Shear wall

Shear wall

Copyright Prof Schierle 2012

Narrow walls may overturn

1

Shear walls
• • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Resist lateral load in shear Resist load only parallel to wall Wood studs with plywood Metal studs with plywood Reinforced Concrete wall Reinforced CMU wall Un-reinforced brick wall (not allowed in seismic areas) Reinforced 2-wythe brick wall Party walls - double studs for 65 STC (STC = Sound Transmission Coefficient)

Shear wall

Copyright Prof Schierle 2012

2

Shear wall vs. lateral resistance

Note: shear walls resist lateral load only parallel to wall

1 2 3 4 Note:

Shear walls resist only lateral load parallel to wall One-way shear walls collapse @ perpendicular load Eccentric shear walls cause torsion Concentric shear walls resist torsion Walls in 4 are offset but provide concentric support

Note: eccentric shear walls cause torsion and should be avoided

Concentric & eccentric shear walls

1 2 3 4 5 6 Note:

X-direction concentric, Y-direction eccentric X-direction eccentric, Y-direction eccentric X-direction concentric, Y-direction concentric X-direction concentric, Y-direction concentric X-direction concentric, Y-direction concentric X-direction concentric, Y-direction concentric 5 is better than 6 to resist torsion
3

Shear wall

Copyright Prof Schierle 2012

Plywood Shear Wall Plywood must be nailed to wood framing to resist lateral shear of wind and seismic forces.5 (Los Angeles 1:2) Plywood nail spacing Blocking to transfer shear Nail Plywood sheathing Hold-down (essential for short walls) Nail spacing at panel edges (max. shear wall aspect ratio 1:3. 12”) t Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 4 . 5) Nail spacing at other studs (max. 1 2 3 4 A B C D E F Plywood shear wall Plywood shear wall with joint Max.

Beverly Hills •• Four two-story units over concrete garage 12” concrete slab on columns at 30’x30’ provides 3-hour fire separation between garage and residential units above • Concrete slab designed for of 300 psf allows wood framing anywhere regardless of column locations • Double stud party walls for 65 STC sound rating (STC = Sound Transmission Coefficient = sound rating) Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 5 .Four Town Homes.

Shear wall Rear Front Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 6 .

Black bars imply revisions Critical code issues Check BEFORE design • Occupancy • Type of Construction • Means of Egress • Fire Resistance • Area Limitations • Height Limitations Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 7 .

Limitations of: • Height H • Floor Area A Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 8 .

Parking • 30’ parking module • 15‘ wall module • 17’ wall module if required by local ordinance • 12” two-way structural slab designed for 300 psf allows wood walls at any location • 12” slab also provides 3 hour fire rating required by code • Concrete slab requires drop panels or beams to resist shear stress • 12” column for one-story parking and up to 3-story wood framing Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 9 .

Terrace Housing Hermosa Beach The project size required separation by 2-hr fire walls to comply with area limits Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 10 Shear wall .

Terrace Homes Hermosa Beach Design concept: to minimized grading and retaining walls: adapt building to site instead of adapting site to building A 14 x 22 ft module allows shear walls aligned vertically Each two-story unit has two terraces for outdoor living Terraces provide open space that allowed 33 units at a lot zoned for only 25 units by conventional planning Raised rear provides energy-saving cross ventilation Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 11 .

and party walls provide privacy . planters.Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 12 Raised rear provides Community space cross ventilation Terracing provides Residential scale Slanted party walls screen ocean clare Sun shades.

Terrace Housing Taipei. China Architect: G G Schierle Engineer: China Sincere 200 housing units Combined shear wall & concrete frame: • Shear walls provide stiffness • Concrete frames provide ductility for seismic safety Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 13 .

Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 14 .

Shear wall Reinforced brick masonry Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 15 CMU walls (Concrete Masonry Units) .

Reinforced concrete wall Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 16 Reinforced CMU wall .

