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# Submitted by:

## Frenzie Mae V. Rivera

BSMT 4-AN

First Cousins
INTRODUCTION
Electricity and magnetism are closely related as first cousins are. You cannot have one without the other. They cause each other. Two important discoveries relate magnetism and electricity. In 1820, Hans Christian Oersted discovered that an electric current flowing on a wire sets up a magnetic field around the wire. Eleven years later, Michael Faraday discovered that current is produces whenever there is relative motion between the conductor and the magnetic field. Electromagnetic induction is the process of producing electromotive force and hence, current by a change in flux. Two important laws govern electromagnetic induction. Faradays law states that the induced electromotive force (current) is proportional to the rate of charge of flux and to the number of turns. Lenzs law, on the other hand, states that the induced electromotive force or current flows in a direction so as to oppose the change causing it.

## Fig 1. Current is produces whenever there is a change in flux.

OBJECTIVES
Determine how current is induced in a coil of wire Determine the factors affecting the induced current Verify Lenz law

MATERIALS
Coils of wire a galvanometer 2 bar magnets Source: Angelina A. Silverio and Gloria De Castro-Bernas, Exploring Life Through Science Second Edition (Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc., 2012), 161-164.

Submitted by:

BSMT 4-AN

## ESTIMATED TIME FRAME

1 hour and 20 minutes

PROCEDURE
1. Make a coil consisting of fifty turns of insulated wire. Connect the ends of the coil to the galvanometer. Place a bar magnet in a vertical position over the center of the coil and thrust the North Pole down. Observe the deflection of the galvanometer. 2. Hold the magnet close to the end of the coil without moving the coil or the magnet. Observe the galvanometer. 3. With the magnet in the coil, move the magnet and coil together back and forth. Observe the galvanometer. 4. Take the magnet away from the coil by moving the magnet up. Observe the deflection of the galvanometer. 5. Repeat steps 1 to 4 using the South Pole. 6. Insert the bar magnet into the coil, first slowly, and then with increasing speed. Observe the deflection of the galvanometer. 7. Hold the bar magnet still. Move the coil toward the North Pole of the magnet. Observe the deflection of the galvanometer. 8. Increase the number of turns to 100 and repeat step 1. What is the effect of increasing the number of turns on the speed of the deflection of the galvanometer? 9. Repeat step 1 using a coil of smaller radius. What is the effect of decreasing the radius on the deflection of the galvanometer? Record your data and observations. 10. Insert two bar magnets with the same poles together and repeat step 1.

Source: Angelina A. Silverio and Gloria De Castro-Bernas, Exploring Life Through Science Second Edition (Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc., 2012), 161-164.

Submitted by:

BSMT 4-AN

## DATA AND OBSERVATIONS

A magnetic needle could be deflected by an electric current flowing through a wire. This discovery by Hans Christian Oersted showed a connection between electricity and magnetism. This set-up demonstrates that electric currents produce magnetic fields. As shown in the picture above, the magnetic field lines circle around the current-carrying wire.

CONCLUSION
Electricity causes magnetism and Magnetism causes electricity. Without the other one, you cannot have the other as well. Similar to the discovery of the English scientist Michael Faraday in 1831, he discovered that moving a magnet near a wire induces an electric current in that wire, the inverse effect to that found by Oersted: Oersted showed that an electric current creates a magnetic field, while Faraday showed that a magnetic field can be used to create an electric current. The full unification of the theories of electricity and magnetism was achieved by the English physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves and identified light as an electromagnetic phenomenon.

Source: Angelina A. Silverio and Gloria De Castro-Bernas, Exploring Life Through Science Second Edition (Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc., 2012), 161-164.