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The multicultural nature of Pasifika

Introduction
This document attempts to provide a broad overview of a range of cultures from Pasifika, allowing similarities and differences to be examined and allowing the multicultural nature of this area to be more fully understood. Whether we teach in schools with a high percentage of Pasifika families or in a school with only a handful of Pasifika, as is the case with my current school, relationships with these families are pivotal to the success of teaching and the use of interventions with their child with special needs. Such relationships would struggle to develop and survive if an environment of trust, respect and shared understanding of the families culture did not exist. With the projected number of Pasifika children being educated in our schools increasing by 50% between 2006 and 2026 this is a reality that, as teachers, we need to be proactive about. We need to be prepared to deliver a culturally responsive education to 165,000 Pasifika children and work towards turning their over representation as under achievers into a realisation of the vision of 2013-2017 Pasifika Education Plan: Five out of five Pasifika learners participating, engaging and achieving in education, secure in their identities, languages and cultures and contributing fully to Aotearoa New Zealands social, cultural and economic wellbeing.

Summary
Compiling this document has made me appreciate the complexity in the number of ways and areas of live that culture manifests itselfand the many interconnections between these. It made me consider my own culture and provided me with an opportunity to gain a wealth of knowledge about a group of cultures that I knew very little about other than through popular media representation.

In his video documentary, The Wayfinders of Polynesia, Wade Davis (2009.) suggests that people from Polynesia all originate from a shared ancestry that can be traced back to South East Asia. A search for images for each culture visually reinforced these shared roots as did a more in depth internet search. An example being the traditional earth oven referred to as an umu used in Niue, Tonga and the Cook Islands and a central area of importance in a village referred to as the male in Niue and the malae in Tonga. It also highlighted differences in gender relationships, traditional greetings, clothing, and levels of western acculturation. The following list identifies a number of connections between my new knowledge of these Pasifika cultures and how this would be relevant to me as a teacher should our school be in a situation of working with a family from one of these countries. Language

Although English is the language used in many schools and businesses in Pasifika we must be aware that this is often not the language spoken at home or by older members of the family. When meeting with these families it may be necessary to ask another family member to translate. Vocabulary

Learning a few words from a families native language shows an interest in their culture e.g. greeting a Samoan family using talofa or inviting them to bring in a lavalava to share when we read the Ready to Read book, Lavalava, together as a class. Being aware of different uses of vocabulary can avoid confusion e.g. knowing that in Samoan culture adult women who are related will refer to each other as sisters and men as brothers even though may not be siblings. Non-Verbal Communication

In Papua New Guinea it is ok to stare at, or crowd, other people. In Tonga the raising of an eyebrow whilst listening to someone is affirmative meaning I understand, carry on. Being aware of this opposite meaning to western culture could avoid misunderstanding.

In Kiribati eye contact is rare especially with elders, it does not mean the child or adult is not listening. Greetings

Dont be caught out by a traditional greeting e.g. in Papua New Guinea a greeting involves grasping the other person by the hand or round the waist. Health and medicine

Some countries have a very different view of what constitutes health e.g. in the Cook Islands fat is considered beautiful and a sign of wealth. It could be easy to insult a family if discussing concerns about a childs weight if not aware of this cultural value. Many Pasifika people, including Papua New Guinea, Niue, Fiji and The Cook Islands, use a combination of western and traditional medicines so may wish to try something from their own culture before agreeing to an intervention suggested by professionals. Home visits

Shoes need to be removed if entering a Fijian home. If visiting the home of a Cook Islander it is polite to pause before entering and then sit just inside the doorway until invited to come further into the home. In Niue a small gift is given when visiting a home and this is expected to be reciprocated at a later date. The behaviours used by a family at home may reflect their culture far more strongly than at school. This is seen in Papua New Guinea where the 3 main cultures relate well together in public but adhere strongly to their own cultural values in the home. Input and response to meetings

A western approach to meetings may not be used or understood by a Pasifika family. In Tonga at village meetings people listen to what is being said but have no say in the decision. They show their support for, or dislike of, a decision by whether or not they follow it through after the meeting. Kin groups

Across all the Pasifika cultures looked at kin groups were highly valued. Consider inviting grandparents or an aunt or uncle to an IEP as well as the parents. Gender roles

Being aware of the status of men and women in a culture may help decide who should be present at a meeting and lead the meeting e.g. in Papua New Guinea women are given a highly respected so a woman leading the meeting would be ok. In Fiji however, the roles are reversed so it would be culturally responsive to have a male professional present at the meeting or even leading it. Agency involvement

Be aware of how open a family is to agency involvement. In Papua New Guinea there is little state provided welfare as extended families are expected to look after their own, this might make it hard for a family from PNG to accept help. Parent child relationships

Be aware of the cultural relationship between a parent and the child e.g. Indian Fijian fathers are very formal with their sons but affectionate to their daughters. The reverse applies to the mother who indulges her son but is very strict with daughters preparing them for when they are in charge of a household. This may result in mixed responses and messages from parents. Child rearing

In Papua New Guinea and Tonga children are indulged until 5, 6 or even 8 years of age, sometimes sharing the parental bed until this age, this may have a big impact on the childs independence and the parents ability to comprehend any concerns.

