The Islamic University of Gaza High Studies Deanery Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering Department Design and Rehabilitation

of Structures

‫الج ـام ـ ـعـة اإلس ـالمية ب ـغـ ـزة‬ ‫عم ـ ـادة الدراس ـ ـات العل ـ ـ ـ ـيا‬ ‫كلي ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـة الهـ ـ ـندس ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـة‬ ‫قسـ ـ ـم الهنـ ـ ـدسـ ـة المدنيـ ـ ـة‬ ‫المنش ـآت برنامج تصميم وتأهيل‬

Properties of Concrete Mixes with Waste Glass

Submitted by: Abdullah A. Siam (2007/634)

Supervised by: Dr. Mamoun Al-Qedra Dr. Mohammed Arafa

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Master of Science in Civil Engineering Rehabilitation and Design of Structures ‫م‬2011 - ‫هـ‬1432

1

ABSTRACT
The quantities of waste glass in Gaza Strip have been increasing significantly without being recycled increasing the risk to public health due to the scarcity of land area. This growing problem of waste glass in the Gaza Strip can be alleviated if new disposal options other than landfill can be found. The main goal is to investigate the possibility to improve the compressive strength over a range of glass percentages. Waste glass is the least expensive of all the concrete constituents and is much less expensive than natural aggregates and sand, thus the idea is to replace as much of the natural aggregates and sand as possible to save money and to reduce the amount of disposable wastes, as well, but care has to be taken in order not to weaken the concrete by adding too much glass.

Therefore, samples of the most common waste glass materials in Gaza Strip were collected and crushed to be included in concrete as a partial occupant in the concrete mix replacing fine and coarse aggregates, and then a standard series of: 72 slump tests, 144 mass density tests, 144 compressive strength tests, 18 pull-out tests, 18 flexural tests, and 18 splitting tensile tests were conducted.

The output results obtained from this laboratory program showed reliable data points and promising further research horizons. For concrete mixed with coarse waste glass as a partial occupant instead of coarse aggregates, the optimum value of coarse waste glass to be used within the concrete mix with a water-cement ratio of 0.4 was determined as about 0.265, and the corresponding expected 28-days hardened concrete compressive strength was about 385 kg/cm2 compared with 300 kg/cm2. For concrete mixed with fine waste glass as a partial occupant instead of fine aggregates, the optimum value of fine waste glass to be used within the concrete mix with a water-cement ratio of 0.4 was estimated as almost 0.195, and the corresponding expected 28-days hardened concrete compressive strength was almost 400 kg/cm2.

Finally, for concrete mixes containing the optimal portion of coarse or fine waste glass, it was concluded that there was negligible effects on the poll-out strength, considerable enhancement of the flexural strength, and slight reduction of the splitting tensile strength of the mix.

B-1

‫خالصة البحث‬
‫ىا عمى الصحة‬ ‫ة في ازدياد مستمر دون إعادة تصنيع مما يزيد من مخاطر‬ ‫إن كميات زجاج النفايات في قطاع غز‬ ‫ات جديدة عدا المجوء لمكبات النفايات‪ .‬واليدف الرئيسي ىو إلى التحقق من‬ ‫إذا كان من الممكن العثور عمى خيار‬ ‫ة‬ ‫اضي‪ .‬ويمكن التغمب عمى ىذه المشكمة المتنامية من زجاج النفايات في قطاع غز‬ ‫ة مساحة األر‬ ‫ر لندر‬ ‫العامة نظ ا‬ ‫اج زجاج النفايات ضمن مكونات الخرسانة بنسب معينة ألن زجاج النفايات ىو األقل كمفة من جميع‬ ‫إمكانية إدر‬ ‫والحد من كمية النفايات الواجب التخمص منيا‪.‬‬ ‫ة وسحقيا بأحجام مختمفة ليتم تضمينيا‬ ‫لذلك ‪ ،‬تم جمع عينات من مواد زجاج النفايات األكثر شيوعا في قطاع غز‬ ‫ات القياسية‪ 72 :‬فحص ىبوط‪ 144 ،‬فحص الكثافة‪ 144 ،‬فحص‬ ‫اء سمسمة من االختبار‬ ‫في الخرسانة‪ ،‬ثم تم إجر‬ ‫قوة الضغط‪ 18 ،‬فحص سحب حديد التسميح‪ 18 ،‬فحص اإلنثناء‪ ،‬و ‪ 18‬فحص االنفصام‪.‬‬ ‫وأظيرت النتائج التي تم الحصول عمييا من الخرسانة المحتوية عمى زجاج النفايات الخشن بوصفو المكون‬

‫ة ىي إحاللو بدل قدر من الركام والرمال الطبيعية قدر اإلمكان لتوفير المال‬ ‫ى‪ ،‬وبالتالي فإن الفكر‬ ‫المكونات األخر‬

‫الجزئي البديل عن الركام الخشن (الحصمة)‪ ،‬فإن النسبة المثمى من زجاج النفايات الخشن داخل الخرسانة مع‬ ‫نسبة الماء لإلسمنت ‪ 0.4‬تم تحديدىا بحوالي ‪ 0.265‬و كانت قوة كسر الخرسانة بعد ‪ 28‬يوما من صبيا نحو‬ ‫‪ 385‬كجم‪/‬سم‪ 2‬مقارنة بقوة كسر ‪ 300‬كجم‪/‬سم‪.2‬‬

‫في حين أظيرت النتائج التي تم الحصول عمييا من الخرسانة المحتوية عمى زجاج النفايات الناعم بوصفو‬ ‫المكون الجزئي البديل عن الركام الناعم (الرمل)‪ ،‬فإن النسبة المثمى من زجاج النفايات الناعم داخل الخرسانة مع‬ ‫نسبة الماء لإلسمنت ‪ 0.4‬تم تحديدىا بحوالي ‪ 0.195‬و كانت قوة كسر الخرسانة بعد ‪ 28‬يوما من صبيا نحو‬ ‫‪ 400‬كجم‪/‬سم‪.2‬‬

‫ا‪ ،‬لمخرسانة المحتوية عمى النسب المثمى من الزجاج الخشن أو الناعم‪ :‬لم يالحظ تأثير ممموس عمى قوة‬ ‫وأخير‬ ‫سحب حديد التسميح‪ ،‬ولوحظ تحسن ممموس في قوة مقاومة االنثناء‪ ،‬وسجل انخفاض طفيف عمى قوة مقاومة‬ ‫االنفصام‪.‬‬

‫‪B-2‬‬

Abdulaziz. my son.DEDICATION This research study is humbly dedicated to my beloved family: my parents. my wife. and my daughter. Raghad B-3 .

the author would like to extend his sincere gratitude and appreciation to Eng. Mamoun Alqedra and Dr. In addition. Mohamed Arafa. and encouragement throughout the phases of this research study. Ahmad Alkurd and Mr. for their unconditional guidance. Tahseen Shehada within the staff of the soil and materials testing laboratory at the Islamic University in Gaza for their outstanding efforts during the experimental phase of this research study.ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author would like to express his deepest gratitude and appreciation to Dr. patience. B-4 .

....1 CORSE Waste Glass ......4 PREVIOUS STUDIES......... 5 2...............................7 EFFECT OF WASTE GLASS ON PULL OUT STRENGTH ........................ 41 4.......... 40 4............................................ 47 4.........2 PROPERTIES OF AGGREGATES ............................................2 Cement ..............................................................................................................................................................................................1 CORSE Waste Glass .......................4 EFFECT OF REPLACING WASTE GLASS ON CONCRETE WORKABILITY .......................7.............................................................. 19 CHAPTER THREE: EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM .................3 EFFECT OF REPLACING WASTE GLASS ON CONCRETE DENSITY ............................................................................................................. 08 3...................................................... 3 1...............................................................................................................................................................................4 RESEARCH METHODOLGY .. 11 2...................................... 5 2....................2 TESTING PROGRAM RESULTS ............... 09 3.........................................3.......... 41 4.................. 04 3.......................................... ..........................................3 Aggregates ........................ 34 4....................................................................................... 55 B-5 .............. 52 4.............6 OPTIMAL WASTE GLASS CONTENT IN CONCRETE MIXES .............3.... 09 CHAPTER FOUR: LABORATORY TESTING RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSES .................................7...... 38 4..........................4...................................... 8 2.......... 43 4............................................................................... 1 1.......................... 50 4...........................................4...........3 WASTE GLASS ... 5 2............................................... ............. 09 3..........................5 CONCRETE JOB MIXES ..........................................................2.......4.......2 FINE Waste Glass ............................ ............... 4 1.............................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION ....... 02 3.................2 Flextural Stength .........................................................4............................ 4 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW .............................2 FINE Waste Glass ........................................................1 INTRODUCTION .....................................2......................2 CONCRETE COMPOSITE MATERIALS ...................................... 08 3......................................................................................................................................................... 02 3....................................................................................1 Pull Out Strength ...................................................5................................................................................3 WASTE GLASS .................3 Splitting Strength .....1 Water .1 BACKGROUND ...................................5........................................ 6 2............. 7 2......................1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................1 CORSE Waste Glass ...............2 PROBLEM STATEMENT .............................................2 FINE Waste Glass ......................CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION............3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................................................4......................................................................................5 EFFECT OF REPLACING WASTE GLASS ON CONCRETE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH...................................................... 7 2................................................................................... 38 4....................................................................................2.................5 THESIS LAYOUT................................ 41 4......................... 01 3.........................................2 FINE Waste Glass ... 48 4.................... 47 4...................................................... 1 1........................ 34 4.........................5 CONCLDING REMARKS .. 44 4...4 TESTING PROGRAM .................................. 2 1...............................1 CORSE Waste Glass ................

.................................................................................................................. 57 4..........................................2........................................................................................2 CONCLUSIONS .................8 B-6 ....... 67 4....................... 20 5. 60 5..8................... 55 4..........................................2........................................................ 57 4.............................................................9........................................................... 60 4...........................1 SUMMARY ..... 62 5... 64 REFERENCES .EFFECT OF WASTE GLASS ON FLEXURAL STRENGTH . 63 5..............2 FINE Waste Glass ....................................................2 FINE Waste Glass ...........................................................................................................9.................1 CORSE Waste Glass ...................................... 57 4.......................................................................... 25 APPENDIX A ............9 EFFECT OF WASTE GLASS ON SPLITTING STRENGTH .. 60 5.......................................................................1 CORSE Waste Glass ...8........................................2 FINE Waste Glass ...............1 CORSE Waste Glass .........................3 FUTURE STUDY .. 60 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ......................................................................

05 Figure 3.......19: Illustration of poll-out testing specimen after failure ........ 43 Figure 4.....G percentage of several w/c raio 40 Figure 4.................1: Concrete density of coarse waste glass in the mix ..... 54 Figure 4.......5: Slump test results vs....................14: 28-Days concrete compressive strength vs.....20: Flexural strength testing apparatus ...................................................... 06 Figure 3.....6: Crushing of waste glass to coarse and fine sizes ...................12: Concrete compressive strength vs.3: Relation of concrete density with fine W.2: Samples of the natural medium and fine aggregate for concrete mix......3: Grain size distribution curve of coarse aggregates ....................4: Grain size distribution curve of fine aggregates .....21: Illustration of flexural strength testing specimen after failure .................7 Slump test results vs..... 56 Figure 4.....7: Grain size distribution of coarse waste glass............... .. 49 Figure 4..... portion of coarse waste glass in the mix ....... 59 Figure 4.. 39 Figure 4........................ 59 B-7 .. water cement ratio .............................. portion of fine waste glass in the mix .6: Slump test results vs............................................... water cement ratio ...........................................9: Typical testing cube after fauilure for determining concrete compressive strength ........................... 39 Figure 4.5: Waste glass materials as collected before crushing and sieving ...... 58 Figure 4.............................. 07 Figure 4...........................22: Hardened splitting strength testing specimens .... portion of fine waste glass in the fresh mix ...17: Hardened poll-out testing specimens ......................................... 46 Figure 4................................... 53 Figure 4. 21 Figure 3...... 52 Figure 4............... 44 Figure 4.................................... water cement ratio....... 21 Figure 3.....................10: 7-Days concrete compressive strength vs................................. portion of coarse waste glass in the mix ....... 45 Figure 4...............................................15: Concrete compressive strength vs......... 53 Figure 4.... ...............................................................................................................18: Poll-out testing apparatus and procedure .................. water cement ratio ............................................................ 40 Figure 4......................... 41 Figure 4....................................................11: 28-Days concrete compressive strength vs................. 25 Figure 3.....2: Concrete density vs..........................................................................16: Preparation of pull-out testing specimens ................................................... 47 Figure 4... portion of fine waste glass in the mix .... 56 Figure 4........................................... 40 Figure 4....... 04 Figure 3................13: 7-Days concrete compressive strength vs..........1: Sample of the natural coarse aggregate for concrete mix .....8: Slump test results vs.........................LIST OF FIGURES Figure 3......4: Concrete mass density vs.................23: Splitting strength-testing apparatus ..........................................................8: Grain size distribution of fine waste glass... 43 Figure 4. portion of fine waste glass in the mix .................24: Illustration of splitting strength-testing specimens after failure .... 23 Figure 3......................... 46 Figure 4......................... portion of coarse waste glass in the fresh mix .......................................................... portion of coarse waste glass in mix........... 48 Figure 4...........

