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UNIT 2: SECTION 1-CELLS Cells and organelles Cells can be Eukaryotic or Prokaryotic 1)Eukaryotic cells are complex and

include all animal and plant cells 2) Prokaryotes are smaller and simpler Structure and function of organelles Organelle Nucleus Description A large organelle surrounded by a nuclear envelope (double membrane) which contains many pores. The nucleus contains chromatin and often a structure called the nucleolus. A round organelle surrounded by a membrane with no clear internal structure. Function Chromatin is made from proteins and DNA. The pores allow substances e.g. RNA to move between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The nucleolus makes ribosomes. Contains digestive enzymes . These are kept separate from the cytoplasm by the surrounding membrane, but can be used to digest invading cells or to break down worn out components of the cell. Transports substances in and out of the cell (via the cell membrane) and between organelles. Some are formed by the Golgi apparatus or the endoplasmic



A small fluid filled sac in the cytoplasm, surrounded by a membrane.


Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Golgi apparatus



A very small organelle that floats free in the cytoplasm or is attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. There are two types: smooth is a system of membranes inclosing a fluid filled space. the rough ER is similar but covered in ribosomes. A group of fluid filled flattened sacs. Vesicles are often seen at the edge of the sac. Hollow cylinders containing a ring of microtubules (tiny protein cylinders) Usually oval shaped. They have a double membrane – the inner one is folded to form structures called cristae. Inside is the matrix, which contains enzymes involved in respiration

reticulum, while others are formed at the cell surface. The site where proteins are made.

Smooth ER synthesises and processes lipids. The rough ER folds and processes proteins that have been made at the ribosomes. It processes and packages new lipids and proteins. It also makes lysomes. Involved with the separation of chromosomes during cell division. Site of aerobic respiration where ATP is produced. Found in large numbers in cells that are very active and require lots of energy.

Prokaryotic cells are simpler than eukaryotic cells (they include bacteria and blue green algae). EUKARYOTES Larger cells 2-200µm diameter DNA is linear Nucleus present – DNA inside nucleus No cell wall (in animals), cellulose cell wall (in plants) or chitin cell wall (in fungi) Many organelles, mitochondrion present Large ribosomes Example: human liver cell PROKARYOTES Extremely small (less than 2.0µm diameter) DNA is circular No nucleus – DNA free in cytoplasm Cell wall made of polysaccharide, but not cellulose or chitin. Few organelles, no mitochondrion Smaller ribosomes Example: E.coli bacteria

Rough ER, Vesicles and Golgi Apparatus are involved with Protein Transport 1. Proteins are made at the ribosomes 2. Ribosomes on the rough ER make proteins that are excreted or attached to the cell membrane. The free ribosomes make proteins that stay in the cytoplasm 3. New proteins produced at the rER are folded and processed (e.g. sugar chains are added) in the rER. 4. Then they’re transported from the rER to the Golgi apparatus in vesicles 5. At the Golgi apparatus, the proteins may undergo further processing (e.g. sugar chains are trimmed or more are added). 6. The proteins enter more vesicles to be transported around the cell. E.g. Extracellular enzymes (such as disgestive enzymes)move to the cell surface to be excreted.

Tissues are organised into organs An organ is a group of different tissues that work together to perfrom a particular function. The lungs are an example of an animal organ.carries sugars away from the leaf 6) Upper epidermis covered in a waterproof waxy cuticle to reduce water loss.Cell Organisation Similar cells are organised in tissues Similar cells are grouped together in tissues for example: 1) squamous epithelium tissue is a single layer of flat cells lining a surface. Squamous epithelium tissue is found at many places. Organs are in systems Organs work together to form organ systems – each system has a particular function. the respiratory system is made up of all the organs. It contains xylem vessel cells and parenchyma cells. The leaf is a plant organ made up of the following tissues: 1) lower epidermis – contains stomata (holes) to let air in and out for gas exchange 2) spongy mesophyll – full of space to let gases circulate 3) Palisade mesophyll – most photosynthesis occurs here 4)Xylem – carries water to the leaf 5)Phloem. including the alveoli in the lungs. they are made up of the following tissues: 1) Squamous epithelium tissue – surrounds the alveoli (where gas exchange occurs). For example. 2) Xylem tissue is a plan tissue with two jobs – it transports water around the plant and it supports the plant. 2) Fibrous connective tissue – helps to force air back out of the lungs when exhaling 3) Blood vessels – capillaries surround the alveoli. .

2) the cell cycle consists of a period of cell growth and DNA replication. and diaphragm are all part of the respiratory system. metaphase. mouth. trachea. The cell’s DNA unravels and replicates to double its genetic content. Interphase comes before mitosis in the cell cycle – its when cells grow and replicate their DNA ready for division. G1 (the gap phase – cells grow and new organelles and proteins are made). nose.tissues and cells involved in breathing. 3)interphase (cell growth) is divided into three separate growth stages – G1. Mitosis (the cell cycle starts and ends here. called interphase. Interphase – the cell carries out normal functions but also prepares to divide. Synthesis (cell replicates its DNA. 1) the cell cycle starts when a cell is produced by cell division and ends with the cell dividing to produce two identical cells. but it’s described as a series of division stages -prophase. The lungs. 2) Some organisms (e. Cell cycle and mitosis The cell cycle is the process that all body cells from multicellular organisms use to grow and divide. larynx.g.S and G2. anaphase and telophase. repair and asexual reproduction 1) mitosis is needed for the growth of multicellular organisms and repairing damaged tissues. This means any new organism produced are genetically identical to the original parent organism. some plants and fungi reproduce asexually (without sex) using mitosis. Mitosis is used for growth. and a period of cell division called mitosis. . Mitosis is really one continous process. ready to divide by mitosis) G2 (cell keeps growing and proteins needed for cell division are made).

