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1INTRODUCTION TO MICROPROCESSOR BASED SYSTEM The microprocessor is a semiconductor device (Integrated Circuit) manufactured by the VLSI (VeryLarge Scale Integration) technique. It includes the ALU, register arrays and control circuit on asingle chip. To perform a function or useful task we have to form a system by using microprocessor a s a C P U a n d i n t e r f a c i n g m e m o r y , i n p u t a n d o u t p u t d e vi c e s t o i t . A s ys t e m d e s i gn e d u s i n g a microprocessor as its CPU is called a microcomputer. The Microprocessor based system (single board microcomputer) consists of microprocessor asCPU, semiconductor memories like EPROM and RAM, input device, output device and interfacingdevices. The memories, input device, output device and interfacing devices are called peripherals.T h e p o p u l a r i n p u t d e vi c e s a r e ke y b o a r d a n d f l o p p y d i s k a n d t h e o u t p u t d e vi c e s a r e p r i n t e r , LED/LCD displays, CRT monitor, etc.

The above block diagram shows the organization of a microprocessor based system. In this system,the microprocessor is the master and all other peripherals are slaves. The master controls all the peripherals and initiates all operations. The work done by the processor can be classified into the following three groups. 1.Work done internal to the processor 2.Work done external to the processor 3.Operations initiated by the slaves or peripherals. The work done internal to the processors are addition, subtraction, logical operations, data transfer o p e r a t i o n s , e t c . T h e w o r k d o n e e x t e r n a l t o t h e p r o c e s s o r a r e r e a d i n g/ w r i t i n g t h e me m o r y a n d reading/writing the J/O devices or the peripherals. If the peripheral requires the attention of the master then it can interrupt the master and initiate an operation.

The microprocessor is the master, which controls all the activities of the sys tem. To perform aspecific job or task, the microprocessor has to execute a program stored in memory. The programconsists of a set of instructions. It issues address and control signals and fetches the instruction and data from memory. The instruction is ex ecuted one by one internal to the processor and based onthe result it takes appropriate action. BUSES:

•The RAM memory is used to store temporary programs and data. i. •The CPU Bus has multiplexed lines. address or control signals. Now the content of data bus is the opcode of an instruction. The readcontrol signal is made high by timing and control unit after a specified time. O n l y w h e n t h e s l a ve i s selected it comes to the normal logic. Disadvantages of Microprocessor based System 1. compact in size and cost less. to generate chip selectsignals and additional control signals.2. Advantages of Microprocessor based system 1. Generally I/O devices are slowdevices. there is flexibility to alter the system by changing the softwarealone. Operation and maintenance are easier. Less number of components. same line is used to carry different signals . Since the devices are programmable. Intelligence has been brought to systems. At the rising edge of read control signals. the programcounter is incremented. Computational/processing speed is high. which is an external device. Automation of industrial processes and office administration. •The output device is used for examining the results.5..3.e. an interfacedevice is provided between system bus and I/O devices.The CPU interface is provided to demultiplex the multiplexed lines.4. Also it is more reliable. the opcode is latched into microprocessor internal bus and placed in instructionregister. the starting address of the program should be loaded in program counter.Since the speed of I/O devices does not match with the speed of microprocessor. It has limitations on the size of data.6. A t a n y t i me i n s t a n t communication takes place between the master and one of the slaves. . All the slaves have tris t a t e l o gi c a n d h e n c e n o r ma l l y r e m a i n i n h i g h i m p e d a n c e s t a t e . The speed of execution is slow and so real time applications are not possible. The 8085 outputthe content of program counter in address bus and asserts read control signal low. Also. decodes the instructions and provides information to timing andcontrol unit to take further actions. data and to operate the system. T h e a d d r e s s a n d t h e r e a d c o n t r o l s i gn a l e n a b l e t h e m e m o r y t o o u t p u t t h e c o n t e n t o f m e m o r y location on the data bus. •The input device is used to enter the program.The buses are group of lines that carries data. Most of the microprocessors does not support floating point operations INSTRUCTION EXECUTION AND DATA FLOW in 8085 The program instructions are stored in memory. To execute a programin 8085. The instruction-decoding unit. The analog signals cannot be processed directly and digitizing the analog signals introduces errors. •The system bus has separate lines for each signal A l l t h e s l a v e s i n t h e s ys t e m a r e c o n n e c t e d t o t h e s a me s ys t e m b u s .4.3.2.5. PERIPHERAL DEVICES: •The EPROM memory is used to store permanent programs and data. The applications are limited by the physical address space.