..6: Experimental testing program of concrete with fine waste glass ...... 31 Table 3... 27 Table 3.4 and Waste Glass = zero ...4 ... 32 Table 3........................3: Mass density and workability values with several fine waste glass content ......... 30 Table 3......... 23 Table 3.......1: Summary of sieve analysis data for coarse aggregates .. 50 Table 4............ 50 Table 4..6: Summary of the 28-days comprehensive strengths for concrete mix with different portions of coarse waste glass and a water-cement ratio of 0.2: Summary of sieve analysis data for fine aggregates ......................... 37 Table 4....10: Summary of the pull-out strength results with fine waste glass content ..7: Summary of the 7-days comprehensive strengths for concrete mix with different portions of fine waste glass and a water-cement ratio of 0........ 9 Table 3.............7: Specific Gravities of Concrete Mix Raw Components for B 300 ................1: Approximate compositions and the corresponding uses of various common forms of glass ..........................................................4 ........10: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0......8: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0......... 32 Table 4.......................4 ........... 22 Table 3...14: Summary of the splitting strength results with fine waste glass content . 38 Table 4.2: Compressive strength of concrete with several coarse waste glass content....................... 49 Table 4.......11: Summary of the flexural strength results with coarse waste glass content......................... 58 Table 4....4 ..... 61 B-8 .......... 30 Table 3...13: Summary of the splitting strength results with coarse waste glass content 60 Table 4..3: Summary of sieve analysis data for coarse waste glass.. 31 Table 3..12: Summary of the flexural strength results with fine waste glass content....................9: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0.. 55 Table 4.....5: Experimental testing program of concrete with coarse waste glass ..... 57 Table 4............ 51 Table 4.36 Table 4.. 54 Table 4.................LIST OF TABLES Table 2. ............1: Mass density and workability values with several coarse waste glass content ..4: Compressive strength of concrete with several fine waste glass content ............9: Summary of the pull-out strength results with coarse waste glass content ........................6 and Waste Glass = zero .........5: Summary of the 7-days comprehensive strengths for concrete mix with different portions of coarse waste glass and a water-cement ratio of 0...........5 and Waste Glass = zero .. 26 Table 3....... 35 Table 4..........4: Summary of sieve analysis data for fine waste glass .8: Summary of the 28-days comprehensive strengths for concrete mix with different portions of fine waste glass and a water-cement ratio of 0.........................

2% of the economic and domestic establishments in the Palestinian Territory. followed by medical waste. glass. and other materials. removal of existing structures. In particular. plumbing pipes. aluminum. gravel. wood. and installations.1 Background Solid wastes are substances and masses resulted by the various human activities that have to be dumped. repair. the PCBS revealed from the data analysis that the paper and cartons were ranked first among the separated solid waste components. 1 .7%. medical waste. ceramic. paper. with 22. and infected wastes with 21. and domestic waste. waste density at collection points was 0.0% per year. Solid waste materials usually include industrial waste. paints. This waste is composed of sand.006 ton/day. This concern was considerably increased and extremely highlighted especially after the comprehensive aggression on Gaza Strip in December 2008 that lasted for 23 days and resulted in numerous masses of industrial and constructional wastes. and Glass and Metal with 17.0 kg/c/d. rehabilitation. tiles.7-1.4 kg/l. Waste production was 0. and growing at an estimated rate of 4. stone. [2] It was estimated during the year 2005 by Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) that the total average daily solid waste produced in the Gaza Strip is 1. construction waste is the output result of construction and destruction.CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. In 2008.9% [2]. marble. plastic. electric parts and asbestos. radioactive. including sharp. This growing problem of waste glass in the Gaza Strip can be alleviated if new disposal options other than landfill can be found. One of the main environmental concerns regarding the landfills in the Gaza Strip area is the very limited area available in both their current and future count number and their individual capacity and efficiency of usage. [1] The quantities of waste glass in the Gaza Strip have been increasing significantly without being recycled increasing the risk to public health due to the scarcity of land area.

plastic and rubber 5. Out of the solid waste. The unfavorable properties of concrete include a relatively weak tensile strength as compared to it compressive strength and the ability to form cracks in unpredictable areas.85%.2 Problem Statement Many studies have been emerging worldwide highlighting the reuse of waste glass in construction technology. The idea is that the glass can be used as an aggregate in the concrete mix by replacing some of the natural aggregates such as gravel and sand. Along with steel bars as internal reinforcement. it is estimated that 79. such as [3-9]. of the household solid waste consist of organic material. Thus. glass jars and other containers are among the sources of waste glass materials in many areas all over the world. and grocery glasses are not within the concern of this research study. workshops wastes. Metals 2. and unlike other building materials like steel and plastic. thus failure mode or location of the failure is unpredictable. clear. In the Gaza Strip the main component of waste glass is clear pure glass originating from reconstruction and rehabilitation processes.Solid waste in Gaza Strip mainly consists of household wastes. Glass 0. sand 7. medical wastes. green or brown bottles including juice. In general. the use of fewer natural aggregates (which are the components of concrete) saving our natural resources and less labor is used by not shipping raw materials from distant places to where glass is available saving time and money. building debris.22% and Carton 2. agricultural wastes. soft drink and sauce bottles. the cracks can be controlled to some degree. light globes. 1. medical or laboratory glass. the possible benefits are as follows: less glass is thrown away saving landfill space.81%.02%. besides. industrial wastes.9%. recycling waste glass as an aggregate is effective for environmental 2 . mirrors.02% [2]. Other types of waste glass such as ceramic plates. and other waste materials. cloth 1. concrete is not a uniform material due to the fact that it contains a ratio of gravel and sand.21%. There has been an increasing significant interest in the development of concrete mixes with waste glass. and the clear spread glass is used as a waste glass material.

Within the scope of this study.conservation and economical advantage. Waste glass is the least expensive of all concrete constituents and is much less expensive than natural aggregates and sand.3 Aim and Objectives This research focuses on studying the effect of waste glass on the properties of concrete mixtures as a partial replacement of fine aggregates. This objective can be achieved through the following objectives:   Identify the effects of adding waste glass on the fresh properties of concrete mixes such as workability by slump measures. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of waste glass on the properties of concrete mixes as a partial replacement of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. pull out strength. The successful use of waste glass will aid in reducing the environmental and health problems related to the disposal of waste glass and the scarcity of land area needed for disposal. 1. and a basic experimental study on the physical and mechanical properties of concrete containing waste glass was carried out [2]. the main goal is to investigate the possibility to improve the compressive strength over a range of glass percentages. but care has to be taken in order not to weaken the concrete by adding too much glass. Study the influence of waste glass on hardened properties of concrete mixes such as: density and compressive strength. flexural strength and splitting resistance. thus the idea is to replace as much of the natural aggregates and sand as possible to save money and to reduce the amount of disposable wastes. as well. and coarse aggregates. samples of the most common waste glass materials in the Gaza Strip were collected and crushed to be included in concrete as a partial occupant in the concrete mix replacing fine and coarse aggregates. Therefore.  Determine the optimum waste glass content to be added as a partial replacement of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. 3 .

Undertaking a comprehensive literature review on relevant subjects focused on the usage of waste glass in construction field. Finally. Chapter 4 aims to clarify the essentials of concrete compressive strength analysis and the methodology followed to highlight the usefulness of considering waste glass materials as a main component within the concrete mix. and recommendations for future areas of study are presented in Chapter 5. 4 . Proper treatment of uncertainties within the data analysis process required understanding the sources of errors for the targeted end point.4 Research Methodology The following tasks are to be carried out in order to achieve the research objectives:      Collecting the required information and documents related to the waste glass .1. 1. Analyzing the experimental output test results to draw conclusions.1. This chapter ends with a detailed list of the different portions of fine and coarse waste glass used in the concrete mixes.5 Thesis Layout Following this introduction. Chapter 3 demonstrates the employed descriptive variables in the experimental testing program considering the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. These descriptive variables start with the different raw components of concrete. Developing an adequate experimental program to study the use of waste glass in concrete mixtures as explained in section 3. then the sieve analyses. the concrete job mix. These research studies highlighted the properties of the waste glass itself and the behavior of concrete mixes contacting different portions of waste glass. the test results for fresh concrete. the density and the compressive strength of hardened concrete mixes. Visiting the Gaza City Glaziers to obtain related information and collect samples. Chapter 2 presents a general literature overview for studying the use of waste glass materials as fine and coarse aggregates in engineering practice. its major conclusions. a comprehensive summary of this research study.

2. cement. including waste glass materials. fine aggregates usually sand. but unfortunately.1 Introduction Glass is one of the oldest man-made materials. 5 .CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Recycling of this waste by converting it to aggregate components could save landfill space and also reduce the demand for extraction of natural raw material for construction activities. the majority of these waste quantities are not being recycled but rather abandoned causing certain serious problems such as the waste of natural resources and environmental pollution [2]. all of which have a limited life in their manufactured forms and therefore need to be recycled so as to be reusable in order to avoid environmental problems that would be created if they were to be stockpiled or sent to landfills. Concrete mix is comprised of coarse aggregates usually gravel. and bulb glass. Concrete is a structural material that contains some simple elements but when mixed with water would form a rock like material. Herein is a quick review for some of the previous research studies concerned with the waste glass as an aggregate material. among which are its high compressive strength and its property as a fire-resistant element to a considerable extent. The construction industry has shown great gains in the recycling of industrial byproducts and waste. water. and any necessary additives. but from different points of view and perspectives. It is produced in many forms such as packaging or container glass. Concrete possesses many favorable properties as a structural material.2 Concrete Composite Materials This section summarizes the properties of all the components used in the various concrete mixes. Quantities of waste glass have been rising rapidly during the recent decades due to the high increase in industrialization and the considerable improvement in the standards of living. flat glass.