The nuclear envelope (membrane around the nucleus) breaks down and the chromosomes lie free in the cytoplasm.g. They uncoil and become long and thin again. The cytoplasm divides and there are now two daughter cells that are identical to the original cell and to each other. 4) Telophase – the chromatids reach the opposite poles on the spindle. centromere first. The spindles contract. A stain that can be used is toluidine blue or acetic orecin. Root tips can be stained to observe mitosis 1. Place the root tip in watch glass (a small shallow bowl) and add a few drops of hydrochloric acid. pulling the chromatids to opposite ends of the cell. They’re now called chromosomes again. A nuclear envelope forms around each group of chromosomes so now there are two nuclei. 2) metaphase – the chromosome (each with two chromatids) line up along the middle of the cell and become attached to the spindle by their centromere. . The centrioles start moving to opposite ends of the cell. 3. 3) Anaphase – The centromeres divide. Your root tip should be about 5mm long. separating each pair of sister chromatids. 2. Mitosis is finished and each daughter cell starts the interphase part of the cell cycle to get ready for the next round of mitosis. Cut the tip from a growing root (e. getting shorter and fatter. add a few drops of stain so that the chromosomes become darker and so easier to see under a microscope.The organelles are also replicated s pot has spare ones and its ATP content is increased (ATP provides the energy needed for cell division) 1) Prophase – the chromosomes condense. forming a network of protein fibres across it called the spindle. from a broad bean or garlic).

Warm the watch glass (but don’t boil the liquid) by passing it slowly over a Bunsen burner flame. Mammalian Gametes are specialised for their function Sperm cell: Flagellum (tail) allows sperm to swim towards the ova. warm the slide again as this will intensify the stain a body cell a total of 46 chromosomes. UNIT 2: SECTION 2 – SEXUAL REPRODUCTION DNA is passed to new offspring by gametes  Gametes are the male and female sex cells found in all organisms that reproduce sexually.4. 6.  Gametes contain half the number of chromosomes as a normal body cell – in humans they contain one set of 23 chromosomes.  In animals. male gametes are sperm and the female gametes are ova.  They join at fertilisation to form a zygote. Humans have two sets of 23 chromosomes – one set from each parent. Place the root tip on a microscope slide and use a mounted needle to break it open and spread out cells thinly. squash the cover slip down gently 8. which divides and develops into a new organism. 5.  In plants the male gametes are contained in pollen grains and the female gametes are contained in the ovules.  Normal body cells of plants and animals contain the full number of chromosomes. add a few more drops of the stain then place on a cover slip 7. now you can see the stages of mitosis under the microscope. Lots of mitochondria provide energy for tail movement Nucleus contains 23 chromosomes .

g.the pairs of sister chromatids are separated. but the cells formed have half the number. both number 1s) 4. Stages of meiosis: 1. DNA condenses to form double armed chromosomes. halving the chromosome number. Egg cell: Follicle cells provide protective coating Zone pellucida forms the protective layer in which the sperm has the penetrate Nucleus contains 23 chromosomes Egg cells are much larger than sperm cells Cell division by meiosis  Meiosis is a type of cell division that happens in the reproductive organs to produce gametes. First division – the homologous pairs are separated. DNA replicates so there are two identical copies of each chromosome. 5.Acrosome contains digestive enzymes to break down the ova’s zone pellucida and enable the sperm to penetrate the egg. 2.  Without meiosis . 3. The chromosomes arrange themselves in homologous pairspairs of matching chromosomes (one from each 23 – e. made from two sister chromatids.  Cells that divide by meiosis have the full number of chromosomes to start with. second division. . called chromatids. you would get double the genetic material when the gametes fused.

Once the sperm makes contact with the zona pellucida of the egg cell. and into one of the oviducts. 4. Sperm swim toward the ova in the oviduct 2. the acrosome reaction occurs – this is where the digestive enzymes are released from the acrosome. 3. fertilisation occurs in the oviduct  In mammals. they have to make their way up through the cervix and uterus.  Since the gametes contain half the full number of chromosomes. This triggers a cortical reaction – the egg releases the . sperm are deposited high up in the female vagina close to the entrance of the cervix. so that the sperm can move through it to the cell membrane of the egg.6. In mammals.  Once there. The sperm head fuses with the cell membrane of the egg cell. Four new cells (gametes) that are genetically different from each other are produced. Fertilisation Fertilisation is when male and female gametes fuse  Fertilisation is the term used to describe the exact moment when the nuclei of the male and female gametes fuse. These enzymes digest the zona pellucida. fertilisation creates a cell with the full number of chromosomes – this cell is called the zygote  The zygote contains two sets of chromosomes – one set from the male parent and one set from the female parent  Combining genetic material from two individuals makes offspring that are genetically unique. fertilisation may occur: here’s how it works: 1.  Once the sperm reach the oviduct.

