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Jian-qun Xu

a

, Gang Li

a

, Ling Li

a,

*

, Ke-yi Zhou

a

, Yong-feng Shi

b

a

School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China

b

Huadian Electric Power Research Institute, Hangzhou 310030, China

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 25 June 2010

Accepted 14 September 2010

Available online 19 September 2010

Keywords:

Steam turbine

Steam leakage

Temperature variation method

Numerical calculation method

Error analysis

IP turbine efﬁciency

a b s t r a c t

In this paper, temperature variation method and numerical calculation method are both presented for

the calculation of the HPeIP steam leakage through midspan packing (N2 packing), which is called N2

leakage for short, and an error analysis mathematical model about the impact of measured parameters

error on N2 leakage rate is established. The two methods have been both applied to a 600 MW super-

critical steam turbine’s N2 leakage rate estimation, and the results show that numerical calculation

method can estimate N2 leakage rate as accurately as temperature variation method, and the chief

parameters which affect the accuracy of N2 leakage rate are hot reheat temperature and IP turbine

exhaust temperature. Taking the leakage from HP turbine exhaust balance piston to IP turbine exhaust

zone (N1 leakage) quantity into account, which has great inﬂuence on N2 leakage calculation precision,

combined with N2 leakage, IP turbine efﬁciency is calculated exactly, and the result indicates that:

Compared to N1 leakage, N2 leakage is the main factor which affects the IP efﬁciency.

Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Steam turbine thermal performance parameters are the

important indexes to evaluate operation states and equipment

performance, among these parameters, turbine efﬁciency shows

the degree of turbine ﬂow path aerodynamics perfection, and heat

rate expresses the steam turbine’s capacity of converting heat to

work. To obtain these parameters accurately is important for steam

turbine operation optimization, energy saving and technological

innovation. Generally, combined HPeIP casing steam turbine has

HPeIP leakage (N2 leakage in this paper) [1], which inﬂuences the

accuracy of efﬁciency and other performances, and the deﬁnition

can be seen in Fig. 1. For impulse steam turbine, N2 leakage mixes

with the main steamﬂow behind IP turbine ﬁrst-stage; for reaction

steam turbine, which has no impeller and balance hole, N2 leakage

mixes with the main steam ﬂow behind the stationary blades of IP

turbine ﬁrst-stage.

N2 leakage causes loss, because it cannot produce work in HP

turbine and stationary blades of IP turbine ﬁrst-stage [2]. Mean-

while, without being reheated, the leakage will also reduce the cycle

efﬁciency. If N2 leakage is ignored in the thermal calculation, IP

turbine efﬁciency and heat rate of the unit will be greater than the

actual value, i.e. the leakage reduces the economy of the steam

turbine unit. As the application of steam seals is the most popular

means usedinthesteamturbinetoreducetheleakage, thereis much

researchon its behavior, aiming to increase its durability and reduce

the leakage. Tong Seop Kim and Kyu Sang Cha [3] analyzed the

inﬂuence of conﬁguration and clearance on the leakage behavior of

labyrinth seals. Jun Li, et al. [4] used the three-dimensional

Reynolds-averaged NaviereStokes (RANS) solutions from CFX to

investigate the leakage ﬂow characteristics in the labyrinth honey-

comb seal of steam turbines. Luis San Andres, et al. [5] proved that

the hybrid brush seal (HBS) was more durable and reliable than

conventional brush seals, and allows reverse shaft rotation without

seal damage, and the result indicated that ﬂow rate measurements

at room temperature 25

C had a leakage reduction of about 36%

compared with a ﬁrst generation shoed-brush seal.

There are also some calculation methods, when N2 internal

packing is intact and the installation gap is under the limited level,

Martin’s formula can be applied to N2 leakage rate estimation, and

the result is almost equal to the actual leakage quantity, meeting

the requirements of engineering calculations. However, the seal

teeth are easy to wear as the result of rotor deﬂection and vibration.

In this condition, Martin’s formula does not work well, with the

coefﬁcient has changed. In addition, it is impossible to install a ﬂow

oriﬁce plate to measure the actual steam leakage quantity.

For some turbines with blowdown valves (BDV), which are

installed on the front of IP section, the N2 leakage quantity can be

calculated by blowdown method [6], and its impact on the efﬁ-

ciency of IP turbine can be analyzed, while it is unfeasible to install

BDV just for this purpose for its high cost and security risks.

Currently, temperature variation method is usually used in the

* Corresponding author.

E-mail address: lilingseu@126.com (L. Li).