There has to be a sufficient amount of water available so that the reaction can take its full course but if too much water is added. With steel bars as internal reinforcement. Concrete has three main components when it's freshly mixed and they are water. thus some of the cement would harden and bond with other dry cement shorting the hydration process. Basically. Water is needed to begin the hydration process for the concrete and after four weeks of curing until full potential strength of the concrete can be achieved [10]. In more details. there would not be enough water available to finish the reaction. when the hydration process is completed. The water-cement ratio is an important concept because other than the recipe for the concrete mix. cement and aggregates. water containing less than 2000 ppm of total 6 . Unlike other building materials such as steel and plastic. concrete has an ability to have its recipe changed or altered to meet situational needs.1 Water Water is one of the most important elements in concrete production.The unfavorable properties include a relatively weak tensile strength as compared to its compressive strength and the ability to form cracks in unpredictable areas. its recipe is available or a custom one can be devised. Thus. Water is needed to begin the hydration process by reacting with the cement to produce concrete. if a job calls for high strength. the cement content would still be in a slurry solution and with no strength. this will in fact decrease the strength of the concrete. the cracks can be controlled to some degree. and the probability of cement bonding with aggregates would decrease. And as a result. 2. On the other hand. thus failure mode or location of the failure is unpredictable.2. lightweight or weather resistant concrete. concrete is not a uniform material due to the fact that it contains a ratio of gravel and sand. the amount of water used would also determine its finial strength [18]. The type of water that can be used to mix concrete must be potable which is essentially has neither noticeable taste nor odor. Due the nature of concrete. if too much water were added then while the cement is undergoing hydration the cement would be in a slurry solution. if too little water were added.

the ASTM has set guide lines to follow for the make-up of cement. and 0. 2. which are coarse and fine aggregates. For experimental program of this research study. when concrete is formed. normal Portland Cements Type I was used. This is an important fact because in very large structure like concrete dams.dissolved solids can be used. which has tremendous strength. For this research. the initial cement past is transformed into a substance. Thus. In the engineering practice in Palestine.4 up to 0.2. where heat is released in the chemical reactions. 0.2 Cement There are currently more than eight types of cement that are used under specific conditions. three different categories for water-cement ratios were used during testing phase: 0. Water is the element that is used to begin the hydration reaction where cement reacts with the water to produce a rock like substance.5.6. Aggregates that are used in concrete have to pass the standards set in ASTM. the coarse aggregates with its large volume would make up a large portion of the concrete. The economics part of concrete is to use as little cement as possible and still obtain the required strength. which gives the concrete its strengths. Because of the importance of cement. When the chemical reaction has reached the end. The reaction is also exothermic. Thus the type of water that was used to mix concrete throughout the testing program was normal tap water with attention paid for not including impurities. The fine aggregates would fill in the voids created form the coarse aggregate and reduce the amount of cement required.2. But using too much cement in concrete is expensive. Cement is a very important part of the concrete because it is the cement. Coarse aggregates in general are larger than 2 mm in diameter and fine aggregates are defined to be smaller than 2 mm.3 Aggregates Aggregates are broken down into two main categories.4. the dominating range of watercement ratios in the concrete mix process is between 0. 7 . 2. and thus aggregates would take the place of cement without reducing its strength and reduce the cost. the heat released can pose a potential problem.6.

2. The surface would appear dry and thus some water is absorbed and reduces the water cement ratio. Thus the strength of the concrete is reduced by a small amount. in sand-blasting. the aggregates themselves also contain some moisture either from water condensing on the particles or the aggregates was washed in some way with water. as raw materials to produce glass pellets or 8 . decreasing the strength of the concrete. as a pozzolanic additive. the goal is to produce a concrete mixture that has the least amount of void spaces thus using less cement paste to fill the voids between the particles. Air dry aggregates would absorb some water but not to an extraneous degree like the oven dry aggregates. as raw material for the production of abrasives. pavement and parking lots. and also to guarantee the true efficiency of the different water-cement ratios used for preparing the concrete mix. Saturated dry surface aggregates have their internal voids fill with water and thus cannot absorb any more water. These aggregates would keep the water cement ratio constant and the concrete would retain its full strength.If only coarse aggregates are used then there would be voids between the particles and the voids created would be filled with cement paste. If this occurs. in road beds.3 Waste Glass Theoretically. Thus fine aggregates are used to fill those voids. the aggregates would add water to the mixture and in doing so. Accordingly. In essence. There are many examples of successful recycling of waste glass: as a cullet in glass production. then the hydration process is not permitted to continue and the strength of the concrete mix would be reduced by a considerable amount. glass is a fully recyclable material. For this research the water content for the aggregates was prepared under the saturated surface dried (SSD) condition in order to avoid any possible over or under estimation of water content due to moisture absorption by the mixed aggregates. it can be recycled without any loss of quality. Aggregates have their internal voids and surface area saturated with water. the water cement ratio is increased. Oven dry aggregates would absorb water to fill its own internal voids and in doing so would reduce the water cement ratio. there are four distinct states that the aggregates can be in [14]. Instead of absorbing water. When fresh aggregates are used to mix concrete.

continuous 9 . The glass recycling process produces a crushed glass product called "cullet". to produce fiberglass. in order to keep producing the best end product the recycled materials must be of a high quality. In its original form.beads used in reflective paint for highways.as an alternative . Therefore . which is often mixed with virgin glass materials to produce new end products. This waste glass is usually crushed into small pieces that resemble the sizes of gravels and sands.7% Magnesia – 0. Therefore.1: Approximate compositions and the corresponding uses of various common forms of glass Type of Glass Composition (by weight) 73% Silica – 14% Soda – 9% Lime – 3. silica. and limestone. but.5% Alumina – 10.1 lists some of approximate compositions and the corresponding uses of various common forms of glass. [11] Table 2. and as fractionators for lighting matches and firing ammunition [10].5% Soda Usages Soda-Lime-Silica Glass Widows – Bottles – Jars Boro-Silicate Pyrex Cookware – Laboratory Glassware Lead (Crystal) Lead Crystal Tableware Alumino-Silicate Fiberglass Insulation – Halogen Bulbs Despite the fact that glass materials can be recycled forever and the same glass can be recycled so many times over to produce various products.5% Magnesia – 0. glass comes as a balanced combination from three main raw natural materials: sand.3% Alumina 81% Silica – 12% Boron Oxide – 4% Soda – 3% Alumina 57% Silica – 31% Lead Oxide – 12% Potassium Oxide 64.there is a potential to partially replace the concrete mix aggregate with waste glass due to the lack of natural recourses in Gaza Strip. in addition to a certain percentage of recycled waste glass utilized in the manufacturing process. and come in several distinct colors containing common liquids and other substances. Waste glass can also be produced from empty glass bottles and pots.5% Silica – 24. Table 2.

Main fields of application are glass bulbs for halogen lamps. Alkali-lead silicate glasses are the third main category and such glasses typically contain over 10% lead oxide (PbO). and industrial output junk materials are still cumulating and hence need to be land filled or reused in concrete mixes as a partial substitute for coarse aggregates and/or fine aggregates. Variants of the 10 . as well as flat glass and granulate for use mainly in chemistry. Very high transformation temperatures and softening points are typical features. and about 15% alkaline earths. Lead glasses containing 20–30% PbO. rods. The last category is the oldest glass type and nominally the Alkali alkaline-earth silicate glasses (soda-lime glasses). the Alkaline-earth aluminosilicate glasses are free of alkali oxides and contain 15 – 25% Al2O3. according to their oxide composition (in weight percent). [12] Technically. various domestic uses. The amount of boric oxide affects the glass properties in a particular way. laboratory technology. display glasses. They are used in lamp stems and lead oxide is also of great importance as an X-ray protective component (radiation shielding glass and cathode ray tube components). For the purposes of classification. domestic and medical disposals. Secondly. pharmaceuticals. 0–2% Al2O3 and about 71% SiO2. 54–58% SiO2 and about 14% alkalis are highly insulating and therefore of great importance in electrical engineering. Such glasses contain about 15% alkali (usually Na2O). 52 – 60% SiO2. It comprises flat glasses (window glass) and container glasses. Apart from the highly resistant varieties (B2O3 ≤ 13%) there are others that – due to the different way in which the boric oxide is incorporated into the structural network – have only low chemical resistance (B2O3 > 15%). hollow vessels and a variety of special shapes. glasses are usually manufactured in the form of tubes.residual amounts of waste glass resulting from construction deteriorations. 13 – 16% alkaline earths (CaO+MgO). and household appliance technology. which are produced in large batches. the multitude of technical glasses can be roughly arranged in four main groups. high-temperature thermometers. Borosilicate glasses is the first main category with the presence of substantial amounts of silica (SiO2) and boric oxide (B2O3 > 8%) as glass network formers. optoelectronics. thermally and electrically highly loadable film resistors and combustion tubes.

The strength properties and the alkali silica reaction (ASR) expansion were analyzed in terms of waste glass content.basic composition can also contain significant amounts of BaO with reduced alkali and alkaline-earth content [13]. separate it from the other materials. [4] discussed the various steps that need to be taken by recyclers to collect the glass. clean it and crush it to obtain the appropriate grading to meet the specifications for specific applications as aggregate in concrete. The results proved 80% pozzolanic strength activity given by waste glass after 28 days. Zainab and Enas [7] investigated the properties of concretes containing waste glass as fine aggregate. with the only objective being to utilize as much glass as possible.4 Previous Studies Meyer et al. and it is expected that commercial production of specialty glass concrete products will have a major impact on the economics of glass recycling throughout the United States. 2. higher than the ordinary control specimen results at 28 days. The mortar bar tests showed that the fine crushed waste glass helped reduce expansion of concrete by 66% as compared with the ordinary control mix. and 20% within a 900 kg of concrete mixes.99% and 4. either in commodity products. 15%. respectively. The potential applications are basically limitless. The effects of waste glass on workability and strength of the concrete with fresh and hardened concrete tests were analyzed. As a result of the study conducted. An overall quantity of 80 kg of crushed waste glass was partially replacing sand at 10%. The flexural strength and compressive strength of specimens with 20% waste glass content were 10. waste glass was determined not to have a significant effect upon the workability of the concrete and only slightly in the reduction of its strength. Topçu and Canbaz [5] considered waste glass as coarse aggregates in the concrete mix. or in value-added products that make full use of the physical and esthetic properties of color-sorted crushed glass.23%. 11 .

it was recorded that concrete mix expansion increases with an increase in amount of glass. 10% and 20% fly ash (FA) as mineral admixture and 1% and 2% Li2CO3 as chemical admixture were incorporated by weight in the cement and their effects on expansion are examined. and 10 mm granite (5%. blocking ratio. usages of these admixtures reduce expansions occurring because of ASR. mortar bars were produced by using three different colors of glass in four different quantities as fine aggregate by weight. It was observed that among white (WG). rapid loss in durability is generally observed due to extreme crack formation and an increase in permeability. expansions and internal stresses occur due to an ASR. In addition. Topçu et al. 10% and 15%) in making the self-compacting concrete mixes. However. The experimental results showed that the slump flow. It is necessary to use some kind of chemical or mineral admixture to reduce crack formation. 20% and 30%). According to the test results. WG aggregate causes the greatest expansion. [6] stated in their study that the use of waste glass or glass cullet (GC) as concrete aggregate is becoming more widespread each day because of the increase in resource efficiency. Furthermore. it was determined to lower the cost of concrete productions. and the effects of these glass aggregates on ASR were investigated.2% critical value when exposed to ASR. Additionally. air content of the recycled glass self-compacting concrete mixes increased with increasing recycled glass 12 . in order to reduce the expansions of mortars. As for cost analysis. When glass is used as aggregate in concrete or mortar. Recycling of wastes is very important for sustainable development. Recycled glass was used to replace river sand (in proportions of 10%. corresponding to ASTM C-1260. it was seen that over 20% FA and 2% Li2CO3 replacements are required to produce mortars which have expansion values below the 0. green (GG) and brown glass (BG) aggregates. In their study. This study considered the fact that waste glass could be used in the concrete as coarse aggregates without the need for a high cost or rigorous energy.Waste glass cannot be used as aggregate without taking into account its ASR properties. Kou and Poon [8] investigated the effects of recycled glass cullet on fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete.

the drying shrinkage of the recycled glass self-compacting concrete mixes decreased when the recycled glass content increased. In view of glass recycle broadening. iii) a direct correlation between glass solubility and mortar expansion has been underlined and a buffering effect of Ca2+ towards glass solubility has been confirmed. Saccani and Bignozzi [9] studied the ASR expanding behavior of different types of glass which was derived from cullet with different chemical composition. ii) the investigated experimental conditions highlight that the lead-silicate glass (CR) always leads to critical expanding conditions for the relevant mortar samples. An attempt to link the behavior to the solubility and chemical reactivity of the glass was proposed along with the hereafter conclusions. The solubility of boro–silicate glass (BS-A) is strongly influenced by the presence of Fe. as determined by the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Moreover. The expansion of mortar containing different amounts of the investigated glass as fine aggregate has been carried out in different conditions. The glass reactivity was determined in different alkaline solutions based on sodium and/or calcium hydroxide to simulate concrete environment. The results revealed that the compressive strength. such as the swelling capacity. Ba and Ti oxides. Federico and Chidiac [14] investigated the incorporation of waste bottle glass into concrete mixes as a supplementary cementing material and concluded that the pozzolanic properties of 13 . depend on chemical composition of the original glass used as aggregate. The main conclusions from their experimental research study carried out can be as follows: i) glass chemical composition strongly influences the expansion behavior of mortar samples containing cullet as aggregate. tensile splitting strength and static modulus of elasticity of the recycled glass self-compacting concrete mixes were decreased with an increase in recycled glass aggregate content. The solubility process involves homogeneous network dissolution in the CR glass. and iv) ASR gel compositions. expanding compositions should be determined and selective procedures introduced for the treatment of post-consumer glass.content. The electrical charge and dimension of the ions in the gel are important parameters in determining its characteristics. whereas detaching layers are formed in all the other glass types.

