) or (25) Using the approximation . on the other hand. Obviously. observed average trip length. The entropy models determine the estimates of t ij by determining that set of tij's which maximizes the likelihood of a trip-distribution matrix occurring. unlike the other models discussed here. it is assumed that there are a total of Q independent decisions. Specifically. we may use the maximum likelihood estimation technique to estimate the parameters. we can easily incorporate various constraints in this model. this is equivalent to solving (27) The unconstrained optimization problem in Equation 27 is the standard maximum entropy model of trip distribution. Mathematically. and so forth. the likelihood of a matrix occurring is proportional to the expression given in Equation 22. the number of ways a tripdistribution matrix [tij]. is to solve the following (23) Since Q is a constant. That is. The parameters which need to be calibrated are the parameters of the function .

automobile ownership. Example For a particular zone pair. Generally. . choice models are used for modal split analysis. i. The factors which affect the choice of a mode (and hence the perceived utility from a mode) are: • • Socio-economic factors like income. out-of-pocket cost. 0 otherwise. Service-related factors like in-vehicle travel time. The Lagrangian can then be differentiated with respect to the tijs and and the Lagrange multipliers to obtain a set of expressions which can be equated to zero. Modal Split Model Modal split models aim to determine the number of trips on different modes given the travel demand between different pairs of nodes (zones). is the in-vehicle travel time in minutes for mode m is the out-of-pocket cost in rupees for mode m is the waiting time in minutes for mode m . Since. choice models were discussed while presenting destination choice models in the section on trip distribution they are not repeated here. it is assumed that the probability of choosing a particular mode is the probability that the perceived utility from that mode is greater than the perceived utility from each of the other available modes.e. Table 3: Variable values used in Example 4 on modal split models. Use Logit model. and urban rapid transit system like local trains (RT). . and so on. These models try to mathematically describe the mode choice phase of the sequential demand analysis procedure.private transport like automobiles (PT). and is a dummy variable which is 1 when the mode is private transport. access to public transport (or transit systems). age. These equations when solved will give the estimate of the trip distribution.Discussion: The constraints can be easily be incorporated in the function to be maximized by constructing a Lagrangian. This lecture only discusses the factors which are generally assumed to affect the perceived utility of modes. Also note that this method does not use any calibration constants and hence the issue of calibrating the model does not arise. frequency of transit system operation. and the like. three modes of travel between the zones exist -. Assuming that the variable values are as shown in Table 3 and that 1000 trips are made from the origin zone to the destination zone determine the number of trips made by the different modes. is given by where. An example problem is also solved. It is given that all trip-makers have access to private transport and that the perceived utility of a mode m. That is. bus (B).

There are various models of traffic assignment.) 60 5 8 0 5 20 (mins) 1 0 0 PT B RT 65 75 25 Solution First. three models are discussed. 324 will use buses. we use Logit model to determine the probability be chosen. that a particular mode m. 302 trips will be made using private transport. : Flow (or volume) on link as estimated in the kth iteration. All of these models assume that travel time on the link is the only factor which trip makers consider while choosing a route. calculate the perceived utility for each mode: Next. however. The notation used (other than those used in the earlier sections) in describing these models is as follows: : Flow (or volume) on link . .Mode Variable values (mins. and (iii) user-equilibrium model. These models try to mathematically describe the route choice phase of the sequential demand analysis procedure. In this section. differ in their assumptions regarding the variation in link travel times with the link volume (or link flow). These models. will Hence. (i) all-or-nothing assignment model. (ii) incremental assignment model. and 374 will use the rapid transit system Demand Analysis – II Traffic Assignment Models Traffic assignment models aim to determine the number of trips on different links (road sections) of the network given the travel demand between different pairs of nodes (zones).) (Rs. . namely.

: Indicator variable which is 1 if link a is apart of the kth route between origin i and destination j. Based on these assumptions about travel times and the postulate that a trip maker will choose that path (or route) which minimizes his / her travel time this assignment model assigns all the trips between a particular origin and destination pair to that route (or path) which offers the minimum travel time.. otherwise it is zero. determine the minimum travel time path (or route) using as the link travel times.e. Step 2: Set iteration counter . The minimum path determination can be done using any of the various existing algorithms like Flyod's algorithm or Djkastra's algorithm. Step 1: For every pair (i.e. determine the minimum travel time path (or route) using as the link travel times.e. : Flow between i and j which uses the kth route n this model it is assumed that (i) the travel time on links do not vary with link flows. i. Detailed description of these algorithms can be found in Teodorovic [233] or any other book on theory of networks. Also initialize all . origin-destination pair) with . Step 3: Assign the entire tij to the minimum path between the pair. Step 1: For every pair (i. and (ii) all trip-makers (users) have precise knowledge of the travel time on the links. The exact nature of the assignment model is presented through the following algorithm.:Travel time on link a when flow on link a is xa tij : The total demand (or number of trips) between origin i and destination j. Step 4: If (where N is the total number of pairs with tij > 0 ) then report else set In this model it is assumed that (i) the travel time on links do not vary with link flows. Detailed description of .. i. Select a particular pair. The minimum path determination can be done using any of the various existing algorithms like Flyod's algorithm or Djkastra's algorithm. If link a is a part of the minimum path set. Based on these assumptions about travel times and the postulate that a trip maker will choose that path (or route) which minimizes his / her travel time this assignment model assigns all the trips between a particular origin and destination pair to that route (or path) which offers the minimum travel time. and (ii) all trip-makers (users) have precise knowledge of the travel time on the links.e. The exact nature of the assignment model is presented through the following algorithm. origin-destination pair) with .

If link a is a part of the minimum path set. Step 2: Set iteration counter . select another i . Step 4: If (where N is the total number of pairs with tij > 0 ) then report . as xa. Step 1: Destination zone 1 0 0 200 100 150 2 0 0 300 300 50 3 200 300 0 100 100 4 100 300 100 0 0 5 150 50 100 0 0 . Hence N = 16. Note that the numbers on the links of the network denote the travel times and the numbers in the circles denote the zone numbers. else set Figure 5: Network for example problem on all-or-nothing assignment technique. set k = k + 1 and go back to Step 3. Example For the network shown in Figure 5 and the trip distribution matrix given in Table 4 determine the link flows using the all-or-nothing assignment technique.j pair. Table 4: Trip distribution matrix (O-D matrix) for the example problem on all-or-nothing assignment model. Origin zone 1 2 3 4 5 Solution Note there are 25 possible zone pairs out of which 9 have t ij = 0. Step 3: Assign the entire tij to the minimum path between the pair. Select a particular pair.these algorithms can be found in Teodorovic [233] or any other book on theory of networks. Else. Also initialize all .

