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Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Kaizen an Overview 1.2 Kaizen umbrella 1.3 Maintenance and Improvement 1.4 Kaizen and Innovation 1.5 Comparison between Kaizen and Innovation 1.6 Problem solving tools of Kaizen 1.7 About the organization 1.7.1 1.7.2 1.7.3 1.7.4 Introduction About Indian air lines under study The division under study Air craft maintenance planning

Chapter 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Chapter 3: PRESENT WORK 3.1 Problem statement 3.2 Objectives of study 3.3 Methodology 3.3.1 Collection of information Data collection Characteristics of respondent Identification of critical areas Evaluation of existing processes Evaluation of Spare management Evaluation of Method improvement Evaluation of Material handling Evaluation of Computer support

3.3.2 3.3.3


Chapter 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Proposed method /concept 4.2 Analysis of proposed method 4.2.1 Analysis of spare management 4.2.2 Analysis of Method improvement 4.2.3 Analysis of Material handling 4.2.4 Analysis of Computer support 4.3 Implementation Chapter 5: CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE SCOPE 5.1 Conclusion 5.2 Future scope


space.Chapter.1 INTRODUCTION 1. The wide meaning is continuous improvement consistently. This kind of creative improvement is something that every employee is capable of contributing. time and man power. government. Kaizen is the creation of a team 4 . there could be a better method of doing things. but also a continual improvements in every facet of life. In this type of environment. “Kaizen” believes in the principles that “A very large number of small improvements are more effective in an organizational environment than a few improvement of large value.” According to: the father of the Kaizen techniques Masaaki Imai (1986) Kaizen means “Continuous improvement” which is not only a philosophy of work place.” Another philosophy of Kaizen principle is “Do not believe what is practiced now is the best. controllable. implementation of new concepts is readily achieved with a high degree of success. every place that leads to self-development. Successful implementation of Kaizen results in a cooperative atmosphere where every one is aware of the key goals and measures of success. Thus. every step. diplomacy defence and social welfare. efficient and unique manufacturing process in terms of saving cost. every time. including business.1 KAIZEN AN OVERVIEW The word ‘KAIZEN’ comes from the Japanese language. Womack and Jones (1996) refers that Kaizen is a successful technique because it employs the lean thinking approach of designing a flexible. Kai means CHANGE & Zen means BETTER. it means change for the better. Kaizen also thrives by being adopted by the organizational culture. commerce. In other words Kaizen indicates a process of continuous incremental improvement of standard procedure of work. In the management literature it is “Kai + Zen”. industry.

starting from the worker to the top management contribute their labour for technical innovation. starting from Elton Mayo and the Human Relations school of Maslow. Kaizen epitomizes the mobilization of the workforce. because it represents the daily struggles occurring in the work place and the manner in which those struggles are overcome. Peculiarities of Kaizen • Kaizen is continuous. 2000).which is used to signify both the embedded nature of the practice and its place in a never ending journey towards quality & efficiency • Kaizen is a work force. • Kaizen is incremental in nature.that includes cross functional employees such as managers and operators working together on targeted areas with set of goals and series of brain storming processes. Argyris and Herzberg. • Kaizen is participative. Kaizen is more than just a means of improvement. There are close comparisons to be drawn between kaizen and ideas of past research in industrial relations. This team is expected to obtain solutions for resolving the problem within short span of time. which take place in the Japanese workplace to enhance the operations and the environment.providing the main channel for employees to contribute for their companies’ development. In isolation. Kaizen carries the connotation in industry of all the subcontracted and partially contracted activities. the generating intrinsic psychological & quality of work life benefits for the employees. you get a free brain” (Besant. providing the main channel for employees to contribute to their company’s development.entailing the involvement & intelligence of the work force. McGregor. the concept seems simple: “with every pair of hands. 5 .

6 . The Japanese perception of management boils down to one percept: maintain and improve. an unskilled worker working at a machine may spend all of his time following instructions.1 Kaizen umbrella 1. (a) Maintenance and (b) Improvement Maintenance refers to the activities not only maintaining current machine standards for reliability but also directed towards maintaining current technological managerial and operating standards. Thus worker contributes less towards improvement.1.2 KAIZEN UMBRELLA K KANBAN A I IMPROVEMENT Z ZERO DEFECT E N NETWORKING APPROACH EFFECTIVENESS Fig 1. Again when he becomes proficient in his work he begins to think about improvement in the way his work will be easy. he is more conscious towards production. As he becomes skilled. Under improvement the higher-level manager are more concerned with improvements they spent more time on improvement process.3 MAINTENANCE AND IMPROVEMENT Management has two major components. But at the lower level. Improvement refers to those activities directed towards improving current standards.

2 . Kaizen signifies small improvements made in the status quo as a result of ongoing effort and Innovation signifies a drastic Improvement in the status quo as a result of a large investment in new technology or equipment.Top Management Middle Management Improvement Supervisors Maintenance Workers Fig. again improvement is categorized in two parts:(a) Kaizen and (b) Innovation.Japanese perceptions of job functions 1. 1. Top Management Middle Management Supervisors Workers Innovation KAIZEN Maintenance Fig .3 7 kaizen perceptions of job functions .1. Following figure shows the breakdown among kaizen.4 KAIZEN AND INNOVATION In Japanese perception. innovation and maintenance as perceived by Japanese management.

Cause and effect diagram. control charts.1. as well as a huge investment. The innovation strategy is supposed to bring about progress in a stair case progression. scatter diagrams and check sheets) are required. graphs. the kaizen strategy brings about gradual progression. only simple and conventional techniques such as the seven tools of quality control (Parrot diagram. histograms. New Standard KAIZEN Innovation New Standard KAIZEN Innovation Time Figure 1. The difference between two opposing concept may thus be likened to that of a staircase and a slope.1 presents the characteristics of Kaizen and innovation (Shingo. One of the beautiful things about Kaizen is that it does not necessarily require sophisticated technique and large investment. innovation usually requires highly sophisticated technology. On the other hand. (Kaizen – teian 2.5 COMPARISON BETWEEN KAIZEN AND INNOVATION There are two contrasting approaches to progress: the gradualist approach and the great-leapforward approach. 1985). 1990).4 Comparisons of Kaizen and Innovation 8 . On the other hand. Table 1. To implement Kaizen. Japanese companies generally favour the gradualist approach and Western companies the great-leap approach – an approach epitomized by the team innovation.

however demands Involvement Effort orientation Feedback Advantage greater effort to maintain Every body Persons Comprehensive feedback Works well in slow growth economy Innovation Short term. however less effort to maintain Select few champions Technology Limited feedback Better suited to fast growth economy 1. Figure 1.1 Characteristics of Kaizen and innovation.5 Causes and Effect Diagram 9 . hence existing Intermittent and non incremental Rejection and rework Demands large investment. Kaizen Effect Long term. Cause and effect diagram is also called “fishbone graph” or “Godzilla-bone graphs”.Table: 1.6 PROBLEM SOLVING TOOLS OF KAIZEN CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM: This diagram is used to analyze the characteristics of a process or a situation and the factors that contribute to them. lasting Time structure Continuous and incremental The method Maintenance and improvement The practical Demands less investment.

7 graph 10 . using a bar-graph format. The problem is diagrammed according to priority.6 Pareto Diagram GRAPH: The frequency data obtained from measurements display a peak around certain value. 70 60 Frequency 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Months Fig 1.PARETO DIAGRAM: This diagram classifies problems according to cause and phenomenon. with 100 percent scale indicating the total amount of value cost. Figure 1. The figure illustrates frequency in the form of a pole to indicate variations over a period of time and categorical breakdown of values.

CHECK LIST: A number of Kaizen check point system has been developed to help both workers and management for improvement.e. The 3-MUs are Muda(Waste). material (item/equipment) and method (operation) are given more attention in the Kaizen methodology which is elaborately described at Appendix ‘C’. According to Sugihara. machine (facilities). Muri (strain) and Mura (discrepancy) and is described in Kaizen methodology placed at appendix ‘B’. management should encourage participation by making workers feel free to make all sorts of suggestions that do not cost much to implement. processes and improvement in the organization. 4-M CHECK LIST: The 4 M check points i. Man (operator). which could not found through direct studies.3 M U. CHECK SHEET: The check sheet is designed to tabulate the results through routine checking of the situation. SUGGESTION SYSTEM The suggestion System is an integral part of the Kaizen methodology. 11 . The suggestion can be discover the new methods.

