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3366/E1744185410001138 C British Comparative Literature Association www.eupjournals.com/ccs
Michael Hamburger*: Voice of Lost Poetry
At a garden party in Norwich I saw Max Sebald kneel on one knee to a seated Michael Hamburger engaging him in conversation with an attitude that struck me at the time as reverential. Sebald was lecturer (later professor) in German in the School of European Studies at the University of East Anglia (Norwich), and his colleagues did not know of the extent of his ambitions and hopes as a writer, which came to light gradually only as he accumulated a reputation in Germany in the 1990s. They knew him only as a good colleague, with the interests of the department at heart, which he prosecuted with very effective humour in the classroom and committee rooms, where his sallies often carried the day. If he sometimes showed a touch of gallows humour in the corridors, that was all the more effective with over-worked colleagues. It was only in Michael Hamburger that he conﬁded and to whom he appealed as an authority and deferred as a mentor. This seemed entirely natural to me, and conﬁrmed my own experience of Michael. I had come to know Michael in Berlin, not in Norfolk, and had already seen with my own eyes the respect in which he was held. I arrived in Berlin in 1976 on a six-month research fellowship, and contacted Michael, as he bade me do when I had recently met him in London. He was at the time at the Haus der Künste (House of the Arts), of which he’d been elected a
* MICHAEL HAMBURGER (22 March 1924–7 June 2007), OBE, was a British translator, poet and critic. Born in Berlin into a Jewish family, he emigrated to London in 1933 and was educated at Westminster School and the University of Oxford. He held various academic posts in the UK and USA, including at University College London and the University of Reading, and received numerous prizes and awards, including the Aristeion Prize in 1990. His works include the essay volumes Reason and Energy (1957), From Prophecy to Exorcism: The Premisses of Modern German Literature (1965), and The Truth of Poetry (1968); the poetry collections Poems 1950–1951 (1952), Weather and Seasons (1963), Collected Poems 1941–1994 (1995), and Circling the Square (2007); a memoir, A Mug’s Game (1991, revised edition published as String of Beginnings); and translations of Baudelaire, Hölderlin, Trakl, Brecht, Hofmannsthal, Nelly Sachs, Celan, Hans Magnus Enzensberger and W. G. Sebald, among others
in the ﬁne German term. and he translated them too. he had emigrated with his family from Germany to Britain in 1933 in order to avoid Nazi persecution. He held together the divided nations – the historical German nation of literature and idea. This experience was to be multiplied. They read with lyrical intensity leavened by irony. Michael knew them well. the current divided German nation partitioned by its conquerors – with all . he had already published translations. poems and an early autobiography in English. and he spoke his native language. and the two parts of Germany. but an emissary between the divided fragments of his ﬁrst country. Like so much in Berlin in those days it seemed slightly sinister and fraught with signiﬁcance. The poets were of a generation that as teenagers had served in the last year of the Second World War. After a freelance period he had become a lecturer in German at Reading in 1952. and the reading took place in a dimly lit basement. the established and the aspirants.286 ELINOR SHAFFER Fellow. as an émigré. The journey by the post-war U-Bahn (underground) seemed interminable. as a German writer. and after the war’s formal end. He was introduced everywhere without embarrassment or affectation as a Berliner. a translator of German poetry into English. attended Westminster and won a Westminster Exhibition (a form of scholarship) to Christ Church. a Freiberuﬂer. in Britain. which he took in 1948. I was surprised at ﬁrst to ﬁnd that he was introduced as ‘ein Berliner’: born in Berlin in 1924. between BRD and DDR. but had left in 1959 to devote himself to writing. On my ﬁrst day in Berlin I was invited to go to a poetry reading ‘an der Mauer’. then in London. He left Germany as a child. and a refugee. between West and East Germany. who had been subjected to posthumous naziﬁcation) but also the living writers.1 I soon found that this was not all. second only to Goethe as the leading poet of the early nineteenth century. to be. By the Wall was a dark area. He had gone to school in Britain. and invited me to readings in Berlin. He knew not only the great dead like Friedrich Hölderlin (the Romantic poet. To me on ﬁrst meeting he had seemed entirely assimilated. near the Wall which then divided the city. until I realized fully that Michael was not only an émigré in Britain and a native Berliner. Oxford and attended the University for four terms before being called up to join the British army. the BRD and the GDR. But in Germany he had another life and career. a translator of past German poetry into English. he had returned to ﬁnish his degree in modern languages. After his war service. in Italy and Austria. His autobiography shows that indeed he was born and bred in afﬂuent circumstances (his father was a doctor) in the very comfortable quarter of Berlin Charlottenburg. critical works.