In Papua New Guinea a child is never considered responsible for their own bad behaviour, rather it is attributed to the presence of evil spirits. Discipline

Minor misdoings are dealt with by the family or village in many of the Pasifika cultures, this could impact on discussions and decisions made with parents when dealing with challenging or aggressive behaviours in a child. Food

An awareness of a cultures traditional food can help explain and celebrate the contents of a childs lunch box and avoid nega tive comments from peers. Finally this exercise also highlighted the responsibility we have in New Zealand to help families from islands with declining populations such as Nuie, Tokelau, Cook Islands to preserve their culture and language here in New Zealand and keep it alive and valued. The following charts form part of a living document that will be added to as more information is gathered.

The Culture of Tokelau

Identity Language Relationship with New Zealand

Tokelau means north-northeast. Tokelauans identify themselves by their 3 villages Atafu, Fakaofo and Nukumonu Tokelauan is an official Polynesian language. Samoan may also be spoken by the older generations and English by the younger generations. Tokelaus population was recorded as 1,411in 2011 with around 5000 more living in New Zealand. In 1948 it became part of New Zealand and the people are New Zealand citizens. Tokelau is administered by the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign

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Affairs. Most Tokelauans have an ancestry from Tokelau. In New Zealand they are a small population compared to other ethnic minorities and maintain their customs, traditions and values. Houses have a single rectangular room with mats made from local leaves. Tokelauans sleep on mats that are kept rolled up during the day. The cookhouse is separate from the main building. Fish and coconuts are freely available and form a key part of the diet. Other food is seasonal or in limited supply. Rice, flour and sugar is imported. Tokelauans are subsistence farmers harvesting fish and coconuts. Handicrafts are given as gifts as opposed to selling them for money. Most land is owned by kin groups and managed by people with position within these groups. Kin group women manage the houses whilst kin group men harvest food. Most people have rights to some land and a share of the produce from it. There is a big difference in potential salaries between those that have and those that do not have qualifications but this is balanced by a strong ethic of all Tokelauans being equal and those with higher earnings give freely to their village or family. A mayor, or Pulenuku, along with a council of older men or kin representatives control the village and its activities. A minor offence means being kept in communal areas by their elders and peers, a more serious crime would involve going before local court. The tradition of men harvesting food and women managing the family has been eroded by an increase in public service jobs available to both sexes. Most Tokelauans marry for life with individual choice being constrained by the custom of marrying outside their kin group and an expanded nuclear family developing within the wifes kin group. All children inherit rights from both parents. Infants are educated by family and closely controlled. All children attend primary and secondary schools, some are educated overseas. Respect and obedience to ones elders is paramount and restraint between brothers and sisters is expected. Physical aggression is strongly disliked. Protestant and Catholic Christianity are followed. Churches are esteemed places and used regularly Western medicine is common and hospitals are the first port of call. Local therapists rely mainly on massage. The Arts include oral narratives, fibre craft made by women, wood crafts made by men, old and contemporary music, dance (fatele) and poetry are combined.

The Culture of Papua New Guinea

Identity

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Links with NZ Food

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Social structure Politics and Law

Gender roles

Papua New Guinea has been shaped by Dutch, German, British and Australian influences. In 1975 the Independent State of Papua New Guinea was created. PNG had a population of around 7 million in 2011 with more than 50% being under 20 years of age. 85% of the population lives in small villages. Reports on the number of languages spoken range from 700 -1000. However, Melanesian Pidgin (Tok Pisin) is spoken throughout PNG allowing communication between villages to take place. English is spoken by educated people and is the language of schools and business. Intermarriage between kin groups means that English or Tok Pisin is increasingly used and first languages are lost. People from the same language groups are referred to as wantoks. NZ has a long standing and positive relationship with PNG providing aide for PNG and opportunities for NZ companies. Staple food includes wild sago, breadfruit, yams, taro, sweet potato, rice wild greens, bananas, coconuts and mangos. Meat sources include domestic animals, hunting, fishing and shellfish. Two cooked meals a day are eaten and earth ovens are used on special occasions. Tea is a staple drink. There are a variety of food taboos linked to pregnancy, initiations, symbolic nature of the food or linked to gender and relationships. Villagers produce most of their own food in their gardens, in towns pricy imported goods are available in supermarkets and local produce is available at smaller stores. Currency used in trade includes kina (monetary currency of PNG), shells and pigs. Land is owned by kin groups and passes from male relatives to children or nieces and nephews following generous gifts to the individual with the land rights. Tourism is an important source of income. The main exports include copper, gold, coffee, cocoa, copra, coconut oil and timber with some traditional crafts. Most villages have a number of kin groups. Extreme differences have been created through education and income resulting in a divided society of those with and without money. A governor general represents the British Crown. There is an elected prime minister, cabinet and parliament with anyone age 18 or above having a vote. The political situation is generally unstable with many parties and members switching frequently from one to the other. National courts use English law, village courts use traditional customs. Police have a reputation for violence and help is often not sought. Rioting, looting, gang violence and tribal disputes are all common. Traditionally men and woman lived separately, men in elaborate houses and women in smaller houses. Woman can be seen wearing the traditional laplap and meri blouse in both villages and towns, but better off woman often buy expensive