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Applied Thermal Engineering

j ournal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ apt hermeng

1359-4311/$ e see front matter Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2010.09.011

Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 311e318

calculation of N2 leakage [7], Caudill and Griebenow [8] explained

the principles of the temperature variation method, and Ray Beebe

[9] demonstrated a case of practical application.

However, all the methods mentioned above does not analyze

the inﬂuence of the leakage on the IP turbine efﬁciency effectively,

so the author presented a new calculation method e numerical

calculation method [10], which cannot only calculate the leakage as

exactly as temperature variation method, but also can analyze the

inﬂuence of leakage on the IP turbine in detail. In order to improve

this method, the N2 leakage rate error analysis equations as the

further development of numerical calculation method are derived

in this paper.

Aiming to explain the numerical calculation method exactly,

the temperature variation method with its issues in application

and numerical calculation method are both concerned in this

paper. What is more, the impact of measured parameters (such as

pressure, temperature) error on the results of the leakage calcu-

lation is analyzed in detail. As there are N2 leakage and N1

leakage, the measured parameters are not the actual parameters

of IP turbine ﬂow path, and the tested IP turbine efﬁciency is not

the actual value. In order to calculate the IP turbine efﬁciency

accurately [11], these two leakages must be taken into account

together. A supercritical 600 MW steam turbine is taken as an

example to illustrate the theory above.

2. Temperature variation method

2.1. Temperature variation method principles

The steam behind HP turbine ﬁrst-stage leaks into IP turbine

through N2 internal packing actually, there is a little amount of

other steam ﬂow, such as intercalated layer leakage between HP

inside and outside cylinder, and Warren Hopson [12,13] speciﬁed

these leakage. Since this paper is not a study on the inﬂuence of N2

leakage on steam ﬂow in IP turbine ﬁrst-stage, rotor cooling and

heat transfer, therefore, it is reasonable to approximately assume

that N2 leakage mixes with hot reheat steamat IP turbine inlet, and

the mixed steam ﬂows through IP turbine ﬂow path.

Several N2 leakage rates are assumed between design value and

maximumvalue, and IP turbine efﬁciency is calculated respectively

with each rate. IP turbine inlet parameters are the mixture

parameters, which is mixed by assumed N2 leakage and hot reheat

steam, and the outlet parameters are the IP turbine exhaust

measured parameters.

Nomenclature

Dh enthalpy drop, kJ/kg

x N2 leakage rate, %

h

R

hot reheat steam enthalpy, kJ/kg

h

I

HP turbine ﬁrst-stage outlet enthalpy, kJ/kg

h

c

IP turbine exhaust enthalpy, kJ/kg

Dh

t

ideal enthalpy drop, kJ/kg

h

i

IP turbine efﬁciency, %

Dx variable quantity of N2 leakage rate variation, %

Dh

I

variable quantity of HP turbine ﬁrst-stage outlet

enthalpy, kJ/kg

Dh

c

variable quantity of IP turbine exhaust enthalpy, kJ/kg

Dh

R

variable quantity of hot reheat steam enthalpy, kJ/kg

D(Dh

t

) variable quantity of ideal enthalpy drop, kJ/kg

k adiabatic exponent for steam

R

g

gas constant for steam, kJ/(kg.K)

DT variable quantity of temperature, K

Dp variable quantity of pressure, MPa

p

2

outlet steam pressure, MPa

T

2

outlet steam temperature, K

p

1

inlet steam pressure, MPa

T

1

inlet steam temperature, K

c

p

speciﬁc heat at constant pressure, kJ/(kg.K)

a

gl

N1 leakage quantity, kg

h

gp

HP turbine exhaust enthalpy, kJ/kg

a

4

fourth extraction quantity (to deaerator and feedwater

pump turbine), kJ/kg

h

zp

enthalpy of steam in crossover pipe, kJ/kg

h

4

fourth extraction enthalpy, kJ/kg

Subscripts

“I” HP turbine ﬁrst-stage

“1” inlet of steam turbine

“2” outlet of turbine

Superscripts

“

0

” the parameter is for the second test condition

fourth steam

extraction

Crossover pipe

between IP and LP

HP exhaust balance piston

HP exhaust

check valve

Equilibrium pipe

steam baffle

IP balance piston

Measurement

point

Measurement point of

HP exhaust zone

Measurement point

of IP exhaust

Equilibrium pipe

N2 leakage

N1 leakage

N1 leakage

Fig. 1. N1 leakage and N2 leakage.