. Flows on links (whose travel times are assumed to vary with flow) are said to be in equilibrium when no trip-maker can improve his/her travel time by unilaterally shifting to another route. In this manner.5 as the next pair and go . set back to Step 3. Step 3: Step 4: Since .j pair 1-3 3-1 1-4 4-1 2-4 4-2 3-4 4-3 Min. Before presenting the model which can determine such equilibrium flows on a . Step 3: Step 4: Since . Consider the zone pair 1 . path 1 —> 3 —> 5 5 —> 3 —> 1 2 —> 3 3 —> 2 2 —> 3 —> 5 5 —> 3 —> 2 3 —> 5 5 —> 3 Step 2: k = 1. .e. = 450 = 650 = 0 = 450 = 650 = 550 = = = = = = 300 0 500 300 0 0 User-equilibrium model The user-equilibrium model of traffic assignment is based on the fact that humans choose a route so as to minimize his / her travel time and on the assumption that such a behaviour on the individual level creates an equilibrium at the system (or network) level. set k = 2 and select zone pair 1 . the rest of the remain zero. path 1 —> 3 3 —> 1 1 —> 3 —> 4 4 —> 3 —> 1 2 —> 3 —> 4 4 —> 3 —> 2 3 —> 4 4 —> 3 i -j pair 1-5 5-1 2-3 3-2 2-5 5-2 3-5 5-3 Min. .The minimum path for the 16 zone pairs (obtained using Djkastra'a algorithm) are as follows: i . the rest of the remain zero. the following assignment is obtained. Finally. Steps 3 and 4 are repeated till all the zone pairs are chosen (i. k = 16). This notion of equilibrium flows is generally referred to as Wardrop's principle.3. . set k = 3 and select zone pair as the next pair and go back to Step 3.

implying that Route 1 will become more lucrative (offering about 40 min of travel time. On doing so. obviously if demand is less than or equal to 100. In the example. Another interesting feature is that at equilibrium flow. when demand is in excess of 100..e. and the fact the total demand is 110. The above example. the idea of equilibrium flows or the concept of user-equilibrium needs to be explained further. Given this.network. Route 3 is not used as it entails more than 40 min of travel time. Figure 7 : Example problem on user-equilibrium assignment technique. since the volume on Route 1 is zero at this stage) and some can benefit by unilaterally shifting to Route 1. Consider. if everybody travels on Route 2. Note that under the equilibrium condition. 110). corresponds to an instance of non-equilibrium flow conditions with Route 2 carrying all the flow (i. if the the volume carried by Route 2 falls below 100 then again Route 2 will become lucrative and some will shift to Route 2 from Route 1. in addition to clarifying the concept of equilibrium. in this case the relevant sum of the areas is simply equal to area HIJK. everybody will travel using Route 2 since the travel time offered by Route 2 (between 30 minutes and 40 minutes) will be less than any other route. and the sum of the areas is equal to area ACDE + area ABFG. Figure 8 (b). Figure 8(c) represents another instance of non-equilibrium flow where . also illustrates the fact that at equilibrium all routes which are used between a given origin and destination offer the same travel time which is less than all routes which are not used. it can be said that if 100 use Route 2 and 10 use Route 1 then each one will face a travel time of about 40 min and none can improve his/her travel time by unilaterally shifting from one route to another. then the travel time on Route 2 will become more than 40 min. However. This feature can be easily seen by visually inspecting the sum of the areas shown in Figure 7. Figure 7 (a) corresponds to the equilibrium flow. The total demand from O to D is 110. This then will be the equilibrium flow to which the network has to eventually converge given that every traveller always tries to minimize his/her travel time. the sum of the areas under the travel time versus flow plots is the least. Figure 7(b) gives the travel time function for each of the three single link routes between the origin O and destination D. the example network shown in Figure 7(a).

the case representing equilibrium flow. Shortest path finding algorithms (Dijkstra's algorithm) . 70. Figure 8 (d) represents another instance of non-equilibrium flow conditions with Routes 1. 2. The interested reader may try to verify this feature by constructing other such examples or by proving them mathematically. Finally.Route 2 carries a flow of 90 and the rest 20 are carried by Route 1. respectively. and 3 carrying flows of 30. Note that the sum of the areas is the least in (a) -. the relevant sum of the areas in this case is area TUVW + area TXYZ + area Tαβγ. in this case the relevant sum of areas is area LMNO + area LPQR. and 10.

Figure 1 shows a typical network representation of a transportation facility. As will soon become apparent. the nodes may represent points (or locations) from which traffic is produced or to which traffic is attracted. Before proceeding further. DIJKSTRA'S ALGORITHM This algorithm is one attempt to find the shortest path from one node to all other nodes in the network. In this method. it is to be in the closed state if the label is permanent. The algorithm stops when all labels are permanent. the labels give information on the shortest distances as well as the shortest paths from a particular node to all the other nodes. The links represents roads or movements. after completion. In the case of transportation networks. Interested readers may refer to books on transportation network analysis to gain a insight of how a real-world transportation facility may be represented as a network. The descriptions are largely adopted from Dusan Teodorovic's book on "Transportation Networks: Aqualitaive treatment". some of the notation used here are presented. j) : length of the link joining node i to node j. It assumes that the link lengths are always nonnegative. every node is assigned a label with two components ( x. l(i. shortest path algorithm find the shortest path between two nodes in a network. In the following these algorithms are described in details. The nodes also represent intersections. A label could either be temporary or permanent. y). .As the name suggests. One is Dijkstra's algorithm and the other is Floyd's algorithm. Two shortest path algorithms are most commonly used in transportation network analysis. Figure1: A typical transportation network. a : node for which we are investigating the shortest paths to all other nodes. The above description of a transportation network is a very simplistic viewpoint. Also a node is referred to being in the open state if its associated label is temporary.