.2 I did not altogether like Michael’s versions – they seemed to me to be too plain.3 Beginning with Heidegger. cared for at home in Tübingen. who had ended his life in a kind of madness. He did not speak in such grandiose terms. which included an attempt at a translation of one of Hölderlin’s great Odes. the Germans under Hitler had claimed and lauded Friedrich Hölderlin (1770–1843). and the swimming clouds. But in the end Michael’s dedication – he translated the poetic works of Hölderlin. Leishman’s translations. He had begun his translations in England. [. slight. who gained the trust of his many diverse and divided auditors. who published them at Faber. especially the Odes. My dumb hand grips the frozen sky.Michael Hamburger 287 the intensity of his talent and his will. and silent The island’s singing bird. but also of the tense political battle over the soul of Hölderlin that was taking place in German criticism in the post-war period. not just a handful of poems – and his fuller awareness not only of the language and the poetry. B. The temple I raised from ruin Fallen again. and the ﬁrst poem of his own he later cared to preserve in his Collected Poems 1941–1994 remains ‘Holderlin’ (without the Umlaut). At the time I went to Berlin I knew best two books of Michael’s: his translations of Hölderlin. as a schoolboy. He was a small.] Glory is gone. A black bare tree in the winter dusk. still a relatively little known German Romantic poet. If anything I preferred J. all his life. Eliot. spoken in the poet’s persona in the year before his death: Diotima is dead. have made him the voice of Hölderlin in English. he simply went about doing it. quiet-spoken ﬁgure. This was a time of total immersion for me in Hölderlin and German Romanticism. which drew him to adopt Hölderlin’s own innovative principles of translation embracing the very alien quality of another language. ‘Patmos’. One came to know that he was indomitably dedicated to repairing what had been broken in German culture and to acting as a human bridge between the living and the dead. . as apparently had T. he had been lauded as a great . which I had pored over in detail when writing my own ﬁrst book The Fall of Jerusalem: The Mythological School of Biblical Criticism and Secular Literature 1770–1880 (1975). S. some of them published in 1943. and between the living on both sides of the divide.
I heard Pierre Bertaux speak of his political account of Hölderlin’s mental disturbance. the Great Stuttgart Edition. This ordeal was traumatic for Hölderlin. After the war’s end the critique of this edition began. Roter Stern (Red Star) was set up in Frankfurt and set out to produce a new Hölderlin . A selection of Hölderlin’s verse had even been made for the soldiers of the Wehrmacht. In the case of Hölderlin the whole honour of German Culture past and present was at stake. But it is not a close parallel. This was part of the larger struggle to ‘de-nazify’ the German language itself. This was a political and literary battle for which English critics and readers can scarcely ﬁnd a parallel – perhaps Empson’s attempts to wrest criticism from the Christianizers around Eliot is the closest modern parallel. the long struggle to restore the text between editors of rival persuasions. It began to be said that Hölderlin’s ‘madness’ was associated with fears for his friends and for his own safety. These matters were argued out with great intensity in the packed bookshop evenings in Berlin which were like public or open-access university seminars with no holds barred.288 ELINOR SHAFFER German Nationalist poet. and the attempt to amend and replace it was set on foot. considering various explanations for the poet’s mental disturbance. who spoke for Weltliteratur. but one who could be associated with the ‘home soil’ valorized by Heidegger. Michael in his 1994 introduction to his translations Hölderlin: Poems and Fragments adopted a more moderate view. not an international and cosmopolitan ﬁgure like Goethe.4 Most fundamental was the battle over the actual text of the poet. a book that has gone into many editions and sold over a million copies. the re-editing of Hölderlin in Germany. Peter Weiss wrote a powerful play (Hölderlin. In 1975 a left-leaning press. In the post-war period began a long struggle to claim Hölderlin back for the opposition: he had in fact been a supporter of the French Revolution. which the French Germanist and Resistance ﬁghter had recently published as Hölderlin und die Französische Revolution (Hölderlin and the French Revolution) (1968). and which became identiﬁed with the Nazi slogan ‘Blut und Boden’. teaching in Heidelberg (not far from Hölderlin’s Tübingen). had begun to appear in 1942. 1971) representing the extreme of this view of the poet as feigning madness on political grounds. His later poems – which whatever the nature of his ‘madness’ were in a much more compact and elliptical style – were reclaimed and brought into view. Under the Nazis the Grosse Stuttgarter Ausgabe. and had testiﬁed in court in 1805 for a friend (Isaak von Sinclair) who was tried (but not convicted) of treason for his alliance with the French.