improving the properties of concrete. and pozzolanic reaction. Idir et al. especially when glass aggregates of diameters larger than 1 mm are used. ii) the use of glass fines led to the reduction of mortar expansion due to coarse particles. fines increased the compressive strength of mortars. which involves negative effects. [15] stated that the demand for recycled glass has considerably decreased in recent years. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive role of pozzolanic glass fines in counteracting the deleterious effect of alkali-reactive glass aggregates. particularly for mixed glass. Glass is cheaper to store than to recycle. It is thus preferable to use 40% of class C5 (D50 of 120 µm) rather than 20% of class C8 (D50 of 8 µm). the mechanism of this control has yet to be defined. It has been shown that in his study that the use of both types of glass particles is pertinent. The main results were: i) only glass classes of more than 1 mm gave expansions related to ASR. however. and iii) no excessive crushing of glass fines was needed since the quantity of fines was the main parameter controlling the reduction of expansion due to coarse glass aggregates. Their work dealt with the use of fine particles of glass and glass aggregates in mortars. In addition. It is shown that there is no need to use glass in the form of fines since no swelling due to alkali–silica reaction is recorded when the diameter of the glass grains is less than 1 mm. In order to provide a sustainable solution to glass storage. Depending on the size of the glass particles used in concrete. either separately or combined. 14 . two antagonistic behaviors can be observed: alkali–silica reaction. lithium additives control ASR expansion. Fine glass powders having specific surface areas within the range from (180 to 540) m 2/kg reduced the expansions of mortars subjected to ASR. Two parameters based on standardized tests were studied: pozzolanic assessment by mechanical tests on mortar samples and alkali-reactive aggregate characteristics and fines inhibitor evaluations by monitoring of dimensional changes. a potential and incentive way would be to reuse this type of glass in concretes.waste glass as an ASR are related to particle size and percent addition. as conditioners require expenses for the recycling process. moreover.

where their results can be summarized as follows: Firstly. it will increase the liquid content in the clinker. the use of waste glasses as concrete aggregates has a slight negative effect on the workability. the 20% glass sand concrete for the three different mix designs kept good slump and slump flow. If the percentage of waste glass used in the raw materials is low. which may be achieved by the replacement of Portland cement with pozzolanic materials such as fly ash. Results from ASTM C-1260 testing indicate that the alkali–aggregate reaction expansion decreases as glass replacement increases. However. However. Three different mix designs were regulated by the ACI method and categorized as (fc28 = 21. waste glasses cans be used as raw materials for cement production as siliceous sources. the main concern is expansion and cracking of the concrete containing glass aggregates. ground blast furnace slag and meta-kaolin can also decrease the expansion from alkali–aggregate reaction. The combined use of other supplementary cementing materials such as coal fly ash. Secondly. It needs to control the pH of the system below 12 in order to prevent potential corrosion of glass aggregates and expansion of the concrete. and 80% LCD glass sand replacements investigated. 20%. its pozzolanic reactivity increases as its finesses increase. Finally. the effects can be very minimal. 15 . The effect will be dependent on the amount of waste glass used. silica fume and meta-kaolin. 28. strength and freezing-thawing resistance of cement concrete. Lithium salt can be a very effective additive to prevent the alkali–aggregate reaction expansion of concrete containing glass powders. Wang [17] studied the recycling of discarded liquid crystal display (LCD) glass into concrete (LCDGC) when replacing a portion of the usual river sand by sand prepared from discarded LCD glass. 60%. their engineering properties were determined. results in the formation of some Na-compounds and increase in the alkali content in the cement.Caijun and Keren [16] reviewed the three possible uses of waste glasses in production of cement and concrete. and will be under the deleterious limit if the glass replacement is 50% or more. and 35 MPa) with 0%. Alkalis in the glass powder can cause alkali-aggregate reaction and expansion if aggregates are alkali-reactive. when compared to the design slump of 15 cm. 40%. ground glass powders exhibit very good pozzolanic reactivity and can be used as cement replacement. As expected. Test results revealed that.

Palmquist [18] made use of glass. Surface resistivity for specimens with different amounts of LCD glass sand replacement was also higher than that in the control group for mid to long curing ages. which qualified these specimens as good concrete. as another type of recycled material. and shear strength. This suggests that LCD glass sand can potentially be used as a recycled material in concrete applications. the measured ultrasonic pulse velocities for LCD glass sand concrete specimens were higher than 4100 m/s. but the smooth flat surfaces of the crushed glass cause the bond between the glass and the cement paste to be poor. The test results indicate that the addition of 20% LCD glass sand to concrete satisfies the slump requirements and improves the strength and durability of concrete. The compressive strengths of the concrete with glass sand replacement were higher than the design strengths. OM and SEM indicate that the dense C–S–H gel hydrate was produced at the interface between the glass sand and cement paste. Moreover. which lowers compressive strength and causes excessive lateral expansion. have been performed to determine the suitability of the material in construction. Moderate chloride ion penetration was observed for glass sand concrete. Furthermore. as an aggregate in concrete. This recycled material has been studied in concrete masonry blocks. the durability of the concrete with 20% glass sand replacement was better than that of the control group. the elastic modulus of concrete with glass aggregate is higher than the concrete with natural aggregate due to the high elastic modulus of the glass aggregate as compared to the modulus of the natural aggregate. However. including workability. the compressive strength of the concrete with glass aggregate is lower than the concrete with natural aggregate. permeability.In addition. and tests on concrete with glass aggregate. Glass aggregates in comparison to natural aggregates are stiff with high elastic moduli. a slump loss ranging from 7 to 11 cm was observed for specimens with 60% and 80% glass sand replacement for the design strengths of 28 and 35 MPa. The sulfate attack in concrete with different amounts of glass sand replacement caused less weight loss than in the control group. in crushed or cullet form. Another factor. As a result. 16 . is the strong reaction between alkali cement and the reactive silica in glass.

445.7 MPa. The engineering characteristics of density.3 Hz and vacuum condition at 50 mm Hg. compressive strength. such as changes in dependency on the type and parts of waste as well as its new binding components.1 MPa are obtained after 2 min compaction. However. and flexural strength of 51. [20]. the use of waste LWC with aggregates containing expanded glass seems to be necessary for the production of cheaper and environmentally friendly LWC [19].8 MPa. and compared with normal existing concrete from lightweight aggregates. compressive strength and thermal conductivity from the new recycled material were compared with normal existing concrete from lightweight aggregates. 17 . and thermal conductivity tests results showed that LWC can be produced by the use of waste LWC with aggregates containing expanded glass. Thus. artificial stone slabs with high compressive strength of 148. density of 2. a new recycled material has been created with new characteristics of density. water absorption below 0. compressive strength and thermal conductivity. Laboratory density. and the described method showed great possibilities for increasing the use of construction waste materials from LWC containing expanded glass.Davorin [19] experimental study highlighted the issue of constructing and recycling lightweight concrete (LWC) with aggregates containing expanded glass. The characteristics of recycling LWC such as density. which is conform to the compressive strength class and rules on heat protection and energy efficiency use in buildings. Waste glass powder (40%) and fine granite aggregates (60%) are mixed with unsaturated polymer resins (8%) as binder. Under compaction pressure of 14. waste glass and stone fragments from stone slab processing are recycled as raw materials for making artificial stone slabs using vibratory compaction in a vacuum environment. compressive strength. In the research of Lee et al. in order to benefit from better use of the available capacity from existing construction waste. vibration frequency of 33.02%. The artificial stone slabs fabricated in this study prove to be superior to natural construction slabs in terms of strength and water absorption. The results indicated that it is possible to recycle LWC construction waste. and thermal conductivity are investigated.

reported that the quantities of waste glass have been on the rise in recent years due to an increase in industrialization and the rapid improvement in the standard of living. this study has been conducted through basic experimental research in order to analyze the possibilities of recycling waste glasses (crushed waste glasses from Korea such as amber. Literature survey indicates that the use of waste glass as aggregates in concrete was first reported over 50 years ago. flint. the results of this study indicate that emerald green waste glass when used below 30% in mixing concrete is practical along with usage of 10% SBR latex. In addition the compressive. and mixed glass) as fine aggregates for concrete. For these reasons. and is therefore the cause of certain serious problems such as the waste of natural resources and environmental pollution. emerald green. In addition. In conclusion. Hong [22] et al. Unfortunately. Test results of fresh concrete show that both slump and compacting factors are decreased due to angular grain shape and that air content is increased due to the involvement of numerous small-sized particles that are found in waste glasses. 18 . Laboratory experiments were conducted in the University of Sheffield to further explore the use of waste glass as coarse and fine aggregates for both ASR alleviation as well as the decorative purpose in concrete. tensile and flexural strengths of concrete have been shown to decrease when the content of waste glass is increased. the majority of waste glass is not being recycled but rather abandoned. both fresh and hardened properties of architectural concrete were tested. Their research presented mainly the latter aspect. One of its significant contributions is to the construction field where the waste glass was reused for value-added concrete production. However.Park [21] et al. the content of waste glasses below 30% is practical along with usage of a pertinent admixture that is necessary to obtain workability and air content. no complete solution to ASR has been found and the application of glass in architectural concrete still needs improving. The concomitant ASR by using glass in concrete and its unique aesthetic properties have been investigated since then. in which study. investigated and stated that the increasing awareness of glass recycling speeds up inspections on the use of waste glass with different forms in various fields.

5 Concluding Remarks The previous studies showed that lot of efforts have been done for investigating the effect of using waste glass materials as a component in the concrete mix. 2. but all of them are trying to conform the situation and the relevant specifications in their local areas. thereafter. 19 .Results demonstrated that the use of waste glass as aggregate facilitates the development of concrete towards a high architectural level besides its high performances. This research aims to implement a similar task but with applying the available locally used materials. the increasing market in industry.

40%. the waste glass generated in Gaza Strip is treated like any other solid waste material and thrown away into the dump areas. and 60% for the coarse aggregates. The idea is that the glass can be used as an aggregate in the concrete mix by replacing some of the natural aggregates such as gravel and sand. the possible benefits are as follows: less glass is thrown away saving landfill space. 20 . Waste glass usually is produced from empty glass containers and different construction and reconstruction remains and waste materials.CHAPTER THREE EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM 3. with 20%. Portland cement is to be used in this investigation with the fine aggregate as desert originated natural sand of 4. 40%. Then the crushed glass is mixed into fresh concrete and then observing the effect of recycled crushed glass on the compressive properties of concrete. All materials used in this study are locally available. Thus. In addition to the natural crushed stone aggregate with a maximum size of 20 mm. Currently. and 60% of fine crushed waste glass as a partial replacement for fine aggregate. besides the use of fewer natural aggregates as main components of concrete mixes would save time and money. The experimental program of the current research was carried out to explore the effect of using crushed waste glass as an aggregate component in the fresh concrete mixes on the compressive properties of hardened concrete following the testing procedure specifications from The American Standard of Testing Materials (ASTM). The concrete mixes are to be cured for 7 days and 28 days testing. The waste glass is to be crushed into small pieces that resemble the size of gravel and sand.75 mm maximum particle diameter.1 Introduction The experimental program for this research study is primarily concerned with investigating the potential usefulness of using waste glass in the concrete mixes. coarse crushed waste glass is to be used in this work as a portion of 20%.

2 show samples of various types of coarse and fine natural aggregates that were used for composing the concrete mixes throughout the experimental testing program for this research study. Figure 3.1 and 3.3.2 Properties of Aggregates Figures 3.2: Samples of the natural medium and fine aggregate for concrete mix 21 .1: Sample of the natural coarse aggregate for concrete mix Figure 3.