The only node which is now in a closed state is node a. we pass the examination on to the next node. Step 3: In order to determine which node will be the next to go from an open to a closed state. x : x = dai y : y = qi The Dijkstra algorithm is comprised of the following 5 steps: Step 1:The process starts from node.for all . Should any node still be in an open state. . qi : the immediate predecessor node of node i on the shortest known path from node a to node i found so far. We should note that dai appearing on the right side of the equation is the old label for node i. Therefore. We examine the length of all branches (i. The path through any other node would be longer. We then determine the immediate predecessor node of node j and the shortest path which leads from node a to node j. we compare value dai for all nodes which are in an open state and choose the node with the smallest dai. i) which exit from the last node which is in a closed state (node c). c : the last node to have moved to being in the closed state. Since the length of the shortest path from node a to node a is 0. Let this be sdme node j. This means that node t is the immediate predecessor of node j on the shortest path which leads from node a to node j. so far.dai : the shortest known path from node a to node i found in the network. Therefore we write that c = a. Step 5: Node j is in a closed state. j) which lead from closed state nodes to node j until we establish that the following equation is satisfied : Let this equation be satisfied for some node t. When all nodes in the network are in a closed state. we put qi = . then daa = 0. we examine all branches (c. Since the lengths of the shortest paths from node a to all other nodes on the shortest path are unknown. Node j passes from an open to a closed state since there is no path from a to j shorter than daj. Step 4: We have ascertained that j is the next node to pass from an open state to a closed one. The immediate predecessor node of node a will be denoted by the symbol + so that qa = +. If node i is in an open state we obtain its first label dai based on equation: in which the left side of the equation is the new label of node i. Step 2: In order to transform some of the temporarly labels into permanent labels. we return to step 2. If node i is also in a closed state. we can write that qj = t. we have completed the process of finding the shortest path.

for all . the transportation network looks like Figure Y2. Therefore. Figure Y1 The number next to the network branches shown on Figure Y1 signify the length of each branch. in addition to actual length. We start the process of finding the shortest path at node a. (We should mention that the length of a branch in a network could also. stand for travel time or travel expenses or numerous other values). +) and add the symbol ' to emphasize that node a is in a closed state. then daa = 0. Example: Using the Dijkstra algorithm. After the first step. . In this case. c = a. calculate the shortest path from node a to all other nodes on the transportation network shown in Figure Y1. so for all other nodes we put dai = ∞ .Figure Y2. The length of all other shortest paths from node a to all other nodes are for the present unexamined. Ths completes the first step of the algorithm. Since the immediate predecessor nodes of nodes on the shortest path are unknown. we put qi = . Since the length of the shortest path from node a to node a is 0. The immediate predecessor node of starting node a is denoted by the symbol + so that qa = +. The only node which is now in a closed state is node a.The algorithm described above can also be ussed to find the shortest path between two specific nodes. the algorithm is completed when both nodes are in a closed state. Next to the node a symbol we put the label (0 .

qb = a. Since dab< dad node b passes from an open to a closed state. By examining the length of all branches leaving node a which are in a closed state we can write: In step 3 we determine which node will be next in line to pass from an open to a closed state. i. In the same manner. we have to return to step 2. Therefore. The transportation network looks like Figure Y3 after going through all five steps of the algorithm for the first time: .e.We now move to the second step of the algorithm. Now in step 5 we note that there are still many nodes which are in an open state. since: we can conclude in step 4 that node a is the immediate predecessor of node b on the shortest path.

We then determine the immediate predecessor node of node c. After the second time through all 5 steps of the algorithm. the transportation network looks like Figure Y4. . so we must once again return to step 2 of the algorithm. The last node to go from an open to a closed state was node b.Figure Y3 Let us now return to the second step of the algorithm. we have: Since dac< daf node c is the next to switch from an open to a closed state. The network still contains many nodes in an open state. Since : then node b is the immediate predecessor of node c and qc = b. When we examine all branches leaving node b going towards nodes which are in an open state. This means that c = b.

And now c = d. The transportation network looks like Figure Y6 after the third time through the algorithm: Figur Y5 . Since: then node a is the immediate predecessor of node d on the shortest path. so qd = a.Figure Y 4 The third time through the algorithm gives us: Since dad< dae node d is the next node to switch to a closed state.

28] = 28 j qj = h . 29] = 29 dah = min [∞. 27] = 27 i h qi = g qh = f 9 h daj = min [29. 17] = 14 f g qf = b qg = d 7 8 g i dai = min [22. Table 2: Calculating the shortest paths and predecessor nodes. 14] = 14 e Predecessor node qe = c 5 6 e f daf = min [13. 12] = 8 dag = min [∞. 22] = 22 dag = min [14.Table 2 shows the calculations leading to the shortest paths and determination of the immediate predecessor nodes after going through the algorithm 11 times. Times Last node Branches from last closed node to open Next node in through in closed nodes closed state algorithm state dai = min [dai. 21] = 21 dah = min [23. 27] = 23 daj = min [∞. dac + 1 (c. 23] = 23 dai = min [∞. i)] 4 d dae = min [8. 15] = 13 dah = min [∞.

30] = 27 dal = min [∞.10 j dak = min [27. 30] = 30 k qk = i 11 k l ql = j . 30] = 30 dal = min [30.

Similarly "f to h" is a part of the shortest path to h from a. Proceeding similarly we can see a to b to f to h to j is the shortest path from a to j. Figur Y7 Note that given all the predecessor nodes the shortest path from node a to any particular node can be easily reconstructed. Figure Y8 . the shortest path from a to j can be reconstructed in the following way: From Figure Y7 it can be seen that the immediate predecessor node of node j is node h. For example.The shortest paths from node a to all other nodes in the network are shown in Figure Y7 with immediate predecessor nodes noted after going through the algorithm 11 times. Hence "h to j" is a part of the shortest path to j. "f to h to j" is a part of the shortest path to j. Using similar logic for all other nodes the shortest paths from a to all other nodes can be diagramatically represented as shown in Figure Y8. Hence.

.

The formulation.Figure 8: Areas under travel-time versus flow plots under various flow distributions. which is a non-linear programming problem is given in Equation 28. The user-equilibrium model formulation is based on this area-related observation about equilibrium flows and the fact that the travel time on a route is simply a linear sum of the travel times on the constituent links. subject to = = (28) .