1. Delhi.7. The main aim of the station is to keep the aircrafts airworthy.7.9 station and its main divisions 1. At this station.1 Introduction STATION OPERATIONAL DIVISION TECHNICAL DIVISION ADMINSTRATIVE DIVISION Fig 1.10 classifications of employees 12 .7 ABOUT THE ORGANISATION 1.2 About Indian Air Lines under study This study is carried out at Indian Air Lines. there are more than 1500 employees in all ranks and branches who are involved to perform their duties towards the organizational goal. Technical branch & Non technical branch. The total employees in the organization are classified into three main categories such as flying branch. EMPLOYEES CLASSIFICATION FLYING BRANCH NON-TECHNICAL BRANCH TECHNICAL BRANCH Figure 1.

The flying branch employees are basically pilots. The non-technical branch employees are of both category i. The skillful handling of aircraft needs a continuous practice. Thus the maintenance becomes imperative for the existing number of aircrafts. Chief engineering officer (CEO) is the head of the engineering and logistic divisions at the station. officer and clerk. The skilled manpower comprises of diploma and graduate engineers in all branches viz mechanical.11 Aircraft engineering division 13 . The other roles of this branch are: (a) to provide logistic support to the technical and flying branch. which is performed by the pilots regularly. This division plays a vital role in operational preparedness of the aircraft. 1.e. ENGINEERING DIVISION ) AICRAFT MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT LOGISTICS DEPARTMENT Figure 1. Basically they are employed to support the technical employees. Indian Air Lines also maintains skilled technical manpower. Under him there are some technical and logistics specialists employed to assist him in the field of technical activities and logistic support at the station. All the pilots are of officer’s rank.7. electrical and electronics. (b) to provide medical facilities to the employees and their families and (c) to carry out administrative control and welfare measures of the employees at the station. Like other organization. The main role of technical branch at the station is to maintain the aircrafts serviceable.11 represents the aircraft engineering division.3 The division under study The engineering division of the station is the area of study. Figure 1.

aircraft wise.7. Types of planned servicing (a) Periodic servicing are those servicing carried-out at set intervals based on aircraft flying hours and calendar basis. 14 . Minor servicing (50. Besides.g. Defect report. Based on the aircraft / aero engine status of the fleet at the base and known constraints.4 Aircraft maintenance planning Maintenance infrastructure setup at a flying station is meant to support flying and generate aircraft hours by way of completion of maintenance servicing. 1. Internal and external preservation/depreservation of aircraft and aero engine. logistic division has close relationship with technical division in supply of spares and equipment for aircraft maintenance. Whereas logistics department supplies spares. Intermediate servicing. The periodic servicing normally falls into the following categories: Before and After flight servicing. flying hours are to be allotted for the month with projected utilization for the next two months along with planned servicing effort. carries out scheduled and unscheduled maintenance servicing of aircraft.The maintenance department is manned by highly skilled technicians.200 hrs servicing). These are to be carried out as per pre-planned schedule in the given time frame and with the defined gang size/manpower. Weekly servicing. equipments. servicing instructions. Special technical instructions. the flying task may be regulated so as to ensure maintenance safety is not jeopardized and personnel not unduly stressed. e. Modifications. food and clothing to the employees. and Storage servicing . (b) Non-periodic servicing are those servicing which are carried out as and when required to be done when certain defects occurring to equipment.100. Stagger plan for aircraft is drawn to ensure smooth induction of aircraft for servicing and maintaining desired availability of aircraft over the year. Depending upon the rise in unserviceability and unforeseen circumstances. Primary servicing.

production. Every day brought new challenges to managers and workers alike. there are more than 170. Juran’s lectures in 1954 opened up another aspect of quality control towards the managerial approach to quality control. one of the crucial QC tools for assuring continuous improvement to Japan. and sales in order for a company to arrive a better quality that satisfied customers.E. Deming.000 Quality circles officially registered with JUSE and probably twice that many operating 15 . design.Juran introduced the various tools that helped to elevate this KAIZEN concept to new heights to Japan in the late 1950 and early 1960s. Deming introduced the “Deming cycle” also known as PDCA cycle. an organization coordinating the nationwide Quality Circle movement and assisting in its expansion. and it was during one of those visit. This was the first time the term Quality Control was positioned as a vital management tool in Japan. This was the first time Quality Control was dealt with from the overall management perspective. he made his famous prediction that Japan would soon be flooding the world market with quality products. JM Juran was invited to Japan to conduct a JUSE seminar on quality control management. visited Japan several times in the 1950s.M. the term Quality Control has been used to mean both quality control and the tools for overall improvement in managerial performance. Simply staying in business required unending progress. Deming stressed the importance of constant interaction among research. From then. It was also fortunate that experts like W. JUSE (The Union of Japanese Scientist and Engineers). and KAIZEN has become a way of life. most Japanese companies had to start literally from the ground up. Deming and J.Chapter-2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE After World War II. In July 1954. and every day meant progress.

training and education.” the 3-K standing for kangae (thought). 3 Campaign. sales and after-services. 2. vendor management . KAIZEN is based on a belief in people’s inherent desire for quality and worth. product planning . According to the Japan Industrial Standards (Z8101-1981) definition. and management has to believe that it is going to “pay” in the long run. including top management . William Manly quipped: “I thought they had two major religions in Japan: Buddhism and Scientism.” The definition is expressed as follows: Effective implementation of quality control necessitates the cooperation of all people in the company. and improvements were sought in the seven areas viz. now I find they have a third: KAIZEN!” Facetious though this sounds. Since the typical circle has six to ten members. it is estimated that there are at least 3 million workers in Japan directly involved in some kind of official quality circle activity. standard time. After a day-long discussion on the KAIZEN concept. In 1975. This is a behavioral change requiring missionary zeal and the proof of its value is in the satisfaction it brings and in its long term impact. 16 . manufacturing. inspection. efficiency. suggestions. and Kaizen and the 1. purchasing. and workers in all areas of corporate activities such as market research and development. as well as financial control . design. managers. preparations for production. acting. personnel administration. Nissan Motors made a slogan for an improvement campaign as part of a KAIZEN program was named the “Seven-Up-Campaign”. quality control is “a system of means to economically produce goods or services which satisfy customer requirement. The campaign chosen in 1978 was the “3-K 1. and process utilization. 3 standing for the hop-step –jump sequence of thinking.independently of JUSE. 2. safety. quality assurance. Kodo (action). costs. and improving. supervisors . Quality control carried out in this manner is called company-wide quality control or total quality control. one should have a religious zeal in immediate payout.

Not just a philosophy of work place. (1979).Mankichi Tateno. Monden. lower cost. In full implementation. The main prerequisite for a successful implementation of the Kanban techniques is a demand which remains uniform and repetitive over long periods of time. He formulated three goals: (1) to provide products and services that satisfy customer requirements and earn customers trust. Spurling. (3) To help employees in order to fulfill their potential for achieving the corporate goal. among others. Imai. It was able to achieve the quality with minimum investment by introducing a series of improvements such as reducing inventories and changing the plant layout. 17 . Finch and Cox. including business. (1983). it becomes the foundation of all activities. group technology. but it means continually improving in every facet of life. (1986). and more advantageous order filling. with small fluctuations vis-à-vis annual average values. proclaimed that the company was going to introduce Total Quality Control. has made the following remarks on Mitsubishi automobiles. fewer defects. As a result. industry. (1986). uniform workload and jut-in-time delivery of purchased parts). (2) To steer the corporation toward higher profitability through improved work procedures. with particular emphasis on such areas as policy deployment and voluntary activities. has remarked Kaizen means continuous improvement. have studied the implementation of JIT into two groups :Those that are independent of the firm size (focused factory. reduced setup times. it was possible to achieve an 80 percent reduction in stock on the line and a 30 percent increase in worker performance. second that relate to the firm size and may be more difficult for the small manufacturing firm to satisfy (stable. For instance. the old layout had been designed. lower debt services. In the production activities within Organization. government and diplomacy. cross-trained employees and Kanban). (1983). total preventive maintenance. commerce. said that “Leveling of production is the most important requisite for kanban based manufacturing”.