he was at the public forefront of the revaluation of Hölderlin. four German (Rilke. each imaginary poet’s career being followed and reviewed by the press. Brecht). Certainly one of the major European poets of the twentieth century. and a Polish poet. but his philosophical signiﬁcance was scrutinized and revalued.6 One of the poets Michael wrote about so compellingly and so intriguingly there. he had already grasped Baudelaire as the signiﬁcant founder. a book so illuminating of poetry and of particular poets that I still think of it as perhaps ‘the’ book on the subject in English. two Italian. as well as English and Irish poets – but this list is misleading. Academics were sceptical that Sattler and Roter Stern could complete the monumental task. and under the heading of ‘Multiple Personalities’. There could in fact be nothing like a ‘plain text’. All during this time Michael was giving readings with commentaries on his translation. Pessoa was a main conduit for English and Irish literature in . ‘. Its subtitle was more particular: Tensions in Modern Poetry Since Baudelaire. This attempt turned into a prolonged struggle. Not only the poet’s life and poetic works. the “modernity” of modern poets is an international phenomenon’. E. for many poets are discussed. . His ﬁrst publication had been a translation of twenty prose poems of Baudelaire (1943). and now treated him together with six other French poets. Sattler was an academic outsider. the different volumes of the edition appearing to intense scrutiny and detailed criticism over the lifetime of its crusading editor. for he had also been a friend and schoolmate of the major idealist philosophers Schelling and Hegel. a special case of the leading theme of ‘Masking’. It was ﬁnally completed only in 2008. As he put it. The other book of Michael’s I knew at that time was The Truth of Poetry (1968). and they are not grouped by nationality but according to their contributions to the characteristics of ‘modern poetry’. a Portuguese. and he is now widely credited with being the author of Das erste Systemprogramm des deutschen Idealismus (1795) (The First Systematic Programme of German Idealism). though he got some support from the left-oriented University of Bremen. Celan. . Benn.5 Even so it was an ambitious and wide-ranging attempt to deﬁne the aesthetics of a ‘modern poetry’. Sattler to replace the Stuttgarter Ausgabe. after Sattler’s death. The poet’s word was fraught with every kind of signiﬁcance. was Fernando Pessoa. with whom he had continued to correspond.Michael Hamburger 289 edition under D. three Spanish. the poet of several personae who wrote under three heteronyms as well as his own name. To translate Hölderlin in this climate was itself an act of civil courage on Hamburger’s part.
I had passed the test. speaking of his school years at Westminster. and became quickly engrossed. became another permanent favourite. an edition of whose works was published in full while I was teaching in Zurich in the early ’80s. and not liked it. a group of us founded the British Comparative Literature Association (1977). I had read a novel by Martin Walser. and in the Iberian peninsula. wherever and however he encountered them. both fellow émigrés and poets in all parts of Europe. despite his passing wish to turn them into novels). Although Michael was a university teacher only for a short while. The annual journal went on to publish several translations by Michael and studies of the writers he was in touch with. I remember his showing me two books. both by Swiss writers of German. the ﬁrst being that of Michael himself. . no. by Robert Walser. and the more general argument that one must not judge individuals according to their nationality. he is only coming into his own in English in the twenty-ﬁrst century. Robert Walser. his mates in the army called him ‘the Scholar’ (while his sergeant settled for the cheerfully disrespectful Anglicization of his name. and I was appointed Editor of the Association’s Yearbook. we had several winners of the annual BCLA Translation Competition who had chosen to translate him.8 But Michael was truly at home not as a teacher. but as a member of a free guild of writers.7 In the case of Pessoa. he describes an occasion in 1939 when the school held a debate on the motion: ‘This House considers that the German nation must be annihilated after the war’. as he had thought it worth showing me.290 ELINOR SHAFFER his own country. We also published special bibliographies of writers with more than one language or country. together with a number of other leading British and international comparatists. Portugal. Michael was pleased. In his autobiography. I started to read. Michael Hamburger joined the Editorial Board. nor as a tourist and traveller (as his travel diaries show. ‘Wimpey’).9 He adds that he kept in touch with his language by reading poetry. I opened one and silently read two pages. I liked it less and less. no. and we published selections from Pessoa’s massive unﬁnished ‘Faustus’. This became a lifelong interest for me. he was always a teacher. and then excited. and disliked being ‘a language teacher’. this is Robert Walser. and turned to the other. and asking me what I thought. He adduced as grounds that German philosophy and music were among the greatest in the world. published by Cambridge University Press (1979–2004). with great expectations. nor even in his several homes. and he undertook to defend the negative of that proposition. When I went back to England.