J.-q. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 311e318 312

Then the relationship curve between N2 leakage rate and IP

turbine efﬁciency is depicted, which is named test 1. Corresponding

to the same IP turbine exhaust parameters, the IP turbine efﬁciency

is higher with the smaller assumed N2 leakage rate, because the

effective enthalpy drop increases, while the ideal enthalpy drop is

near constant. Therefore, N2 leakage rate vs IP turbine efﬁciency

curve is descending. There must be a point inthe curvewhichmeans

the actual N2 leakage rate and IP turbine efﬁciency, but these two

parameters are both unknown, so the solution demands an addi-

tional condition keeping N2 leakage rated and IP turbine efﬁciency

equal to the test 1, i.e. the ﬂowof HP and IP turbines remains nearly

unchanged in the other operating condition. That is, HP ﬁrst-stage

pressure, hot reheat steampressure and IP turbine exhaust pressure

should be almost equal to the corresponding pressure of test 1.

Only the change in main steamtemperature or hot reheat steam

temperature satisﬁes this requirement. For example, reduce the hot

reheat steam temperature, then according to the measured IP

turbine exhaust parameters, use the same method mentioned

above, the relationship curve between N2 leakage rate and IP

turbine efﬁciency, test 2, can be depicted on the same graph with

test 1 curve. As the hot reheat steamtemperature decreases, the N2

leakage quantity decreases, and the effective enthalpy drop

increases, but the ideal enthalpy drop increases slightly, therefore

the IP turbine efﬁciency raises up on a small scale, showing this N2

leakage rate has slight affection on IP turbine efﬁciency. Therefore,

the slope of test 2 is smaller than that of test 1, and then two curves

have an intersection, which indicates the same IP turbine efﬁciency

of the two test conditions, and shows the actual IP turbine efﬁ-

ciency and true N2 leakage rate.

2.2. Temperature variation method practical application issues

(1) HP turbine ﬁrst-stage temperature

The enthalpyafter the HPﬁrst-stage is usedinthe N2leakagerate

calculation process. For the steam turbine unit with nozzle gov-

erning, if the valve position of each nozzle regulator is different,

the HP turbine ﬁrst-stage temperature distribution will be

uneven in the circumferential direction. So it is better to operate

with single valve, nozzle regulators fully open, or two conditions

withsame valve position. Another advantage of doing sois that, if

HP turbine ﬁrst-stage temperature measuring point is out of

control, the HP turbine ﬁrst-stage steam temperature can be

calculated according to estimated stage efﬁciency, with the

systematic errors under the extent permitted.

(2) Temperature variation Extent and test load

As shown in Fig. 2, the angle between the two curves will be

smaller if the temperature difference between the two test

conditions is smaller. Then, even a small error of measured

parameters can lead to a larger error on the test results. As it is

the major problem that needs to be avoided, the two test

conditions’ temperature change should be as great as possible,

increasing the angle and IP turbine efﬁciency difference

produced by N2 leakage, and improving the N2 leakage test

accuracy. In N2 leakage test, there are several means to regulate

the steam temperature, among them, swing burner and regu-

lating gas bafﬂe opening degree are the key means. In addition,

test load should be under the full capacity, for the boiler could

have enough room to regulate. At present, the recommended

temperature change range of the two tests is 30 e41.7

C.

(3) Tests stability

If the measured parameters of the two tests have the same

direction deviations and the amounts are similar, N2 leakage

rate will change slightly, or, N2 leakage rate will change greatly,

namely, the major factor that impacts N2 leakage rate is the

deviation direction of measured parameters of the two test

conditions.

3. Numerical calculation method

3.1. Numerical calculation method principles

Approximately, considering N2 leakage mixes with hot reheat

steam before IP turbine ﬁrst-stage, the parameters of mixed steam

as IP turbine inlet parameters and the parameters of IP turbine

exhaust as outlet parameters as demonstrated [10], the actual

enthalpy drop Dh of steam in IP turbine is:

Dh ¼

xðh

I

À h

c

Þ þ ðh

R

À h

c

Þ

1 þ x

(1)

The IP turbine efﬁciency h

i

is:

h

i

¼

xðh

I

À h

c

Þ þ ðh

R

À h

c

Þ

Dh

t

ð1 þ xÞ

(2)

where, x is the N2 leakage rate(N2 leakage quantity/IP turbine

admission quantity), h

R

is the hot reheat steam enthalpy, h

I

is the

HP turbine ﬁrst-stage outlet enthalpy, h

c

is the IP turbine exhaust

enthalpy, Dh

t

is the ideal enthalpy drop of the mixture of N2

leakage and hot reheat steam.