3. 6. The tube nucleus makes enzymes that digest surrounding cells. There are three nuclei in the pollen tube. It immediately begins to divide by mitosis to develop into a fully formed organism. 7. 6. releasing two male nuclei 5. The grain absorbs water and splits open. 5. it grows through the micropyle ( a tiny hole in the ovule wall) and into the embryo sac within the ovule 4. These chemicals from the cortical granules make the zona pellucida thicken. . This provides the cell with a large nucleus which divides to become a food store called the endosperm for the mature seed.contents of vesicles called cortical granules into the space between the cell membrane and the zone pellucida. the tail is discarded. A zygote is now formed. the tube nucleus disintegrates and the tip of the pollen tube bursts. One male nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus to make a zygote. When a tube reaches the ovary. making a way for the pollen tube. A pollen grain lands on the stigma of a flower. One the sperm enters. This divides by mitosis to become an embryo of the seed. One tube nucleus at the tube’s tip and two male gamete nuclei behind it. which makes it impenetrable to other sperm which ensure the egg is only fertilised by one sperm. 2. The second male nucleus fuses with two other nuclei called the polar nuclei at the centre of the embryo sac. A pollen tube grows out of the pollen grain and down the style (rod like section that supports the stigma). In flowering plants fertilisation occurs in the embryo sac: 1. Nucleus of the sperm fuses with the nucleus of the egg cell – this is fertilisation. In the embryo sac. which has the full number (46) of chromosomes.

white blood cells. UNIT 2: SECTION 3 – STEM CELLS Stem cells are able to differentiate into specialised cells  Multicellular organisms are made up from many different cell types that are specialised for their function e.7. So a double fertilisation has taken place (two male nuclei have fused with a female nuclei) this only happens in flowering plants. including all the specialised cells in an organism and extraembryonic (cells of the placenta and umbilical cord) 2) Pluripotency – ability of a stem cell to produce all the specialised cells in an organism but not extraembryonic cells. live cells. stem cells are found in the embryo (where they differentiate into all the cells needed to form a foetus) and in some adult cells (where they differentiate into specialised cells that need to be replaced e.g.  All these specialised cell types originally came from stem cells. which then become specialised.  Stem cells are unspecialised cells that can develop into any type of cell  Stem cells divide by mitosis to become new cells.g.  Totipotent stem cells in humans are only present in the early life of an embryo – they differentiate into extraembryonic cells and . stem cells in the bone marrow can differentiate into red blood cells)  Ability to differentiate into specialised cells is called potency and there are two types which need to be known about: 1) totipotency – ability to produce all cell types. muscle cells.  The process by which they become specialised is called differentiation  All multi cellular organisms have some form of stem cell  In humans.

g. Totipotency can be demonstrated in tissue culture 1) Plants also have stem cells – they are found in areas where the plant is growing e. but not all of them are expressed because not all of them are active 2) Under the right conditions. a method used to grow a plant from a single cell: i) A single cell is taken from a growing area on a plant – (e.g. Stem cells become specialised through differential gene expression stem cells become specialised because different genes in their DNA become active (are turned on) – in other words express different genes (use different genes to make proteins). ii) Cell is placed in some growth medium (e. 2) All stem cells in plants are totipotent – they can produce all cell types and can grow into a whole new plant 3) Totipotency can be shown using tissue culture. The pluripotent stem cells then differentiate into specialised cells in the foetus.pluripotent stem cells.g. some genes are activated . if the plant cells are given the right hormones) the unspecialised cells will differentiate into specialised cells iv)Eventually the cells with grow and differentiate into an entire plant Tissue culture shows totipotency because single stem cells can produce all the specialised cells needed for the whole plant. in roots and shoots. If the conditions are suitable (e. a root or shoot). 1) Stem cells all contain the same genes.g. and some inactivated . agar) that contains nutrients and growth hormones. Growth medium is sterile so microorganisms can’t grow and compete with the plant cell iii) Plant will grow and divide into a mass of unspecialised cells.

Stem cells in medicine Stem cells can be used to treat some diseases  Stem cells can develop into any specialised cell. Many other genes are activated or inactivated. including: Spinal cord injuries – stem cells could be used to repair damaged nerve tissue . such as those involved on removing the nucleus. treatment for leukaemia ( cancer of the bone marrow) kills all the stem cells in the bond marrow.3) mRNA is only transcribed from the active genes 4) mRNA from the active genes is then translated into proteins 5) these proteins then modify the cell – they determine the cell structure and control cell processes (including the activation of more genes. For example. example – Red Blood Cells a) RBCs are produced from a type of stem cell in the bone marrow. are activated too. so scientists think they could be used to replace damaged tissue in a range of diseases  Some stem cell therapies already exist. so bone marrow transplants can be given to patients to replace them  Scientists are researching the use of stem cells as treatment for lots of conditions. These changes are difficult to reverse so once the cell has differentiated. it stays specialised. resulting in a specialised RBC. They contain lots of haemoglobin and have no nucleus (to make room for more haemoglobin) b) The stem cells produce a new cell in which the genes for haemoglobin production are activated. Other genes. which produces more proteins 6) Changes to the cell produced by these proteins cause the cell to become specialised (differentiated).