5 0. Tables 3.5 0.6 1.5 9. respectively.6 0.5 4.7 1.15 0.Sieve analyses of representative samples for the naturally originated aggregates to be used in the concrete mix are governed by the ASTM standards and the sieves used were the standard U.5 0.6 1.8 11.75 2.2 17.4.6 1.5 0.1 and 3.1 1.6 1.075 Coarse 100 100 100 97.6 29. respectively.1 0.6 Fine 100 100 100 100 100 100 98.5 % Passing Medium 100 100 100 100 99. The aggregate materials showed Sshaped curves indicating well graded materials.1: Summary of sieve analysis data for coarse aggregates.6 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.1 1.5 0.1 22 . and the grain size distribution curves for the two tests are also shown in Figures 3.2 2. sieves.1 1.5 25 19 12. Sieve Size Mm 76 50 37.5 1.18 0.2 present results of the sieve analysis of the two samples of coarse and fine aggregates.36 1. Table 3.1 1.1 1.3 88.1 1.S.3 and 3.

5 9.36 1.75 2.2: Summary of sieve analysis data for fine aggregates.5 25 19 12. Sieve Size Mm 76 50 37.18 0.3 0.Figure 3.5 % Passing 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Sieve Size Mm 4.075 % Passing 100 100 99 92 51 8 3 23 .3: Grain size distribution curve of coarse aggregates Table 3.6 0.15 0.

4: Grain size distribution curve of fine aggregates 3.4.6.5 and 3.3 and 3. and then crushed in crushing machines into different particles sizes. the samples were grouped under coarse and fine sized glass. Then the same standard procedure was then applied to conduct another sieve analysis representative samples of waste glass and according to the ASTM specifications. These materials were primarily originated from pure and clear glass windows.Figure 3. and the 24 . The whole quantity was cleaned out of the dirt materials and impurities. The sieve analyses revealed that most of the coarse waste glass material was within the range between 1 mm to 7 mm in particle size diameter with a fairly good gradation pattern. as illustrated in Figures 3. and the grain size distribution curves for the two tests are shown in Figures 3.7 and 3. respectively. Waste glass materials showed S-shaped curves indicating well graded materials.8.3 Waste Glass The waste glass materials used throughout this experimental study were gathered from the disposals of reconstruction and building demolishing projects in Gaza Strip. and the results of sieving the two samples are listed in Tables 3.

5: Waste glass materials as collected before crushing and sieving Figure 3.6: Crushing of waste glass to coarse and fine sizes 25 .Figure 3.

5 25 19 12.7: Grain size distribution of coarse waste glass 26 .75 mm.3: Summary of sieve analysis data for coarse waste glass Sieve Size Mm 76 50 37.15 0.075 % Passing 72 30 12 5 2 1 0 Figure 3.nominal maximum particle size diameter was 9.5 mm in particle size diameter with a very good gradation pattern. and the nominal maximum particle size diameter was 4. Table 3.5 9.5 mm.18 0.36 1. While for fine waste glass materials.5 % Passing 100 100 100 100 100 99 95 Sieve Size Mm 4.2 mm to 2.75 2.3 0.6 0. the analyses showed that most of the coarse waste glass material was within the range between 0.

8: Grain size distribution of fine waste glass 27 .75 2.15 0.5 25 19 12.5 9.3 0.36 1.4: Summary of sieve analysis data for fine waste glass Sieve Size Mm 76 50 37.6 0.075 % Passing 97 80 49 30 15 5 2 Figure 3.18 0.Table 3.5 % Passing 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Sieve Size mm 4.

The main idea behind subdividing each testing group into 3 samples is to ensure the optimum level of credibility for the output data points. This test method does not provide statistical procedures to estimate other strength properties. the flexural strength.4. a series of 144 standard compressive tests were conducted with variable controlling factors: water-cement ratio. and ii) tests with very abnormal outcomes. Then. and note that each group in this list comprises of 3 samples for conducting the compressive strength and the slump tests. and all the tests were done for 7-days compressive strength and 28-days compressive strength accompanied by a slump flow test for each case sample.4 Testing Program For the testing program. the testing program will continue but with focusing only on the two mixes with optimal output results.1 Pull-out strength This test method follows the ASTM C-900-06 procedure and covers the determination of the pullout strength of hardened concrete by measuring the force required to pull an embedded 12 mm diameter corrugated steel bar inserted into fresh concrete mix specimen. The reference testing samples for comparison purposes were the B300 Portland Cement Type I mix with no waste glass content. and the tests were repeated for these samples under the categorized parameters. An extra series of 54 tests will be conducted for determining the pull out strength. Reasons lying for filtering out some of the data points were as: i) samples with improper treating and/or testing procedures. and to create a real margin of excluding extremely odd data points so as to reach a higher level of representative data base for the analysis phase. A total number of 198 testing data points was used after controlling the compiled testing cases from data quality and completeness points of views. Tables 3. coarse waste glass content. 28 . 3.3. and the splitting resistance for the two optimal concrete mixes.6 summarize the entire testing plan conducted within this research.5 and 3. Some of the test results were rejected for being highly abnormal. and fine waste glass content.

Table 3. 3. 3.3. This test method follows the ASTM D-790 procedure where the 10×10×50 cm3 hardened concrete specimen lies on two 40 cm apart supporting spans and the load is applied to the center by the loading nose producing three points bending at a specified rate till failure.9.4 up to 0. the standard B300 concrete mix was used as a reference for testing the glass-free concrete mixes. This test method follows the ASTM C-496 procedure where the cylindrical hardened concrete specimens with 15 cm diameter and 30 cm length are loaded longitudinally till failure.4. 3. 29 .2 Flexural strength The flexural test measures the force required to bend a beam under three point loading conditions. This is an important starting step for determining the mass of fine and coarse waste glass to be included in the concrete mix according to the assigned portion of waste glass for each testing trial.5 and Table 3.10 respectively summarize the mix properties of the standard B300 concrete job mix without any waste glass content for three various water/cement ratios. respectively. The data is often used to select materials for parts that will support loads without flexing. Flexural modulus is used as an indication of a material’s stiffness when flexed.6.8. and then for determining the various job mixes listed in Table 3. Then Tables 3. which is from 0. These ratios are meant to cover the most widely applicable in the engineering practice in Gaza Strip.3 Splitting strength The splitting tensile strength test is used in the design of structural concrete members to evaluate the shear resistance provided by concrete and to determine the development length of the steel reinforcement.4.6 with varying the contents of coarse and fine waste glass. and 3.7 lists the specific gravities of all the raw components of the concrete mixes for this testing program.5 Concrete Job Mixes Throughout the laboratory program of this research. It should be mentioned that these job mixes were as per the approved standards and specifications of ASTM C136 and ASTM C 33-03.

4 0.6 0.0 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.6: Experimental testing program of concrete with fine waste glass Group # GF4-0 GF4-2 GF4-4 GF4-6 GF5-0 GF5-2 GF5-4 GF5-6 GF6-0 GF6-2 GF6-4 GF6-6 w/c Fine Waste Glass 0.4 0.4 0.6 30 .2 0.Table 3.0 0.2 0.5: Experimental testing program of concrete with coarse waste glass Group # GC4-0 GC4-2 GC4-4 GC4-6 GC5-0 GC5-2 GC5-4 GC5-6 GC6-0 GC6-2 GC6-4 GC6-6 w/c Coarse Waste Glass 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.6 Table 3.6 0.0 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.0 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.5 0.6 0.

00 0.4 and Waste Glass = zero Component Cement Coarse Agg. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air Med.1 to 0.67 2.70 0.00 0.0150 0.63 2.00 650. 20 SSD 250.00 Table 3.70 0.1369 W.Table 3.1280 0.00 2349.8: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0.1016 0.2397 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W.7: Specific Gravities of Concrete Mix Raw Components for B 300 Component Cement Coarse Aggregate Medium Aggregate Fine Aggregate Waste Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content GS 3.00 Volume m3 0.62 2. Agg.2481 0.15 2.62 1.6 Tap Super Flow Air Total SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air 0.50 2.9661 31 .0000 0.0954 Fine Agg.00 1.00 128.20 0. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content 10 to 25 0. Size Mm Type I 25 Condition Dry SSD Weight kg/m3 320.0014 0. 10 SSD 360.00 640.00 1.

W.1600 0.00 1.70 0. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Size mm Type I 25 20 10 10 to 25 0.00 250. Agg.9: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0.00 250.0014 0.00 360.00 1.0150 0.00 360.00 0.00 650. Agg.2397 0.0000 0.00 640. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air Table 3.0014 0.0954 0.1369 0.00 2413.10: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0. Med. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Size mm Type I 25 20 10 10 to 25 0.9981 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W.1920 0. W.0150 0.6 Tap Super Flow Air Total Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air Weight kg/m3 320.9357 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air 32 .1016 0. Med.2397 0.00 0.6 and Waste Glass = zero Component Cement Coarse Agg.5 and Waste Glass = zero Component Cement Coarse Agg.70 Volume m3 0.70 Volume m3 0.70 0.0425 0.1 to 0.1 to 0.00 192. Fine Agg.0000 0.00 640.00 2381.0954 0.Table 3.00 160. Fine Agg.2481 0.00 650.1016 0.6 Tap Super Flow Air Total Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air Weight kg/m3 320.2481 0.

and also for the previously assigned water/cement ratios. with maintaining the total volume of the coarse aggregates and the coarse waste glass in the mix as a constant amount. Finally and also in Appendix A.After that in Appendix A. For each fine glass portion.9 show various mix combinations for the same concrete mix but with several coarse waste glass contents for the previously assigned water/cement ratios. 33 . the stated portion was replaced as part of the fine aggregates in the concrete mix.10 through A. but with maintaining the total volume of the fine aggregates including the fine waste glass in the mix as a constant amount.1 through A. the idea was to replace the stated portion as part of the coarse aggregates in the concrete mix. For each waste glass portion. Tables A.18 show various mix combinations for the same concrete mix but this time with several fine waste glass contents. Tables A.

The following sections will analysis comprehensively all obtained results. Proper treatment of uncertainties within the data analysis process required understanding the sources of errors for determining the final output results. since those excluded variables may act as sources of errors for the resulting predictions and recommendations. 4. and the effect of waste glass material type and properties on the engineering properties of concrete.2 Testing program results According to the experimental testing program set previously. are not considered within the scope of this research study.CHAPTER 4 LABORATORY TESTING RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSES 4. the effect of different admixtures on concrete mixes containing waste glass. 34 .4 with 7-days compressive strengths for hardened concrete and 28-days compressive strengths for hardened concrete outcome results for each testing group.2 and 4. Moreover.1 Introduction This main aim of this chapter is to obtain the fresh concrete workability and the hardened concrete compressive strength as the essentials for the analyses following the methodology targeting to highlight the usefulness of considering waste glass materials as a main component within the concrete mix. the final output results for all the sample groups are listed in Tables 4.1 and 4. etc. some of the variables that may actually influence the hardened concrete compressive strength such as: various combinations of both coarse and fine waste glass within the concrete mix.3. the final output results for 24 different sample groups regarding slump values for fresh concrete and mass densities for hardened concrete are listed in Tables 4. It is worthy to mention that for the sake of simplicity.

Table 4.1: Mass densities and workability values of concrete with several coarse waste glass contents Group # Density (kg/m3) 2387 2380 2365 2296 2387 2367 2312 2269 2395 2381 2353 2233 Slump (cm) GC4-0 GC4-2 GC4-4 GC4-6 GC5-0 GC5-2 GC5-4 GC5-6 GC6-0 GC6-2 GC6-4 GC6-6 1.0 1.5 22.5 9.0 18.0 2.0 0.5 6.0 1.5 15.0 23.0 35 .5 5.

2: Compressive strength of concrete with several coarse waste glass contents Compressive Strength (kg/cm2) Group # 7 .Days GC4-0 GC4-2 GC4-4 GC4-6 GC5-0 GC5-2 GC5-4 GC5-6 GC6-0 GC6-2 GC6-4 GC6-6 273 315 305 208 257 262 218 210 255 208 209 177 28 – Days 321 382 370 280 323 338 311 260 320 278 260 228 36 .Table 4.

