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software. mechanical (1450–1840). software development and installation. but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones."[7] Based on the storage and processing technologies employed.[3][4] In a business context.Information technology (IT) is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store. Contents              1 History of computers 2 Data storage 3 Databases 4 Data retrieval 5 Data transmission 6 Data manipulation 7 Academic perspective 8 Commercial perspective 9 Ethics 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links History of computers Main article: History of computing hardware . telecom equipment. implementation. semiconductors. it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical (3000 BC – 1450 AD). upgraded. electromechanical (1840–1940) and electronic (1940–present). Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. e-commerce and computer services.[5] The responsibilities of those working in the field include network administration. and the planning and management of an organisation's technology life cycle.[6] This article focuses on the most recent period (electronic).[1] often in the context of a business or other enterprise. authors Harold J. development. transmit and manipulate data. the Information Technology Association of America has defined information technology as "the study. by which hardware and software is maintained. which began in about 1940. internet. electronics. and replaced. support or management of computer-based information systems". design. retrieve.[2] The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks. Humans have been storing. We shall call it information technology (IT). Leavitt and Thomas L.[6] but the term "information technology" in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review. manipulating and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC. such as computer hardware. application. retrieving. Several industries are associated with information technology.

[11] Electronic computers. began to appear in the early 1940s. or optically on media such as CD-ROMs. a technology now obsolete.[13] Data storage Main article: Data storage device Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape. which ran its first program on 21 June 1948. a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes. the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer. and by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages was the first electronic digital computer.[18] Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on devices such as hard disk drives. It also lacked the ability to store its program in memory.[10] and it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed. it is also the earliest known geared mechanism. dating from about the beginning of the first century BC.[19] It has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007. One of the earliest such systems was IBM's Information Management System (IMS).[16] but the information stored in it and delay line memory was volatile in that it had to be continuously refreshed. The electromechanical Zuse Z3. it was not general-purpose.[15] The first random-access digital storage device was the Williams tube.[12] The first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM). when a form of delay line memory was developed to remove the clutter from radar signals. which is used in modern computers.[20] doubling roughly every 3 years.Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years. the first practical application of which was the mercury delay line. Instead. Although it was programmable.[14] Electronic data storage. using either relays or valves. being designed to perform only a single task. completed in 1941.[22] which is still widely deployed more than 40 . Colossus. programming was carried out using plugs and switches to alter the internal wiring. dates from the Second World War. was the world's first programmable computer.[8] The Antikythera mechanism. and thus was lost once power was removed. based on a standard cathode ray tube. is generally considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer.[9] Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century. invented in 1932[17] and used in the Ferranti Mark 1.[21] Databases Main article: Database management system Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data accurately and quickly. probably initially in the form of a tally stick. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum.

[23] IMS stores data hierarchically. The first commercially available relational database management system (RDBMS) was available from Oracle in 1980.[26] describing "data-in-transit rather than .[32] Data manipulation Hilbert and Lopez[20] identify the exponential pace of technological change (a kind of Moore's law): machines' application-specific capacity to compute information per capita roughly doubled every 14 months between 1986 and 2007. it is commonly held in relational databases to take advantage of their "robust implementation verified by years of both theoretical and practical effort". organised in such a way as to facilitate decision support systems (DSS).. in a database schema.[24] The terms "data" and "information" are not synonymous. A characteristic of all databases is that the structure of the data they contain is defined and stored separately from the data itself. XML's text-based structure offers the advantage of being both machine and human-readable.[30] XML has been increasingly employed as a means of data interchange since the early 2000s.[26] Data retrieval The relational database model introduced a programming-language independent Structured Query Language (SQL). Although XML data can be stored in normal file systems.[22] The extensible markup language (XML) has become a popular format for data representation in recent years. rows and columns.years later. based on relational algebra.[24] All database management systems consist of a number of components that together allow the data they store to be accessed simultaneously by many users while maintaining its integrity.[25] As an evolution of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).[22] but in the 1970s Ted Codd proposed an alternative relational storage model based on set theory and predicate logic and the familiar concepts of tables. but it only becomes information when it is organised and presented meaningfully. the per capita capacity of the world's general-purpose .[29] Data transmission Data transmission has three aspects: transmission.. and stored in a variety of different physical formats[28][a] even within a single organization. propagation.[31] One of the challenges of such usage is converting data from relational databases into XML Document Object Model (DOM) structures. including external sources such as the Internet. data-at-rest". Data warehouses began to be developed in the 1980s to integrate these disparate stores.[27] Most of the world's digital data is unstructured. and reception. Anything stored is data.[31] particularly for machine-oriented interactions such as those involved in web-oriented protocols such as SOAP. They typically contain data extracted from various sources.