conducted a survey of JIT implementation. service. (1990). profits. The elements of JIT vendor strategy were: vendor lot size. These strategies are developed to attain overall growth. safety. real and objective to improve the quality of the products and services. sole sourcing.utilization of the Kaizen philosophy addresses continuous improvement not only in the field of management. has stated that the word quality virtually includes everything: competitiveness. increased quality. results. cost reduction. (1993). actions are necessary. volumes. The elements of JIT production strategy were setup for time reduction. upgrading of technical efficiency and management effectiveness. group technology. (1990). (1994). productivity. vendor lead times and quality certification of suppliers. The customers are demanding more and more in terms of quality and the competing enterprises are struggling more and more to win the market. inventory and workspace reductions. For the enterprises. Mehra and Inman. focus on shareholders. but also in the general work force. inventory reduction and increasing employee participation by using kaizen principles. Golgano. corporate policy. cross training and preventive maintenance. has carried out survey of 32 small manufacturing firms and reported that the surveyed firms have focused on employee involvement to improve quality. delivery times. Such strategies 18 . environmental consciousness. lot sizes. (1992). excellence. has said that there is a need to strengthen the convection. Success in JIT implementation was assessed and based on downtime. product quality. quality becomes a question of survival. costs. Rastogi and Mohanty. described four strategies for total productivity optimization of a real life manufacturing company. and concluded that JIT production strategy and JIT vendor strategy were significant elements of JIT implementations. Golhar. Sherkenbach. labour utilization and equipment utilization and inventory turnovers.

have implemented Just in Time methodology in a small manufacturing company. Onyeagoro. Yavuz and Satir. have done their research work on Kanban based operational planning and control in assembly and flow lines. Preliminary analysis identified various problems in the existing manufacturing operations. the relationship between total quality for the industrial environment and the relationship between companies and trade unions. Brandolese. has mentioned the quality problem and the aim to help and provide a better understanding of the basic concepts of total quality through a critical discussion. This article describes a case study of the successful introduction of production cells in a company engaged in small batch production. The article focuses on simulation models and distinguishes between explorative and comparative type research.. the historical framework of quality related concepts (like kaizen or continuous improvement) vis-à-vis other managerial models (specially. Six main topics are touched upon: language and terminology problems. The achievements of the JIT implementations included a reduction in material traversing. a new manufacturing technique is proposed to the work flow process. the contrast between a process based and a result based approach. (1995). the learning curve). has given his remarks on manufacturing planning and controls that to remain competitive. Emmanuel A. Following a detailed analysis of the utilization of machines in the company’s machine shop. (1994). (1995). reduced lead times and inventories leading to an overall reduction in the 19 . Features of each study are discussed. The model base and the database used in implementing the strategies can serves as decision support to management for optimizing total productivity. findings are compared and they give ideas for research directions. organizations are exploring new ways for increasing productivity by reducing work in progress inventories and product lead time. (1995). the role played by demand and its fluctuations.have been modeled mathematically by using a nonlinear mathematical programming approach. Operational and experimental design features reported and are summarized in tabular format. Gupta and Brennan.

He has contributed to dramatic improvement in productivity implementing kaizen techniques. has applied some simple techniques like statistical process control (SPC) and the seven basic tools for manufacturing a product. carried out a study on quality and productivity improvements in a custom made furniture industry using KAIZEN”. an Indo-Japanese joint venture firm. Chaudhuri. Statistical Process control (SPC) is proved to be an effective means to improve quality and productivity. the seven basic tools. lower cost. With the adoption of a holistic approach to JIT implementation. Radharamanan et al. He has brought insights that Kaizen philosophy in the business process management will liberate the thinking of both management and employees all levels and provide the climate in which creativity and value addition can flourish.cost of manufacturing. has given new insights onto old thinking. He has suggested the key factor to determine the business process requirements.g. (1996). Three separate product lines were combined into a flexible manufacturing assembly line. (1996). This paper presents a case study where Printed Circuit Board (PCB) fabrication company employs very simple techniques (e. described the key concept of the continuous improvement system at Morris electronics limited. and higher productivity to meeting the customer requirements. while the basic seven tools of kaizen are powerful for problem solving. The experience gained by the company encourages and benefit other small companies to embrace the JIT approach. Kaizen philosophy was applied in a small sized custom made furniture industry for continuous improvement and developed the products with higher quality. (1996). Newitt.) to significantly improve both product and process quality and productivity. KAIZEN and Total Quality Management (TQM) principles in practice. A smooth flow of material from the raw material stage to the finished product stage was established. he applied the intimate relationship between SPC. In the same study. SPC and seven basic tools etc. Yung. (1997). He also highlights the evolution 20 . it was found that even a small company can make significant strides towards world class manufacturing status.

After identifying the problem.. has stated a evolutionary model on continuous improvement” He brought out that. have evaluated the designing principles of Japanese production systems derived from theory or empirical research. a brainstorming process was used to explore the team’s goal by reviewing the current process of the product. TQM. a manufacturing engineer. today’s complex and turbulent environment needs a continuous improvement in products and processes. A fundamental explanation for the large variety of approaches and techniques towards organization (e. (2000). have made a Kaizen based approach on a small manufacturing designing system. was identified in this virtual situation is that the product is currently too expensive to produce. Joseph et al. POKA-YOKE) are discussed in the field of management. They derived principles for Japanese production systems and are highly influenced by unique elements of Japanese culture. (1999). Kaizen. The cultural background has to be known. and two machining operators were invited to be the team members in this Kaizen project. when the principles are applied properly in a completely different cultural background. John. This paper reports on extensive case study based on research. The focus of this project was the virtual manufacturing of meat tenderizer.. In order to address this system design problem. (2000).g. TQC.of the collaboration between Morris and Hitachi metals and its impact on the development of higher level competencies. Cellular manufacturing system was used to reduce production costs and improves the quality of every product. a design engineer. The problem. Kaizen brings continuous improvement. KANBAN. and it also developed a communications network throughout the organization which intrinsically supports a method of checks and balances within daily operation. Frohner and Iwata. a quality engineer. exploring how high involvement in continuous improvement can be built and sustained as an organizational 21 .

discovers kaizen is a hard headed weapon in hard-pressed manufacturing engineering industries. and presents a reference model for assessment of progress in the evolution of such capabilities. has focused his study on the “Inventory management kaizen” that was conducted at “BAE SYSTEM” to remove the MUDA (waste) from the receiving and storing process. It argues that Kaizen needs to be viewed as a cluster of behavioral changes. (2001). Exercises described in his paper. has comments on the importance of Kaizen to Japanese production control mechanisms. The case study provides a description of the steps used to implement lean thinking in a typical mid western company developed a dynamic tri-resin fiberglass rod which has hundred times more tensile strength than that of steel. Palmer. (2000). the whole kaizen event resulted in as saving well over million dollars per year. 22 .capability. (2001). one week for the actual analysis of the process and the remainder working to implement the changes that were identified. has emphasized on kaizen as an essential tool for inclusion in industrial technology curricula covers a wide range of curricula. De Haan. Kaizen even encompassed about 5 months. company has increased its sales by a multiple of not less than 69 percent and its profits by 54 times in a economic year. which establish innovation routines in the enterprise. whereby management involved employees in reengineering brainstorming sessions. can be used within existing courses in all manufacturing focused industrial technology programs to assure that graduates are sufficiently familiar with this important thrust. He found that the kaizen brought improvement that the process time reduced from 610 hrs to 290 hours. (2001). Kaizen needs to be distanced from the more recent western development. He has found that the implementation of kaizen techniques at Toyota. Samson. Ultimately. Ashmore.

Yasin et al.. (2003). prepared a note on kaizen as practiced in a selection of Japanese companies. (2003).. (2003). They desire a tool that depicted the performance information in a graphical manner. Maryland. have done their research work on organizational modifications to support JIT implementation in manufacturing and service operations. Pareto diagrams are then used to highlight critical aircraft subsystems. has carried out his thesis work on a aircraft maintenance management organization using statistical process control (SPC) at the 135 Airlift Wing. USA. which is compared with other firms in the steel & automotive industries to assess uniformity. A field study was conducted to investigate the actual implementation experiences of a selected group of service and manufacturing users of JIT. Brunet et al. This study focuses on the development of a visualization tool utilizing two of the seven tools offered by Statistical Process Control (SPC). The paper concludes that Kaizen evolves uniquely within each organization. This paper describes the methodology of study. This research demonstrates the application of p-charts and Pareto diagrams in the aircraft maintenance arena. taking NIPPON Steel Corporation (NSC) as a base model & comparing this with the data from companies. They were monitoring their metrics via an electronic spreadsheet. and presents findings from the research. th Air National Guard desires a visualization tool for their maintenance performance metrics. The development of Kaizen activities in NSC is presented together with a description of the current nature of Kaizen. Their findings from the literature and the field study are used to develop four research hypotheses that are tested using survey data from 130 manufacturing and 61 service firms. P-charts are used for displaying mission capable (MC) rates and flying scheduling effectiveness (FSE) rates. 23 . Beabout. following changes to the organization’s business environment.