12 It has been suggested that this led him to his sympathy for Keats’s ‘negative capability’. was lost in a ‘Niemandsland-Krise’. when I was Visiting Professor in the German Department at Stanford. they are not ‘hermetic’. and as the translator explained it took many years and many readings to begin to feel that one had plumbed the dark depths of the poetry and conveyed it without loss of the effect of suffocation and repression.Michael Hamburger 291 which quickly led to his beginning to translate. Hamburger’s book of translations came out in 1972. had perished. Later. full of powerful repressed feeling. in which every word has its meaning. from a small community of Jews in Romania. But Hamburger has done as much for the twentieth-century poet Paul Celan. and his introduction (1986) details the difﬁculties.11 The poetry of Celan. ‘After the Holocaust there can be no poetry’. it is in Celan’s work that one feels that this poetry had to escape against the will of its creator from that ban. I was unaware that on his return to Berlin some years earlier. moving with such conﬁdence in the writers’ milieux. even in what has become his best-known poem. at a short-lived art gallery. I met John Felstiner. As Hamburger wrote in his second preface of his gradual coming to comprehension of Celan’s poems. He never ceased through successive attempts and eight editions to seek the precise word.10 Later he added another thirty-two poems (1982). If Hölderlin’s retranslation from the long process of winning him back for German literature took half a century. whose ﬁne book on Celan helps to comprehend the circumstances as far as they can be comprehended. His mission started early and never ceased. is notoriously difﬁcult. This repression was itself a mode of expression of the Holocaust. he had suffered a kind of breakdown. but it was a devoted and inspired reading and interpretation to a large group. I cannot now recall the exact date of a reading from it he did in Cambridge.13 but it lies perhaps closer to his attempts to wrestle with and extract Celan’s deeply . His book (in German) on this experience has long been out of print. A lifetime’s work of reinscription has made Hölderlin an English classic too. and thence into Penguin Classics in 1998. in which he lost his second language in regaining his ﬁrst. If Adorno famously said. from his ﬁrst publication in 1943 to the Anvil Press edition of 1994. so necessarily did Michael’s translation of him into English. and suffering as he put it a ‘second emigration’. they are ‘crisis poems’. in which all the members of Celan’s family. in 1962. who died by his own hand only in 1970. At the time I had known Hamburger in Berlin. ‘Todesfuge’ (‘Death Fugue’). or ‘No-man’s-land crisis’. if one can but ﬁnd it.