 Can develop into any type they can only develop into a of cell. flexible as embryonic cells.g. Stem cells could be used to grow organs for those people awaiting a transplant -they could improve quality of life for many people –e. . stem cells could be used to replace damaged cells in people who are blind. limited range of cells. bone marrow  Embryos are created in a lab  Obtained in a simple. but using in virtro fertilisation painful operation.g. Donor is (IVF) anaesthetised and a needle is  Once the embryos are about inserted into the centre of a four to five days old. and the rest of the embryo is  Adult stem cells aren’t as destroyed.g. Human stem cells come from adult tissue or embryos two potential sources of stem cells: Adult Stem cells Embryonic stem cells  Obtained from body tissues  Obtained from early of an adult embryos e. many people waiting for an organ transplant may die before a donor organ becomes available. stem bone (usually the hip) and a cells are removed from them small quantity removed.Heart diseases and damage caused by heart attacks – stem cells could be sued to replace damaged heart tissue  People who make decisions about use of stem cells in medicine and research have to consider the potential benefits of stem cell therapies: -they could save many lives – e.

 Obtaining stem cells from embryos from IVF causes ethical issues because the procedure involves the destruction of an embryo that’s viable (could be placed in the womb)  Many people believe that at fertilisation a genetically unique individual is created and has the right to life  Some people have fewer objections to stem cells being obtained from unfertilised embryos – embryos made from egg cells that have not been fertilised by sperm. o Licensing and monitoring centres involved in embryonic stem cell research ensures only fully trained staff carry out the research o Producing guidelines and codes of practise ensures all scientists are working in a similar manner. This is because the embryos aren’t viable . they cannot survive past a few days and cannot produce a foetus if placed in the womb  Some people think only adult stem cells should be used as this doesn’t involve the destruction of life but they cannot develop into any cell. regulatory authorities have been established to consider the benefits and ethical issues.  To help society make these decisions. The work of these authorities include: o Looking at proposals for research and deciding whether they should be allowed – this ensures research is carried out for good reasons and makes sure the same research isn’t unnecessarily repeated by lots of groups.  The decision makers must take all the views into account when making important decisions about scientific work that could save lives. It also ensures methods of extraction are controlled o Monitoring developments in scientific research and advances ensures that any changes in the field are .

blood type . which can produce one of four blood groups  Some characteristics are controlled by only one gene – they’re called monogenic. For example in humans. UNIT 2: SECTION 4 – VARIATION. They tend to show discontinuous variation e.B.g.regulated appropriately and that all guidelines are up to date with current scientific understanding o Providing info and advice to governments and professionals helps promote the science involved and helps people to understand why research is important and what is involved.AB or O) Variation in phenotype is influenced by variation in Genotype  Individuals of the same species have different genotypes (different combination of alleles)  Variation in genotype results in variation of phenotype – characteristics displayed by an organism. there are 6 different combinations of blood group alleles. EVOLUTION AND CLASSIFICAITON Variation variation in phenotype can be continuous or discontinuous Continuous variation This is when the individuals in a population vary within a range – there are no distinct categories: -height -mass Skin colour Discontinuous This is when there are two or more distinct categories – each individual falls into only one of these categories: sex – male or female -blood group (A.

It is difficult to interpret the relative contributions of genes and the environment  Data on variation can be hard to interpret because some characteristics can be affected by many different genes (polygenic) and environmental factors  It’s difficult to understand which factors (genes or environment) are having the biggest effect. Some characteristics are only caused by genotype (blood group) most are influenced by both genotype and the environment Height is polygenic and affected by environmental factors. Animal hair colour is polygenic. but if the children are undernourished they won’t grow to the maximum height.g. E. but environmental factors such as diet or smoking can influence the risk. but the environment also plays a part in some animals.g. some artic animals have dark hair in summer.g. They usually show continuous variation e. Most characteristics are controlled by a number of genes at different loci – they’re said to be poly genic. height. MAOA production is controlled by a single gene (monogenic) but taking anti-depressants or smoking tobacco can reduce the amount produced Cancer is the uncontrolled division of cells that leads to lumps of cells (tumours) forming. Environmental factors such as decreasing temperatures trigger this change but it couldn’t happen if the animal didn’t have the genes for it. especially nutrition. tall parents usually have tall children. E. The risk of developing some cancers is affected by genes. Low levels of MAOA have been linked to mental health problems. . Monoamine Oxidise A (MAOA) is an enzyme that breaks down monoamines (a type of chemical) in humans. Variation is also causes variation. but white hair in winter.

mating rituals  Physiological adaptations: process inside the body which increase the chance of survival – e.g. This makes it hard to draw conclusions about the causes of variation. Adaptation and environment Niche is the role of a species within its habitat  The niche a species occupies within its habitat includes: -interactions with other living organisms (those it eats and those that eat it) -interactions with the non-living environment (e. physiological and anatomical:  Behavioural adaptations: ways an organism acts that increases the chances of survival and reproduction –e. CO2 it breathes out)  Every species has its own unique niche – a niche can only be occupied by one species  It may look like two species are occupying the same niche but there will be variations  If two species try to occupy the same niche.g. Organisms can be adapted to their niche in three ways: Adaptations are features which increase the organisms chance of survival and reproduction all species have adaptations that allow them to use the environment in a way that no other species can – they’re adapted for their niche. One species will be more successful than the other. until only one species is left.g. Adaptations can be behavioural. lowered metabolism in order to hibernate over winter . they will compete with each other. oxygen it breathes in.

Over generations.  There are seven levels of groups (called taxonomic groups) used in classification. This is an outline of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. large ears to allow heat loss. Individuals show variation within their phenotypes 2. Over time.g. Anatomical adaptions: structural features of an organisms body that increase chance of survival – e. Individuals with better adaptations (characteristics that give a selective advantage) are more likely to survive. Evidence increases a scientist’s confidence in a theory. 4. reproduce and pass on their advantageous adaptations to their offspring. Over time the number of individuals with the advantageous adaptations increases 5. Classification Classification is all about grouping together similar organisms Taxonomy is the science of classification. this leads to evolution as favourable adaptations become more common in the population. Adaptations become more common by evolution adaptations become more popular in populations of species because of evolution by natural selection: 1.g. this theory became increasingly accepted as more evidence has been found to support it. all animals are in the animal kingdom . Predation. disease and competition creates struggle for survival 3. and none to disprove it. It involves naming organisms and organising them into groups bases on their similarities and differences. This makes it easier for scientists to identify and study them.  Similar orgasms are first sorted into large groups called kingdoms e.

dogs. no nucleus. in all countries. but they are separate species because they cannot breed together to produce fertile offspring. there are more hierarchies. unicellular. E. the more groups they will be in together as you go down the hierarchy. In this binomial (two word) system. and so on. Organisms can be placed in one of five kingdoms based on general features: Kingdom Prokaryote (Monera) Examples Bacteria Features Prokaryotes. but fewer organisms in each group.  Species in the same genus can be very similar.coli. All species are given a unique scientific name in Latin to distinguish them from similar organisms. the first is the genus name and the second word is the species name – e.g. o  The more similar organisms are to each other. will call an organism the same name. humans.  As you move down. down the levels of the hierarchy. humans are Homo sapiens. Similar organisms in that kingdom are grouped into phylum. Giving organisms a standard name allows scientists to communicate about organisms in a standard way that minimises confusion – all scientists. o A species is a group of similar organisms able to reproduce to give fertile offspring.  The hierarchy ends with species – the groups that contain only one type of organism (e.g. Similar organisms from each phylum are then grouped into a class. less than 5 .

no cell walls. saprotrophic (absorbs substances from dead or decaying organisms) Eukaryotic.Phylogeny is the study of the evolutionary history of groups of organisms -Phylogeny tells us which organisms are related and how closely related they are . insects. chitin cell wall. heterotrophic (consumer plants and animals) New scientific data can lead to new taxonomic groups  Species are classified into taxonomic groups based on loads of things. what they look like. can photosynthesise. ferns. yeast. reptiles.Protoctista Algae. single celled. contain chlorophyll. mushrooms Plantae Mosses. molluscs.g. autotrophic (makes their own food( Eukaryotic. birds . or simple unicellular organisms Eurkaryotic. mammals µm Eukaryotic cells. protozoa Fungi Moulds. e. their physiology and how related they are  New data about any of these things can influence how a species is classified  New data has to be evaluated by other scientists and if they agree. flowering plants Animalia Nematodes (round worms). multicellular. three domain classification system has been proposed based on new data The new data came from molecular phylogeny . multicellular. cellulose cell walls. fish. usually live in water. it can lead to an organism being reclassified or lead to changes in the classification structure  This shows the tentative nature of scientific knowledge Example – Three Domains vs Five Kingdoms   A new.


arranged in pairs – the pit of one cell is lined up with the pit of another cell. Middle lamella Plasmodesmata Pits Chloroplast This layer acts as an adhesive. It gives the plant stability Channels in the cell Allow transport of wall that link adjacent substances and cells together communications between cells Regions of the cell Allow transport of wall where the wall is substances between very thin. Some parts of double membrane. It’s photosynthesis takes surrounded by a place. photosynthesis and also has happen in the grana. sticking adjacent plant cells together. They’re cells.UNIT 2: SECTION 5 – RESOURCES FROM PLANTS Plant cell structure and plant stems Organelle Cell wall Description A rigid structure that surrounds plant cells. membranes inside and other parts called thylakoid happen in the stroma ( membranes. A small flattened Site where structure. It’s mainly made from carbohydrate cellulose Outmost layer of the cell Function Supports plant cells. These a thick fluid found in membranes are the chloroplasts) stacked up in some parts of the .

The tonoplast controls what enters and leaves the cell. They also convert starch back to glucose for release when the plant requires it The vacuole contains the cell sap. .Amyloplast chloroplast to form grana. Different parts of plant stems have different functions Plant stems are made up of lots of different things – the bits you need to know are they xylem vessels and sclerenchyma fibres. enzymes. minerals and waste products. which is made of water. Vacuole and Tonoplast Storage of starch grains. A small organelle enclosed by a membrane. Vacuoles keep the cells turgid – this stops the plant from wilting. They contain starch granules The vacuole is a compartment surrounded by a membrane called the tonoplast. Xylem vessels:  Function is to transport water and mineral ions up the plant. flat pieces of thylakoid membrane. Grana are linked together by lamellae – thin. and provide support. They’re also involved in the breakdown and isolation of unwanted chemicals in the cell.

and also have a hollow lumen and no end walls  Their cell walls are also thicken with lignin and have more cellulose than other plant cells  They’re found throughout the stems of plants. it breaks down the starch to release the glucose) . Starch.  The cells are longer than they are wide. tube-like structures formed from dead cells joined end to end. They’re very long. cellulose and fibres Structures of starch and cellulose determine their functions Starch – the main energy storage material in plants:  Cells get energy from glucose. they have a hollow lumen (contain no cytoplasm) and have no end walls  This makes an interrupted tube. particular around the edge. The tubes are found together in bundles  The cells are longer than they are wide. allowing water and mineral ions to pass up through the middle easily  Their walls are thickened with a woody substance called lignin which helps support the plant  Water and mineral ions move into and out of the vessels through pits in the walls where there’s no lignin  Xylem vessels are found throughout the plant but particularly around the centre of the stem/ Sclerenchyma fibres:  The function is to provide support  Like xylem vessels. they are also made from dead cells that run vertically up the stem. Plants store excess glucose as starch (when a plant needs more glucose for energy.

This makes it compact so it’s good for storage o Amylopectin – a long branched chain of α-glucose.g. ropes or fabrics like hemp  They’re strong for a number of reasons: o The arrangement of cellulose micro fibrils in the cell wall  The cell wall contains microfibrils in a net like arrangement . which means it doesn’t cause water to enter cells by osmosis (which would make them swell) Cellulose – the major component of cell walls in plants:  Cellulose is made of long. joined by glycosidic bonds.g. strengthen plant cell walls) Plant fibres are useful to humans because they are strong  Plant fibres are made up of long tubes of plant cells e. Its side branches allow the enzymes that break down the molecule get to the glycosidic bonds easily. The angles of the glycosidic bonds give it a coiled structure. Starch is a mixture of two polysaccharides of alpha glucose – amylose and amylopectin: o Amylose .a long unbranched chain of α glucose. sclerenchyma fibres are made up of tubes of dead cells  They are strong which makes them useful for loads of things e.g. (e. This means glucose can be released quickly  Starch is insoluble in water. unbranched chains of beta-glucose.  The glycosidic bonds are straight so the chains are straight  Between 50 and 80 cellulose chains are linked together by a large number of hydrogen bonds to from strong threads called micro fibrils. like a cylinder. The strong threads means cellulose provides structural support for cells.

such as wearing goggles and leave the area where the weights will fall clear. We can measure the tensile strength of plant fibres tensile strength is the maximum load it can take before it breaks. Sustainability and plant materials Sustainable practises don’t deplete resources  Sustainability is all about using resources in a way that meets the needs of the present generation without messing it up for future generations  To make products sustainably. Keep all other variables constant – temp. Take safety measures. Use same lengthened fibres 6. you have to use renewable resources . like sclerenchyma have finished growing. humidity 7. The strength of microfibrils and their arrangement gives the plant strength o The secondary thickening of cell walls  When some structural plant cells. Attach a fibre to a clamp stand and hang a weight from the other end 2. 1. Repeat to increase the reliability 5. Record the mass needed to break the fibre – the higher the mass. the higher the tensile strength 4. they produce a secondary cell wall between the normal cell was and the cell membrane  The secondary cell wall it thicker and usually has more lignin  The growth of the secondary cell wall is called secondary thickening which makes plant fibres even stronger. Keep adding weights until the fibre breaks 3.

a new one is planted to take its place.  An example of sustainable practise is replacing trees after logging. When the tree is fully grown. then the process can begin again – the environment isn’t significantly damaged in the long run  Unsustainable practises cannot continue indefinitely . petrol) are not renewable because once it’s been used there is no more.resources will eventually run out.  Plant fibres are more sustainable – less fossil fuel is used up and crops can be regrown to maintain the supply for future generations  Plant fibres are biodegradable – they can be broken down by microbes. Fossil fuels (e. plants are renewable because harvested plants can be regrown. unlike most oil based plastics – which cannot be broken down and remain in the environment for many years/  Plants are easier to grow and process (extract the fibres) than extracting and processing oil. Whenever a tree is cut down. Using plant fibres and starch can contribute to sustainability Plant fibres:  Ropes and fabrics can be made of plastic which is made from oil or they can be made from plant fibres.g.  An example of unsustainable resources is the use of fossil fuels to make oil-based plastics such as polythene.g. This makes them cheaper and it’s easier to do in developing countries (less technology and expertise is needed) Starch:  Starch is found in all plants – crops such as potatoes and corn are particularly rich in starch . Renewable resources can be used indefinitely without running out e.

bioethanol is a fuel that can be made from starch  Making fuel from starch is more sustainable than making it from oil because less fossil fuels are used up and the crops can be regrown. If there isn’t enough water or minerals. Plastics are usually made from oil. to maintain structural rigidity.  Water is needed for photosynthesis. like starch. transport minerals and regulate temperature  Magnesium ions are needed for the production of chlorophyll (pigment needed for photosynthesis)  Nitrate ions are needed for the production of DNA. These plastics are called bioplastics.  Making plastics from starch is more sustainable than from making them from oil because less fossil fuel is used up and crops from which the starch has come from can be regrown  Vehicle fuel is also usually made from oil. but some can be made from plant based materials.g. proteins (enzymes) and chlorophyll. they plant will show deficiency symptoms such as stunted growth. They’re needed for plant growth.  Calcium ions are important components in plant cell walls. You can investigate plant mineral deficiencies in the lab method . They’re absorbed through the roots and travel through the plant in the xylem. They’re required for plant growth. but you can make fuel from starch – e. Plants need water an Inorganic ions Plants need water and inorganic ions (minerals) for a number of different reasons. fruit production and seed production.

This shows calcium is needed for growth. and when there is a lack. temp. medium and low concentration of calcium. Make up a broth with high. Take 30 seedlings of the same plant. 3. growth is inhibited. drugs undergo three stages of testing: o Phase 1 – involves testing the drug on a small group of healthy people – it’s done to test the safe dosage and side effects and the body’s reaction o Phase 2 – (if the drug passes phase 1) tested on a larger group of patients . Calculate the average height 5. Make up the nutrient broth containing all the essential minerals. but vary the concentration of calcium ions.g. then they’re tested on live animals before clinical trials are carried out on humans  During clinical testing.1. computers are used to model the potential side effects  Tests are also carried out on human tissues in a lab. 2. sunlight. Drugs testing and drugs from plants Testing drugs used to be trial and error Modern testing is more rigorous  Drug protocols are much more controlled  Before a drug is tested on live subjects. the more the plants grew. Record the heights of the plants after 7 weeks. water Results: greater the conc of calcium ions. Split the seedlings into three groups. Keep all other variables constant – e. each given one of the broths 4. same age and same height and plant in spate pots.

2. Using placebos in a double blind study  In phase 2 clinical trials. The plant should be the same size. To do this you need to dry and grind each plant. Here’s an example of how to show this: 1. Dip discs of absorbent paper in the extracts. The placebo use allows researchers to see if the drug actually has any affect  Phase 2 + 3 are usually double blind trials – neither the patient or the doctor know who’s been given the real drug. Include a control disc that has only been soaked in ethanol to ensure it is not the ethanol or the paper that is inhibiting the growth. then soak them in ethanol (this acts as the solvent). ½ given the placebo. Patients often show a placebo effect – where they show some improvement because they believe that they are receiving treatment. Take extracts from the plant you want to test. One group receives new treatment. This allows scientists to tell if the new drug is better. the patients are split into two groups. so the extract is the same. Group are split into two.o Phase 3 – compared to existing treatments and tested on lots more patients. The discs should be the same size so they absorb the same volume of liquid 5. and one group receives existing treatment. Some plants have antimicrobial properties These plants kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. This reduces bias as the attitudes of the patients and doctors cannot affect the results. Filter off the liquid bit 3. . Evenly spread a sample of bacteria onto an agar (nutrient) plate 4. ½ given real drug.

they can’t usually migrate so their numbers will decline.g.  Conservation helps to maintain biodiversity  Endemism is when a species is unique to a particular place (isn’t naturally found anywhere else in the world). there will be a clear patch in the lawn of bacteria – this is called an inhibition zone 9. UNIT 2: SECTION 6 – BIODIVERSITTY Biodiversity and Endemism Biodiversity is the variety of organisms  Biodiversity is the variety of living organisms in an area. the giant tortoise is endemic to the Galapagos Islands. E. It includes: o Species diversity – number of different species and abundance of each species in each area. the more effective the plant is. E. They’re only found in one place. so if their habitat is threatened. You can measure it in different ways: . birds and mammals o Genetic diversity – variation of alleles within a species (or a population of species) for example. Where the bacteria can’t grow. Incubate to ensure growth 8.6.g. a wood may contain lots of tree. The size of this zone indicates how well the antimicrobial plant is working – the larger the size. Place the paper discs on the agar – make sure there is plenty of space 7. human blood type is determined by a gene with four alleles. The species diversity in a habitat can be measures it is important to be able to measure species diversity so you can compare different habitats or how it’s changed over time.  Conservation is important for endemic species because they’re particularly vulnerable to extinction.

use a net  Repeat the process – take as many samples as possible  Use results to estimate total number of species and abundance  When sampling different habitats and comparing them.. use the same sampling technique. choose a random coordinate  Count the number of species in this one area: o For flying insects use a sweep net o For plants use a quadrat o For ground insects. of different species is called the species richness. The genetic diversity within a species can also be measured  Diversity within a species is the variety shown by individuals of that species (or a population of that species)  Individuals of the same species vary.g. because they have different alleles . the spot should be random e. When measuring species diversity. of species in an area. it is best to just use a small sample. The no. Count the no. of individuals in the species. use a pitfall trap o For aquatic animals. of different species and the no. the higher the species richness. The higher the no. to save time. This involves:  Choose an area to sample – small area where the habitat is being studied  To avoid bias. But species richness gives no indication of the abundance of different species  Count the no. The use a biodiversity index (worked out with an equation – Simpson’s index of diversity) to calculate the species diversity – this takes into account the abundance.