TQM and Kaizen. But. To measure the effectiveness of these improved processes in terms of productivity or other parameters.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT In the competitive world of industrialization. which requires continuous improvement by taking a case study of maintenance and logistic department at Indian Air Lines. all industries are aspiring towards higher productivity by focusing on the system simplification and Organizational potential with the help of different modern tools and techniques like QC. Delhi. TPM. (v) To focus the attention of management towards the under utilized systems. To apply kaizen tools in those identified areas.Chapter -3 PRESENT WORK 3. I have realized that the system is running in old. It is not possible to change the technology. This thesis is an attempt to identify such critical areas. Thus Indian Air Lines needs attention for continuous improvement (i.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of the present study are as under:(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) To identifying the areas of focus for continuous improvement. To support and apply the improved processes. KAIZEN) in their system particularly in maintenance and Logistic field. uncompetitive fashion. 3.e. infrastructure and working system overnight in a big organization like Indian Air Lines. material handling is being carried out manually by the employees working in the organization. still recording of maintenance activities and operations have been carried out using pen and paper. which resulted in more human fatigue and damage to the material. In the age of IT. In the age of robotics. 24 . A rectification of complex problems has been solved by reading a heap of manuals. during last 15 years of my service.

the present study of Kaizen methodology is applied in maintenance and logistic divisions of Indian Air Lines. where aircrafts undergo maintenance servicing. The flow chart shown in figure 1. Collection information to access the perceptions of employees Identification of critical areas Evaluation of existing process / design concepts Continuous improvement Proposed method / concepts to improve existing methods Analysis of proposed method in comparison with existing method Implementation Figure 3. Delhi Aerodrome. 25 .3. Here.3 METHODOLOGY Depending on the objectives of the improvement.1 Flow chart of Kaizen methodology.3 demonstrates the kaizen procedure methodology used in this case. there are many ways to implement kaizen methodology.

there are definite. primary source and secondary source.3. But in this study questionnaire was used to collect the primary data directly from the employees working in the maintenance and logistics division.e. through questionnaire. This method of collecting data from the technicians. Primary data during research work can be collected either through observation or through direct communication with the respondent in the form of questionnaire or through personal interview. interview method. A questionnaire contains a number of questions printed on a definite order on a set of forms. 3. The questionnaire is structured based i. It means that there are several methods of collecting primary data like observation method. The questions are presented with exactly the same wording and in the same order to all employees. Employees’ perceptions were recorded.3. senior technicians.3. and through projective techniques. Questionnaire is prepared to record the perceptions of employees of maintenance and logistics divisions. The approach adopted in this study is questionnaire method. The questions contained in questionnaire are simple and easy to under stand.1 Data Collection : Questionnaire was filled up by fifty employees from different sections of the maintenance and logistics divisions. This was done by handing over the questionnaire to the 26 . supervisors unbiased. concrete and predetermined questions. Data is collected from two sources.1 STEP – I COLLECTION OF INFORMATION TO ACCESS THE CRITICAL AREAS The Kaizen approach requires that all employees’ of the Organisation are encouraged to participate in Kaizen activities. Logistics and maintenance staff and other employees had enough time to give well thought answers to the questions of the questionnaire.1. to gather information directly from the employees.

method improvement training. In other words. Sample is truly representation of population characteristics without any bias. Secondary data were collected from books.1. their selection process or technique is called sample design and survey conducted on the basis of sample is described as sample survey.2 Characteristics respondent Length of service Employees’ length of service starting from 5 years to 40 years of experience was considered for the study of critical area and also their percentage of responses was tabulated below: 27 . technical library. what is technically called a sample. Also observations method is used again and again in this study to collect the concrete data. suggestion system. old thesis papers. The questionnaire contained different questions related to spare management. The items so selected constitute.3. morale of personnel. it is the process of obtaining information about an entire population by examining only part of it. Sampling may be defined as the selection of some part of an aggregate or totality on the basis of which a judgments or inference about the aggregate or totality is made. so that it results in a valid and reliable conclusion. material handling. supervisors and technicians) on random basis is chosen to formulate a questionnaires relating to the servicing and logistic support for the aircraft maintenance. maintenance and servicing manuals of aircraft and maintenance magazine published by the Indian Air Lines and HAL.employees. 3. social gathering and computer support in the maintenance of aircraft were prepared. Especially author’s fifteen years of working experience in the particular maintenance division of various air lines stations is considered for collecting secondary data. senior technicians. In this study. the sample of 50 employees (technicians. internet. research papers.

3 Percentage age group of the respondents SL NO A B C D E Age Below 20 years 20 years and below 25 years 26 years and below 30 years 31 years and below 35 years 36 years and below 40 years NIL 10 22 34 26 % of respondents 28 .2 Percentage designation of the respondents SL NO A B C D Designation Technician Senior technician Supervisors Workers 48 26 18 08 % of respondents Length of service Below 5 years 5 Years and upto 10 years 10 years and upto 15 years 15 years and upto 20 years 20 years and above % of total respondent’s 8 16 32 32 12 Age group It is also an important characteristic which was considered for finding out the responses from the employees. NO. A B C D E Designation The designation of the respondent i.Table 3.1 Percentage length of service of the respondents S. Supervisors and technician is considered as another characteristic of respondent for finding out the critical areas of the study is as tabulated below: Table 3. Technician.e. The age group considered for the study from 20 years and above is tabulated below: Table 3. senior technician.

Section ‘A’ describes single question. spare management. suggestion system .4 Percentage educational qualification of the respondents SL NO A B C D E Qualification Post Graduate Graduate Higher Secondary Diploma Others 18 48 24 6 4 % of respondents 3. The Sec “B” of questionnaire consists of twenty questions relating the various aspects of servicing and personnel factors such as method improvement. In this step employees’ perception was measured by evaluating the questionnaire responses. computer support in aircraft maintenance. 29 .2 STEP – II IDENTIFICATION OF CRITICAL AREAS Critical areas were identified on the basis of response of employees. whether continuous improvement required in maintenance of aircraft or not.F 41 years and above 8 Educational qualification Educational qualification of the employees plays a vital role in finding out the problem and critical areas in order to find out the best result. All questions have two answers ‘yes’ or ‘No’.3. personnel morale social gathering and wastage. training. Employees’ perceptions were recorded by a questionnaire. material handling equipment. containing two sections. The percentage of qualifications of the respondents used in this study is tabulated below: Table 3.

The table 3.1 represents the percentage of employees’ opinion towards continuous improvement. method improvement. material handling equipment and computer support in maintenance and logistic division of the station.3 Identified Critical areas. The identified critical areas are spare management. IDENTIFIED CRITICAL AREAS 100 60 86 96 84 80 Table 3.5 Percentage of employees in identified Critical Areas Sl No 1 2 3 4 Areas Spare management 40 Method Improvement 20 Material handling Computer 0 support in aviation field Spare management Method Improvement PERCENTAGE OF EMPLOYEES 92 % of Employees 86 96 84 92 Material handling Computer support in aviation field CRITICAL AREAS 30 Figure 3.5 demonstrates the specific critical areas and percentage of respondents’ perception towards identified critical areas. .2 Responses of the employees for continuous improvement The section “B” of questionnaire is evaluated. The figure 3. and four critical areas were identified for continuous improvement. 12% YES NO 88% Figure 3.The section “A” of questionnaire was evaluated and revealed that there is a need of continuous improvement in the maintenance and logistics department.

