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Introduction :
Steganography is the dark cousin of cryptography, the use of codes. While cryptography provides privacy, steganography is intended to provide secrecy. Privacy is what you need when you use your credit card on the Internet you don't want your number revealed to the public. For this, you use cryptography, and send a coded pile of gibberish that only the web site can decipher. Though your code may be unbreakable, any hacker can look and see you've sent a message. For true secrecy, you don't want anyone to know you're sending a message at all. Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no-one apart from the sender and intended recipient even realizes there is a hidden message, a form of security through obscurity. By contrast, cryptography obscures the meaning of a message, but it does not conceal the fact that there is a message. Today, the term steganography includes the concealment of digital information within computer files. For example, the sender might start with an ordinary-looking image file, then adjust the color of every 100th pixel to correspond to a letter in the alphabet—a change so subtle that someone who isn't actively looking for it is unlikely to notice it. The advantage of steganography over cryptography alone is that messages do not attract attention to themselves, to messengers, or to recipients. An unhidden coded message, no matter how unbreakable it is, will arouse suspicion and may in itself be incriminating, as in countries where encryption is illegal. Often, steganography and cryptography are used together to ensure security of the covert message.

Definition :
The word steganography is of Greek origin and means "covered, or hidden writing". It is the science of hiding information. Whereas the goal of cryptography is to make data unreadable by a third party, the goal of steganography is to hide the data from a third party. There are a large number of steganographic methods that most of us are familiar with, ranging from invisible ink and microdots to secreting a hidden message in the second letter of each word of a large body of text and spread spectrum radio


These forms of steganography often are used in conjunction with cryptography so that the information is doubly protected. With computers and networks. ammonia salts. (This is why slaves were used: they were considered expendable. there are many other ways of hiding information. however. all of which turn dark when held over a flame. History of Steganography : Steganography has been widely used in historical times. alum. This method has obvious drawbacks: (1). such as lemon juice. first it is encrypted and then hidden so that an adversary has to first find the information and then decrypt it. Examples of historical usage include: • Hidden messages in wax tablets : in ancient Greece. or urine. (2). because it takes months to grow hair. Herodotus tells the story of a message tattooed on a slave's shaved head. invisible inks were commonly used for serious communications until WWII. The simplest are organic compounds. It is impossible to send a message as quickly as the slave can travel. is to use invisible ink. In 1641. allowing a user to hide large amounts of information within image and audio files. milk. and exposed by shaving his head again. such as: • Covert channels • Hidden text within Web pages • Hiding files in "plain sight" • Null ciphers Steganography today. A slave can only be used once for this purpose. Bishop John Wilkins suggested onion juice. Described as early as the first century AD. and for glow-in-the dark writing the "distilled Juice of Glowworms. hidden by the growth of his hair. people wrote messages on the wood." Modern invisible inks fluoresce under ultraviolet light and are used as anti-counterfeit devices. especially before cryptographic systems were developed. and then covered it with wax so that it looked like an ordinary. For example.communication. is significantly more sophisticated than the examples above suggest. • Hidden messages on messenger's body : also in ancient Greece. nearly as old.) • A more subtle method. unused tablet. The message allegedly carried a warning to Greece about Persian invasion plans. "VOID" is printed on checks and other official [2] .

laser printers can adjust spacing of lines and characters by less than 1/300th of an inch. Throughout World War II. For example. • With the advent of photography. none will work for electronic communications because only the pure information of the cover message is transmitted. written around 1500. though the British had discovered the American formula by 1777. On its surface. To hide a zero.documents in an ink that appears under the strong ultraviolet light used for photocopies. In the end. leave a standard space. Jim Reeds of AT&T Labs deciphered mysterious codes in the third volume. there is plenty of room to hide secret information in a not-so-secret message. though. reduced to the size of a printed period. and could be anything. the Germans used "microdots" to hide information. The cover message is merely a distraction.lots and lots of little dots. In both world wars. showing that Trithemius' work is [3] . Of the innumerable variations on this theme. microfilm was created as a way to store a large amount of information in a very small space. had ingenuity in spades. considered one of the founders of modern cryptography. Edgar Hoover called "the enemy's masterpiece of espionage.they hide the secret message in the physical object which is sent. this sort of trick stands up well to repeated photocopying. describes an extensive system for concealing secret messages within innocuous texts. or newspaper. and then pasted into an innocuous cover message. Nevertheless. • All of these approaches to steganography have one thing in common -. magazine. Even better. and to hide a one leave 1/300th of an inch more than usual." • Modern updates to these ideas use computers to make the hidden message even less noticeable. the two sides raced to create new secret inks and to find developers for the ink of the enemy. both sides made extensive use of chemical inks that required special developers to detect. a technique which J. But less than five years ago. • The monk Johannes Trithemius. Varying the spacing over an entire document can hide a short binary message that is undetectable by the human eye." A secret message was photographed. and the initial reaction in the 16th century was so strong that Steganographia was only circulated privately until publication in 1606. His three volume work Steganographia. The Americans caught on only when tipped by a double agent: "Watch out for the dots -. the volume of communications rendered invisible ink impractical. It just takes ingenuity. the book seems to be a magical text. • During the American Revolution.

you can make a grammar that describes spam. If the tables are used in order. Worse. then the coded message will appear to be an innocent prayer. we could construct a three word sentence that encodes a three letter message. If you carefully prescribe a set of rules." • Another clever invention in Steganographia was the "Ave Maria" cipher. • One of Trithemius' schemes was to conceal messages in long invocations of the names of angels. SpamMimic uses a "grammar" to make the messages. For example. which is as ubiquitous on the Internet today as innocent prayers were in the 16th century. The book contains a series of tables. with the secret message appearing as a pattern of letters within the words. • Unfortunately. and once a technique is suspected the hidden messages are easy to discover. in that order. and object. each of which has a list of words. the message letters are replaced by the corresponding words. a ten page document whose line spacing spells out a secret message is completely incriminating. A good steganographic technique should provide secrecy even if everyone knows it's being used. one table per letter. for serious users.more a treatise on cryptology than demonology. 26 verbs. as every other letter in every other word: Padiel aporsy mesarpon omeuas peludyn malpreaxo which reveals "prymus apex. This simple system hides a short text message in a letter that looks exactly like spam. a simple sentence in English is constructed with a subject. [4] . All are well known. and 26 objects. verb. • The modern version of Trithemius' scheme is undoubtedly SpamMimic. For example. To code a message. every scheme we've seen is unacceptable. Given lists of 26 subjects. one per letter. Reeds' fascinating account of the code breaking process is quite readable. even if the message is in an unbreakable code.

org/wiki/Steganography. http://www.References :     http://en. http://www.wikipedia. [5] .com/ieee_ece_seminar_topics.fullinterview.