The optimal solution is obtained in the last iteration. parallels are drawn with the steps presented in the earlier section.e. Step 3: . The interested reader may refer to Taha [225] for more details on convex combination algorithms. Note that the feasibility conditions of the programming formulation will be met by performing the all-ornothing assignment. the convex combination algorithm is used to solve the mathematical programming formulation of the user-equilibrium model. is determined. a feasible solution (i. say . where ) is also feasible. Since all the constraints are linear (thereby giving rise to a convex solution space).where w is a variable denoting flow. Next. say *. Principles of convex combination methods for solving optimization problems with nonlinear objective function and linear constraints The convex combination algorithm determines the optimum point by proceeding in the following iterative manner. • • • First. Here the procedure is presented step-wise. it can be shown that any point on a straight line joining and (note . Nonlinear programming problems of this kind (with linear constraints and a nonlinear objective function) can be effectively solved using convex combination algorithms. Let this solution vector be . also another feasible point is determined and is replaced with the new feasible point. Here. The process goes back two steps and continues repeatedly till the objective function value changes negligibly from one iteration to the next. Step 1: Set iteration counter . Step 2: Update the travel time of the links using the link volumes obtained in the . . the point is precisely identified by using the value of * in place of in the earlier equation for . requires an unconstrained optimization of the objective function written in terms of . Determine a feasible solution by performing all-ornothing assignment with as the travel time on link a. For a better understanding of the procedure.. is determined. another feasible solution. Note that determination of the best value of . a solution which satisfies all the constraints). The convex combination algorithm then determines the value of which gives the best value for the objective function. only the principle is given so that the latter discussions on solving user-equilibrium problems are more meaningful to the reader. Next is set equal to . • • Solving the mathematical programming formulation of the user-equilibrium model As stated earlier. Once the value of * is determined. say .

indicates the flow value for link ' a' as per the solution vector . and 1000 trips per day from Node A to Node B determine the link flows using the user-equilibrium assignment technique. The link number. Note that in this case each route has one link. Table 6: Solution of the example on user equilibrium model of traffic assignment. the value. as Figure 9: Road network for the example on user-equilibrium method of traffic assignment. . are given by . Given example illustrate how the solution procedure suggested here works . As per the table the flow on link a. . and . If it has not. and the value for a particular link are mentioned as on the links. n Step Links 1 2 3 4 Objective function value . is: . Note that all links which are used have approximately the same travel time and this is less than the travel time offerred by the unused link (in this case Link 1). . . Solution Table 6 provides the output of every step at each iteration. perform an all-or-nothing assignment to obtain another feasible solution. Step 6: Check whether the value of the objective function (given in Equation 28 or in Step 4 here) has changed significantly. set n = n + 1 and continue from Step 2 onwards. Step 5: Obtain the new feasible point. Otherwise.With the updated travel time information. Let this solution vector be . Example For the network shown in Figure 9. then stop and report the solution. Step 4: Determine by finding that value of which minimizes the following quantity where . The link travel times.

Report as solution . n α*. n α*.98 n=3.8 0 25.020 0 354 473 172 189.0 2 3 4 5 6 2 2 3 4 5 6 3 2 3 4 5 6 4 2 3 4 5 6 5 2 3 4 5 6 α*. Go to Step 2 35 0 24.44 n = 4.33 Stop.3 1000 0. n α*.035 0 362 483 155 189.3 0 25. Go to Step 2 35 0 22.007 0 359 470 171 189. Go to Step 2 35 0 26. Go to Step 2 35 0 35 0 35 0 25 1000 0.3 0 35.3 1000 27.33 n=5.161 0 339 500 161 189. n α*. n 35 0 0.8 1000 25.1 0 26.0 n=2.596 0 404 596 0 197.1 1 35 0 10 1000 947 0 20 0 20 1000 25 0 25 0 1975.4 0 0.3 0 0.

As the name suggests. the labels give information on the shortest distances as well as the shortest paths from a particular node to all the other nodes. As will soon become apparent. The above description of a transportation network is a very simplistic viewpoint. shortest path algorithm find the shortest path between two nodes in a network. y). Figure 1 shows a typical network representation of a transportation facility. A label could either be temporary or permanent. Before proceeding further. It assumes that the link lengths are always nonnegative. One is Dijkstra's algorithm and the other is Floyd's algorithm. Interested readers may refer to books on transportation network analysis to gain a insight of how a real-world transportation facility may be represented as a network. Also a node is referred to being in the open state if its associated label is temporary. Figure1: A typical transportation network. In the following these algorithms are described in details. The links represents roads or movements. . In the case of transportation networks. In this method. after completion. the nodes may represent points (or locations) from which traffic is produced or to which traffic is attracted. Two shortest path algorithms are most commonly used in transportation network analysis. some of the notation used here are presented. DIJKSTRA'S ALGORITHM This algorithm is one attempt to find the shortest path from one node to all other nodes in the network. The descriptions are largely adopted from Dusan Teodorovic's book on "Transportation Networks: Aqualitaive treatment". The nodes also represent intersections. it is to be in the closed state if the label is permanent. The algorithm stops when all labels are permanent. every node is assigned a label with two components ( x.

Therefore. Node j passes from an open to a closed state since there is no path from a to j shorter than daj. so far. we pass the examination on to the next node. Since the length of the shortest path from node a to node a is 0. Since the lengths of the shortest paths from node a to all other nodes on the shortest path are unknown. we examine all branches (c. Step 3: In order to determine which node will be the next to go from an open to a closed state. a : node for which we are investigating the shortest paths to all other nodes. j) which lead from closed state nodes to node j until we establish that the following equation is satisfied : Let this equation be satisfied for some node t. The path through any other node would be longer.l(i. We then determine the immediate predecessor node of node j and the shortest path which leads from node a to node j. dai : the shortest known path from node a to node i found in the network. If node i is in an open state we obtain its first label dai based on equation: in which the left side of the equation is the new label of node i. This means that node t is the immediate predecessor of node j on the shortest path which leads from node a to node j.for all . Therefore we write that c = a. Step 2: In order to transform some of the temporarly labels into permanent labels. x : x = dai y : y = qi The Dijkstra algorithm is comprised of the following 5 steps: Step 1:The process starts from node. We examine the length of all branches (i. The only node which is now in a closed state is node a. Step 4: We have ascertained that j is the next node to pass from an open state to a closed one. we can write that qj = t. . c : the last node to have moved to being in the closed state. we compare value dai for all nodes which are in an open state and choose the node with the smallest dai. then daa = 0. If node i is also in a closed state. Let this be sdme node j. qi : the immediate predecessor node of node i on the shortest known path from node a to node i found so far. j) : length of the link joining node i to node j. i) which exit from the last node which is in a closed state (node c). The immediate predecessor node of node a will be denoted by the symbol + so that qa = +. We should note that dai appearing on the right side of the equation is the old label for node i. we put qi = .