3. method improvement. spares and equipment is procured by demand based method. The problems in these critical areas are collected by field studies. Evaluation of Spare management In this base. The various problems which are pointed out in the identified areas are spare management. Item is supplied on the basis of known demand or forecasting based on the flying task allotted to a unit.3. discussions were carried out with employees who are directly related to these identified critical areas. The spares or equipment is automatically replenished by ARS system to a flying base as per the total flying time for a known period and how many aircraft will be fallen due for scheduled / planned servicing in these known periods. material handling and computer support in logistic department.3 STEP – III EVALUATION OF EXISTING PROCESS / DESIGN CONCEPTS In this step. 31 .

logistics department is not able to supply the spares / equipment in time to maintenance division for servicing of unserviceable aircraft. However. maintenance staff has to wait till the procurement of spares from the supply/repair agency. maintenance staffs need immediate spares/equipment to encounter the problems. these maintenance servicing are unplanned. Basic problems are as:  The user who is raising the demand. is not fully conversant with the demanding procedure and publication details. Thus that will result in duplication of job because demand will come back to the user section without any action.  In case user refers the wrong supply agency in the demand form. So. when the dealing clerk is absent for some reason. During this. Problem faced: Presently. 32 . Thus the air lines need continuous progress in procurement lead time on priority demands to meet the flying task and operational efficiency of the station.e.  In between User and Logistics department so many formalities lay which results in increasing the processing time of demand. there is a rapid rise in unserviceability of aircraft due to unforeseen problems happening unexpectedly. Survey indicated that. kaizen offers a means of continuous improvement in this area to eliminate delay in procurement time.  The persons who are dealing with priority demands are not acquainted with newly introduced IMMOLS system  In logistic division. no other clerk respond to the priority demand quickly. Since then. aircraft and air-borne equipments are unserviceable i.In an air lines base under study an average of 100 priority demands are raised against aircraft and air-borne equipment every month. not fit for flying.

User A Department (Logistics) Dealing Supply Agency User B Figure 3. 33 . The depreservation is the process of removal of oil / grease from the inner and outer surfaces of aero engine.3. Equipment Depot 3. which is applied during the process of preservation before putting into service or installing on aircraft. otherwise it may lead to a cause of fire during engine running condition.3. against corrosion attack during storage and transportation.4 why user had to wait. The aim of preservation is to form a protection to the aero engine components and its accessories along with jet pipe.2 Evaluation of Method improvement The Preservation and depreservation of aero engines and jet pipes play a major role in maintenance and servicing in the field of aviation. as well as when the aircraft is temporarily put out of service due to unserviceability.

each cylinder is supplied with compressed air available in two air bottles which is supplied to the system with reduced pressure of 2-3 kg/ cm2. After that it directs the jet of fluid towards the parts of the aero engine / jet pipe to be preserved / depreserved. the operator keeps his thumb on the exit of dispenser and adjusts his thumb to reduce the flow area of dispenser. 3 cylinder holds 25ltrs of aviation gasoline used for depreservation of the engine and leak checks of engine after rectification work. one air reducer. No. Each cylinder having one dispenser each fitted with hose at the end.1 cylinder holds 25ltrs of oil OX-27 which is used for aircraft engine lubrication. It is a multipurpose trolley consist of three containers. two air bottles with compressed air of150 Kg/Cm2. No.  It is not possible for the operator to adjust properly his thumb to the outlet of dispenser which results in failure of processes.The preservation and depreservation trolley named AMZ-53 is manufactured by Russian. one safety valve and three filters. Existing Procedure  By fixing the trigger on the guard. During operation of the system. 34 .  The procedure consumes approximately 40ltr of fluid during single operation. 2 cylinder holds 25ltrs OM-11 which is used for internal and external preservation of the aircraft engine and Jet pipe. No.

11-dispenser. 21-end piece for pressure filling of oil. 6-latch. 16-shutoff valve.6 Dispenser 1-body. 4. 13-filter. 7-charging pipe union. 10-dispensing hose. 8-shutoff valve. 3-cylinder. 9-strainer filter. 5-earthing cable. 11-blank cover 35 .5 Preservation trolley AMZ-53 Description: 1-safety valve. reducer. 14-filter. 4. 5-reducer. 3-pressure gauge. 18-filter. 10-barrel. 19-instrument panel. 12-tank(qty 3).8-spring. 2-valve.Figure 3. 9-airbottle. 6-pressure gauge. 17-air relief valve. 20-handling lug. Figure 3. 7-triggewr.

 The operator is unable to control the operation properly because of more area of the outlet of dispenser.of preserving fluid during each operation and hence the operator has to fill the dispensing container at least twice (because capacity of container is 25ltrs).  The process of preservation requires about 40 ltrs. 3.3 Evaluation of Material handling In the Indian Air Lines where sophisticated aircrafts like Boeing. This results a large amount of wastage of oil / gasoline. and hence it is not possible to take out grease from the spherical sockets of the preserved parts easily. especially to be lifted and lowered through a height of 10 feet during replacement operation. 36 .Problems faced  The outlet area of the dispenser is more. the work area is very prone to fire hazard wherever it spills during the process of preservation. need requirement of special material handling equipments during maintenance. servicing of aircrafts.3.  As oil/gasoline is inflammable fluid. It is observed that most of the material handling is carried out manually during the operation. Thus Indian Air lines needs specific material handling equipments for safe and efficient maintenance of aircraft to achieve the goal of the organization Existing Manual Operation The existing manual operation requires 8 persons to carry out the operation because the weight of after burner diffuser is heavy (85 kg) and bulk in size. the operator always feels annoyance while carrying out preservation and depreservation. Airbus are used.3.  Due to unhealthy nature of oil/gasoline.

 Six persons are required for lifting and lowering the items. By the implementation of IMMOLS (integrated material management on line system) in the Indian Air Lines base made the logistic system very easier and saved large wastage of man hours. maintenance activities carried out manually during removal and fitment of aero engine after burner diffuser replacement.4 Evaluation of Computer support in logistics department In logistic department purchasing. provisioning.  One technician is required for fitting and removing the attachment bolts. demand and issue of spares plays in daily routine job. problems remain same in the personal clothing issue program. Still.3.3. The manual operation is involved with negligible personal safety and wastage in man powers.  One supervisor is required for guiding the manual operation.7 Height of the after burner diffuser during replacement It has been observed that. 37 . 3. budgeting. 10 feet Figure 3.

. the issuing section tallies available stock and issue the clothing.  It provides low level of employees’ satisfaction as the employees have to wait in queue for longer duration.  He fills required item in a specified demand form.Because employees make a long queue to draw their entitlement during the clothing issue program and left the work place which results in hampering of planned job and wastage of man hours.  Approach to the demanding officer (under whom employee works) for signature.  Take out the time from schedule work and approach to account section for cross checking of demand voucher whether that mentioned item due or not.  On the date of issue programme.  On that day. the individual makes a queue for the drawing of his personnel clothing. Existing procedure:  Employee finds out the due items from personnel clothing issue book.  Employees do not get their full entitlement in time as the existing issue program is intermittent as well as time consuming.  Chances of hampering of planned job as issue program is conducted during planned working hours. 38 .  Wait for the unit wise date of issue programme. Problem faced  The existing issue program leads to more wastage of man hours.

practical observations are documented to analyze the various problems of these critical areas.Chapter. the four critical areas were identified by analyzing questionnaire response.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In previous chapter. The problems in these critical areas are found out by discussion with the employees as well as management. An analysis is carried out using Kaizen methodology for 39 . In this chapter the proposed method / concepts are adopted for improvement in these identified critical areas. Also.

Machine (facilities). material (item) and method (operation). Spare management By studying the problems for delay in supply of spares to the maintenance line. method is unhealthy to operator. Method improvement By visualizing the problems existing in preservation and depreservation method of aero engine. The goal of QC program was to reduce the waiting period for the spares to minimum possible. Various Kaizen techniques are applied in the identified four critical areas of study. four supervisor and 10 workers. All delay areas are identified and different measures are taken to improve the existing delay in procurement of spares. 40 . The analysis and implementation of proposed method in comparison with existing method are discussed here in detail. 4M checklist system is applied to bring the improvement over it.e. All these problems are reduced to a great extent by changing the exit pipe of the dispenser with a suitable nozzle. Pareto diagram and check sheets are used to solve the problem. In the existing method of operation.improvement in identified critical areas. various problems are identified i. The Different tools of kaizen such as cause and effect diagram. more wastage in material and it is an inefficient method. a quality Circle team is formed by combining two engineers. 4.1 STEP – IV PROPOSED METHOD / CONCEPTS TO IMPROVE EXISTING METHODS The different concepts and methods are adopted to bring improvement in existing concepts / methods. The 4 M check list of Kaizen activities are Man (operator).