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clothing from overseas. Men own cash crops but they are tended to by women and men. Both sexes work together to produce food from their own gardens. Woman cook and men butcher pigs for special occasions. Both parents care for the children and if women in the towns go to work they pay relatives to provide child care. There is a big stigma attached to men doing womens work but not so much in the other direction. In the villages a chief may have many wives resu lting in a large number of bachelors. Wives are respected for their role in procreation, raising and producing food and brideprices are common. Individuals have little choice in marriage partners, courtship is supervised and marriage occurs across kin groups. The expectation that extended families and villages will take care of their people means that money has not been invested in social welfare programs. Village households include the husband, wife, their children and maybe the husbands parents, whist extended family live nearby. Decisions are made via consensus but if agreement cannot be reached elders are deferred to. Reciprocity is highly valued and can allow non-kin to join a kin group through displays of generosity. Most babies are born outside the village in a birth hut in which the mother and baby remain for days or weeks to keep away from evil forces. Babies are nursed for several years and carried everywhere being fully indulged until around 5 years for a girl and 7 years of age for a boy. Children are rarely hit as it is believed that this causes the spirit to leave the body. Instead difficult children are taken to the bush or a garden house to calm down. Children learn by examples set by their older female or male relatives. If a child is bad it is blamed on evil spirits and a medium may be used. Young boys and girls go through elaborate and often frightening rituals in preparation for puberty. Higher education is valued but only the most able children are afforded this opportunity. Reciprocity is key but not always possible due to variation in incomes. Sharing of betel nut is a custom followed by all socioeconomic groups. On meeting men and women of all ages clasp hands or hold each other around the waist. Public display of affection between the sexes is not seen but same sex friends may hold hands whilst walking in public. It is not considered rude to stare or crowd other people. Two thirds of the population are Christian but this is often blended with traditional beliefs and practices including spells, love magic, sorcery, witchcraft and spiritual beliefs. Many rituals focus on health and fertility including isolation in menstrual huts, taboo foods and body mutilation. Both western and traditional medicines are used but there is a lack of trained health care professionals. Often women and girls are fed less than men and boys resulting in poorer health and problems linked to weight loss and poor nutrition. There is a wide variation of crafts and art forms and include pottery, weapons, carvings, basket work, traditional jewellery, tribal art and musical instruments.

The Culture of Samoa

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Samoa is divided into Western Samoa and American Samoa and has cultural ties with Tonga, Cook Islands and Tahiti. Western Samoan way of life is called faa Samoa and is referred to below. In 2011 the population was 187,820 The official language is Samoan; it is related to Mori, Rarotongan, Tongan and Tahitian. English is spoken by educated, city Samoans but not by those in rural Samoa. European style buildings with wooden frames, iron roofs and glass windows are common. Traditional homes are rectangular and built on volcanic boulders. Thatched roofs have high peaks and walls are replaced by coconut leaf blinds. This includes taro root, yams, bananas, coconuts, breadfruit, fish, turtle and chicken. Pig is only eaten at ceremonial meals. Peepee, a salted coconut cream, is served at most meals. Eating coconut is seen as a sign of poverty. The beverage, koko Samoa, made from cacao beans, water and brown sugar is always shared at meals in rural Samoa Food is plentiful but Samoans are always searching for ways to make money as the economy is very limited. In Apia, the main city, Samoans are employed as teachers, nurses, clerical staff, business people and secretaries. 60% of the wage earning jobs are filled by men. Migration out of Samoa is a problem. Status governs informal greetings such as Talofa, and ritualised formal greetings for guests. Unmarried women are chaperoned and pre-marital sex is frowned upon. Households centre on the extended family and even now that nuclear families are more common women have up to 12 children. Adult relatives are referred to as sisters and brothers. Mothers contributions are celebrated on May 5th, Mothers Day, which is a public holiday. Infants are taught to obey and respect their elders. Older children take care of their younger siblings. Adulthood is traditionally marked by tattooing. Education is seen as vital to a childs future and even in remote villages at least one child from a family is sent to school. The Samoan creation myths are similar to those from the bible and 98% of Samoans are practicing Christians. The lavalava is worn by children and men. Men working in the city wear a lavalava with a sports shirt and leather belt. Women wear dresses or matching long sleeved blouses and a puletasi or skirt. Tattooing is valued, especially by men. Traditional Samoan songs are favoured by youth and adults. Speech making is viewed as an art in Samoa. Cricket, boxing, wrestling and American football are popular. Fautasi, or long boat races, are held on special occasions and dominoes are popular with men from all socioeconomic backgrounds. Traditional crafts such as bark cloth making have been lost.