N2 leakage rate and IP turbine efﬁciency are both unknown in

equation (2), therefore, to gain simultaneous solution needs

another equation. In the condition that main steam temperature or

hot reheat steam temperature changed and the other parameters

unchanged, N2 leakage and IP turbine efﬁciency are nearly

constant, for main steam ﬂow and reheat steam ﬂow unchanged

and pressure before and after separation seal and pressure before

each stage unchanged. Therefore, change main steam temperature

and hot reheat steam temperature, keep N2 leakage rate and IP

turbine efﬁciency unchanged, so another operation condition and

another IP turbine efﬁciency equation can be obtained:

h

i

¼

x

_

h

0

I

À h

0

c

_

þ

_

h

0

R

À h

0

c

_

Dh

0

t

ð1 þ xÞ

(3)

The superscript “

0

”indicates that the parameter is for the second

test condition. Substitute equation (2) into equation (3) and elim-

inate h

i

, then N2 leakage rate x can be acquired.

0.89

0.895

0.9

0.905

0.91

0.915

0.92

0.925

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06

N2 leakage rate

I

P

t

u

r

b

i

n

e

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

c

y

Fig. 2. IP turbine efﬁciency vs N2 leakage rate.

J.-q. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 311e318 313

x ¼

ðh

R

À h

c

ÞDh

0

t

À

_

h

0

R

À h

0

c

_

Dh

t

_

h

0

I

À h

0

c

_

Dh

t

À ðh

I

À h

c

ÞDh

0

t

(4)

3.2. The error analysis equations based on numerical calculation

method

The enthalpy error and ideal enthalpy drop caused by measured

parameters deviation (temperature or pressure) inﬂuence the

accuracy of N2 leakage rate x, which are analyzed as follows:

1) x variation caused by the error of HP turbine ﬁrst-stage

enthalpy h

I

Dx ¼

À

_

ðh

R

Àh

c

ÞDh

0

t

À

_

h

0

R

Àh

0

c

_

Dh

t

¸

__

h

0

I

Àh

0

c

_

Dh

t

Àðh

I

Àh

c

ÞDh

0

c

¸

2

Â

_

Dh

t

Dh

0

I

ÀDh

0

t

Dh

I

_

(5)

2) x variation caused by the error of IP turbine exhaust enthalpy h

c

Dx ¼

_

Dh

0

c

Dh

t

ÀDh

c

Dh

0

t

_

Â

__

h

0

I

Àh

0

c

_

Dh

t

Àðh

I

Àh

c

ÞDh

0

t

¸

__

h

0

I

Àh

0

c

_

Dh

t

Àðh

I

Àh

c

ÞDh

0

t

¸

2

À

_

ðh

R

Àh

c

ÞDh

0

t

À

_

h

0

R

Àh

0

c

_

Dh

t

¸

__

h

0

I

Àh

0

c

_

Dh

t

Àðh

I

Àh

c

ÞDh

0

t

¸

2

Â

_

Dh

0

t

Dh

c

ÀDh

t

Dh

0

c

_

(6)

3) x variation caused by the error of hot reheat steam enthalpy h

R

Dx ¼

Dh

0

t

Dh

R

ÀDh

t

Dh

0

R

_

h

0

I

À h

0

c

_

Dh

t

À ðh

I

À h

c

ÞDh

0

t

(7)

4) x variation caused by the error of ideal enthalpy drop Dh

t

In analysis of the inﬂuence of the measured parameters error on

steam enthalpy values and ideal enthalpy drop, the ideal gas

formulas [14] are applied for approximate calculation. For ideal gas,

the temperature variation affects enthalpy and pressure variation

(temperature unchanged), and affects the ideal enthalpy drop (for

steam k ¼ 1.3, R

g

¼ 0.462) as follows:

Dh ¼ c

p

DT ¼

k

k À1

R

g

DT (9)

DðDh

t

Þ ¼ ÀR

g

T

0

_

p

2

p

0

_

À1=k

1

p

0

Dp

2

þR

g

T

0

_

p

2

p

0

_

À1=k

p

2

1

p

2

0

Dp

0

(10)

With equations (9) and (10), enthalpy change Dh and ideal enthalpy

drop change D(Dh

t

) which caused by temperature variation DT and

pressure variation Dp can be calculated, and the corresponding

change of N2 leakage rate can be calculated by substituting Dh, D

(Dh

t

) into equations (5)e(8).

4. Calculation of a practical steam turbine

4.1. N2 leakage test

A 600 MW supercritical steam turbine, model N600-24.2/566/

566, whose N2 leakage rate design value is 1.20%, while the tested

value is 2.55% before overhaul, is conducted N2 leakage test after

overhaul.