I published. which have the virtue of opening up the subject. linguist and poet. gained a doctorate in anthropology. others blamed him for it. such as Mary Douglas.16 Michael was sometimes praised. that the specialization in .14 Moreover. In a Postscript he wrote for the 1982 edition. and. moreover.15 Others who had known him or his work produced a book of essays in memoriam. He replied that he had indeed given up a career in university teaching in order to write the book.292 ELINOR SHAFFER buried word. If Hölderlin through this process of reclamation became an indisputably great poet of the past. Once again Michael Hamburger translated not only words but the complex historical experiences of his generation and took lifelong part in the unremitting effort of restoration. which inﬂuenced leading anthropologists of the next generation. for example in his translations of the East German Peter Huchel. Some of the contemporary voices he gave further. he defended himself against the ‘charge’ made in one newspaper that he had written a book of ‘comparative literature’. however. on Taboo. rather than closing it. extended consideration. who had been a research student at Oxford in the late 1930s. was appointed a Lecturer in Social Anthropology in 1949. Michael Hamburger had met Baermann Steiner in Oxford in 1948. One of the foremost of these was Franz Baermann Steiner (1908–1952). and was much dismayed by Steiner’s early death in 1952. But all during those years he secretly wrote poetry in German. A brilliant lecture I heard Michael give at the University of East Anglia on the poetry of Franz Baermann Steiner supported his translations of this still too little known CzechGerman Jewish scholar. Celan became a very signiﬁcant modern poet for an international audience. together with a full bibliography of Steiner’s works. He translated the moving poem ‘Prayer in the Garden’ after ﬁrst meeting him. he was able to help rescue some ﬁrst-rate writers from what in the unfavourable circumstances of the time might have been total oblivion. sometimes blamed as doing ‘comparative literature’. Hamburger. became a close friend of Iris Murdoch and wrote a break-through book. remained in England during the war (while his family fell victims of the Holocaust). While George Steiner counted admiringly the number of languages Hamburger dealt with in The Truth of Poetry (Steiner itemizes eight). which as editor of Comparative Criticism. as he met many exiles and refugees throughout his and their often difﬁcult lives. based on his Oxford lectures. in both his East German Poetry: An Anthology (1972) and his German Poetry 1910–1975) : An Anthology (1976). was able to help a large number of German poets to international status.
or Yeats. Eliot. however. My own favourite is From a Diary of Non-Events. Nor were his own poems negligible. where ‘literatures with closed frontiers have been the exception’. One must never forget that Michael Hamburger was also a poet in his own right. T. As Joyce Crick has memorably remarked.Michael Hamburger 293 the teaching of German language would have rendered him incapable of writing the book. and he received increasing recognition for them. One was impossible without the other. with its honed observation. Mementoes hang on walls already bare. and this still speaks in his words. and translated as a poet. Read felt able to retain only the translations of Hölderlin. and he published his own poems throughout his life. with the spectre of another ‘No-Man’s -Land’ episode. written from his old farmhouse. whether Stephen Spender. surrounded by ancient varieties of apple trees. he said. Yet his double life as an English poet and as a voice in English of German poetry were as one to him. near Saxmundham in Suffolk. It was a frustration to him that his translations were often perceived as more valuable than his own poems. he heard both languages in his head when he translated. he was ‘only vaguely aware of an academic specialisation called “comparative literature” ’. who over half a century at Routledge published Michael’s edition of Hugo von Hofmannsthal (for which Read had helped him to get grants). At the time. like Herbert Read. where the life of nature and the seasons intermingles with sharp commentary on the public world.18 Perhaps only Peter Jay at the Anvil Press remained a truly staunch and loyal friend to all of Michael’s work. Frail fabric of relation.17 Michael devoted his life to keeping those frontiers open. Michael’s own essays. himself a poet and a very discerning critic. and his encounters with them. are carefully documented in his autobiography. His efforts to establish himself as a poet in English are inseparable from his translations and his criticism.19 This twinned life could always threaten him. even by those whose sympathy and support he most trusted and relied upon. yet when Routledge made the decision to cease to publish his poetry. and many others of his own generation. and his habitual dedication: While the ﬁne ﬁbres tear. especially his later poetry. and his third collection of poetry. but that those who tried to limit literature to one language were guilty of making a ‘desperate oversimpliﬁcation’ and displaying a ‘deliberate insularity’ that was belied by the history of literature in Europe. . His admiration for English poets of his time. ‘Marsh Acres’. S.