The Culture of Niue

Identity Language Relationship with New Zealand Ethnic Relations Buildings Food

Economy Social structure Politics and Law

Gender roles

Niue is one of the worlds smallest self-governing states. Its population has never been more than 5000 and in 2011 stood at 1,613. The language is related to Samoan and Tongan and most Niueans are bilingual with Niuean being use at home and in villages and English being used in business. Around 15,000 Niueans live in New Zealand. Large numbers of Niueans arriving in New Zealand has led to a strong urge to distinguish themselves from other Pasifika countries and actually strengthened their identity. Few non Niueans live on the island. Villages are arranged around a central flat open space called the male. The church is a central feature of the village. Most buildings made in the last 20 years have been built from materials imported from New Zealand. The production of food underlines the importance of the link between work and identity in Niue. Very little surplus food is produced. Fishing and slash and burn agriculture are major contributors to food resources. Foods found in Nuie include taro, yams, tapioca, coconuts, breadfruit, papaya, mango and bananas. Pigs are also reared and fruit bats, birds and land crabs are hunted. Feats food is cooked in an earth oven called an umu Tourism is the main source of income. There is some export of coconut cream, taro, passion fruits, limes and honey. Plaited crafts are also exported. Niue has a flexible social structure based on individuals seeking achievement and a strong work ethic. Social status is governed by charisma, personal achievement and signs of wealth e.g. owning an outboard motor. Parliament is elected democratically voted in by all Niueans over 18. Village representatives tend to be older men, e.g. pastors, government officials or successful farmers or merchants. Island wide representatives often include women and younger Niueans educated overseas. Criminal acts are minor and dealt with locally by fines or warnings. Serious crime is dealt with by the magistrates court and can lead to large fines or imprisonment. Young men are expected to do physical or dangerous work. Older men or educated men represent the family in village or spiritual business. Women are involved in domestic responsibilities including cooking, child care, caring for elderly, sewing and weaving but can hold positions of authority gained through education and mature age. Chronological age is as important as gender in assigning jobs with elders being respected and deferred to.

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A boys first haircut and a girls first piercing mark a key transition. Gifts are given to the family and in return a public feast is provided. Land cannot be sold or gifted to non-Niueans. Property is inherited by the first born son in a family with women having some rights. Niueans live in extended family groups or magafaoa overseeing land ownership. Villages are made up of related magafaoa and families within a magafaoa live close to one another. The head of the household or, patu, is usually a married man and the extended family shares the same house. .Mothers and grandmothers care for infants, when a child crawls and talks they are considered able to understand and teaching of social behaviours and the role of the fathers begin. The child is the responsibility of the whole magafaoa. Older siblings care for the younger children during play. Schooling is compulsory and free for all 5-14 year olds, the curriculum is based on the New Zealand model with some materials specific to Niueans and is taught in English. Government scholarships are available for tertiary education overseas for jobs in health, engineering, administration, education etc. Respect is given to elders, especially men and first born. Gifts are often exchanged formally and informally as a sign of respect and friendship. These gifts should be reciprocated at a later time. Most Niueans still follow older religious beliefs including the supernatural and spiritual world or aitu. Illness, misfortune or death may befall individuals who are considered by aitu to have behaved incorrectly. Death is seen as a gradual transition to a parallel supernatural world. Any location where a violent or unexpected death has occurred will have a fono or a ban placed on it to protect the living from the spirits seeking revenge. These areas are avoided as far as possible until a pastor lifts the tapu from the location. High quality western medicine is available free with one hospital on the island. Herbalists and traditional healers (taulaatua) work with psychological issues and diseases that are uniquely Niuean in origin. Traditional dances and songs are used at important events and celebrations.