The N2 leakage test is carrying out at 3VWO condition, and the

test conditions are: Test 1, keep main steam temperature rated and

reduce the hot reheat steam temperature; test 2, keep hot reheat

steam temperature rated and reduce the main steam temperature;

test 3, keep hot reheat steam and main steam temperature both

rated. Each test lasts for 2 h, and during the test the unit is keeping

well isolated. The measured parameters include: main steam

pressure and temperature, hot reheat steam pressure and

temperature, IP turbine exhaust pressure and temperature, HP

turbine ﬁrs-stage pressure and temperature, atmospheric pressure.

At the same time obtain the standard elevation of measuring

points.

After the abnormal data points are removed, average the

monitoring parameters of test 1 and 2. As N2 leakage test requires

higher stability of the test data of test 3, average its test data at the

most stable period. Then use the atmospheric pressure and stan-

dard elevation to amend average pressure to absolute pressure. The

relevant test data are arranged in Table 1.

4.2. N2 leakage rate calculation

Based on the temperature variation method and numerical

calculation method mentioned above, N2 leakage rates are esti-

mated as follows.

(1) Temperature variation method

It is assumed that N2 leakage rates are 0%, 2% and 5% respec-

tively, and IP turbine efﬁciency of each test is calculated, as shown

in Table 2.

According to the results, the relationship curve between N2

leakage rate and IP turbine efﬁciency is plotted (see Fig. 2). The

curves of the three tests cross at three points, so three N2 leakage

rates are available, that is, one N2 leakage rate is calculated by any

two of the three tests in combination, the results are shown in

Table 3. N2 leakage rate takes the result of combination 1,

x ¼ 1.669%.

(2) Numerical calculation method

For any combination of two tests in Table 1, N2 leakage rate is

iteratively calculated with formula (4). For the ﬁrst iterative

Dx ¼

À

_

h

0

R

À h

0

c

___

h

0

I

À h

0

c

_

Dh

t

À ðh

I

À h

c

ÞDh

0

t

¸

À

_

ðh

R

À h

c

ÞDh

0

t

À

_

h

0

R

À h

0

c

_

Dh

t

¸_

h

0

I

À h

0

c

_

__

h

0

I

À h

0

c

_

Dh

t

À ðh

I

À h

c

ÞDh

0

t

¸

2

ÂDðDh

t

Þ

þ

ðh

R

À h

c

Þ

__

h

0

I

À h

0

c

_

Dh

t

À ðh

I

À h

c

ÞDh

0

t

¸

þ

_

ðh

R

À h

c

ÞDh

0

t

À

_

h

0

R

À h

0

c

_

Dh

t

¸

ðh

I

À h

c

Þ

__

h

0

I

À h

0

c

_

Dh

t

À ðh

I

À h

c

ÞDh

0

t

¸

2

ÂD

_

Dh

0

t

_

(8)

J.-q. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 311e318 314

calculation, Dh

t

and Dh

0

t

are assumed as the ideal enthalpy drop of

hot reheat steam, and in each subsequent iterative calculation Dh

t

and Dh’

t

are assumed as the ideal enthalpy drop of the mixed steam.

After 10 iterations, the change of x is less than 10

À7

, then it can be

said that x has been convergent, and the iteration is over, three N2

leakage rates are available, showing as Table 3. The N2 leakage rate

is x ¼ 1.655%.

As shown in Table 3, for a combination of any two tests in Table

1, N2 leakage rates estimated by temperature variation method and

numerical calculation method are almost identical. The N2 leakage

rate calculated by combination 1 is between combination 2 and

combination 3, and the difference is extremely small, indicating

great precision. N2 leakage rate is taken as the result calculated by

combination 1, because the denominator of error analysis formulas

of combination 1 are bigger than other combinations, and the same

measured parameters error will cause the smallest error on N2

leakage rate, that is, the N2 leakage rate of combination 1 has the

highest precision.

4.3. Error analysis

Take the N2 leakage rate 1.655% of combination 1 calculated by

numerical calculation method as the reference value, and analyze

the impact of measured parameters error on N2 leakage rate, under

the condition of one measured parameter changed, while other

parameters unchanged.

As can be seen from Table 2, the maximum arithmetic average

error of hot reheat pressure, hot reheat temperature, IP turbine

exhaust pressure, IP turbine exhaust temperature, HP turbine ﬁrst-

stage pressure, HP turbine ﬁrst-stage temperature of the three tests

are respectively 0.030 MPa, 2.738

C, 0.007 MPa, 2.081

C,

0.120 MPa, 1.265

C. The arithmetic average error is mainly caused

by the ﬂuctuation of steam turbine operating condition, and the

measurement error is much smaller than the arithmetic average

error. It is assumed that the measurement error of test 1 is the

maximum arithmetic average error mentioned above, that is, the

relative error of hot reheat pressure, hot reheat temperature, IP

turbine exhaust pressure, IP turbine exhaust temperature, HP

turbine ﬁrst-stage pressure and HP turbine ﬁrst-stage temperature

are respectively 0.815%, 0.516%, 0.782%, 0.633%, 0.724%, 0.249%.