dollars) Category 2012 spending 627 2013 spending 666 Devices Data center systems Enterprise software 141 147 278 296 . and the provision of productivity tools to increase efficiency.computers doubled every 18 months during the same two decades. the field of data mining – "the process of discovering interesting patterns and knowledge from large amounts of data"[34] – emerged in the late 1980s. Worldwide IT spending forecast[37] (billions of U. and per capita broadcast information has doubled every 12. integrating those products with organizational needs and infrastructure. provision of information for decision making."[36] Commercial perspective The business value of information technology lies in the automation of business processes..S. the global telecommunication capacity per capita doubled every 34 months. schools. customizing. but unless it can be analysed and presented effectively it essentially resides in what have been called data tombs: "data archives that are seldom visited".3 years.. the Association for Computing Machinery defines IT as "undergraduate degree programs that prepare students to meet the computer technology needs of business. the world's storage capacity per capita required roughly 40 months to double (every 3 years). healthcare. IT specialists assume responsibility for selecting hardware and software products appropriate for an organization.. connecting businesses with their customers. and other kinds of organizations .[33] To address that issue. and installing.[35] Academic perspective In an academic context. government.[20] Massive amounts of data are stored worldwide every day. and maintaining those applications for the organization’s computer users.

Oxford University Press. ^ "Format" refers to the physical characteristics of the stored data such as its encoding scheme. John.588 Ethics Main article: Information ethics The field of information ethics was established by mathematician Norbert Wiener in the 1940s. A Dictionary of Physics. 2013. ^ "Free on-line dictionary of computing (FOLDOC)".661 Total 3.IT services 881 927 1. Citations 1.701 3. . ^ Daintith. "structure" describes the organisation of that data. retrieved 1 August 2012 (subscription required) 2. Retrieved 9 Feb. (2009).737 Telecom services 1. ed. "IT".[38] Some of the ethical issues associated with the use of information technology include:[39]      Breaches of copyright by those downloading files stored without the permission of the copyright holders Employers monitoring their employees' emails and other Internet usage Unsolicited emails Hackers accessing online databases Web sites installing cookies or spyware to monitor a user's online activities See also    Information and communications technology (ICT) Information systems (IS) Computing References Notes 1.

^ Universität Klagenfurt (ed. 4–5. "Computing's Golden Jubilee". ^ Pardede 2009. processing.. Oxford University Press. Jeremy G. ^ "Early computers at Manchester University". and Compute Information". Harvard Business Review 11 8. but without the reinforcement of definition. ^ Schmandt-Besserat. 6. Encyclopedia of computer science.283. PMID 17748027 (subscription required) 9. p.4479.). 5. ^ a b c Ward & Dafoulas 2006. (1981). 94 11. Harold J. Carl W. ^ Alavudeen & Venkateshwaran 2010. University of Arizona. and dissemination. or position. retrieval. Priscilla. A Dictionary of Media and Communication (first ed. ISSN 0958-7403."In its original application 'information technology' was appropriate to describe the convergence of technologies with application in the broad field of data storage. Communicate. ^ Chandler. p. Group.. p. p. p.3. ISSN 0958-7403. retrieved 7 August 2012 24. retrieved 1 August 2012 (subscription required) 4. ^ Olofson. 2 23. ^ Lavington 1980 13. ^ Wright 2012. "A Platform for Enterprise Data Services". retrieved 2 August 2012 7. 178 15. pp. (1958). p.. "Management in the 1980s". ^ Kedar 2009. 1 16.the term IT lacks substance when applied to the name of any function. ^ Childress 2000. 2 29. and Compute Information from 1986 to 2010 22. University of Manchester. "Information technology". ^ van der Aalst 2011. retrieved 24 January 2009 19. ^ a b Pardede 2009. "A History of Information Technology and Systems". ^ Leavitt. pp. ^ a b Ward & Dafoulas 2006. "The World's Technological Capacity to Store. Nicholas (Summer 1998). ^ a b c Hilbert. D. Thomas L. ^ Chaudhuri 2004. retrieved 19 April 2008 14. ^ Proctor 2011. 4 27. p. Keary comments." Anthony Ralston (2000). ^ a b Butler.1126/science. ^ Enticknap. 20. ^ On the later more broad application of the term IT. "Magnetic drum". ^ Dyché 2000. Resurrection (The Computer Conservation Society) 1 (4). 279 10. Science 332 (6025): 60–65. Resurrection (The Computer Conservation Society) (20).211. pp. ^ "video animation on The World's Technological Capacity to Store. p. doi:10. "Decipherment of the earliest tablets". Retrieved 12 May 2013. retrieved 1 August 2012 21. 2 26.. Nature Pub. 3 25. López. 3 12. Communicate. Martin. retrieved 21August 2011 18. p. 4–6 . Science 211 (4479): 283–285. ^ The Manchester Mark 1. ISBN 978-1-56159-2487. Whisler. 1–9 28. Virtual Exhibitions in Informatics. ^ Lavington 1998. ^ Wang & Taratorin 1999. Rod. p. (October 2009). retrieved 19 April 2008 17.). IDC. discipline. Daniel. Munday. Summer 1992. This useful conceptual term has since been converted to what purports to be concrete use.. preface.