The Culture of Fiji

Identity

Language Relationship with New Zealand Ethnic Relations Buildings Food

Fiji is a multicultural nation with a population around 858,000 made up of approximately 50% Fijian, 44% Indian Fijian and the remainder from European, China and the Pacific Islands. These cultures remain very distinct from each other in many ways and a national culture has not developed. Fiji is made up of 320 islands around a 100 of which are inhabited. The official languages of Fiji are Fijian, Hindi and English. English is the language of business and education but at home Fijian and Hindi are commonly used. Euro-Fijians and educated people tend to be bilingual. An import, export relationship exists with New Zealand In business, the work place and the market place different ethnic groups interact freely whereas at home this is not the case with religion and domestic traditions appearing to be greater cause of divide than language. 40% of ethnic Fijians live in towns which have a western feel with colonial buildings especially in the capital, Suva. Smaller towns are normally built around one road lined with shops and a bus station providing the centre for most activities. The diet of the ethnic Fijians and the Indian Fijians are quite different. Ethnic Fijians eat taro, yams, sweet potatoes, manioc, breadfruit, bananas, nuts, meat, fish, seafood, leafy vegetables, coconut milk and canned meat or fish. Water is the drink of choice but fruit juices and varieties of tea are also drank. Normally 3 meals are eaten a day with the evening meal being the most important when all the family must be present and the meal cannot start without the male head of the household. Feasting is an important part of special occasions, gifting of food is preceded by the offering of a lead gift such as a whale tooth, bark cloth or kava. Indian Fijian Men and women eat separately. The food includes flat breads from imported flour or rice, Food is mainly vegetarian but some fish and meat is also eaten. There are religious restrictions around the consumption of beef and pork. Feasting is associated with marriages and religious festivals and involves drinking kava and alcohol. Restaurants in larger towns reflect the multi-ethnic palate of Fiji. Most ethnic Fijians in villages grow their own food. Tourism from New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Europe and North America is a key source of income. Sugar production employs over 50% of the work force. There is also a garment industry and some commercial agriculture. Chinese and Indian Fijians are prominent in small business and as shop

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owners. Imports include mutton and goat meat from New Zealand and consumer goods from Asia. The land belongs to the ethnic Fijians, Indian Fijians can lease farmland and villagers follow a practice of subsistence farming on inherited allotments. Ethnic Fijians live in villages as subsistence farmers and fishermen or are in unskilled labour in the towns. Indian Fijians are involved in sugar cane production or are highly prominent in commercial, manufacturing and service industries. Traditionally chiefs were identified by manners, dignity, honour and confidence. When the European settlers arrived a class structured emerged with Europeans at the top, but ethnic Fijians having a higher status than Indian Fijians. There is a developing class structure in urban areas with an elite group emerging. Fiji became independent in 1970 with an ethnically based parliament. There has been a history of political unrest as different ethnic groups compete for control. Violent crime, alcohol and drug abuse theft and assault are on the increase. There is a high court, court of appeal and a supreme court as well as a police forces working to reduce the crime rate. Men associate with men and women with women. Traditionally a womens role is to look after the house and be a good mother and wife whist men bring in the money. Indian Fijian men and women lead mainly separate lives with women helping to grow rice and sugar cane. Ethnic Fijian collect fish, shells and fire wood and weed the gardens whilst the men prepare the gardens hunt, fish, construct houses and tend to the lawns. The work force is dominated by men with a few women working, mainly in education. Women are subordinate to men with little influence, they are under represented in paid employment and higher education and over represented among the unemployed and poor. There is a high degree of free choice in marriage but parent approval is sought and the union is seen as one between groups rather then individuals. Divorce and remarriage is common. Marriage between ethnic and Indian Fijians is rare but ethnic Fijians will marry Europeans, Pacific Islanders and Chinese. Some Indian Fijian marriages are still arranged. People living together in an ethnic Fijian household include a senior couple and their unmarried children, a married man and his wife and children, possibly an older widow, a sister of the senior man and grandchildren. Older people do not tend to live alone. Links with kin groups are important and a shared male ancestor is the basis for this grouping, these family groups join to form sub-clans and clans. Indian Fijians live in homesteads as opposed to villages and nuclear families are common. Inheritance for all Fijians is mainly through the male line. Ethnic Fijian infants are indulged with love and attention and are instructed and disciplined by both parents, especially the mother, older siblings and other members of the household. Among ethnic Fijians a childs maturity is measured by

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its capacity for fear and shame and they are socialised around the age of 3 to 6. Indian Fijians have a stricter, more western approach, to raising their children. Relationships between and son and his father are formal whereas mothers indulge them. Fathers are affectionate towards their daughters whereas the mothers are strict preparing them for their role in the future. Primary and secondary education is available for every child if the family chooses. The government supports over 37 tertiary educational institutions. In rural areas people always greet each other when passing. Respect is shown to relatives of chiefs through appropriate dress, language and behaviour. Shoes are taken off before entering a home and guests are expected hesitate before entering a house and sit by the door until invited further into the home. Complex traditions of giving and receiving gifts e.g. whale teeth has long existed and may be accompanied by lengthy speeches and drinking of kava. The religious split is around 53% Christian, 38% Hindu and 8% Muslim with a few Sikhs and some people choosing not to follow a religion. Modern Christian Fijians still have a fear of their spirit ancestors. Traditions around death and afterlife differ between the 3 main religions. Ethnic Fijians treat sickness resulting from a natural cause with western medicine but illnesses thought to be caused by sorcery are treated by traditional healers including seers, massage masters, diviners and herbalists. All of the 3 main religious groups supplement western medicine with spiritual guidance. Government provided health care is heavily subsidised and there are a number of hospitals, health centres and nursing stations. Arts include painting, sculpture, music, choral singing, traditional dance from Fijian and Chinese culture and poetry. Oral story telling remains a tradition in all Fijian homes. Fijian girls learn to weave baskets and mats and how to make bark cloth. Men carve war clubs, spears, hooks, kava bowls and cannibal forks mostly for tourists. Women make pottery.