As follows, the ideal gas formula and IAPWS-IF67 are used to

analyze the change of steam enthalpy and ideal enthalpy drop

caused by measured parameters error (temperature and pressure),

and then the error analysis formulas are used to calculate the

deviation of N2 leakage rate.

(1) The ideal gas formulas

Apply equations (9) and (10) to calculate the change in the

corresponding enthalpy and ideal enthalpy drop caused by

measured parameters error, and then use the error analysis

formulas (5)e(8) to calculate the corresponding deviation of N2

leakage rate, results are shown in Table 4.

As the pressure deviation does not affect the enthalpy value

when use the ideal gas formulas, the Table 4 doesn’t give the

inﬂuence of ﬁrst-stage pressure error on N2 leakage rate.

(2) IAPWS-IF67

IAPWS-IF67 is used to calculate the change of corresponding

enthalpy and ideal enthalpy drop caused by measured parameters

error. The error of hot reheat pressure, hot reheat temperature and

IP exhaust pressure affects not only the corresponding steam

enthalpy, but also affects the ideal enthalpy drop; while the error of

IP exhaust temperature, ﬁrst-stage pressure and ﬁrst-stage

temperature only affects the steam enthalpy. Therefore, N2 leakage

rate deviation caused by the measured parameters error above is

the sum of that caused by the error of steam enthalpy and ideal

enthalpy drop. Then error analysis formulas (5)e(8) can be used to

calculate the corresponding deviation of N2 leakage rate, results are

shown in Table 4.

According toTable 4, the deviations of N2 leakage rate calculated

by the ideal gas formulas and IAPWS-IF67 are almost equal, and the

difference of absolute value is less than 0.377%. Thus, in order to

facilitate the engineering application, the ideal gas formulas are

used to analyze N2 leakage rate deviation caused by measured

parameters error, with sufﬁcient accuracy; in condition of other

parameters unchanged and only one parameter changed. The error

of hot reheat temperature and IP turbine exhaust temperature has

the greatest impact on N2 leakage rate, next, hot reheat pressure

and IP exhaust pressure, and measurement error of ﬁrst-stage

parameters have the least impact on N2 leakage rate.

4.4. N1 leakage quantity and its impact on N2 leakage rate

accuracy

For some turbines, there is some N1 leakage (see Fig. 1). As the

measuring points of IP turbine exhaust are located at the crossover

pipe between IP and LP, the tested IP exhaust temperatures is less

than the actual temperature. Therefore, in order to obtain the real IP

turbine exhaust temperature, N1 leakage quantity of test 3 is

calculated in this paper.

N1 leakage enters the exhaust pressure area by two routes after

completely mixed, that is, one ﬂows into the crossover pipe, and the

other ﬂows into the fourth extraction paragraphs, with the consid-

eration that the amount of these two routes are equal, and N1

leakageenthalpy has the same value of HP turbine exhaust enthalpy.

The parameters required for calculation are shown in Table 5.

According to mass conservation and energy conservation,

there are,

a

gl

2

h

gp

þ

_

a

4

À

a

gl

2

_

h

zp

¼ a

4

h

4

(11)

Table 2

Value of IP turbine efﬁciency.

N2 leakage rate 0% 2% 5%

IP efﬁciency/% Test 1 91.664 90.980 89.999

Test 2 92.070 90.897 89.206

Test 3 91.851 90.926 89.594

Table 3

Results of N2 leakage rates.

Calculation method Combination 1 Combination 2 Combination 3

Temperature variation 1.669% 1.815% 1.522%

Numerical calculation 1.655% 1.763% 1.543%

Table 1

Test Data of N2 leakage test.