The best suggestion found out to be “Implementation of clothing issue program on existing IMMOLS network”. This menu can be accessed by the employees at their work site terminal to find out their entitled clothing. the newly introduced Personnel Demand Form has to be filled up. “Personnel Clothing”. The data base is then checked online by issuing section. The rest all is done by the issuing section. The items which are entitled for the employee are delivered by issuing section to the employee’s work site. 3-MU check point is considered to help workers during operation.e. Also.e. fatigue. The new form is dropped to the issuing section. improvement is carried out.2 STEP –V ANALYSIS STAGE 41 . About 50 suggestions are collected directly from the employees. employees have been asked directly for suggestions. strain. Muri (Strain) and Mara (Discrepancy). to bring the improvements in the personal clothing issue program. and wastage of man power is found out during the operation. In this study. With the help of Software Company the existing IMMOLS network is added with an additional menu i.Material handling By visualizing the existing material handling of after burner diffuser. the clothing is issued with the use of a hand written form instead of old conventional method of approval at various steps. In the existing operation various problems recognized i. The 3 M U checklists of Kaizen activities are Muda (Waste). As per the entitlement browsed at the employee’s terminal. By keeping the entire 3 MU problem in view. 4. This improvement is done by fabricating an iron lashing cable from local market to replace the conventional existing manual operation. Computer support By considering the problems in the existing clothing issue programme. study is carried out by suggestion system which is an integral part of the Kaizen methodology.

To ensure operational preparedness of aircraft and Approval equipment. The analysis.Analysis of the proposed method is carried out on four identified critical areas by using the different problem solving tools of Kaizen. Taking demand no. from IMMOLS Seeking approval from C E O Seeking approval from SLO Signal demand rises through AOG cell Message sends through signal or via internet to supply agency Dealing clerk in supply / repair agency Spares/ item comes through logistics procedure Receipt and Dispatch section Received by User section 42 Figure 4.1 Analysis of spare management Demand by user section The occasions arise when normal demands for spares do not materialize in time. For procurement of spares from supply agency certain procedures are followed.1 Flow diagram of procurement of spares . comparison and result of the study in four critical areas are described as follow:- 4.1 shows the flow diagram of procurement spares from the supply agency. The Getting N/A of from store figure 4. bypriority O i/c demands for supply of spares are raised.2.

Cause-and-Effect Diagram and Situation Analysis: In order to analyze the cause of delay in supply of spares to maintenance line. Circle members itemized the factors at a brainstorming session and arranged them in a cause and effect diagram as shown below: MAN Absent (duty off) Out of office MACHINE Linkage failure 43 . QC circle members conducted a brainstorming session regarding the waiting time for supply of spare and equipment.

S. ten demands are put under check sheet. Out of 50 old demands under study. Circle members decided to conduct a survey on existing method to find out the delay in supply of spares to the maintenance line.Unserviceable (waiting for repair) Report sick Semi-skilled Busy in other job DELAY IN SUPPLY OF SPARES Lack of co-ordination Other workload everybody do not trained with system Item waiting after receiving WORKING SYSTEM Busy Insufficient Machine Form not filled properly Medical Less Comp. knowl. About 50 old demands are studied for delay and data is collected. No Item Problem Recognitio n Date (A) 1 2 3 4 Data Recorder Tachogenerator Amplifier Pressure relief 12 Jul 07 06 Apr 07 03 Feb 07 10 Mar 07 14 Jul 07 09 Apr 07 05 Feb 07 12 Mar 07 44 Demand date (B) Material Transfer Request date (C) 16 Jul 07 13 Apr 07 08 Feb 07 14 Mar 07 30 Jul 07 22 Apr 07 13 Feb 07 16 Apr 07 Clearance date (D) Difference between column A&D 18 days 16days 40 days 36 days . Table 4. Tea break Starts leaving a message Other unavoidable jobs USER Figure 4.1 Check sheets to identify the delay in procurement.2 Causes and effect diagram for delay in supply of spares Further.

45 .5 6 7 8 9 valve Hydraulic 03 Jan 07 05 Jan 07 23 Feb 07 24 May 07 12 Jan 07 02 Mar 07 04 May 07 07 Jan 07 25 Feb 07 27 May 07 14 Jan 07 04 Mar 05 07 May 07 10 Mar 07 18 Apr 07 07 Jun 07 25 Jan 07 17 Mar 07 02 Jun 07 65 days 57 days 16 days 15 days 16 days 31 days accumulator Hydraulic pump 20 Feb 07 Servo Unit 22 May 07 Flight detection 10 Jan 07 integrator Synchronizing 01 Mar 07 02 May 07 unit 10 RPM Gauge On scrutinizing the check sheet it is understood that the time taken for procurement of some of the items like hydraulic accumulator and hydraulic pump is about 2 months. About 50 demands which are raised in the month of September is analyzed to find out the reasons starting from the raising of the demands by the user sections up to the material received by the maintenance line. various measures are taken.  Adequate training on IMMOLS system. To find the main areas of delay in supply of spares. these are described below. of problem 29 24 18 14 10 5 Cumulative 29 53 71 85 95 100 Identifying the areas contributing for the delay of spares. circle members made a brain storming session.2 Reasons why maintenance staff had to wait Reasons A B C D E F Supply agency delay Maintenance staff delay Approving delay Material transfer delay Receiving delay Any other delay Total no. The main causes of delay in the procurement of spares are listed below: Table 4.

e. The table 4. Table 4.3 Comparison study before and after measuring action. Reasons for delay Frequency of problem A B C D E F Supply delay Maintenance agency staff before study 29 24 18 14 10 5 Cumulative freq. approving delay.4 illustrates the comparison of delay before and after quality circle conducted in the maintenance and logistic division. The results obtained after implementation of various measures to curtail delay in supply of spares. In this table. again study is conducted in the previous areas of delay.  Manning the IMMOLS Server round the clock to attend the queries. maintenance staff delay. 10 to 2 and 5 to 1 respectively.  In time approval of demand by approving authority. before study 29 53 71 85 95 100 Frequency of problem after study 10 8 6 5 2 1 Cumulative freq. The frequency of other delays (i.  On receipt of spares from supply agency immediate delivery to maintenance line. the frequency of delay in supply agency is reduced from 29 to 10.  Immediate supply of spares from supply agency to user base by courier or speed post. receiving delay and other delays) are reduced 24 to8. After a month together. 18 to6.  Immediate raising of Material Transfer Request (MTR) to supply agency through Intranet. material transfer request delay. On line assistance to user. after study 10 18 24 29 31 32 delay Approving delay MTR delay Receiving delay Any other delay 46 .

8 graph of average employees attend the clothing issue program Figure 4.2 Analysis of method improvement 47 . PER CEN TAG E OF DEL AY S 68% Figure 4.2.3 Pareto diagram (combination of before and after measuring action) 4.3 shows the percentage of improvement in supply of spares. It is revealed that the total delays reduced to 32%. Figure 4.The frequency of delays before and after measuring action is diagrammed according to priority on the pareto diagram.

4(a) Detachment of exit barrel from the dispenser body 21 mm 13 mm 32 mm 2 mm Hexagonal union 48 Tapered section Figure 4. This brought out an improvement in operation of preservation and depreservation. The exit pipe of the dispenser is replaced with a metallic nozzle of 2mm diameter. Also. Valve Body Exit barrel Trigger 15mm dia. It resulted in reduction in wastage of material. the mask is used by the operator which creates a healthy environment to the worker. Outlet Figure 4.The existing method of preservation and depreservation was leading to wastage of material and unhealthy working environment. The major problem was the design of exit pipe of the dispenser (15 mm dia).4 (b) newly designed nozzle .

26 mm Body Outlet Outlet barrel barrel Nozzle Nozzle Trigger Trigger Figures 4.4 (c) Dispenser with nozzle after method improvement Qualitative improvement It is observed that there are tremendous qualitative improvements in the operation: 49 .

e. Cost of 15 liters of oil Cost of 15 liters of kerosene 80x15= Rs 1200/ 20x15= Rs 300/ - Total saving in cost for one servicing Rs 1500/ There are five such operations carried out in a month and hence sixty operations in a year.per liter During servicing both preservation and depreservation is carried out. Cost of preservation oil is Rs 80/ . Savings By repeated operation it is observed that approximately 15 liters of material (i. which removes all oil stains from the inhibited parts and takes out the grease from the intricate parts during depreservation.per liter Cost of aviation kerosene is Rs 20/ . Thus total savings in a year by this improvement is 60x1500= Rs 90.  Operator becomes very enthusiastic towards improvement (because it reduces the extra job i. as this process reduced the spillage that was creating the unhealthy environment.e.000/ In terms of material Total consumption of oil for single operation (before) = 40 liters 50 . A fine spray / jet of fluid come out from the equipment. oil or aviation kerosene) saved in one operation. cleaning of floor area and refilling of the system).  Level of satisfaction of operators is increased.  A fine layer of preservation oil (with minimum consumption) develops during preservation.