We start the process of finding the shortest path at node a. The immediate predecessor node of starting node a is denoted by the symbol + so that qa = +. so for all other nodes we put dai = ∞ . +) and add the symbol ' to emphasize that node a is in a closed state. Next to the node a symbol we put the label (0 . The only node which is now in a closed state is node a. Should any node still be in an open state. Ths completes the first step of the algorithm. in addition to actual length. The algorithm described above can also be ussed to find the shortest path between two specific nodes. In this case. then daa = 0.for all . we have completed the process of finding the shortest path.Step 5: Node j is in a closed state. (We should mention that the length of a branch in a network could also. we return to step 2. The length of all other shortest paths from node a to all other nodes are for the present unexamined. Therefore. calculate the shortest path from node a to all other nodes on the transportation network shown in Figure Y1. Since the immediate predecessor nodes of nodes on the shortest path are unknown. Example: Using the Dijkstra algorithm. stand for travel time or travel expenses or numerous other values). we put qi = . c = a. . Since the length of the shortest path from node a to node a is 0. Figure Y1 The number next to the network branches shown on Figure Y1 signify the length of each branch. the algorithm is completed when both nodes are in a closed state. When all nodes in the network are in a closed state.

By examining the length of all branches leaving node a which are in a closed state we can write: In step 3 we determine which node will be next in line to pass from an open to a closed state. Figure Y2. we have to return to step 2. qb = a. the transportation network looks like Figure Y2. In the same manner. since: we can conclude in step 4 that node a is the immediate predecessor of node b on the shortest path. Now in step 5 we note that there are still many nodes which are in an open state. Therefore.e. We now move to the second step of the algorithm. The transportation network looks like Figure Y3 after going through all five steps of the algorithm for the first time: Figure Y3 . Since dab< dad node b passes from an open to a closed state.After the first step. i.

Since : then node b is the immediate predecessor of node c and qc = b. . we have: Since dac< daf node c is the next to switch from an open to a closed state. After the second time through all 5 steps of the algorithm. the transportation network looks like Figure Y4. We then determine the immediate predecessor node of node c. The network still contains many nodes in an open state. so we must once again return to step 2 of the algorithm. When we examine all branches leaving node b going towards nodes which are in an open state. This means that c = b. The last node to go from an open to a closed state was node b.Let us now return to the second step of the algorithm.

so qd = a. Since: then node a is the immediate predecessor of node d on the shortest path.Figure Y 4 The third time through the algorithm gives us: Since dad< dae node d is the next node to switch to a closed state. The transportation network looks like Figure Y6 after the third time through the algorithm: Figur Y5 . And now c = d.

23] = 23 dai = min [∞. 12] = 8 dag = min [∞. 17] = 14 f g qf = b qg = d 7 8 g i dai = min [22. 21] = 21 dah = min [23. dac + 1 (c. 15] = 13 dah = min [∞. Times Last node Branches from last closed node to open Next node through in closed nodes closed state algorithm state dai = min [dai. Table 2: Calculating the shortest paths and predecessor nodes. 28] = 28 j qj = h . i)] 4 d dae = min [8. 27] = 23 daj = min [∞.Table 2 shows the calculations leading to the shortest paths and determination of the immediate predecessor nodes after going through the algorithm 11 times. 29] = 29 dah = min [∞. 27] = 27 i h qi = g qh = f 9 h daj = min [29. 14] = 14 e in Predecessor node qe = c 5 6 e f daf = min [13. 22] = 22 dag = min [14.

10

j

dak = min [27, 30] = 27 dal = min [∞, 30] = 30 dal = min [30, 30] = 30

k

qk = i

11

k

l

ql = j

The shortest paths from node a to all other nodes in the network are shown in Figure Y7 with immediate predecessor nodes noted after going through the algorithm 11 times. Figur Y7

Note that given all the predecessor nodes the shortest path from node a to any particular node can be easily reconstructed. For example, the shortest path from a to j can be reconstructed in the following way: From Figure Y7 it can be seen that the immediate predecessor node of node j is node h. Hence "h to j" is a part of the shortest path to j. Similarly "f to h" is a part of the shortest path to h from a. Hence, "f to h to j" is a part of the shortest path to j. Proceeding similarly we can see a to b to f to h to j is the shortest path from a to j. Using similar logic for all other nodes the shortest paths from a to all other nodes can be diagramatically represented as shown in Figure Y8. Figure Y8

When solving practical transportation problems, it is often necessary to calculate the shortest path between all pairs of nodes in a transportation network. If the network has n nodes, then the Dijkstra algorithm must be applied n times, taking a different node each time as trhe starting node. This is a lengthy process. Hence, Dijkstra's algorithm is rarely used to determine the shortest path between all pairs of nodes; instead Floyd's algorithm is used. The algorithm works by updating two matrices, namely Dk and Qk, n times for a n node network. The matrix Dk, in any iteration k, gives the value of the shortest distance (time) between all pairs of nodes (i, j) as obtained till the kth iteration. The matrix Qk has as its elements. The value of gives the immediate predecessor node from node i to node j on the shortest path as determined by the kth iteration. Do an Qo give the starting matrices and Dn and Qn give the final matrices for an n-node system. The first task is to determine Do and Qo. Do is taken up first. The element dij of matrix Do are defined as follows: If a link (branch) exists between nodes i and j the length of the shortest path between these nodes equals length l (i, j) of branch (i, j) which connects them. Should there be several branches between nodes i and node j, the length of the shortest path must equal the length of the shortest branch, i.e.:

whre m is the number of branches between node i and node j. It is clear that = 0 when i = j. In the case when there is no direct link between node i and node j, we have no information at the beginning concerning the length of the shortest path between these two nodes so we treat them as though they were infinitely far from each other, that is, =∞

each time we go through the algorithms we are checking as to whether a shorther path exists between node i and j other than the path we already know about which was established during one of the earlier passages through the algorithm. the immediate predecessor of node j on the shortest path leading from node i to node j is actually node i. K = k+1 and return to step 2. increase k by 1. Step 1 : Let k = 1 Step 2 : We calculate elements of the shortest path length matrix found after the k-th passage through algorithm Dk using the following equation: Step 3: Elements of predecessor matrix Qk found after the k-th passage through the algorithm are calculated as follows: Step 4: If k = n. if we establish during the k -th passage through between nodes i and j the algorithm that the length of the shortest path is less than the length of the shortest path known previous to the k-th passage. If k < n. After defining Doand Qo the following steps are used repeatedly to determine Dn and Qn. i. Since the length of the new shortest path is: it is clear that in this case node k is the new immediate predecessor node to j. i. j) for . Let us now look at the algorithm in a little more detail. we assume that = i. If we establish that . at the end of step 2. we have established that no other new. shorter path exists. for . the algorithm is finished. i. and therefore: This is actually done in the third algorithmic step. that for every pair of nodes (i. we have to change the immediate predecessor node to node j.e.Elements of the predecessor matrix Qo are defined as follows: First. It is also clear that the immediate predecessor node to node j does not change if. In step 2.e.e. This means that: for .