The Culture of Tonga

Identity

The population was recorded as 103,036 in late 2011. Tonga consists of 150 islands, 36 of them inhabited. There are 4 main island groups: Tonatapu, Haapai, Vavau and Niua.

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Tongan is an Austronesian language with 3 forms for talking to either the king, chiefs of nobles and to commoners. Talking Chiefs are among the few people who know all 3 forms. English is taught at primary school and is the language of instruction at secondary school and for business but Tongan is used in villages. There has been significant migration to New Zealand, Australia and the United States and Australia, Britain and New Zealand supply aid to Tonga. One of the Tongan creation myths is based around Maui fishing up the islands, however, modern Tongan beliefs are based on Christian principles. Tongan culture is highly valued and Tongan history, arts and crafts are all taught in the schools. Modern buildings are simple with little furniture. In villages traditional oval houses stand on a platform of stones and sand and have thatched roofs and walls made from palm tree leaves. The toilet and kitchen are in a separate building. The village houses are arranged around an empty area called a malae where social events take place. Modern houses are larger and made from wood and corrugated iron for the roofs. Families share food together at the end of the day, the rest of the time food is consumed whenever the individual likes. The main foods eaten include taro, fried or roasted fish or meat, taro leaves, bananas, pineapples and mangos. The drink, kava, is made from ground roots and water and is slightly narcotic but non-alcoholic. It is drank at both formal and nonformal occasions and the preparation and sharing of the drink is surrounded by many rituals. Kava clubs are found in towns and kava is shared daily in both towns and villages. Royal visits and funerals involve large amounts of food prepared in an underground oven or umu. The main economy is based on agriculture and fishing. Exports include vanilla, fish, handicraft and pumpkins. A wide variety of Western products are imported. Income from tourism is growing and money sent back by Tongans working abroad is a significant source of income. Land is owned by the king, nobles and government. Everyone 16 years and older is entitled to lease a given amount of land for a small cost. This is becoming difficult in the capital due to population increase. The traditionally hierarchical structure of a king, chiefs (now referred to as nobles}, talking chiefs and then commoners is still very much in existence. The king visits the major islands once a year and gift giving is a key part of these celebrations. Titles are inherited through the male line. There is a growing middle class but higher social status is still traditionally afforded through kinship rather than wealth. Anyone 16 years or older is able to attend village meetings led by the town officer representing the government. People are not involved in the decision making but show their support or otherwise by whether or not they chose to carry out the instructions given.

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In villages men tend the land and the animals whilst women weave mats and make bark clothe. In the towns women play a key role in offices and shops. Men and women are involved in parenting duties and in food preparation, although only men are involved in the preparation of the umu. Women have a higher status than men and so share an equal role apart from land inheritance. Marriage is by free choice but is discouraged between individuals of significantly different social status. Divorce is not uncommon. Kinship ties are very important. The family consists of a married couple and their children living in the same house. The extended family, or kainga, consists of relatives living in the same village but in different houses. Brother and sister avoidance is traditional and at the age of 10 boys sleep in a separate house from their sisters. The birth of a child is one of the most important events in a family. Infants are breast fed and stay in the parents bed until 5 -8 years of age. Extended family and older siblings may assist with caring for the infant. Adoption by older couples or extended family is common. Children are present at all events and encouraged to observe and learn, some major weddings or funerals can last for days. Primary schooling is compulsory and free after which it is mostly through fees. There are a number of tertiary education institutions and Tongans are proud to have a 100% literacy rate. Formal dress for a man is a tupenu or skirt, a taovala, mat, around the waist and a coconut fibre belt. This is worn with a shirt, tie and jacket. Women wear long dresses and a taovala. The colour, texture and design of a taovala is an indicator of wealth and status. When meeting people shake hands. Relatives kiss by pressing their nose to the cheek of the other person and inhaling through the nose. Most food is eaten by hand and hands are washed before and after eating. Raising of the eyebrows shows an understanding of what someone is saying and an indication to continue. It is difficult to say no to requests or admit failure. Christian churches are found in all villages Free Western medical care is provided and valued but traditional medicine is still commonly used being passed on from parent to child. Gifts are traditionally given at the start of treatment and upon cure. Women work in groups making bark cloth with traditional geometric designs, weave mats and make flax baskets. Men carve wood, black coral jewellery, turtle shell and whale bone. Necklaces of seeds, shells, and fresh flowers are made by men and women. Choral singing takes place in churches sand kava clubs and a blend of dance, music and poetry called faiva is very popular.