Parameters Test 1 Test 2 Test 3

Main steam pressure (MPa) 23.564 22.922 23.617

Main steam temperature (

**C) 558.351 529.790 561.255
**

Hot reheat pressure (MPa) 3.682 3.745 3.772

Hot reheat temperature (

**C) 531.085 564.097 567.721
**

IP exhaust pressure (MPa) 0.895 0.915 0.922

IP exhaust temperature (

**C) 328.714 355.107 358.556
**

First-stage pressure (MPa) 16.574 16.166 16.630

First-stage temperature (

**C) 508.710 478.301 508.344
**

J.-q. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 311e318 315

where, a

gl

is the N1 leakage quantity, h

gp

is the HP turbine exhaust

enthalpy, a

4

is the fourth extraction quantity (to deaerator and

feedwater pump turbine), h

zp

is the enthalpy of steam in crossover

pipe, h

4

is the fourth extraction enthalpy. The N1 leakage quantity

calculated by equation (11) is 8.729 t/h.

The leakage quantity from HP exhaust steam balance piston to

crossover pipe is 4.365 t/h (half of N1 leakage quantity). It is

assumed that IP turbine exhaust pressure remains same before and

after steam mixing, then obtain the actual IP turbine exhaust steam

temperature of test 3, which is 358.895

C, 0.338

C higher than the

measured temperature. Similarly, N1 leakage of test 1 and 2 are

8.845 t/h and 8.398 t/h, and the actual IP exhaust temperature of

test 1 and 2 are 328.959

C and 355.539

C, 0.246

C and 0.432

C

higher than the measured temperature.

Combine the actual IP turbine exhaust temperature obtained

here with the parameters inTable 1, to calculate N2 leakage rates by

using the two methods, results are showed in Table 6, and N2

leakage rate-IP turbine efﬁciency curves, according to temperature

variation method, are shown in Fig. 3.

Basedonthe calculationabove, it is obvious that N1leakage affects

N2 leakage rate accuracy greatly. Although, in the three tests, N1

leakage quantity remains almost the same, but N1 leakage enthalpy

and IP exhaust enthalpy between any two tests have large discrep-

ancy, that is, IP exhaust temperature of the three tests are all greater

than the value without leakage, but the increment between each test

is great, so N1 leakage has a great impact on N2 leakage rate.

5. Check of IP turbine efﬁciency

5.1. IP turbine efﬁciency calculation

The thermodynamic process line of IP turbine is shown in Fig. 4.

IP turbine inlet and outlet measured parameters of test 3 are given

in Table 1, and measured IP turbine efﬁciency is 91.849%, with the

thermal process line 2e3. Impact of Steam leakage on IP thermal

process is shown in Fig. 4: point 1, actual IP turbine inlet point

considering the impact of N2 leakage; point 2, measured parame-

ters of IP turbine inlet (hot reheat) point; point 3, measured IP

turbine outlet point; point 4, actual IP turbine outlet points

(IP turbine exhaust).

Based on the steamleakage quantity calculated above, the actual

IP turbine efﬁciency of test 3 can be calculated as follows.

(1) Consider N2 leakage only

N2 leakage rate takes the value 1.334%, which calculated by

temperature variation method in Section 4.4. At this point, the

steam enthalpy of IP turbine inlet is 3597.235 kJ/kg, inlet steam

temperature is 566.053

C, the outlet parameter is the measured

value, and the corresponding thermal process line is 1e3, as

a result, the IP turbine efﬁciency is 91.096%, 0.753% lower than the

measured value.

(2) Consider N1 leakage only

Table 4

Impact of measured parameters error on the results of N2 leakage according to ideal gas property formulas IAPWS-IF67 (reference value of N2 leakage rate is 1.655%).

Measured parameters Hot reheat

pressure

Hot reheat

temperature

IP exhaust

pressure

IP exhaust

temperature

First-stage

pressure

First-stage

temperature

Relative error of measured parameters/% 0.815 0.516 0.782 0.633 0.249 0.724

Change in N2 leakage rate (ideal gas)/% 1.362 À3.561 À1.245 2.751 0 À0.027

Change in N2 leakage rate (IAPWS-IF67)/% 1.571 À3.264 À1.409 3.128 0.018 À0.043

Absolute value of difference of N2 leakage rate

change/%

0.209 0.297 À0.164 0.377 0.018 À0.016

Table 5

Data used to calculate N1 leakage quantity.

Parameters Unit HP exhaust zone Fourth steam extraction Crossover pipe

Pressure Mpa 4.058 0.963 0.922

Temperature

C 305.595 356.514 358.556

Enthalpy kJ/kg 2975.988 3173.029 3178.096

Flow rate t/h e 174.098 1239.959

Table 6

Results of N2 leakage rates (according to the actual IP turbine exhaust temperature).

Calculation method Combination 1 Combination 2 Combination 3

Temperature variation 1.334% 1.399% 1.267%

Numerical calculation 1.321% 1.404% 1.237%

0.885

0.89

0.895

0.9

0.905

0.91

0.915

0.92

0.925

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06

N2 leakage rate

I

P

t

u

r

b

i

n

e

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

c

y

Fig. 3. N2 leakage rate vs IP turbine efﬁciency (according to the actual IP exhaust

temperature).