Quite apart from these speciﬁc celebrations. and point to several attempts at Hyperion. translations which entirely broke with tradition in the translation of Greek originals and met with incomprehension in their own day and acclaim in our own. The full bibliography of Hamburger’s works in both German and English was published in Comparative Criticism. . and we published at various times his translations of the ironic Martin Sorescu. both of Oedipus and of Antigone. there are many tangible signs of his legacy.27 Virtually all of Hölderlin’s writings are now available in English. We published Jeremy Adler’s translations of Hölderlin’s essays on tragedy22 and on his Pindar translations. both philosophical and literary. to be published in 2010.23 and David Constantine’s of Hölderlin’s translations from Sophocles. and particular heirs and continuators of Michael Hamburger’s work. and the book is dedicated to Michael Hamburger. There is also a growing and excellent critical literature on Hölderlin in English. including English translations of major German studies. A Colloquium was held in Michael Hamburger’s honour at the IGRS in 2009. with many performances in Germany. which afterwards appeared in full. Charlie Louth’s book On the Dynamics of Translation is a contribution to the history and theory of translation.24 Comparative Criticism published David Constantine’s translations of the ﬁrst two acts of Hölderlin’s rendering of Sophocles’ Œdipus. An Exhibition was held at the University of East Anglia in May 2009. as well as to our understanding of Hölderlin’s own practice. which so much inﬂuenced Nietzsche. and the unique mantle that fell on the shoulders of one of the next generation of German émigrés. especially of Antigone. one might cite in particular Richard Sieburth as well as David Constantine.25 A number of other translators have been inspired or impelled to try their hands at translating Hölderlin. and the brilliant (and virtually untranslatable) Viennese sound poet Ernst Jandl. Clear a small space for that I cannot know Nor own unless by shared continuation.21 The complex of Hölderlin’s work was explored. has also been translated. A small London theatre will shortly base a programme on his work. His brilliant play Empedocles.26 The recent publication of Hölderlin’s prose edited by Jeremy Adler and Charlie Louth follows the initial publications by Adler in Comparative Criticism. whom I had heard hold a public square full of auditors spellbound in Berlin.294 ELINOR SHAFFER Still I must plant and sow.20 If this achievement were not enough in itself.
edited by Barbara Wiedemann (Frankfurt a. 1969. 329–376. Susan Bernofsky’s of The Robber (Lincoln. Comparative Criticism 10 (1988). The Truth of Poetry: Tensions in Modernist Poetry Since Baudelaire (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. in Testimonies. ‘Hölderlin: Tübingen. translation. 1998). 420–422. 2 Elinor S. M. Selected Shorter Prose 1950–1987 (Manchester: Carcanet. 3. NE: University of Nebraska Press. for references to ‘hermetic’ versus ‘difﬁcult’.. 2002. It was compiled by Ralf Jeutter. ibid. and a comparative criticism that is ﬁt to speak with and about the best poetry of past and especially present ages. p. 145–190. p. the latest and most authoritative being Die Gedichte – Kommentierte Ausgabe von Paul Celan. 1–28.Michael Hamburger 295 Max Sebald (b. 4 This ‘Introduction’ is retained in the later. paperback London: Anvil Press Poetry. 1989). working with Michael. The book was reprinted with Hamburger’s Introduction and translations in 1980. Friedrich Hölderlin: Selected Poems and Fragments (London: Penguin. 5 Michael Hamburger. pp. ‘On Translating Celan’. reprinted as afterword in Poems of Paul Celan. his example of lifelong personal dedication stands for all of those with a concern for poetry. 1999). 2 November 2000. 2003). Coetzee in ‘The Genius of Robert Walser’. 1972). 11 Michael Hamburger. 10 Poems of Paul Celan. Susan Bernofsky’s translation of The Tanners appeared last year (New York: New Directions. See Appendix B for Hölderlin’s ‘Patmos’ Ode. These are the ﬁrst and last stanzas of a six-stanza poem. 2007 and new editions have used the German texts as established by the successive editions in Germany. somewhat truncated edition in Penguin Classics. Shaffer.M: Suhrkamp. 9 String of Beginnings. 2009). 1944). see pp. 3 Michael Hamburger. G. 2007). 405–422. vii. . 43–44. 8 See Christopher Middleton’s translation of Jakob von Gunten (New York: New York Review of Books Classics. 1996). pp. ‘Hölderlin’s “Patmos” Ode and “Kubla Khan”: Mythological Doubling’. NOTES 1 Michael Hamburger. Sebald’s essay ‘Le promeneur solitaire: a Remembrance of Robert Walser’ (translated into English by Jo Catling). 6 ‘Preface’. in Collected Poems 1941–1994 (London: Anvil Press 1995). NYRB. in ‘Kubla Khan’ and The Fall of Jerusalem: The Mythological School in Biblical Criticism and Secular Literature 1770–1880 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1975). Translated by Michael Hamburger (London: Anvil Press. The ﬁrst two were reviewed by J. pp. December 1842’. 1973). translated by Michael Hamburger (London: Anvil Press. pp. preceded by W. 1995. and introduced by David Constantine. String of Beginnings: Intermittent Memoirs 1924–1954 (Cheadle: Carcanet Press. 2000) and of The Assistant (New York: New Directions. 2007). 7 ‘The Publications of Michael Hamburger in German and English’. 1988.