When we go through the algorithm n times (n is the number of nodes in the transportation network). Starting matrix Qo is as follows: . Example: Determine the shortest paths between all pairs of nodes on transportation network shown in Figure z1. We note element of matrix Do. Transportation network for studying Floyd's algorithm. Figure Z1. Element of matrix Do equals infinity as well since there is direct branch linking nodes 5 and 1. elements of final matrix Dn will constitute the shortest path going from node i to node j. This element equals 8 since the length of the branch connecting nodes 1 and 2 is 8. Element equals infinity since the network has no branch which is oriented from node 3 to node 1. Starting matrix Do is as follows: All elements along the main diagonal of matrix Do equal zero since by definition . Branch lengths are shown on the figure.

First we note that node i is the immediate predecessor of node j on the shortest path leading from node i to node j (for ) . for example: We now go to the first algorithmic step. . For this reason we have. As an illustration of Step 2 we calculate the elements of the first three rows of matrix D1. Calculations for other rows are left as an exercise. Matrix D1 is as follows: Matrix elements which changed values compared to the values they had in matrix DO are circled. Let k = 1.

Q2. Q3. Q5 are as follows: . the shortest distance between nodes 2 and 4 is 13 after the first algorithic step. Since then node 1 is the new immediate predecessor of node 4 on the shortest path from node 2 to node 4. D4. for example. D3. In starting matrix DO this distance was ∞ . Q1 looks like this: After the second.So. third. Q4 and D5. matrices D2. After passing through the algorithm the first time. fourth and fifth passages through the algorithm.

node 5 to node 4 has a length of 10. . Also by studying the Q5 matrix one can obtain the shortest paths from. For example the shortest paths from. Next the predecessor node to node 3 on the shortest path from 5 to 3 is Hence 2 to 3 to 4 forms a .Matrices D5 and Q5 furnish us with complete information on the lengths of the shortest paths and the nodes on those paths between all pairs of nodes in the transportation network. As per Q5. Hence 5 to 2 to 3 to 4 is the shortest path. we see. node 5 to node 4. part of the shortest path from 5 to 4. Hence 3 to 4 forms the final link on the shortest path from 5 to 4. Proceeding similarly. the immediate predecessor node to node 5 for the shortest path from 5 to 4 is .

Major District Roads and Rural Roads is 33 lakhs kilometer (NHAI 2005).8 million-km (1996). necessitates understanding in economics of highway projects.8 km of road length per 100 sq km. out of total road length of over 1. A well designed rural road with 3. At the time of independence. Construction of a six-lane expressway may cost Rupees 5 to 10 crore per kilometer.75m carriageway.6 lakhs to 25 lakhs. The fifth section discusses different approaches of economic evaluation of highway projects. Introduction Highway is a major Civil Engineering construction. out of which National Highways covers a length of 65. the length of road network has increased from 4 lakh kms in 1951 to 33. At present. The overall expenditure involved.Transportation Economics Definition of parameters Objectives The objective of this module is to introduce the principles of economic evaluation and financing of a highway project. India's road network was rudimentary and poor even for the small traffic plying on it. A proposed road project is expected to have various alternatives in terms of its way of implementation.4 lakh-km in 2005. shoulder and crossdrainage works may cost between Rs. India has 60. However. In this module. its future growth and financing strategies for highway projects with reference to Indian context. with reference Indian context.5km/100 sqkm. National Highways. The first section contains a general discussion on the scenario of Indian roads. making India the second largest road network . among various alternatives. A judicious selection of the best possible strategy. and the expenditure required at various stages of project execution would be different for different alternatives. in USA it is 66. Lastly a brief idea on highway financing. Some of parameters used in economic analysis are defined in the second section. has been placed in the sixth section. brief discussions have been placed in six sections. depending on the construction conditions (PMGSY 2001).569 km (NHAI 2005). Various cost and benefit components of transportation infrastructure has been discussed in the third and the fourth section respectively. On the existing road network National Highways carry 40% of the total traffic but constitute less than 2% of the total road length (NHAI 2005). Total road length in India comprised of Expressways. only about 45% is surfaced (Bhatia 1996). State Highways. Study of highway economics and finance involves understanding of • various cost components of highway projects • the economic feasibility of alternative highway projects • decision on scheme of investment on a project at its various stages • funding source and policies for road projects. This module also discusses briefly the present road scenario. which involves large sum of investment.

is the economic analysis period.. and the North-South and East-West corridors involves road linking of Srinagar-Kanyakumari and Silchar-Porbandar respectively (MORT&H 2005). maintenance. Interest rate could be simple or a compound one. The freight traffic has also increased from 6 billion ton-km in 1951 to 400 billion ton-km to 1200 billion ton-km (2000). Government of India has launched (in December. 2000) the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY). 2012 In order to provide road connectivity to the villages. and vehicle population growth is about 12% per year (MORT&H 2005) The newly conceived Golden Quadrilateral project involves 4-laning of road linking Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai .in the world (NHAI 2005. 2007 Length (in km) Target date completion of National Highway Development Projects (NHDP) 7300 10. This is generally selected as twenty to thirty years for a highway project.5 million by the year 2001 (Narain 1996). and is called as the time horizon of economic assessment. This interest rate is an extra cost charged to the highway project and is payable to the source where from the investment has been generated. depending on policy or type of road. Interest rate is the return obtained after the end of the year as percentage of the capital invested at the beginning of the year.. and its benefits are spread over a time span.. which has been invested in highway project. Time horizon. where all villages having population more than 1000 persons are provided connectivity through all-weather-roads. The present traffic growth on roads is 7 to 10% per year. that the money. Interest Rate Money earns its interest intrinsically. The number of automobiles has grown from 0. could have been invested elsewhere to earn the same interest (Nash .3 million in 1951 to 48. basically. 2007 Dec. During this period. number of trucks and vehicles has increased 10 to 40 times. MORT&H 2005). Connectivity will be further improved to the villages having population more than 500 persons by the end of year 2007 (PMGSY 2005). 2005 Dec.60. The lengths and estimated dates of completion of National Highway Development Projects (NHDP) are presented in Table-1.000 Dec. with consequent increase in share of passengers (26 to 85%) and goods (11 to 65%) traffic carried by road (MORT&H 2005). The estimated cost of this time bound project is approximately Rs. This is because of the reason..000 crore (PMGSY 2005) Time Horizon The investment for highway construction. Table-1 (MORT&H 2005) Project NHDP Phase-I (i) Quadrilateral Golden 5846 1133 (ii) Port Connectivity & others NHDP Phase-II (i) N-S Corridor (ii) E-W Corridor NHDP Phase-III Dec.