The figure 4. Muda (waste) in man hours. This method visualizes a utilization of idle machine lifting crane and Kaizen. Fabricating an iron lashing cable of 2 feet length with loop in one end and an eye end attached to the other is manufactured from the local market. In improved method only two persons are required for handling of item during replacement.5 Lifting point of after burner diffuser 51 . In 3 MU check point. This kaizen technique brought an improvement in the handling of equipment i.e after burner diffuser during replacement. Lifting point Figure 4.5 % 4. The designed lashing cable is used with idle machine (lifting crane) to perform the job with faster speed and less man power.5 shows the design of lashing cable.3 Analysis of material handling 3 MU Check points Muda. muri (strain) and fatigue involved in operation and Mura (discrepancy in the way of handling the equipment is considered during the analysis. Muri and Mura are adopted and existing manual operation is analyzed to take out the drudgery from the system.Total consumption of oil for single operation (after) Savings of material for single operation 15 liters = 25 liters % percentage saving during single operation = 15/40x 100 = 37.2.

Loop end Eye end Bolt Nut Boom Figure 4.7 Lifting crane .6 Iron lashing cable Pulley Rotating handle Base Jack Wheel 52 Figure 4.

The boom can operate through a radius of 1700mm to2000 mm and 360 turning angle.Lifting crane is intended to remove the canopy. This lifting crane is utilized for replacement of after burner diffuser. ejection seat. The various steps followed for replacement of After Burner Diffuser are: Operation during removal of diffuser 53 . radio equipment and other units weighing not above 300 kg.

 Supervisor rotates the crane handle and lifts after burner diffuser.4 Comparison of old and new procedure in material handling 54 . Thus. Total time saved during single operation 6X30=180 minutes or 3 man hours.  Releases the load from crane and removes the lashing cable. Whereas. new method saves 6 men for 30 minutes each during a single operation. during this time technician supports the after burner diffuser to avoid falling of it.e.  Moving the crane towards the engine carries out an alignment.  AB Diffuser is lowered and kept safely on its stand. There are 3 operations carried out in one month. Total man hours saved per year is 108 hours. Total man hours saved per month is 9 hours. Operation during fitment diffuser  Attach the lashing cable to the crane and after burner diffuser.  Supervisor rotates the crane handle to lift AB Diffuser. Results The existing manual operation is being carried out in 30 minutes (i. Table 4.  Technician removes the required attachment bolts and nut.  Technician attaches the required fasteners and tightens. Thus it is concluded that. Attach the eye end of the cable to the lifting point provided on the After Burner Diffuser. for removal and fitment) with the help of eight employees. by the utilization of lifting crane and small improvement by means of a iron cable the same operation is carried out by only two employees.  Connect the crane in the loop provided at the other end.

operat5ion. Equipment clerk tallies the individual’s demand request by checking the data base in the computer provided to him. Workers fatigue reduced. No chances of damages Personnel safety increases. Personnel demand Request 55 . Crane is idle most of the time.Man Machine Damage Safety Fatigue OLD METHOD NEW METHOD 8 persons required to carry out the Only 2 persons required.4 Analysis of computer support The suggestion system brought a clear view to implement Kaizen in the clothing issue system. Personnel safety is less. 4. The best and improved method of personnel clothing issue is as follows: New Issue Program for Employee The employee checks out at his terminal to find out the entitlement.2. Proper utilization of idled crane. He takes out a hard copy of demand and arranges delivery of demanded items to work site of individual employees. In this system of issue program the employee need not to be disturbed during his period of duty. He has to only fill up a personal demand request and submit it to Logistic section. Chances of damages to the item. Workers feel more fatigue.

5 attend the program 60. The data collected from direct source is appended below: Table 4. 65 & 63 55. 50 & 44 53. 58. 48. 58. ………… Name ………. Branch …… Sl No Item Qty Size Date Of Due Date Last Issue Date: Signature of Individual In the new method of issue program saving in wastage of man power is obtained.Particulars Personal No. 62. 62 & 63 40. 60 & 59 56 .5 45.5 Month wise study of clothing issue program Month Apr 05 May 05 Jun 05 July 05 Frequency of program 4 4 4 4 No.5 60.5 57. of employees Total employees attend per month 246 242 182 230 Average per program 61. The wastage of man hours in old method is calculated below: Quantitative Study: There are more than 1500 employee working in the air lines under study.

By repeated observation. 61 & 62 236 242 59 60. Table 4.5 Figure 4. direct data collected from the persons involved in the programme. The observed distribution of arrival times and service times are recorded and solved by system simulation.8 Month wise average employees attend the clothing issue program The net average = Sum of the averages of months/ Total number of month = 61.5 + 45. 59. The following frequency distributions of inter arrival time of employees and service time of the counter have been established.5 + 59 + 60.6 Frequency distribution of inter arrival time 57 .5 +57.Aug 05 Sep 05 4 4 51. 64 & 63 60. 58.5 / 6 = 58 (approx) METHOD USED TO FIND OUT THE TOTAL WAITING TIME There are 58 persons attend the clothing issue programme in one program day.5 + 60.

Inter Arrival time (Minutes) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Frequency % 15 25 35 10 8 10 20 35 10 25

This system is carried out in one service counter and served by one bearer only. Hence the persons at queue will enter the service channel as per FCFS basis. Simulation of the clothing issue system with one counter and assigning random number for inter arrival time of persons to path in queue and service times in the counter is allotted in following table: -

Table 4.7 Random number distribution of Inter arrival time Inter arrival time(in mins.) 0 1 2 3 4 5 Frequency % 15 25 35 10 8 7 Cumulative Freq. 15 40 75 85 93 100 Random number 0-14 15-39 40-74 75-84 85-92 93-99

Table 4.8 Random number distribution of Service time Inter arrival time (minutes) 5 6 7 8 9 10 Frequency % 10 15 25 35 5 10 Cumulative Frequency 10 25 50 85 90 100 Random Number 00-09 10-23 24-49 50-84 85-89 90-99


The simulation of this study (clothing issue program) is carried out in one counter. The persons in queue enter the service channel (counter) as per FCFS (First come first service) basis is recorded in the following taste to find out the total waiting time of the workers. From this waiting time, it can be conclude that the wastage of man-hours in the manual system and which is removed by the computer support system. Table 4.9 Analysis of waiting time by simulation modeling Sl Random Inter arrival Random Service Number time Cumulative Service Service Waiting arrival time Begins (SB) 0 1 19 27 35 43 5 58 64 71 78 86 94 102 110 118 125 132 140 147 156 165 171 178 185 193 201 209 216 226 Ends (SE) 10 19 27 35 43 50 58 64 71 78 86 94 102 110 118 125 132 140 147 156 165 171 178 185 193 201 209 216 226 234 time (WT) 0 10 17 23 29 36 42 46 52 58 65 71 78 84 92 100 102 106 110 115 122 129 133 140 143 149 155 160 163 170

No Number arrival 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 (RNA) -11 71 65 41 35 17 01 7 34 12 43 38 49 13 05 95 76 85 69 57 63 41 3 91 58 62 75 89 23

time(IAT) service (in mins.) -0 2 2 2 1 1 4 0 1 0 2 1 2 0 0 5 3 4 2 2 2 2 0 4 2 2 3 4 1 (RNS) 96 82 56 68 58 40 82 11 34 25 66 17 79 58 67 42 38 84 38 86 85 12 27 46 58 69 53 48 93 61

(ST) (in (CAT) minutes) 10 9 8 8 8 7 8 12 12 13 13 15 16 18 18 18 23 26 30 32 34 36 38 38 42 44 46 49 53 54 59 0 0 2 4 6 7 8 12 12 13 13 15 6 18 18 18 23 26 30 32 34 36 38 38 42 44 46 49 53 54

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

11 36 59 39 19 21 74 86 90 64 18 18 67 20 72 34 54 30 22 48 74 76 02 07 64 95 23 91