0 3.0 37 .5 9.0 24.Table 4.5 0.0 21.0 23.0 8.0 0.5 22.3: Mass densities and workability values of concrete with several fine waste glass contents Group # Density (kg/m3) 2387 2365 2340 2260 2387 2330 2322 2304 2395 2383 2352 2314 Slump (cm) GF4-0 GF4-2 GF4-4 GF4-6 GF5-0 GF5-2 GF5-4 GF5-6 GF6-0 GF6-2 GF6-4 GF6-6 1.5 9.0 1.

1 and 4.4: Compressive strength of concrete with several fine waste glass contents Compressive Strength (kg/cm2) Group # 7 .3 Effect of replacing waste glass on concrete density 4. for the concrete with water cement ratio of 0. it can be easily noticed that concrete mass density was inversely affected by the increase of water cement ratio.Days GF4-0 GF4-2 GF4-4 GF4-6 GF5-0 GF5-2 GF5-4 GF5-6 GF6-0 GF6-2 GF6-4 GF6-6 273 301 241 190 257 241 233 228 255 205 212 193 28 . More specifically. 38 .3.4. As a general outcome.1 Coarse waste glass Figures 4. the concrete mass density decreased when the portion of coarse waste glass exceeded 0.Days 321 399 319 304 323 318 302 300 320 275 265 232 4.Table 4.2 illustrate the effect of coarse waste glass content into the concrete mix on the mass density of the hardened concrete for different water cements ratios.6.

4 0. Glass = 0% C.65 Water Cement Ratio C. Glass = 60%" Figure 4. W.Figure 4. Glass = 40% "C.5 0.6 0.45 0.35 0. W. W.1: Concrete density of coarse waste glass in the mix 2500 2400 Density (kg/m3) 2300 2200 2100 2000 0.2: Concrete density vs. W.55 0. water cement ratio 39 . Glass = 20% C.

4 demonstrate the effect of fine waste glass content into the concrete mix on the mass density of the hardened concrete for different water cements ratios. More specifically.4. Therefore it can be concluded that and at the tested w/c ratio.3.6 content. The relation between mix density and w/c ratio at 0%.6 w/c ratio replacing the coarse aggregate by up to 40% of coarse waste glass does not affect the density of the mix significantly.4% and 6.4.5 and 0.2 Fine waste glass Figures 4.7% at 0.6 w/c ratios. the concrete mass density was adversely affected when the portion of fine waste glass exceeded 0.Figure 4. 40% and 60% coarse waste glass is presented in Figure 4. 20%. The reduction in density reached 3. 0. the concrete mass density was inversely affected by the increase of water cement ratio. This figure shows that at 0. for the concrete with water cement ratio of 0.3 and 4.3: Relation of concrete density with coarse waste glass percentage of several w/c ratio 40 . the effect of using waste glass on the mass density of concrete mix is considered as marginal. 4. Figure 4.4. This reduction in density is slightly increased at 0.2. As it can be easily noticed.2 reveals that there is very small reduction in concrete density at 0.2 coarse waste glasses.4 and 0.5 and 0.

4: Concrete mass density vs.6 0.35 0. W. As it can be seen.65 Water Cement Ratio F. Glass = 40% F.6 illustrate the effect of coarse waste glass content respectively into the concrete mix on the workability of the fresh concrete mix expressed as the slump flow rate for different water-cement ratios. Glass = 20% F.2500 2400 Density (kg/m3) 2300 2200 2100 2000 0.4.5 0.1 Coarse waste glass Figures 4. the fresh concrete workability is inversely affected by the increase of water-cement ratio. as shown in Figures 4. W. Glass = 60% Figure 4. 4.7 and 4. and the mixing water cement ratio.4. Glass = 0% F.55 0. W.4 0. and the mixing water cement ratio.8.2 Fine waste glass The effect of fine waste glass content into the concrete mix on the workability of the fresh concrete mix expressed as the slump flow rate for different water-cement ratios. The data interpretation was done on two different bases: the waste glass content. water cement ratio 4. The data interpretation was done on two different bases: the waste glass content.5 and 4.45 0. 41 . W.4 Effect of replacing waste glass on concrete workability 4.

Glass = 40% "C. W.35 0. W.6: Slump test results vs.5: Slump test results vs. Glass = 0% C. Glass = 20% C. Glass = 60%" Figure 4.45 0. portion of coarse waste glass in the fresh mix 25 20 Slump (cm) 15 10 5 0 0.Figure 4. water cement ratio 42 . W.55 0.5 0.4 0.65 Water Cement Ratio C.6 0. W.

W.8: Slump test results vs.7: Slump test results vs. Glass = 60% Figure 4. Glass = 0% F.Figure 4.45 0. portion of fine waste glass in the fresh mix 30 25 Slump (cm) 20 15 10 5 0 0.5 0. W. Glass = 20% F. Glass = 40% F.35 0.65 Water Cement Ratio F.4 0. W. water cement ratio 43 .6 0. W.55 0.

9 shows a typical hardened concrete sample after failure under the compressive loading test. However 0.4.10 illustrates the effect of coarse waste glass content into the concrete mix on the 7days compressive strength of the hardened concrete for different water-cement ratios. which indicate that the failure mode is similar normal concrete failure.5 and 0. Figure 4. the concrete strength was adversely affected by using waste glass materials within the concrete mix with a reduction of concrete compressive strength.6 other than that.3 coarse waste glass content. It was observed that 7-days compressive strength is fairly improved at 0. 44 .5 Effect of replacing waste glass on concrete compressive strength Figure 4.9: Typical testing cube after failure for determining concrete compressive strength 4.5.1 Coarse waste glass Figure 4.4 w/c ratio with a portion of 0.

6. The age effect was as expected to enhance the level of concrete compressive strength for both cases of using waste glass materials within the mix.5 and 0.4 at a content from zero up to 0. Resembling the behavior obtain for the 7-days compressive strength. for comparison purposes. portion of coarse waste glass in the mix Figure 4. the concrete strength was negatively affected by using waste glass materials within the mix for water cement ratio of 0.10: 7-Days concrete compressive strength vs.Figure 4. Finally.11 illustrates the effect of waste glass contents into the concrete mix on the 28-days compressive strength of concrete at different water-cement ratios. 45 . it is clear that the hardened concrete 28-days compressive strength is fairly improved when using a water-cement ratio 0. Figure 4.3 coarse waste glass. Other than that.12combines the effect of different coarse waste glass contents into the concrete mix on both the 7-days and 28-days compressive strengths of the hardened concrete for different water-cement ratios.

4 .Figure 4. portion of coarse waste glass in the mix 500 Compressive Strength 400 (kg/cm ) 2 300 200 100 0.2 0.11: 28-Days concrete compressive strength vs.7 Days w/c = 0.4 0.5 0.6 .7 Days Figure 4.7 Days w/c = 0.6 Coarse Waste Glass Portion w/c = 0.1 0.4 .6 . portion of coarse waste glass in the mix 46 .28 Days w/c = 0.5 .3 0.28 Days w/c = 0.28 Days w/c = 0.12: Concrete compressive strength vs.0 0.5 .

13: 7-Days concrete compressive strength vs. Other than that.2 fine waste glass content. it is clear that the hardened concrete 28days compressive strength is fairly improved when using a water-cement ratio 0.14. Resembling the behavior obtain for the 7-days compressive strength. the concrete strength was adversely affected by using waste glass materials within the concrete mix. It was observed that the hardened concrete 7-days compressive strength is fairly improved at w/c ratio with a portion of 0. the concrete strength was negatively affected by using waste glass materials within the mix.2 fine waste glass content. Other than that. as shown in Figure 4.2 Fine waste glass Figure 4.4.13 shows the effect of fine waste glass content into the concrete mix on the 7-days compressive strength of the hardened concrete for different water-cement ratios.5. Figure 4. portion of fine waste glass in the mix The effect of waste glass contents into the concrete mix on the 28-days compressive strength of concrete at different water-cement ratios. The output results interpretation was achieved on two different bases: the waste glass content. and the mixing water cement ratio.4 at a portion of 0. 47 .

for comparison purposes. Figure 4. but with the improvement of the concrete compressive strength. portion of fine waste glass in the mix Finally.14: 28-Days Concrete compressive strength vs.4. The age effect was as expected to enhance the level of concrete compressive strength for both cases of using waste glass materials within the mix.15 combines the effect of different fine waste glass contents into the concrete mix on both the 7-days and 28-days compressive strengths of the hardened concrete for different water-cement ratios. analyses using regression techniques and differentiation methods were performed focusing on the concrete mix samples with a water-cement ratio of 0. or at least without losing the expected level of standard concrete mixes.6 Optimal waste glass contents in concrete mixes The main goal of this research is to introduce the waste glass materials into the concrete mix for economic and environmental benefits.Figure 4. 4. From the above mentioned output results and the corresponding illustrative figures. 48 .

6 summarizes the testing outcomes for the 28-days category for coarse waste glass.6 .3 0.7 Days w/c = 0.2 0.7 Days Figure 4.5 .4 0.5 summarizes the testing outcomes for the 7-days category for coarse waste glass. Table 4.0 0.6 Fine Waste Glass Portion w/c = 0.15: Concrete compressive strength vs.6 7-Days Compressive Strength (kg/cm2) 273 315 305 208 49 . portion of fine waste glass in the mix Table 4.5: Summary of the 7-days comprehensive strengths for concrete mix with different portions of coarse waste glass and a water-cement ratio of 0.4 .2 0.5 0.28 Days w/c = 0.6 .0 0.4 Group # 1 2 3 4 Coarse Waste Glass 0.500 Compressive Strength 400 (kg/cm ) 2 300 200 100 0.5 .1 0.7 Days w/c = 0.4 .28 Days w/c = 0. respectively.4 0.28 Days w/c = 0. while Table 4.

are compatible to a considerable extent.7 summarizes the testing outcomes for the 7-days category for fine waste glass.6: Summary of the 28-days comprehensive strengths for concrete mix with different portions of coarse waste glass and a water-cement ratio of 0.6 28-Days Compressive Strength (kg/cm2) 321 382 370 280 On the other hand.8 summarizes the testing outcomes for the 28-days category for fine waste glass.0 0. then the analytical process will be emphasized on the final strength results.6 7-Days Compressive Strength (kg/cm2) 273 301 241 190 50 .4 0. Since the general behaviors.0 0. while Table 4.7: Summary of the 7-days comprehensive strengths for concrete mix with different portions of fine waste glass and a water-cement ratio of 0.4 Group # 13 14 15 16 Fine Waste Glass 0.4 0. that are the 28-days compressive strength results. respectively. Table 4. Table 4. In engineering practice. the 7-days concrete compressive strength are considered as a preliminary indication for the expected final compressive strength of the concrete mix that would withstand the different actual loading conditions. for the 7-days and 28-days compressive strengths and for both coarse and fine waste glass materials.Table 4.2 0.2 0.4 Group # 1 2 3 4 Coarse Waste Glass 0.

for concrete mixed with fine waste glass as a partial occupant instead of fine aggregates. and flexural strength.4: free of waste glass content. mathematical nonlinear regression and some numerical analysis methods were employed to conclude that the optimum value of coarse waste glass to be used within the concrete mix with a water-cement ratio of 0.4 was estimated as almost 0. coarse waste glass content of 0. On the other hand. and the corresponding expected 28-days hardened concrete compressive strength was about 385 kg/cm2.2 0.Table 4.4 0.265.6.195. The behavior of these two optimal mixes is to be more highlighted by conducting pull-out tests.4 was determined as about 0. that were determine and discussed in the previous section. 51 . and by referring to the data listed in Table 4. the same mathematical analytical procedure was followed to conclude that the optimum value of fine waste glass to be used within the concrete mix with a water-cement ratio of 0.265.0 0. and splitting tests on three different groups of B-300 hardened concrete mix with a water-cement ratio of 0. and by referring to the data listed in Table 4. and fine waste glass content of 0.8: Summary of the 28-days comprehensive strengths for concrete mix with different portions of fine waste glass and a water-cement ratio of 0.4 Group # 13 14 15 16 Fine Waste Glass 0. The next sections focus only on the mixes with the two optimum value of waste and fine waste glass to be used. flexural tests.8. and the corresponding expected 28-days hardened concrete compressive strength was almost 400 kg/cm2.6 28-Days Compressive Strength (kg/cm2) 321 399 319 304 For concrete mixed with coarse waste glass as a partial occupant instead of coarse aggregates. The obtained optimum waste glass concrete proportion were used to implement the second phase of the testing program comprises testing waste glass concrete mix for pullout strength splitting strength.195.

16: Preparation of pull-out testing specimens 52 .16 through 4. Figure 4. it can be concluded that the use of optimal coarse waste glass content in the concrete mix did not show significant effects on the pull-out strength.7 Effect of waste glass on pull out strength This test method follows the ASTM C-900-06 procedure and covers the determination of the pullout strength of hardened concrete by measuring the force required to pull an embedded 12 mm diameter corrugated steel bar inserted into fresh concrete mix specimen.9. as illustrated in Figures 4. and the final output results are listed in Table 4. This test method does not provide statistical procedures to estimate other strength properties.1 Coarse waste glass The test was conducted on 12 different samples. 4.7.20. From the testing results.4.

17: Hardened pull-out testing specimens Figure 4.Figure 4.18: Pull-out testing apparatus and procedure 53 .

Figure 4.19: Illustration of pull-out testing specimen after failure

Table 4.9: Summary of the pull-out strength results with coarse waste glass content

Pull-out Strength (kN) Group # Sample # 7 - Days 1 2 G4-0 3 Average 1 2 GC4-0.265 3 Average 38.2 37.3 52.9 54.0 40.8 39.8 39.3 34.4 55.1 55.3 54.7 54.4 40.3 38.3 28 - Days 54.0 56.8

54

4.7.2 Fine waste glass
The test was conducted on 12 different samples, and the final output results are listed in Table 4.10. From the testing results, it can be concluded that the use of optimal fine waste glass content in the concrete mix did not show significant effects on the pull-out strength.

Table 4.10: Summary of the pull-out strength results with fine waste glass content

Pull-out Strength (kN) Group # Sample # 7 - Days 1 2 G4-0 3 Average 1 2 GF4-0.195 3 Average 33.1 35.2 57.6 56.6 40.8 39.8 37.2 35.3 55.1 55.3 55.4 56.8 40.3 38.3 28 - Days 54.0 56.8

4.8 Effect of waste glass on flexural strength
The flexural test measures the force required to bend a beam under three point loading conditions. The data is often used to select materials for parts that will support loads without flexing. Flexural modulus is used as an indication of a material’s stiffness when flexed. This test method follows the ASTM D-790 procedure where the 10×10×50 cm hardened concrete specimen lies on two 40 cm apart supporting spans and the load is applied to the center by the loading nose producing three points bending at a specified rate till failure, as illustrated in Figures 4.20 and 4.21.
55

Figure 4.20: Flexural strength testing apparatus

Figure 4.21: Illustration of flexural strength testing specimen after failure 56

From the testing results.8. 4. and the final output results are listed in Table 4.4 1088.2 1658.4.9 1747.Days 1 2 3 Average 1 2 GC4-0.8 G4-0 4.8 1461.9 1830.1 1800. Table 4.2 Fine waste glass The test was conducted on 12 different samples. From the testing results. it can be concluded that the use of optimal fine waste glass content in the concrete mix also enhanced the flexural strength considerably.8.8 1820.11.4 1034.9 Effect of waste glass on splitting strength The splitting tensile strength test is used in the design of structural concrete members to evaluate the shear resistance provided by concrete and to determine the development length 57 .1 Coarse waste glass The test was conducted on 12 different samples.5 1817.11: Summary of the flexural strength results with coarse waste glass content Flexural Strength (kN/m2) Group # Sample # 7 .9 1074.12.7 1442.1 28 . it can be concluded that the use of optimal coarse waste glass content in the concrete enhanced the flexural strength considerably.0 1529.9 1447.4 1101.265 3 Average 1698. and the final output results are listed in Table 4.Days 1418.

as illustrated in Figures 4.4 28 – Days 1418. Table 4.4 1545.24.22: Hardened splitting strength testing specimens 58 .8 1888.8 1821.0 1575.Days 1 2 G4-0 3 Average 1 2 GF4-0.1 1852.3 1846. This test method follows the ASTM C-496 procedure where the cylindrical hardened concrete specimens with 15 cm diameter and 30 cm length are loaded longitudinally till failure.6 1088.of the steel reinforcement.9 1588.9 1074.7 1442.0 1447.9 Figure 4.4 1034.8 1461.12: Summary of the flexural strength results with fine waste glass content Flexural Strength (kN/m2) Group # Sample # 7 .195 3 Average 1594.22 through Figure 4.0 1101.

24: Illustration of splitting strength testing specimens after failure 59 .Figure 4.23: Splitting strength testing apparatus Figure 4.

2 2901.4.3 3790. From the testing results.13: Summary of the splitting strength results with coarse waste glass content Splitting Strength (kN/m2) Group # Sample # 7 .1 2941.14.Days 1 2 3 Average 1 2 GC4-0. 60 .Days 3953.6 28 . Table 4.13. and the final output results are listed in Table 4. it can be concluded that the use of optimal coarse waste glass content in the concrete mix reduced the splitting tensile strength of the mix slightly.6 3170.8 2971. it can be concluded that the use of optimal fine waste glass content in the concrete mix reduced the splitting tensile strength of the mix slightly.0 3299. From the testing results.1 G4-0 4.2 Fine waste glass The test was conducted on 12 different samples.5 2982.7 3732.9.9.5 3481. and the final output results are listed in Table 4.7 3855.0 2867.2 3411.1 3138.265 3 Average 2840.1 Coarse waste glass The test was conducted on 12 different samples.6 3821.

2 3309.8 2867.14: Summary of the splitting strength results with fine waste glass content Splitting Strength (kN/m2) Group # Sample # 7 .1 3138.0 28 .7 2941.7 3855.Days 1 2 G4-0 3 Average 1 2 GF4-0.5 2982.Days 3953.4 3255.6 61 .3 2629.195 3 Average 3057.5 3249.9 3821.3 3790.2 2726.0 2804.Table 4.2 3184.

The output results obtained from this laboratory program showed reliable data points and promising further research horizons. 4) Focusing on the concrete mixes with optimal waste glass contents by testing their pull out strength. and splitting resistance.2 Conclusions The following conclusions can be highlighted from the output of this research and can be summarized as follows: 5.2.1 Coarse waste glass  As a general outcome.4. 2) Studying the influence of waste glass on the hardened concrete properties.6. These targets were reached by conducting a standard series of: slump. compressive strength. More specifically. 3) Determining the optimum waste glass content to be included within the concrete mix as a partial replacement of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. This objective was achieved through the following: 1) Identifying the effects of adding waste glass on the fresh properties of concrete mixes. 62 .CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 5. flexural strength.1 Summary The primary objective of this research was to study the effect of waste glass content on the properties of concrete mixes when added as a partial replacement of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. the concrete mass density decreased when the portion of coarse waste glass exceeded 0. 5. pull out strength. flexural strength and splitting resistance tests. mass density. it was noticed that the concrete mass density was decreased by the increase of water cement ratio. for the concrete with water cement ratio of 0.

 For concrete mixes containing the optimal portion of coarse waste glass content.4.265. In more specific manner. the same mathematical analytical procedure was followed to conclude that the optimum value of fine waste glass to be used within the concrete mix with a water-cement ratio of 0. it was noticed that the coarse waste glass content almost did not affect the workability of the concrete mix at water cement ratio of 0. for the concrete with water cement ratio of 0.4.6. Also. Also. the concrete mass density was adversely affected when the portion of coarse waste glass exceeded 0.5 and 0.4.4 was determined as about 0. some numerical analysis methods were employed to conclude that the optimum value of coarse waste glass to be used within the concrete mix with a watercement ratio of 0.5 and 0.6.4 was estimated as almost 0. it was concluded that there was negligible effects on the pull-out strength.4.  For concrete mixed with fine waste glass as a partial occupant instead of fine aggregates. The output results revealed that using coarse waste glass within the concrete mix lead to a considerable reduction in the mix workability for water cement ratios 0.  The output results revealed that using fine waste glass within the concrete mix lead to a comparatively slight reduction in the mix workability for water cement ratios 0. and slight reduction of the splitting tensile strength of the mix. considerable enhancement of the flexural strength.  For concrete mixed with coarse waste glass as a partial occupant instead of coarse aggregates.195. 63 . 5.2 Fine waste glass  It was concluded that the concrete mass density was inversely affected by the increase of water cement ratio. and the corresponding expected 28-days hardened concrete compressive strength was almost 400 kg/cm2.2. it was noticed that the coarse waste glass content almost did not affect the workability of the concrete mix at water cement ratio of 0. and the corresponding expected 28-days hardened concrete compressive strength was about 385 kg/cm2.

64 . considerable enhancement of the flexural strength. 5. and slight reduction of the splitting tensile strength of the mix. it was concluded that there was negligible effects on the pull-out strength. considering this phase as a threshold for exploring the facts in a more powerful and accurate manner. This new research project is aiming to examine the results of this study.3 Future study It is recommended for future studies for extending this research to a wider perspective in order to be able to consider more parameters and different combinations of parameters governing the effect on the behavior and engineering properties of fresh and hardened concrete containing different types and sizes of waste glass materials. For concrete mixes containing the optimal portion of fine waste glass.

3133. [2] Husni Al-Najar. and Canbaz. N.. “A review on the use of waste glasses in the production of cement and concrete”. Boğa.. 107 – 113. 234-247. Ocha. Vol. and Andela.org . and Bilir. [5] Topçu.. M. 29. Vermont South. 655-659. “Concrete with Waste Glass as Aggregate” International Symposium Concrete Technology Unit of ASCE and University of Dundee. 2001. “Solid waste management in the Gaza Strip Case Study” Ministry of Health. rubble. “Properties of concrete containing waste glass”. Egosi. [3] Shayan. E. “Pollution caused by solid waste. M. C. [6] Topçu. Gaza. 52. pp. Technical Report. [4] Meyer. 267 – 274. A.. I. “ASR expansion behavior of recycled glass fine aggregates in concrete” Cement and Concrete Research. [12] Schott Group. and construction debris is a serious threat to the sea and the shore of the Gaza Strip”. C. [9] Saccani. 2009. “Physical and Technical Properties of Glasses”. 28. 2010. K. Vol. A. Conservation. Waste Management. “Recycling of waste glass as a partial replacement for fine aggregate in concrete”. Resources. 2007. Vol.. Cement and Concrete Research Journal. [7] Ismail. www. 2004.. A. 65 .. 878 – 884. 531 – 536. T.. and Bignozzi. pp. A. Mainz – Germany.howeverythingworks. and Poon. pp.. Vol. 2009. S. Z. [8] Kou. Victoria. and Zheng. and Al-Hashmi. October 2007. March 19-20. 11 July 2003.. C. 40. Australia. and Xu.. 2009. Dec. “Properties of self-compacting concrete prepared with recycled glass aggregate”. “Alkali-silica reactions of mortars produced by using waste glass as fine aggregate and admixtures such as fly ash and Li2CO3”. pp. [11] "Explaining the physics of everyday life". June 2007. 31. 34.REFERENCES [1] Work Team. I. and Recycling. Vol. C. pp. [10] Shi. 2005. Cement and Concrete Composites Journal.. Vol. 2010. “Value-added utilization of waste glass in concrete”. pp. Journal of Waste Management.

