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# Submitted by:

## Frenzie Mae V. Rivera

BSMT 4-AN

INTRODUCTION
Ancient men were aware that lodestones could attract iron and pieces of metals. They called this ability as magnetism, named after the place Magnesia, where these lodestones were abundant. They used lodestone as an amulet, a charm, a cure for some ailment, and as an aid to navigation. As man gains deeper understanding of magnetism, he develops practical applications of it at home and Figure 1. Magnetic bracelet in industries. A refrigerator door is held tightly closed by magnets. Button-sized pieces of metal hold a sheet of paper in a bulletin board. Data are stored in magnetic discs or strips. Our internal organs are imaged and diagnosed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Some even use magnetic therapy as an alternative medicine. Any appliance or device using a motor makes use of a magnet.

OBJECTIVE
Observe some important properties of magnets

MATERIALS
Magnets of different shapes Iron filings A piece of stick A piece of string A sewing needle Several books

## ESTIMATED TIME FRAME

45 minutes

PROCEDURE
A. MAGNETIC AN NONMAGNETIC MATERIALS 1. Sort materials around you according to their attraction or non-attraction to a magnet. Source: Angelina A. Silverio and Gloria De Castro-Bernas, Exploring Life Through Science Second Edition (Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc., 2012), 151-155.

Submitted by:

## Frenzie Mae V. Rivera

BSMT 4-AN

2. List down your answers. B. POLES OF A MAGNET 1. Dip a bar magnet into a box of iron filings. Are the filings evenly distributed along the magnet? 2. Remove the filings from the magnet and place them back into the box. 3. Dip the pole of the bar magnet into the box of iron filings. Remove the filings from the magnet and place them in a separate container. 4. Place the pole of the magnet a little bit farther than before from the box of filings. 5. Remove the filings that were attracted to the magnet and place them in a separate container. Compare the amount of filings in the two separate containers. 6. Record your observations. C. FORCE OF ATTRACTION AND REPULSION 1. Make two piles of books, each about 25 cm high and 20 cm apart. 2. Place a piece of stick across the space between the piles of book. 3. Tie a bar magnet to the stick in a way that it is free to rotate. 4. Bring the N pole of another bar magnet near the N pole of the suspended magnet. Observe what happens to the suspended magnet. 5. Repeat using the S pole of the magnet. Observe what happens to the suspended magnet. 6. Record your observations. D. MAGNETIC INDUCTION 1. Pick up a piece of small nail using a magnet. 2. Using the lower end of this nail, pick up staple wires one by one until nothing clings. Why does each wire cling to the one above it? 3. Carefully remove the nail from the magnet. What happens to the staple wires? Write your answers.

FIG. 2. Setup for procedure D Source: Angelina A. Silverio and Gloria De Castro-Bernas, Exploring Life Through Science Second Edition (Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc., 2012), 151-155.

Submitted by:

## Frenzie Mae V. Rivera

BSMT 4-AN

E. MAGNETIZING AND DEMAGNETIZING 1. Magnetize a sewing needle by stroking it several times in one direction only with one pole of a strong magnet. Test if the needle is already magnetized. 2. With a pair of pliers, grasp the needle you magnetized and heat it in a flame until red hot. Cool the needle. 3. Test again for magnetism. Record your observations.

## DATA AND OBSERVATIONS

A. MAGNETIC AND NONMAGNETIC MATERIALS Attracted by a Magnet Staple wire Paper Clips Scissors Stapler Not Attracted by a Magnet Eraser Ruler Paper Pencil

B. Poles of a Magnet The iron filings were not evenly distributed along the magnet. And according to Coulombs Law, the force of attraction or repulsion between two electric charges is proportional to their product and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Therefore, more filings are attracted to the magnet when it is placed nearer to the box of filings compared to that when placed a little farther from the box of filings. Source: Angelina A. Silverio and Gloria De Castro-Bernas, Exploring Life Through Science Second Edition (Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc., 2012), 151-155.

Submitted by:

## Frenzie Mae V. Rivera

BSMT 4-AN

C. Force of Attraction and Repulsion The Suspended Magnet tends to turn to other direction as the North Pole of another magnet is brought closer to its North Pole, clearly indicating a force of repulsion, thus, LIKE CHARGES REPEL. But as the South Pole is brought closer to the North Pole, a force of attraction is present. Therefore, UNLIKE CHARGES ATTRACT. D. Magnetic Induction Induction is the process by which magnetic forces are created in a circuit by being in proximity to a magnetic field without physical contact. The staple wires clinging to the ones above it is mainly due to this. As the nail is carefully removed from the magnet, the staple wires fell off, as there is no more flow of magnetic field in the nail itself and it loses its capacity to attract the staple wires. E. Magnetizing and Demagnetizing The needle had the properties of a magnet after it was being rubbed, but only minimal, developing a North Pole and South Pole on each of its ends respectively. As it was heated and cooled, it showed no sign of magnetic property.

CONCLUSION
Magnetism is an aspect of electromagnetism and is one of the fundamental forces of nature. Magnetic forces are produced by the motion of charged particles such as electrons, indicating the close relationship between electricity and magnetism. The most familiar evidence of magnetism is the attractive or repulsive force observed to act between magnetic materials such as iron. Objects such as a bar magnet or a current-carrying wire can influence other magnetic materials without physically contacting them, because magnetic objects produce a magnetic field. Magnetic fields are usually represented by magnetic flux lines. At any point, the direction of the magnetic field is the same as the direction of the flux lines, and the strength of the magnetic field is proportional to the space between the flux lines.

Source: Angelina A. Silverio and Gloria De Castro-Bernas, Exploring Life Through Science Second Edition (Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc., 2012), 151-155.