The present worth can be expressed in the form of the following equation (Equation 2) . The interest rate is used to calculate what would be the amount of money at a future date. Y is the number of years between the last overlay (which is done in the year n m ) and the analysis period for which was the cost incurred and X is the number of years it is expected to actually serve. is used to calculate the present equivalent amount of money. Salvage value Salvage value ( S ) is the worth of the structure at the end of the analysis period. Capital recovery factor . Alternatively. O k is the cost of maintenance in the k th year. There could be different basis of calculating the salvage value. undergoes price escalation due to inflation. and accordingly a proportionate salvage value is assigned. due to inflation. Present worth Present worth Present worth is the total cost of the project. This value is carried over to the next analysis period. labour. If. it is assumed that the pavement materials would be recycled. Inflation Construction of major highway project takes a number of years. At the same time. the effect of inflation also needs to be considered (IRC:SP-30 1993) in all the cost and benefit components. and meanwhile the cost of material. of the amount which will be actually invested in future (IRC:SP-30 1993). thereby reducing the benefit. then the cost of existing pavement materials (to be used for recycling) are considered in computation of salvage value. Thus in the benefit-cost considerations. overlay) is done. when investments in various years (during the analysis period) are brought back to the equivalent worth of present year.(2) where. the salvage value. the Vehicle Operating Cost (VOC) increases. in the next analysis period. after the expiry of the first analysis period. S is the salvage value and r is the discount rate. n m last year within the analysis period in which maintenance job is carried out.(1) where. equipment etc. And the discount rate. present C is the cost of construction.1997). n 1 is the 1st year in which major maintenance (say. if the pavement life is extended further by putting overlay. This is based on the assumption that the service life of the last resurfacing overshoots beyond the analysis period. on the other hand. could be calculated in the following way (MS-1 1999): . S .

. Rs. such that the loan is repaid by 15 years? Assume compound rate of interest as 10%. It was decided that this money will be raised from loans. if the annual discount rate is 12% (compound). Calculate the total present worth of these expenditures.(3) where.00. say x . 34.The concept of capital recovery factor is used when only the recurring investments at different periods of time. Solution The present worth of the maintenance investment is = Rs. 5th year and the 7th year. therefore. This could be made clear by taking the example of the middle term of above equation (Equation 2). Or.20. is brought back to the equivalent investment put at the beginning of the project. x = 26.000/. 200 crore.294 crore Cost Components in Transportation System .each is to be spent on a particular stretch of a highway during the 3rd year. using the following simplifications: • maintenance is done periodically in each year • the maintenance expenditure is same always.(4) The term Example is called the Capital Recovery Factor. Then. Using the Equation 4.63. . As a routine maintenance work. What is the equal amount of money to be paid each year.080/Example The expenditure of construction of new highway was estimated as Rs. N is the analysis period. and • the total maintenance expenditure calculated as the 1st year as the base year is equivalent to an one-time expenditure of y .

Construction cost The construction cost involves. construction of new flyover etc. insurance. (iv) installation of traffic control devices. The cost of transportation system could be thought of constituted with cost incurred by the two parties viz. In some cases. variable cost and fixed cost. Agency cost The agency cost is the cost incurred by the agency (government or private) for construction and maintenance of a highway facility. road and other taxes. which again involves cost. • Variable costs may be subdivided into two categories: • Distance related components. Vehicle Operating Cost (VOC) The cost of owning and operating vehicle due to its use on roads is called the Vehicle Operating Cost (VOC). registration fees. like. (iv) tyre wear (v) lubricants (vi) maintenance labour cost etc. The maintenance costs are cost of (i) periodic repair (ii) major rehabilitation (iii) operational expenditure of traffic facility. (vi) installation of other transportation facilities etc. The effect of congestion is taken into account by applying correction factors to VOC. (ii) spare parts. . Maintenance cost The maintenance cost involves the cost of planning and implementation of various maintenance measures implemented on the in-service roads in various time phases. (i) depreciation (ii) value of the passengers time (iii) wages of the crew etc. (ii) acquisition of land. cost of traffic congestion. (iii) construction of highway. reduce the cost of vehicle operation on highways. (v) cost of supervision. travel time etc. for example. Cost due to traffic congestion and restraint Any renovation on existing pavement causes disruption of traffic in terms of congestion. the evaluation of the cost incurred by the users is sometimes difficult to estimate. the cost of (i) surveying. (i) fuel consumption. This delay in travel time is a function of road geometrics. but these savings are achieved as a return benefit of construction of new highway. reduction of speed. (iv) supervision and installation charges etc. • Fixed cost includes the capital cost. (i) agency cost and the (ii) user cost. maintenance of roads. traffic volume. road permit charges. planning and design. User cost Unlike the case of determination of cost of construction. time and duration of road renovation work. • Time related components. it is not possible to measure also.mprovement of transportation system may. quality control and administrative costs. and even complete restraint of movement. the pain and grief caused by accidents. like.. VOC has two components.

The savings in travel time is enjoyed by the passengers and the transport operators. for a quick and comfortable transportation. new road diversions. Accident involves (i) cost of human lives and human agony (ii) loss due to injury (iii) cost of hospitalization (iv) damage to the property and vehicles. a person's wage rate may be considered to determine the value of his time. the cost of travel time for work trip is higher than that of non-work trip. The time value of non-working hours can be calculated from the studying the behaviour of passengers in showing the preferences of choosing a particular mode of transport during the non-working hours. A person having higher salary scale may be willing to pay higher fare. and accordingly he will select a specific mode of travel. Cost of travel time Better quality of roads. having poor functional characteristics are prone to have more number of accidents. Depending on the severity and degree of damage caused by accident. This concept is used to determine the cost of travel time of an individual . However. Therefore. And this is counted as the benefit of transportation. this approach can only give time value during the work trip and not for recreation or other non-working time. which is a function of type of road and the volume capacity ratio. • The ratio between the free speed and speed during congestion is multiplied with the time component of VOC.thus. The congestion occurs during the peak hours only. and is multiplied with the distance related component to VOC. information about the hourly traffic volume is desirable to calculate precisely the congestion factor. called Congestion Factor is suggested (Kadiyali 1991). when various alternative modes of transportation are available (Nash 1997). Table-2 Value of travel time of passengers as per 1990 Road User Cost Data (IRC:SP-30 1993) Type of passenger Work trip (Rs/hr) Non-work (Rs/hr) Bus passengers on trunk routes 27 3 Bus passengers in secondary routes10 2 Car/ taxi/ two-wheeler passengers 30 4 trip The objective of a good transportation system is to provide a efficient. The cost of accident is difficult to measure. . Table-2 presents values of the travel time evaluated based on Indian study (Kadiyali 1991). bring about reduction in the travel time. benefit due to (i) saving in VOC. The various possible forms of benefits can be summarized as follows (IRC:SP-30 1993): • Road user benefits: This type of benefit includes. some values are generally suggested (Kadiyali 1991). Cost due to accident Roads. The cost of travel time is different for different users. As obvious. quick and safe transportation to its users. (ii) saving of travel time (iii) saving in terms of accident cost (iv) saving in the cost of maintenance etc.• Suitable correction factor. exclusive expressway. road over bridge.