N. Simon (1998). Kamber & Pei 2011. ^ "Forecast Alert: IT Spending. p. ^ Bynum 2008. Micheline.. 20–21. Technology of the Gods: The Incredible Sciences of the Ancients. p. XML-Based Data Management and Multimedia Engineering – EDBT 2002 Workshops.Computing Curricula 2005: The Overview Report (pdf) 37. ISBN 978-0-12-381479-1 Kedar.. Worldwide. Jill (2000). Unland. Digital Press. ISBN 978-1-60566-308-1 Proctor. p. pp. ^ Han. Data Minining: Concepts and Techniques (3rd ed. ^ Lewis 2003. Addison Wesley. 33. Open and Novel Issues in XML Database Applications. xxiii 36. (2011). ISBN 978-0-201-65780-7 Han. 9. George (2009). Djeraba. John. 5 34. retrieved 2 January 2013 38. Turning Data Into Information With Data Warehousing. Weckert. A History of Manchester Computers (2 ed. P. in van den Hoven. "Extraction of XML from Relational Databases". Ethics in Information Technology. 361 31. 39. Seema (2009). pp. ISBN 978-0-538-74622-9 van der Aalst. ^ Han. 4Q12 Update". Computer Organization and Design. Early British Computers. xiii. Springer. Pal (2004). Jeroen. ISBN 978-0-932813-73-2 Dyché. PHI Learning. Jian (2011). Database Management Systems.30. 8 35. PHI Learning. ISBN 978-1-902505-01-5 Lewis. Information Technology and Moral Philosophy. Kamber & Pei 2011. p. ISBN 978-81-203-3345-1 Bynum.). p. p. ISBN 978-3-642-19344-6 . Pei. Rainer et al. The British Computer Society. ^ Weik 2000. P. Chabane. K. Springer. ISBN 978-0-521-85549-5 Chaudhuri. Simon (1980). Venkateshwaran. ^ Reynolds 2009. Wil M. Eric (2009). ^ a b Pardede 2009.. John Wiley & Sons. Gartner. in Chaudhri. (2010).). ISBN 97881-203-1254-8 Childress. 32. Bibliography               Alavudeen. Terrell Ward (2008). Jiawei. Information Science Reference. 228–231. Cambridge University Press. "Norbert Wiener and the Rise of Information Ethics". ISBN 978-81-8431-584-4 Lavington. Conformance and Enhancement of Business Processes. ISBN 978-1-118-10263-3 Reynolds. David Hatcher (2000). Kamber. Kamber & Pei 2011. Scott (2011). Technical Publications. Computer Integrated Manufacturing. ^ Han. ^ The Joint Task Force for Computing Curricula 2005. ISBN 978-3540001300 Pardede. ISBN 978-0-71900810-8 Lavington. Adventures Unlimited Press. A. Cengage Learning. Morgan Kaufman. Bryn (2003). Akmal B. Process Mining: Discovery. Optimizing and Assessing Information Technology: Improving Business Project Execution.

    Wang. Patricia. a Flood. Kevin. Shelly. Norwood. Discovering Computers 2000: Concepts for a Connected World. Springer. Martin (2000). Computer Science and Communications Dictionary 2. (1986). . Taratorin. Database Management Systems. Shan X. Aleksandr Markovich (1999). Webster. Cambridge. and Robins. Ceccarelli. Tim. Michael T. Springer. Cashman. Academic Press.. Teun. and M. ISBN 978-0-12-734570-3 Ward. James (2011). and Walker. S. Information Technology—A Luddite Analysis. Morton. Gleick. 1994. "The Front Dial of the Antikythera Mechanism". Misty. (2012). eds. Thomas. Vermaat. ISBN 978-0-7923-8425-0 Wright. (1999). New York: Pantheon Books. Massachusetts: Course Technology. Cengage Learning EMEA. ISBN 978-1-84480-452-8 Weik. Frank. in Koetsier. 279–292. Marco.The Information: A History. T. a Theory. (2006).. Dafoulas. pp. New York: Oxford University Press. NJ: Ablex. Information Technology and the Corporation of the 1990s. Gary. ISBN 978-94-007-4131-7 Further reading     Allen. George S. Explorations in the History of Machines and Mechanisms: Proceedings of HMM2012. Magnetic Information Storage Technology.