0 1 2 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 3 0 0 2 5 1 4

89 98 58 95 81 34 23 92 71 78 05 32 41 84 79 86 88 72 45 32 99 59 69 29 50 48 10 30

9 10 8 10 8 7 6 10 8 8 5 7 7 8 8 9 9 8 7 7 10 8 8 7 8 7 6 7

54 55 57 58 59 60 62 66 70 72 71 71 74 75 77 78 80 81 82 84 86 89 89 89 91 96 97 101

234 243 253 263 271 279 286 292 302 310 318 323 330 337 345 353 362 371 379 386 393 403 411 419 426 434 441 447 Total

243 180 253 188 261 196 271 204 279 212 286 219 292 224 302 226 310 232 318 238 323 247 330 251 337 256 345 262 353 268 362 275 371 282 379 290 386 297 393 302 403 307 411 314 419 322 426 330 434 335 441 338 447 344 454 346 10217 min

It is concluded that, 170 man-hours saved in one program, 680 (170X4) man-hour saved in one month and 8160 man hours saved per year. Table 4.10 Comparison of old and new clothing issue program Old Method 1. Wastage of man-hours. 2. Low level of employee satisfaction. 3. Employee do not get his full entitlement. 4. Chance of hampering of planned work. New Method 1. Drastic saving in man hours. 2. High level of employee satisfaction. 3. Employee gets his full entitle in time. 4. No chances of hampering of planned task.


which is third critical area of study. it leads to a reduction of 37.All the four critical areas of study are analyzed and implemented by Kaizen tools are elaborately discussed in succeeding paragraphs. 61 . The Kaizen tools suggestion system is utilized for improvement in issued program. which was also hampering the maintenance work of the aircraft. The existing system for personal clothing issue for the maintenance and non-maintenance employees was wasting a lot of man power in the form of waiting time for clothing issue program in the logistics section.e. Material handling equipment. it is revealed that an improvement can be made with a jet in the existing dispenser in the preservation and depreservation trolley. As a result. The existing method for preservation and depreservation of aero engine was resulting in a large wastage of material and producing hazardous environment. Computer support in Logistics division is discussed under the analysis stage of this chapter. The existing handling of material (aero engine diffuser) was performed manually. cause and effect diagram. for which 8 men were needed and involved with negligible safety to man and material during replacement of after burner diffuser in aircraft maintenance.e. By introduction of Kaizen tool 4 M check point. By implementation of Kaizen tools i.e. By using kaizen tool 3 MU an improvement in replacement of after burner diffuser is brought out. pareto diagram and check sheets. This improved the performance of aircraft maintenance and saving in man-hours. lifting crane). This is done by a locally manufactured lashing cable and utilizing an idle material handling equipment (i.5% of material and also improved the safety to the man carrying out the operation. the delay in supply of spares is reduced to a great extent i. 68%. The existing spare management system was causing more delay in supply of spare to the maintenance line and resulting in non-completion of maintenance schedule in time. is discussed in detail under analysis stage.

Thus introduction of Kaizen tools improved the overall performance of maintenance and logistics operation. Since it is a continuous improvement process. Chapter -5 62 . it needs to be always considered as best tool for further improvement.By addition of personnel clothing menu on existing IMMOLS network and change in the procedure of personnel clothing issue. it is revealed that there is a tremendous reduction in man hours as described in analysis stage of this chapter.

(iv) By applying kaizen tools in the area of material handling. improved the safety handling procedure during maintenance work and saved 108 man hours every year. material handling and computer support were identified. spare management.per year.5% reduction) and hence Rs. (iii) In method improvement. change in design of nozzle made a fine spray of preserving oil. the delay in supply of spares is reduced by 32%.1 CONCLUSIONS With the application of kaizen methodology in maintenance and logistic operations. lifting crane is utilized by the means of a locally fabricated lashing cable. 63 . (ii) By implementation of kaizen methodology in spare management. The following conclusions were drawn:(i) On the basis of questionnaire filled by the employees. 90000/. method improvement. This small kaizen task. It leads to reduction of 15 liters of oil consumed (37.CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE SCOPE 5.e. the four critical areas i. (v) The upgrading procedure of personal clothing issue programme in logistic division reduced 8160 man-hours every year.

APPENDICE “A” 64 . TPM and TQM. The research work can be expanded in the same field by using other techniques of Kaizen such as Kanban. 3. The study explained. JIT. 2.5. can be expanded and implemented in other stations of the Indian Air Lines.2 FUTURE SCOPE 1. The Kaizen methodology can be applied for further study in operational (flying) field of aviation in Indian Air Lines.

Questions Yes No No. Responder’s Name: Designation: Age: Sex: Length of service: Educational qualification: SECTION “A” (1) Will you agree that there should be continuous improvement in maintenance in the aviation field? (a) Yes (b) No SECTION “B” (√ ) Tick marks the suitable answer. 5. 4. Do you feel the need of computers in your maintenance tasks? 2.QUESTIONAIRE Responders are requested to express their opinion enabling the study to identify the real problems. organization? Do you need the on-line data on performance of aircraft maintenance? Is the existing methodology for maintenance of aircraft time consuming? Is there a need of introduction of improved method of maintenance? Contd…/02 -02- 65 . Sl. Will information technology be accepted by all personnel of your 3. 1.

7.6. 16. 17. 15.Manpower 66 1.Manpower . 8. 11. 14. 18.MU CHECKLIST OF KAIZEN ACTIVITIES MUDA(waste) MURI(strain) MURA(discrepancy) 1.Manpower 1. 10. 13. 20. Do you feel safe when involved in maintenance activities of aircraft? Are you satisfied in your work output in maintenance work with existing tools and equipment? Are you satisfied in the existing spares management system? Does the existing spare management system help in forecasting of spares/equipment? Is your Priority demand of items supplied in time to work site? Is the degree of safety adequate with the existing material handling equipment? Are you comfortable with your working environment? Are you satisfied with the material handling equipment used in maintenance operation in IA? Is there any arrangement for social gathering in your organization? Do you feel improvement in maintenance methods and facilities to reduce the wastage of resources? Does existing material handling equipment need improvement? Do you think satisfaction of workers increase the productivity of maintenance work? Is there any importance of personal morale in the IA? Do you think maintenance improvement is an endless process? Is the training plays a vital part in aircraft maintenance? Signature of responder APPENDICE “B” 3. 19. 12. 9.

Facilities 6.Production volume 9. Way of thinking 2. Inventory 10. Material 8.2.Time 5.Method 4. Way of thinking APPENDICE “C” THE 4 – M CHECKLISTS (i) Man (operator): • • • Does he follow standard? Is his work efficiency acceptable? Is he problem conscious? 67 .Jigs and Tools 7.Method 4.Jigs and Tools 7.Jigs and Tools 7.Time 5.Technique 3.Production volume 9. Material 8.Facilities 6. Way of thinking 2.Method 4. Place 11.Technique 3. Material 8.Facilities 6.Time 5. Inventory 10.Production volume 9.Technique 3. Place 11. Inventory 10. Place 11.

• • • • • • • (ii) Is he responsible? Is he qualified? Is he experienced? Is he assigned to the right job? Is he willing to improve? Does he maintain good human relation? Is he healthy? Machine (Facilities) • • • • • • • • Does it meet production requirement? Does it meet process capabilities? Is the oiling adequate? Is the inspection adequate? Does it meet precision requirement? Does it make any unusual noise? Is the lay out adequate? Is every thing in good working order? (iii) Material • • • • • • • • Are there any mistakes in volume? Are there any mistakes in grade? Are there any mistakes in the brand name? Are there impurities mixed in ? Is the inventory level adequate? Is there any waste in material? Is the handling adequate? Is the quality standard adequate? (iv) Method • Are the work standard adequate? 68 .

• • • • • • • Is the work standard up graded? Is it a safe method? Is it an efficient method? Is it a method that ensures a good product? Is the sequence of work adequate? Is the Set up adequate? Is there adequate contact with the previous & next process? JUSE TQC TPM QC CEO SLO AOG ATF IMMOLSFCFS IAT RNA ST RNS CAT SB SE WT - Union of Japanese scientist and engineers Total quality control Total Productive Maintenance Quality Circle Chief Engineering Officer Senior Logistic Officer Aircraft on ground Aviation Turbine Fuel Integrated material management on line system First Come First Service Inter Arrival Time Random Number arrival Service Time Random Number service Commutative arrival time Service begins Service ends Waiting time 69 .