20 0.1% of wall cross-section area) A Vertical bars (max. 4 ft or 6 x wall thickness B Horizontal bars (max. 4 ft in seismic areas) C Bars around wall openings.60 17 . bar spacing for required cross-section areas (0.44 0.11 0.Masonry shear reinforcing 1 2 Wall reinforcing for seismic areas Max. 24” or 40 bar diameters beyond opening D Horizontal bars @ wall base and top E Bars at structural floors and roof F Spacing of bar sizes # 3 to # 7 G Wall thickness Rebar Bar # #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 diameter (in) 3/8 4/8 5/8 6/8 7/8 Cross-section (in2) 0.31 0. extending min.

Horizontal Diaphragms transfer lateral load to shear walls and other elements two ways 1 Flexible diaphragm (wood) transfers in proportion to tributary area. Wall reactions are: R = w (tributary area supported by wall) w = uniform load 2 Rigid diaphragm (concrete & steel) transfers in proportion to wall stiffness. Reactions for walls of equal material: R1 = WL13 / L3 (L3 = L13+L23+L33) R2 = WL23 / L3 R3 = WL33 / L3 where L = Lengths of walls W = Total load supported by all walls Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 18 .

This may be computed as follows: • Unit shear = shear per level / floor area per level • Shear per wall = unit shear x tributary area supported by wall • Shear per foot = shear per wall / wall length Dead load DL per level: W = 24 psf x 68’ x 150’/ 1000 DL at 3 Levels: 3 x 235 k Base shear V= CS W = 0. Seismic factor CS = 0.4 psf v1 = 8.17 = 2115 / 12690 Vx =  Fx V2 = 53 k V1 = 88 k V0 = 106 k V = 106 k A = 10.17 x 106 = 18 k  wihI = 12690 k’ Area per level A= 68 x 150 Shear per square foot per level v0 = V0/A = 106 k x 1000 / 10200 v1 = V1/A = 88 k x 1000 / 10200 v2 = V2/A = 53 k x 1000 / 10200 Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 W = 235 k W = 705 k V = 106 k 0.Flexible diaphragm / plywood walls Assume: DL= 24 psf.50 = 6345 / 12690 0.200 ft2 v0 = 10.33 x 106 = 35 k Level 0: 235 k x 9’ = 2115 k’ 0.15 x705 Vertical force distribution Fx= V wx hx /  (wi hi) hx = wx hx/ (wi hi) V = Fx Level wx Level 2: 235 k x 27’ = 6345 k’ 0.6 psf v2 = 5.2 psf 19 + 53 + 88 .15 Flexible floor and roof diaphragms transfer loads proportional to the tributary area supported by walls.33 = 4230 / 12690 0.50 x 106 = 53 k Level 1: 235 k x 18’ = 4230 k’ 0.

6d @ 6” = 200 plf . 6d @ 6” = 200 plf Wall D = 10.Wall design (Use Structural I plywood) Note: to simplify.6 psf (19’) 30’/24’= 204 plf Wall C = 8.2 psf) Wall A = 5.4 psf) Wall A = 10.4 psf (34’) 15’/30’= 177 plf use 5/16. 6d @ 6” = 200 plf use 5/16.6 psf (34’) 30’/30’= 292 plf Level 2 (v2 = 5. 10d@6”= 340 plf use 3/8.6 psf (34’) 15’/30’= 146 plf Wall D = 8. 8d @ 6” = 230 plf use 5/16. 6d @ 6” = 200 plf use 5/16.2 psf (15’) 30’/12’ =195 plf Wall B = 5.2 psf (19’) 30’/24’ =124 plf Wall C = 5.2 psf (34’) 15’/30’ = 89 plf Wall D = 5. 8d @ 6” = 255 plf Wall C = 10.6 psf (15’) 30’/12’= 323 plf Wall B = 8. select only two wall types 20 Level 0 (v0 = 10.6 psf) Wall A = 8. 6d @ 4” = 300 plf use 5/16. 6d @ 6” = 200 plf use 5/16.4 psf (15’) 30’/12’= 390 plf use 5/16.2 psf (34’) 30’/30’ =177 plf Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 use 15/32.4 psf (34’) 30’/30’= 354 plf use 3/8.4 psf (19’) 30’/24’= 247 plf use 7/16. 6d @ 3” = 390 plf Wall B = 10. 6d @ 6” = 200 plf use 5/16. 8d @ 4” = 360 plf Level 1 (v1 = 8.