The Culture of the Cook Islands

Identity

Language Relationship with New Zealand Ethnic Relations Buildings Food

Economy

Social structure

Politics and Law

81% of Cook Islanders are of Polynesian ancestry, with the people from the north being more closely related to Samoans than to other Cook Islanders. There are more Cook Islanders living in New Zealand than there are on the islands. Christian missionaries had an important impact on the island as far as religion and introducing new diseases but they did not try to change the traditions already established. The population in 2011 was 14,974. Although English is the official language, Cook Island Maori (Rarotongan) is commonly used and is similar to New Zealand Maori. Some islands have their own language. The Cook Islands are self-governing but defence and foreign policy are controlled by New Zealand. Cook Islanders are New Zealand citizens Due to their history some ill feelings towards Europeans still remain. Most of the buildings are in a colonial style. Traditional homes, kikau, were made with roofs of panadus (a palm like leaf) thatch but few remain as in some areas of the island it is consider inferior to European styles of buildings. Cook Islanders eat a wide variety of locally available produce including raw or cooked sea cucumbers (rori) and fish (ika), taro, coconut cream, coconut juice and fresh fruit juices and bush beer. The traditional method of cooking is in an oven dug in the earth called an umu; these are used on special occasions to prepare the umukai (feast). This meal includes meat as the main dish with ika, potato salad and the kava to drink. The major source of income is from tourism and fruit. Cook Islanders rely heavily on imports including food, textiles, fuel and timber. 49% of imports come from New Zealand and 80% of exports are to New Zealand. 29% of Cook Islanders work in agriculture, 15% in industry and 56% in services. Class structure was traditionally determined by inheriting titles, now however education and profession has a big influence creating a more flexible social structure. Western clothing predominates apart from celebrations and dances. Men and women wear flowers in their hair and traditionally fat is seen as an indicator of money and beauty. The chief of state is the New Zealand high commissioner. The Cook Island government is headed by a prime minister and an elected cabinet. The House of Arikis is the indigenous ruling body and these chiefs advise on traditional matters but have no legislative power. Violent crime is rare but petty theft is increasing. The legal system is based on New Zealand and English common law.

Gender roles

Family

Etquette Religion

Health Other

Women do the domestic jobs and often also workoutside the home. Men do fishing, heavy labour and construction and are the majority gender in management and government positions. Women are treated with respect, are in charge of the finances for the family, oversee the land and decide which crops will be planted. In both the church and the village women are the key administrators. Domestic violence against women is abhorred. Cook Islanders have a good level of freedom in the choice of their spouse and often have trial a marriage prior to the wedding or a common law marriage. Divorce and separation is common. The extended family is very important with many generations and relative living in the same home. Newly- weds live with one of their families to begin with. Upon the death of a mother the land passes to all her children. Kin groups are linked to a traditional system of chiefs established by the first settlers. Christian values and respect for elders are taught to children from a young age. Schooling is free and compulsory from 5 to 15 years of age. Tertiary education is available from nursing, teaching and trade apprenticeships. Scholarships are given by the government from overseas higher education, much of which takes place in New Zealand. Cook Islanders have a welcoming, generous but reserved nature. If invited to some ones house it is tradition to take a small gift. When departing or returning from travels the travellers is given a garland of flowers to wear around the neck. The vast majority of Cook Islanders are Christians from various denominations and ministers are held in high esteem. There are many churches and white straw hats are often worn to services. The sermon is conducted in Mori and hymns often include Polynesian harmonies. A marae is the traditional place of worship and is still highly significant for many islanders. Family members, particularly women are buried in vaults in the garden of the family home. The graves are cared for by family members and when no survivors remain the vaults are removed and the ground ploughed over. Government funded health care is provided with some hospitals. Traditional medicine and faith healing is still used by some in addition to western medicine. Traditional literacy is based on legends and stories and is passed on orally. Women make a textile called tivaevae involving appliqu and embroidery. Flower art, black pearls and weaving from pandanus leaves are also popular crafts. Music and dance is often fast with a strong drumming beat and is performed in traditional grass skirts and headbands.