I am grateful to the editors for allowing me to see the text before publication. Comparative Criticism 7 (1985). Essays and Letters. 318. pp. ‘Friedrich Hölderlin on Tragedy’. 45. The translations of the essays ﬁrst printed in Comparative Criticism were also consulted by Thomas Pfau (ed. 2000). 205–244.). 1983). 2002). has been reprinted by Penguin. 1996) gives some account of these developments. 1994). based on his Oxford thesis. was published by Legenda in 1999. 27 Friedrich Hölderlin. 13 Iain Galbraith.M. 15 Franz Baermann Steiner. p. 201–220. in Symposium in Commemoration of Michael Hamburger. Richard Fardon and Carol Tully (Institute of Germanic Studies with iudicium Verlag. The ﬁrst of the two of Hölderlin’s essays. Antigones (New Haven: Yale University Press. translated by Charlie Louth with poems translated by Michael Hamburger. Munich. 24 George Steiner. This volume also contains two more poems. 2009). Sophocles’ Oedipus the King. ‘Philosophical Dialogues’ (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ‘On the Ground of the Empedocles’ and ‘On Becoming in Passing Away’. translated by Jeremy Adler. ‘Technical aspects of composing poems’: an essay by Ernst Jandl from The Fine Art of Writing. . pp. Zwischen den Sprachen (Frankfurt a. forthcoming (see note 13). 19 Joyce Crick. The Garden of Theophrastus and other Poems (Manchester: Carcanet Press.: Fischer. edited by Martin Swales and Martin Liebscher (Munich: IGRS with iudicium Verlag. edited and translated with an introduction by Jeremy Adler and Charlie Louth (London: Penguin. 223–236. The Truth of Poetry (1982). stanza 3 of ‘September’. Reissued in paperback by Anvil Press in 1996. this book (‘Between the Languages’) has never appeared in English.296 ELINOR SHAFFER 12 Michael Hamburger. 22 Jeremy Adler. 1988). 20 Michael Hamburger. It contains the prose ‘Niemandsland-Variationen’ (‘No-Man’s-Land Variations’). 1999). 21 Hamburger’s renderings of Sorescu appeared in Comparative Criticism 2 (1980). translated by David Constantine (Tarset: Bloodaxe. Franz Baermann Steiner Celebrated. 161–168. 18 String of Beginnings. Essays and translations. in Symposium in Commemoration of Michael Hamburger. 26 Louth’s book. acts I and II. translated from the German by David Constantine. 23 Comparative Criticism 6 (1984). 2003). 2010). 17 ‘Postscript’. an Introduction. 16 From Prague Poet to Oxford Anthropologist. 1999). 138–176. 106–116 and passim. Comparative Criticism 21 (‘Myth and Mythologies’. From a Diary of Non-Events (London: Anvil Press. See also Hölderlin’s Sophocles: Œdipus and Antigone. ‘Prayer in the Garden’. 14 Peter Huchel. p. pp. compiled by Jeremy Adler. and a ‘Special Bibliography: The Writings of Franz Baermann Steiner (1909–1952)’. ‘Revolutions and Censorship’ (Cambridge University Press. ‘Michael Hamburger: Ownerless Earth’. 1966). see note 27 below. ‘Michael Hamburger’s “Chandos Moment”? Reﬂections on the “Niemandsland-Variationen” ’. pp. Friedrich Hölderlin: Essays and Letters on Theory (New York: State University of New York Press. 25 Friedrich Hölderlin. 274–292. translated by Michael Hamburger. edited by Jeremy Adler. Comparative Criticism 16. Hölderlin’s ‘Notes on the Oedipus’ and ‘Notes on the Antigone’ appeared in Comparative Criticism 5 (1983). Comparative Criticism 20. pp. translated with an introductory essay.