.. [14] Federico. S. L. Chang. Greenwich. May 2008... April 2008. and Chidiac. 2010. L. 13 February 2009. A. 29. “Studies on mechanical properties of concrete containing waste glass aggregate”.. Vol. [16] Caijun. A. 24. and vacuum vibratory compaction”. February 2004.csiro. 606–610. J. Vol. [18] Shane Palmquist. [19] Kralj Davorin. R. pp. 34... [21] Park. 267-273. TUFTS University. 30. S. July 2010. and Kim. pp. L. B.. “A review on the use of waste glasses in the production of cement and concrete” The Journal of Resources. UK Chinese Association of Resources and Environment. Vol. [15] Idir. pp..cmit.. pp. Z.D. “Artificial stone slab production using waste glass. pp. A. Conservation. and Lee. stone fragments. [20] Lee. Vol. May 2003.. B. Lin. 1309–1312. F. S. Lo. J. “Compressive behavior of concrete with recycled aggregates”. “Use of fine glass as ASR inhibitor in glassaggregate mortars” Construction and Building Materials.. Ko. M. and Ewan. and Recycling. M. Cyr. 583-587. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 31. Cement and Concrete Research. and Keren. Vol.au . 52. M. May 2007. 2181-2189.. “A study on the effects of LCD glass sand on the properties of concrete”. “Use of waste glass as aggregate in concrete”. [17] Her-Yung Wang. 7th UK CARE Annual General Meeting.. Thesis.. [22] Hong. and Tagnit-Hamou. March 2009. 335–341. 15 September 2007... Lee. Huiying. 234–247. “Experimental study of recycling lightweight concrete with aggregates containing expanded glass”. 87. J... www. Dec. Vol. “Waste glass as a supplementary cementitious material in concrete: Critical review of treatment methods” Cement & Concrete Composites. Ph.. pp. Shan. Cement and Concrete Composites. 66 . pp. Waste Management. C.. Vol.[13] CSIRO Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology.

Appendix A 67 .

1 to 0.70 0.00 111. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 10 to 25 0.4 0.00 128.9661 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W.1280 0. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air kg/m 3 320.0150 0.4 and Waste Glass = 0. W.1016 0.0425 0.0944 0.00 1. Agg.0954 0.00 650.Coarse Concrete Mix Design B 300 w/c Coarse Waste Glass 0.0014 0.6 Tap Super Flow Volume m3 0.00 2337.78 236.2397 0.2 ← Weight Coarse Aggregate Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg.Table A. Med.00 640.1: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0.00 250.48 Air Total 68 . Fine Agg.2 .2481 0.

1888 0.00 640. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 10 to 25 0.9661 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W.0150 0.0014 0.67 Air Total 69 .2481 0.00 1. Agg.4 .0000 0.2: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0. W. Fine Agg.00 128.4 0.Table A.00 113.1280 0.1016 0.1 to 0.0435 0.4 and Waste Glass = 0.70 0.00 472. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air kg/m 3 320.Coarse Concrete Mix Design B 300 w/c Coarse Waste Glass 0.97 0.00 2325.00 650. Med.2397 0.4 ← Weight Coarse Aggregate Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg.6 Tap Super Flow Volume m3 0.

6 ← Weight Coarse Aggregate Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 10 to 25 0. Agg.1 to 0.6 .00 128. Fine Agg.Table A.9661 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W.0000 0.Coarse Concrete Mix Design B 300 w/c Coarse Waste Glass 0. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air kg/m3 320.1280 0. Med.1888 0.00 1.00 504.00 708. W.80 Air Total 70 .0000 0.4 and Waste Glass = 0.10 0.3: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0.6 Tap Super Flow Volume m3 0.0014 0.2481 0.2832 0.0150 0.00 650.1016 0.00 0.4 0.70 0.00 2311.

5 0.00 2369.2 .00 640.2397 0.00 111.0954 0.4: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0.0425 0.00 250.9981 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W. Agg.2 ← Weight Coarse Aggregate Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg. W.0014 0.0150 0.1016 0. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air kg/m3 320. Med.Coarse Concrete Mix Design B 300 w/c Coarse Waste Glass 0.Table A.70 0.5 and Waste Glass = 0.00 650.1600 0.78 236.6 Tap Super Flow Volume m3 0.00 1.0944 0.00 160. Fine Agg.48 Air Total 71 .2481 0. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 10 to 25 0.1 to 0.

Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 10 to 25 0.5: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0.1600 0. Agg. W.0150 0.97 0.00 113.0000 0.67 Air Total 72 .Coarse Concrete Mix Design B 300 w/c Coarse Waste Glass 0.70 0.1888 0.00 160.9981 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W.Table A. Fine Agg.4 .5 0.00 640. Med.0435 0.2397 0.00 650.5 and Waste Glass = 0.4 ← Weight Coarse Aggregate Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg.2481 0.1 to 0.00 1.00 472.00 2357.0014 0.1016 0. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air kg/m3 320.6 Tap Super Flow Volume m3 0.

00 0.1016 0.2832 0.00 504. W.0000 0.6 Tap Super Flow Volume m3 0.1 to 0.00 160.2481 0.00 2343.Coarse Concrete Mix Design B 300 w/c Coarse Waste Glass 0.00 708. Agg.70 0.1888 0. Med. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air kg/m3 320.5 and Waste Glass = 0.6: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0.00 1.80 Air Total 73 .6 ← Weight Coarse Aggregate Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg.10 0.5 0.1600 0. Fine Agg.0150 0.6 .9981 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W.Table A. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 10 to 25 0.00 650.0014 0.0000 0.

2 .2481 0. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air kg/m3 320.00 2401. Agg.00 640.0944 0.2397 0.00 111.1016 0.78 236.6 Tap Super Flow Volume m3 0. W.0301 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 10 to 25 0.6 0.2 ← Weight Coarse Aggregate Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg.0954 0.1920 0.6 and Waste Glass = 0. Fine Agg.00 1.7: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0.00 192.Coarse Concrete Mix Design B 300 w/c Coarse Waste Glass 0.1 to 0.0150 1. Med.0425 0.00 250.00 650.Table A.48 Air Total 74 .70 0.0014 0.

00 650.00 640.6 Tap Super Flow Volume m3 0.Coarse Concrete Mix Design B 300 w/c Coarse Waste Glass 0.0000 0.1888 0. W. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air kg/m3 320.00 2389.00 113.Table A.4 ← Weight Coarse Aggregate Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg.00 192.6 and Waste Glass = 0.0435 0.00 1.0014 0.1 to 0. Med.6 0. Fine Agg.1920 0.97 0.4 .2397 0.0150 1.00 472.1016 0.8: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0.67 Air Total 75 .2481 0.70 0. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 10 to 25 0. Agg.0301 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W.

Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 10 to 25 0.1920 0.1016 0.00 1.00 650.Coarse Concrete Mix Design B 300 w/c Coarse Waste Glass 0.Table A.00 504.6 0.80 Air Total 76 .2481 0.6 ← Weight Coarse Aggregate Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg.6 .1 to 0.0150 1. Med.9: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0. W.1888 0.2832 0.00 192. Agg.6 Tap Super Flow Volume m3 0.0000 0.70 0. Fine Agg.10 0.0000 0.0301 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W.00 2375.00 708.0014 0. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air kg/m3 320.00 0.6 and Waste Glass = 0.

Table A.10: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0.4 and Waste Glass = 0.2 - Fine

Concrete Mix Design

B 300

w/c Fine Waste Glass

0.4 0.2


Weight Volume m3 0.1016 0.2397 0.0954 0.1369 0.0496 0.1985 0.1280 0.0014 0.0150 0.9661

Fine Sand

Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg. Med. Agg. Fine Agg. FW. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 0.1 to 0.6 0.1 to 0.6 Tap
Super Flow

Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air

kg/m3 320.00 640.00 250.00 360.00 124.45 520.02 128.00 1.70 0.00 2344.17

Remarks
Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air

Air Total

77

Table A.11: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0.4 and Waste Glass = 0.4 - Fine

Concrete Mix Design

B 300

w/c Fine Waste Glass

0.4 0.4


Weight Volume m3 0.1016 0.2397 0.0954 0.1369 0.0992 0.1489 0.1280 0.0014 0.0150 0.9661

Fine Sand

Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg. Med. Agg. Fine Agg. FW. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 0.1 to 0.6 0.1 to 0.6 Tap
Super Flow

Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air

kg/m

3

Remarks
Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air

320.00 640.00 250.00 360.00 248.90 390.01 128.00 1.70 0.00 2338.61

Air Total

78

Table A.12: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0.4 and Waste Glass = 0.6 - Fine

Concrete Mix Design

B 300

w/c Fine Waste Glass

0.4 0.6


Weight Volume m3 0.1016 0.2397 0.0954 0.1369 0.1489 0.0992 0.1280 0.0014 0.0150 0.9661

Fine Sand

Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg. Med. Agg. Fine Agg. FW. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 0.1 to 0.6 0.1 to 0.6 Tap
Super Flow

Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air

kg/m3 320.00 640.00 250.00 360.00 373.34 260.01 128.00 1.70 0.00 2333.05

Remarks
Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air

Air Total

79

Med. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air Air Total 80 .1985 0.0301 Fine Sand Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg.00 360.0496 0.1 to 0.Table A.13: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0.6 0. Fine Agg.00 250.00 2408.00 124.0954 0.45 520.02 192. FW.1016 0.17 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W.2 ← Weight Volume m3 0.1369 0.00 640.2397 0.1 to 0.5 0.0150 1.6 Tap Super Flow Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air kg/m3 320.70 0.2 . Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 0.1920 0.0014 0.5 and Waste Glass = 0.00 1.Fine Concrete Mix Design B 300 w/c Fine Waste Glass 0. Agg.

1369 0.0150 0. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air Air Total 81 .61 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W.00 1.70 0.1 to 0. Agg.9981 Fine Sand Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg.00 250. FW.5 and Waste Glass = 0.Table A.1 to 0.0014 0.1600 0.1016 0.00 640.01 160.1489 0.00 248.6 0.00 360.4 ← Weight Volume m3 0.14: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0.00 2370.0992 0.0954 0.Fine Concrete Mix Design B 300 w/c Fine Waste Glass 0. Fine Agg.90 390. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 0.2397 0.5 0.4 .6 Tap Super Flow Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air kg/m3 320. Med.

00 373.1489 0.0992 0.9981 Fine Sand Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg.00 360.01 160.1 to 0.6 0.1 to 0.0014 0. FW.0150 0.Table A. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 0. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air Air Total 82 . Agg.00 640.15: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0.00 1.05 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W.6 . Fine Agg.6 ← Weight Volume m3 0.00 250.5 and Waste Glass = 0. Med.1016 0.6 Tap Super Flow Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air kg/m3 320.34 260.2397 0.00 2365.1600 0.5 0.70 0.0954 0.Fine Concrete Mix Design B 300 w/c Fine Waste Glass 0.1369 0.

0496 0.45 520.1985 0.70 0.00 2408.6 Tap Super Flow Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air kg/m3 320.2397 0.17 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W.0150 1.2 .02 192.6 and Waste Glass = 0.1016 0.00 640. FW.Table A.Fine Concrete Mix Design B 300 w/c Fine Waste Glass 0. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 0.00 250.1 to 0.2 ← Weight Volume m3 0.6 0.00 124.0301 Fine Sand Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg.00 1.0014 0.6 0.16: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0. Agg.1920 0.1369 0.00 360.1 to 0.0954 0. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air Air Total 83 . Fine Agg. Med.

1489 0.01 192.0954 0.4 . Fine Agg.6 0.Fine Concrete Mix Design B 300 w/c Fine Waste Glass 0.0014 0.61 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W. Med.70 0.0301 Fine Sand Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg.0992 0.00 250.17: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air Air Total 84 .6 0.0150 1.1016 0.00 640.90 390.1920 0.1 to 0.00 360.00 2402.4 ← Weight Volume m3 0. FW. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 0.Table A.2397 0.1369 0. Agg.00 248.00 1.6 and Waste Glass = 0.1 to 0.6 Tap Super Flow Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air kg/m3 320.

0014 0.1016 0.70 0.6 ← Weight Volume m3 0.00 1.0150 1.6 0.6 .6 Tap Super Flow Condition Dry SSD SSD SSD SSD SSD Liquid Liquid Air kg/m3 320.1 to 0.6 and Waste Glass = 0. Med.1489 0.1 to 0.2397 0. Agg.6 0.00 373.00 360.0301 Fine Sand Size Component mm Cement Coarse Agg.1920 0.05 Remarks Turkish Type I Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed Limestone Crushed W.00 250.18: Concrete Job Mix for B 300 with w/c = 0.00 2397. Glass Gaza Dune Sand Factory Water Super Flow 3 Air Air Total 85 .34 260.00 640. Fine Agg.0954 0.Table A.01 192.0992 0. FW.1369 0. Glass Sand Water Additives Air Content Type I 25 20 10 0.Fine Concrete Mix Design B 300 w/c Fine Waste Glass 0.

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