The Culture of Kiribati

Identity Language Relationship to NZ Ethnic Relations Buildings

Food

Economy

Social structure

Kiribati consists of 33 islands in 3 main groups, Tungaru chain, Phoenix Islands and Line Islands plus the island of Banaba. 98% of the people are I-Kiribati. The population is increasing rapidly and is currently around 104,500. I-Kiribati language is spoken across all the islands. English is the official language and is spoken in schools but it is not spoken by many adults on the outer islands. There are several 1000 I-Kiribati in other countries. New Zealand supplies foreign aid to Kiribati Culture and ethnicity among I-Kiribati is common based on shared ancestry, cultural traditions, experiences, language and values. A clear difference is identified between I-Kiribati and I-Matang or Westerners. Rural houses are made from traditional materials are rectangular and open on one side with a thatched roof and raised floors. Town houses are made from imported materials including concrete block and corrugated iron. The maneaba or meeting house is the most important building and is rectangular and open sided in nature following a traditional design. Churches are European in style and often the largest building in a village. Primary food sources come from fish and sea life. Local crops include coconut, breadfruit, pandanus and native figs. Coconut is key to the diet, especially the sweet sap called Toddy. It is used as a syrup for children and forms the base of an alcoholic drink. Giant swamp taro have the most significance for use in celebratory feasts along with local foods such as crayfish, giant clam, pig and chicken. Imported foods are being increasingly used including rice, flour, butter, canned fish, and meat. 80% of the population is involved in subsistence farming and fishing. Kiribati is highly dependent on foreign aid. Marine resources are the greatest natural resource and money is brought in from the licensing of foreign fishing boats to fish within Kiribati waters. Copra, fish and seaweed are the main exports. Imports include food, vehicles, fuel, machinery and manufacture of goods. These mainly come from Australia and the currency used is the Australian dollar. People in an utu share a common kinship and land ownership. Everyone belongs to several utu and land rights are inherited from either parent. The kainga, or family estate, is the heart of the utu and people who live there get the greatest say in what goes on within the utu and the greatest share of produce from the land. Modern Kiribati is relatively

Politics and Law

Gender roles

Family

Etiquette

Religion Health

classless but a growing number of young leaders are emerging challenging the traditional based authority of the elders. Access to tertiary education is proving to be a key factor. The Independent Republic of Kiribati was established in 1979.The north is seen as more progressive compared to the conservative south. There is a government station on each island. Council elders are responsible for village and island affairs. The government is elected and has a president who is the head of government and chief of state. Anyone 18 or over can vote. There is a small police force on each island as well as a magistrates court. Growing problems include embezzlement, robbery, sexual coercion, alcohol abuse and resulting child and domestic abuse Men fish, collect Toddy and do heavy construction tasks whist women manage the house, cook and look after the children. Men and women both plant and harvest crops and some women may fish in the lagoon. The oldest male in the household is given the highest status and the senior married woman controls domestic issues in the household. The modern view reflects an equal society for men and woman but traditionally woman are seen as inferior and have fewer opportunities. Few women are seen in government but some are beginning to speak in the maneaba. Arranged marriages are common, virginity tests on brides are opposed by the church, marriage is seen as universal and divorce discouraged. Large families are culturally valued. Nuclear families including grandparents and adopted kin are common. The women usually move to live on the husbands kainga. Mwenga is the nuclear family, utu is the related family and kainga is the family estate. In the first few months after birth the mother remains in the home to care for the baby, breast feeding can continue up to 6 months of age. Infant mortality in Kiribati is very high. Toddlers are cared for by siblings as young as 8 years. At around 4 years strict parental authority is introduced and is reinforced by corporal punishment. Crying is not tolerated and children must be obedient, helpful and respectful. Schooling is compulsory from age 6 and 20% go onto secondary education. Education is highly valued by parents as a means to increasing their childs wage earning potential. Tertiary education can be accessed through the University of the South Pacific. Etiquette is of up most importance in the maneaba where protocols must be observed. Humility and humbleness are valued characteristics in all areas of life. Direct eye contact is uncommon especially with someone of higher status. A touch on the head is considered very intimate; the top of the head is taboo. Modest dress is important for women and cleanliness of both body and clothing is highly valued. Prior to colonisation I-kiribati believed a giant spider was the creator followed by spirits (anti), half spirits, half humans and then humans. Antis remain respected in current culture despite most I-Kiribati now being Christians. Tuberculosis, liver cancer, infectious disease, hepatitis B and alcohol abuse lead to a high mortality rate in Kiribati. There is a central hospital and free medical care is available in most villages. Alongside this traditional massage and herbal remedies are still used with this knowledge being passed on through families. Most women give birth at home.

References
(n.d.). Retrieved June 2013, from Countries and their cultures: http://www.everyculture.com/ List of countries by population. (n.d.). Retrieved June 2013, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_population Ministry, o. (2013). Pasifika education plan 2013-2017. Retrieved from http://www.minedu.govt.nz/NZEducation/EducationPolicies/~/media/MinEdu/Files/EducationSectors/PasifikaEducation/PasifikaEdPla n2013To2017V2.pdf National ethnic population projections: 2006 (base) - 2026. (n.d.). Retrieved from Statistics New Zealand: http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/population/estimates_and_projections/NationalEthnicPopulationProjections_HOTP0626/Commentary.aspx New Zealand and Papua New Guinea. (n.d.). Retrieved June 2013, from The New Zealand ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade: http://www.nzembassy.com/papua-new-guinea/relationship-between-new-zealand-and-papua-new-guinea/new-zealand-and-papuanew-gui