g. the allele for brown hair  By looking at the different will have a different order phenotypes in a population of bases for the allele for of a species. greater the genetic variation. gorillas have one allele. you can look at the phenotypes. Humans in northern different alleles a species Europe show a variety of has for one characteristic to blue. eye a species is. Outside this area. or how two populations of the same species show different diversity.  The larger the no. colour shows little variety – they’re usually brown. Genetic diversity is the variety of alleles in the gene pool of a species  Gene pool is the complete set of alleles in a species  Greater the variation of alleles. In N. you can get an blonde hair. so humans show greater diversity.g.  You can investigate the changes in the genetic diversity of a population over time. e. you can look at two things: Phenotype Genotype  Phenotype describes the  Samples of an organism’s observable characteristics of DNA can be taken and the an organism sequence of base pairs analysed  Different alleles code for slightly different versions of  Order of bases in different the same characteristic alleles is slightly different. humans have different species eye colours due to different  You can measure the no. of alleles. E. the greater . green or brown see how genetically diverse eyes. of Europe there’s greater different alleles. larger the similarities and differences genetic diversity in the alleles within the  E. humans have three alleles for blood group.g.  To measure the diversity of a species. idea of the diversity of alleles  By sequencing the DNA of individuals of the same  Larger the number of species. grey.

 Some species have already become extinct (e.genetic diversity. the dodo) and there are lots of endangered species – species that are at risk of extinction because of a low population. Seeds are planted.  Conservation involves the protection and management of endangered species  Zoos and seedbanks help to conserve endangered species and conserve genetic diversity. For some species they store a range of seeds from plants with different characteristics (so different alleles)  Work of a seedbank involves: o Creating the cool.  Seedbanks help to conserve genetic diversity. grown and new seeds are harvested and put into storage. the genetic diversity. Advantages Disadvantages  Cheaper to store seeds  Testing the seeds for than fully grown plants viability can be expensive and . dry conditions needed for storage which means the seed can be stored for a long time o Testing seeds for viability (ability to grow into a plant). or a threatened habitat. Conservation of Biodiversity Zoos and seedbanks help conserve endangered species  The extinction of a species or the loss of genetic diversity within a species cause a reduction in global biodiversity. the stored seed can be used to grow new plants.g. Seedbanks store seeds from plants that are endangered:  A seedbank is a store of lots of different species of a plant  They help to conserve biodiversity by storing seeds of endangered plants  If the plant becomes extinct in the wild.

o Most people think it’s cruel to keep animals in captivity. Plants would need the conditions from their original habitat. as long as it’s cool and dry. Larger no. natural disaster or vandalism than plants time consuming  It would be too expensive to store all types of seeds and test them for viability  It may be difficult to collect seeds from some plants as they may grow in remote conditions Zoos have captive breeding programmes to help endangered species  Captive breeding programs involve breeding animals in controlled environments  Species that are endangered or already extinct in the wild can be bred together in zoos to help increase numbers. helping to .g. pandas are bred in captivity because their numbers are critically low in the wild .  Reintroduction of plants grown from seedbanks or animals bred in captivity can increase their numbers in the wild. E. Organisms from zoos and seedbanks can be introduced into the wild.  There are some problems with captive breeding programmes though: o Animals can have problems breeding outside their natural habitat which can be difficult to recreate in a zoo. of seeds can be stored than grown plants because they need less space  Less labour is needed to look after seeds than plants  Seeds can be stored anywhere. even if it is to stop them becoming extinct.  Seeds are less likely to be damaged by disease.

or as part of their habitat. harming other organisms living there o Reintroduced animals may not behave as they would if they had been raised in the wild.  The reintroduction of plants and animals also contributes to restoring habitats that have been lost e. they may have problems finding food or communicating with wild members Seedbanks and zoos contribute to scientific research Seedbanks:  -scientists can study how plant species can be successfully grown from seeds. so the information may not be representative of the wild plants Zoos:  Research in zoos increases knowledge about the behaviours. physiology and nutritional needs of animals. This can contribute to conservation efforts in the wild .conserve their numbers and bring them back from the brink of extinction.g.  Reintroducing organisms into the wild can cause problems though: o It could bring new diseases.  This could also help organisms that rely on these plants or animals as food. as new crops or for new materials. this is useful for introducing them to the wild  Seedbanks can be used to grow endangered plants for use in medical research. This means we don’t have to remove endangered plants from the wild  A disadvantage is that only studying plants from seeds in a seedbank limits the data to small inbred populations. a rainforest that has been cut down. e.g.

 Zoos let people get close to organisms . . For example. Zoos can carry out research that’s not possible for some species in the wild.g. increasing the enthusiasm for conservation work  Seedbanks contribute to education by providing training and setting up seedbanks all around the world. nutritional or reproductive studies  A disadvantage is those in captivity may act differently Zoos and seedbanks help to educate people about conserving biodiversity educating people about endangered species and reduced biodiversity helps to raise public awareness and interest in conserving biodiversity. e. the millennium seed bank project aims to conserve seeds in the original country.