environmental standards etc. the benefits are derived from the future traffic situation. but sometimes when the cost-benefit ratio of two models are close to each other. the reduction in the VOC due to a proposed new transportation facility can be quantified As mentioned earlier. bringing all the expenditures to the base year for comparison purposes. Comparison of various methods • The cost-benefit model is simple to use. trade. the cost and the benefits of the individual years are discounted to the present value and compared across various alternatives. which enables an analyst to compare relative benefits which could be derived from various alternative projects. health. the cost as well as the benefit is spread over the time horizon. industry. Internal Rate of Return Method (IRR) Internal rate of return is that discount rate. This can be obtained by setting the value of NPV in Equation (5) as zero. may enhance the aesthetics. which sometimes becomes difficult to apprehend beforehand. The various methods of economic evaluation of highway projects are discussed briefly in the following. B i is the benefit of the i th year. Net Present Value Method In the net present value method. For example. the costs and the benefits of individual highway projects are calculated.(5) where. then the project is adjudged to be acceptable. for which the NPV value is zero. agriculture. If the rate of return thus calculated is more than the market interest. However. Estimating the benefit component of a transportation system is difficult. C i is the cost of the i th year and n is the number of years. There are various methods available for economic evaluation of highway projects. and choose the best option. the direct benefits. It is difficult to compare the cost/ benefit components. The cost-benefit ratios of the various alternative highway projects are then compared. which is difficult to quantify. education. for example. Also. The Net Present Value ( NPV ) at the base year can be written as: . . unless they are brought to equivalent values at a particular base year. it becomes difficult to interpret. and solving (by trial and error) for the value of r . or. benefit due to improvement in administration. and sometimes is not possible to quantify benefits for some components. a good transportation system may reduce the noise and air pollution level. Cost-Benefit Ratio Method In cost benefit ratio analysis.• Social benefits: This type of benefit includes.

The Golden Quadrilateral and North-South and East-West corridors. Thus. and therefore inaccuracy in analysis in assuming some arbitrary discount rate (as is done in cost-benefit ratio or in NPV method) is taken care. The funding sources of this huge investment could be managed from the (i) government sector (ii) international bank loans (iii) private sectors etc.12. Toll revenue can be utilized for raising the debt finance.e. This is because savings in cost is benefit in other words. market borrowing. The difficulty with the toll financing for debt realization is that the plough back time-period is long. Rs.58.000crore for state highways (Gupta 2000). some discount rate is assumed. The funding of these projects has been arranged from various organizations . amounts to Rs. 120. sometimes appear confusing. 25. and various alternative projects are compared.000crore for National Highways and Rs. 70. budgetary allocation. Shadow tolling is another concept.20.000crore for expressways. If at least the maintenance requirement of a particular stretch can be completely financed from toll.000 crore from the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank loans. and external funding agencies (PMGSY 2005). and fluctuative.• Some components whether will be treated as benefit or cost (i. carried out for the coming ten years. will involve an approximate expenditure of Rs. The following policies (NHAI 2005. where government pays the investor for each vehicle that enters the stretch. for example. MORT&H 2005) have been adopted by the Government for encouraging participation of private organizations in highway construction projects: • Declaration of the road sector as an industry • Provision of capital grants subsidy up to 40% of project cost on case-to-case basis • Duty-free import of certain identified high quality construction plants and equipment • 100% tax exemption for 5 years and 30% relief for next 5 years.approximately Rs. If different discount rate is assumed instead. which may be availed of in 20 years .000 crore from cess (from petrol and partially from diesel).6. fund out of cess on diesel or petrol (Central Road Fund) etc. • IRR method itself finds out the discount rate. IRR method seems to be the most preferred economic analysis tool. Rs. whether it will go to the numerator or denominator). like. special road development bonds.000 crore from the private sector (NHAI 2005). supporting the maintenance activities on that particular road stretch. it is decided that the finance will come from 50% of diesel cess . Rs. For the PMGSY project. • In the NPV or cost-benefit ratio methods. and needs to be operated by government or private agency. or. Shadow tolling works better than direct toll from vehicles. An approximate estimation of the expenditure in the road sector in India. the order of choice among the alternatives may change. Funding for transportation projects can as well be attracted from private organizations.20. The government funding may come from various sources.000 crore from market borrowing. and Rs.000 crore (NHAI 2005). it can stay away from the competition with the requirements of the other roads in the network.

own and operate (BOO). The cost (or benefit) of the road user includes vehicle operating cost. own. cost-benefit ratio method. Transportation project requires large outlay of investment. build. tolling etc. imposition of cess to fuel. like. Several variations of the BOT approach exist. accident cost. built. therefore. congestion cost. floating public bond. operate and transfer (BOT) approach (iii) build. transfer and operate (BTO) approach. like. net present value method and internal rate of return method. Out of these models BOT is generally considered as the most effective form of privatization. build. • The finance to highway projects are arranged from various sources.g. • Economic viability of a proposed project can be adjudged through mainly three alternative approaches. lease and transfer (BOLT). The agency cost involves cost of construction and maintenance of a highway facility. operate and sell (BOOS).e. (iv) finance. the Government shall meet all expenses relating to land and other pre-construction activities • Foreign direct investment upto 100% in road sector • Easier external commercial borrowing norms • Higher concession period. e.• Provision of encumbrance-free site for work. i. operate. own. loan from financial organizations. operate and transfer (BOOT) etc (Krishnan 2000). all the funding possibilities may have to be explored for successful implementation of a conceived project The cost of a proposed highway construction incurred by the agency (government or private) is rather easier to estimate than estimating the equivalent costs incurred and/or benefits enjoyed by the road users. travel time cost etc. private investment. build and lease approach etc.. . (i) completely owned. viz. government funding. build. financed and operated by private body (ii) build. up to 30 years • Right to collect and retain toll There could be various models of degree of involvement of private organizations in transportation project financing.

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