17 = 18360 / 110160 V = 1591 k Vertical force distribution Fx= (V .Assume: Seismic factor CS =0.33 = 36720 / 110160 0.Ft ) wx hx /  (wi hi) = Fx Vx =  Fx hx = wx hx / (wi hi) V Level wx 796 k Level 2: 2040 k x 27’ = 55080 k’ 0.625”/12”) 120 pcf/[(68) 150] Floor/roof (12” slab) Miscellaneous  DL Dead load DL / level: W = 200 psf x 68’ x 150’/ 1000 DL at 3 Levels: W = 3 x 2040 k Rigid diaphragm / masonry shear walls Fv = 85 psi L = 720’ DL = 43 psf 150 psf 7 psf  DL = 200 psf W = 2040 k W = 6120 k Base shear (CS times 1.33 x 1591 = 525 k + 796 = 1321 k Level 0: 2040 k x 9’ = 18360 k’ 0.17 W = 0.17 x 1591 = 270 k + 1321 = 1591 k V = 1591 k  wihI = 110160 k’ Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 21 .17 Allowable masonry shear stress Structural walls DL Length of walls 12 (30’)+14 (12)+8 (24) DL = (720’) 8’(7.1) V=1.5.50 x 1591 = 796 k Level 1: 2040 k x 18’ = 36720 k’ 0.5 CS W V = 1.26 x 6120 0.5 x 0.50 = 55080 / 110160 0.5 for ASD masonry shear per IBC 2106.

In width direction all walls are equal and.11) / 15372 Wall C = (796) 1000 (0. thus.625”) C walls = 8(24’)12”(7. have constant stiffness.89) / 17568 Level 2 (V2 = 796 k) Wall A = (796) 1000 / 32940 Wall B = (796) 1000 (0.11 R= 0.625”) B walls = 14(12’)12”(7.11) / 15372 Wall C = (1321) 1000 (0. relative stiffness is constant.89) / 17568 Level 1 (V1 = 1321 k) Wall A = (1321) 1000 / 32940 Wall B = (1321) 1000 (0.89 A = 32940 in2 B = 15372 in2 C = 17568 in2 48 psi < 85 19 psi < 85 81 psi < 85 40 psi < 85 10 psi < 85 67 psi < 85 24 psi < 85 6 psi < 85 40 psi < 85 22 From last slide: Level 2 V2 = 796 k Level 1 V1 = 1321 k Level 0 V0 = 1591 k Base shear V = 1591 k Shear wall . For walls of constant height and material.625”) Level 0 (V0 = 1591 k) Wall A = (1591) 1000 / 32940 Wall B = (1591) 1000 (0.89) / 17568 Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 R= 0.Rigid diaphragm / masonry shear walls Assume allowable masonry shear stress Rigid diaphragms resist lateral load in proportion to wall stiffness. In length direction relative wall stiffness is: Fv = 85 psi R = L x3 /  L i3 B walls R = (12)3 / [(12)3 +(24)3] C walls R = (24)3 / [(12)3 +(24)3] Wall cross section areas: A walls = 12(30’)12”(7.11) / 15372 Wall C = (1591) 1000 (0.

My projects at Google earth Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 23 .

concrete shear walls Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 24 . San Francisco .Senior Housing.

Roxbury Condos. Beverley Hills wood shear walls Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 25 .

Terrace Homes Hermosa Beach .wood shear walls Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 26 .

Terrace Homes Hermosa Beach .wood shear walls Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 27 .

Park City Village 1981 (Olympic Village 2002) wood shear walls Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 28 .

Park City Village 1981 (Olympic Village 2002) wood shear walls Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 29 .

Park City Village aka Olympic Village 2002 Level ski access Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 30 .

Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 31 .

Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 32 .

Park City Village Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 33 .

Shear wall Shear wall Copyright Prof Schierle 2012 Stabilize Narrow walls 34 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful