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H. Nakano, M. Seto, H. Mimaki, and J. Yamauchi Faculty of Engineering, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo Japan 184-8584 nakano@k.hosei.ac.jp ABSTRACT Half-moon antenna arrays classified into O-type arrays (where array elements are simply stacked) and P-type arrays (where the stacked array elements are connected by auxiliary plates) are investigated. First, a two-element array is analyzed. An improvement is found in the radiation pattern of the P-type array, compared with that of the O-type array. Next, a four-element array is investigated. The investigation shows that the P-type array has a maximum gain of 12.2 dB, which is 9.5 dB higher than the gain of a single element, by virtue of the auxiliary plates. INTRODUCTION Recently, the half-moon antenna (HMA)[1][2][3], which consists of half of a radial transmission line excited by a probe, has been proposed as a modification of the radial-mode horn [4]. The investigation shows that the HMA has wide radiation patterns in both E and H planes. Based on the investigation of the HMA, we propose the HMA arrays shown in Fig. 1 and investigate the radiation characteristics. For the investigation, we use the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method [5]. Therefore, first, we briefly summarize the FDTD method, which is formulated using a cylindrical coordinate system. Second, we investigate an HMA array antenna composed of two elements. Effects of an auxiliary plate (AXP in Fig. 1, which connects the elements) on the radiation pattern are revealed. The gains with and without the auxiliary plate are also evaluated and discussed. Finally, a four-element HMA array is analyzed and the radiation characteristics, including the radiation pattern and gain, are revealed. CONFIGURATION Fig. 1(a) shows the perspective and side views of an HMA array element. The linear edges of the upper and lower conducting plates of the HMA (each plate having a semi-circular shape with linear and round edges) are shorted with a conducting wall. The HMA is excited by a strip probe near the conducting wall.

z

θ

z

z

θ

θ

x

z

φ

R PL d str

∼

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d x

φ

AXP

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x

φ

d

y

L str

(a)

s y

(b) Fig.1 Configuration. (a) Element antenna. (b) O-type array. (c) P-type array. (c)

W str

5.5. Fig. Eφ. The P-type array shows a maximum gain of approximately 8. as desired.04λ12. where c and α are the speed of light and a scaling factor. This leads to an increase in the gain. 3 shows the gain of the P-type array as a function of the array spacing d at 12. Wstr is the width of the strip probe. . Array effects clearly appear in the radiation pattern in the y-z plane (E plane). The resistive component Rin varies from 50 Ω to 25 Ω within the analysis range. The gain of the P-type array is always higher than that of the O-type array. j . where the cylindrical coordinate system (r.1 dB at d = 0. 1(b) and (c) are called O-type and P-type arrays. The P-type array has lower backlobes than the O-type array. j + 2 .5.5. k − 2 ) ε ∆z 1 2 1 2 [ ] (1) [ 1 2 1 2 ] where time t is expressed as t = n ∆t. j . where the elements are shorted with an auxiliary plate (AXP). respectively. Fig. The half-power beam width (HPBW) in the y-z plane of the P-type array is narrowed to 68 degrees at d = 0. ςmax) = 2E(t.5 (called the “contact case”).26λ12. s is the spacing between the upper and lower plates.5λ12.The notation for the HMA is as follows: RPL is the radius of the upper and lower plates.k)− Hz 2 .5 GHz. 2 shows the radiation pattern of a two-element array as a function of the array spacing d at a test frequency of 12.5 is the wavelength at a frequency of 12. the arrays of Figs.5 GHz. 4 shows the input impedance of the P-type array as a function of d at 12. ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES We analyze the HMA arrays using the finite-difference time-domain method. j. Detailed evaluation as a function of d reveals that the O.5. z) = (i∆r. Two-Element Array Fig. φ. Hφ.5 GHz.and P-type arrays have a similar HPBW of approximately 120 degrees in the x-y plane (H plane). Lstr is the length of the strip probe. Fig.175λ12.08λ12. For convenience. ςmax −αc∆t) − E (t − ∆t. and Hz are similarly formulated. k∆z) is used. Wstr = 0. which is 1.26λ12. respectively. s = 0. It is found that the auxiliary plate improves the radiation pattern. k + 2 ) − Hφ 2 .25λ12. NUMERICAL RESULTS The following configuration parameters are fixed throughout this paper: RPL = 2. The second-order tangential electric field components at the outer boundary ς = ςmax are expressed as E(t + ∆t.5. j − 2 . 1(b) shows an HMA array. 1(b).k) 1 ε (i + 2 )∆r ∆φ ∆t n− n− 1 1 (i + 1 − H φ (i + 1 2 . Fig. The other components Hr.5 from 196 degrees at d = 0. An absorbing boundary condition based on Newton’s backward-difference polynomial is used to truncate the computation space [5]. 1(c) shows a modified version of the array in Fig.73λ12.5 GHz. The spacing between neighboring HMA elements is denoted as d. where the HMA elements are simply stacked linearly in the z-direction. The r-component of the electric field is expressed as n −1 1 Ern (i + 1 2 .1 dB higher than that of the O-type array. note that the two array elements are in contact with each other when d = 0.26λ12. The array spacing d is varied subject to the objectives of the analysis.and P-type arrays have similar input impedances. k ) + ∆t n− n− 1 1 (i + 1 H z (i + 1 2 . Lstr = 0. j. j∆φ. Note that both O. Note that the left column is for the O-type array and the right column is for the P-type array. and dstr = 0. The input impedance Zin = Rin + jXin is also affected by the array spacing d. Ez. Also. where λ12. ςmax −2αc∆t).5. k ) = Er (i + 2 . and dstr is the distance from the conducting wall to the center of the strip probe.

3 Gain vs.26 0.5 = 0.50 0.73 d / λ 12 .26 0 o y 60 30 o o 60 o y -20 -10 0 [dB] φ x z θ z θ d / λ12. 15 P-type gain [dB ] Z in [ Ω ] 50 R in 0 X in -50 0.50 φ y y φ y y x x d / λ12. 2 Radiation patterns with and without an auxiliary plate.50 0.73 d / λ 12 . the array spacing d.5 0. 4 Input impedance vs.96 P-type 10 5 0 0.73 d / λ12. .5 GHz {Ε Εθ φ O-type d x φ 0 [dB] -10 -20 P-type y AXP d x φ y z 0 o θ 30 o d / λ12.5 = 0. Fig.z θ z θ f = 12.5 = 0. the array spacing d.96 Fig.5 = 0.26 0.96 Fig.5 0.

“Half-moon antenna”. The element antenna has a wide half-power beam width of 120 degrees in the H plane and a gain of approximately 2. 1974 [5] A. a maximum gain of approximately 12. June 2002 (in press). Artech House. An array composed of two elements. f = 12.176. Norwood. Yamamoto. with the expectation of a further increase in gain. of the 1999 Communications Society Conference of IEICE. Taflove. Proc. Yamauchi. Y. 5. Shkawrytko for his kind assistance in the preparation of this manuscript.831. “Partial radial-line antenna”. Epis and F.79λ12. J. Nakano. B-1-46. MA.. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to thank V. Sept. Robels. Japan. stacked in the z-direction.2 dB. Funabashi. with the radiation pattern shown in Fig. Computational Electrodynamics. Yagi. Symp. 1999. REFERENCES [1] I. and J. p. Wako. According to the analysis at a test frequency of 12. Yamauchi. and H. T. “A half-moon antenna”. Sugama. The HPBW in the y-z plane is approximately 18 degrees. Proc.0 P-type -20 y 60 o o y -20 -10 30 o 0 φ 0 [dB] x Fig. Fig. shows that an auxiliary plate connecting the two elements decreases the backlobe intensity. and H. while that in the x-y plane remains approximately 120 degrees.79 z θ {Ε Ε θ φ d x φ z y d d 0 [dB] -10 0 o θ 30 o 15 60 o gain [dB ] 12 9 6 3 0 12. This also holds true for a four-element P-type array. E. 1999. It is found that the variation in the gain within this frequency range is small (approximately 1 dB).5 dB higher than the gain of a single element.Four-Element Array We next analyze a four-element P-type array. U. with the array spacing fixed at d = 0. M. . B-1-45.5. M. Sept.5 = 0. Yamamoto. [3] H. [2] Y. San Antonio. Ikeda.2 dB is obtained at an array spacing of d = 0. The four-element P-type array realizes a gain of 12. Patent 3. S.79λ12. 5 Radiation pattern of a four-element P-type array. CONCLUSIONS Half-moon antenna arrays have been analyzed using the finite-difference time domain method. [4] J. Funabashi.5 frequency [GH z] 13. “Numerical analysis of a half-moon antenna”. Digest of IEEE AP-S Int.0 12. which is 9.5 GHz.5. of the 1999 Communications Society Conference of IECE. Nakano. Nakano. 6 shows the frequency response of the gain.5 GHz d / λ12. 1995. Fig. J. Japan.7 dB. 6 Frequency response of the gain.

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