Fig. 4. IP turbine thermodynamic process.

J.-q. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 311e318 316

At this point, the steam enthalpy of IP turbine outlet is

3178.810 kJ/kg, outlet steam temperature is 358.895

C, the inlet

parameter is the measured value, and the corresponding thermal

process line is 2e4, thence the IP turbine efﬁciency is 91.694%,

0.155% lower than the measured value.

(3) Consider the two leakages

At this condition, the steam enthalpy of IP inlet is 3597.235 kJ/

kg, inlet steam temperature is 566.053

C, the steam enthalpy of IP

turbine outlet is 3178.810 kJ/kg, outlet steam temperature is

358.895

C, and the corresponding thermal process line is 1e4, so

the IP turbine efﬁciency is 91.075%, 0.774% lower than the

measured value.

In order to compare the impact of the two steam leakages on IP

turbine efﬁciency under different operation conditions, calculation

is done on the basis of the steam turbine design data (see Fig. 5).

That is, load operation condition from 30% to 100%: as consider the

impact of N2 leakage, IP turbine efﬁciency is 0.253%e0.636% lower

than the measured value; taking N1 leakage into account, IP turbine

efﬁciency is 0.089%e0.187% lower than the measured value; IP

turbine efﬁciency is 0.341%e0.823% lower than the measured

value, considering the impact of both two leakages.

5.2. The expression of IP turbine efﬁciency deviation

The expression of IP turbine efﬁciency is deﬁned by:

h

i

¼

Dh

Dh

t

¼

h

1

À h

2

h

1

À h

1t

¼

T

1

À T

2

T

1

_

1 À

_

p2

p1

_kÀ1

k

_ ¼

1 À

T2

T1

1 À

_

p2

p1

_kÀ1

k

(12)

where, subscript “1” indicates IP turbine inlet, and “2” indicates IP

turbine outlet.

N2 leakage and N1 leakage affect IP turbine inlet and outlet

temperatures. As the leakage quantity compared to the main steam

ﬂow rate is small, it is assumed that the pressure of IP inlet and

outlet are not affected. The deviation of IP turbine efﬁciency can be

calculated approximately by the formula as follows:

Dh

i

¼

1

1 À

_

p2

p1

_kÀ1

k

_

T

2

T

2

1

DT

1

À

1

T

1

DT

2

_

(13)

According to equation (13): Steam leakage affects the IP turbine

efﬁciency through the inﬂuence of IP turbine inlet and outlet

temperatures; for the same inlet and outlet temperature variation

DT

1

and DT

2

, outlet temperature variation affects IP turbine efﬁ-

ciency greater than that of inlet temperature. In the condition of the

same quantity of N2 leakage and N1 leakage, the IP turbine inlet

temperature variation DT

1

is greater than the outlet temperature

variation DT

2

, mainly because only half of N1 leakage entering the

crossover pipe between IP and LP. Therefore, N2 leakage has

a greater impact on IP turbine efﬁciency.

6. Conclusions

(1) Due to the installation gap bias and the N2 packing seal friction

during operation, N2 leakage is often greater than the design

value, which affects the steam turbine economy. The actual

leakage rate of the 600 MW unit in this paper used to be about

2.13 times of the design value, while after overhaul the N2

leakage rate is close to the design value, and N1 leakage

quantity reaches to the design value, showing the good effects

of overhaul.

(2) The N2 leakage test theory of temperature variation method

and the issues should be noticed in practical application are

discussed in this paper, owning the actual operation guiding

signiﬁcance.

(3) As can be seen from the calculations above, the N2 leakage

rates calculated by numerical calculation and temperature

variation method are almost identical, indicating that the

numerical calculations method also can estimate N2 leakage

rate successfully, and can be used to simplify on-line calcula-

tion, achieving real-time monitoring of N2 leakage rate.

(4) The error analysis shows that the most inﬂuential parameters

on the accuracy of N2 leakage rate are hot reheat steam

temperature and IP exhaust steam temperature, so it is critical

to ensure the temperature measurement accuracy in the test.

(5) The application of ideal gas formula or IAPWS-IF67 for the

analysis of N2 variation caused by measured parameters error

nearly has the same accuracy. To facilitate the analysis and

engineering application, can apply the ideal gas formula to

analyze the impact of measured parameters (temperature and

pressure) error on N2 leakage rate.

(6) In order to estimate N2 leakage more accurately, IP exhaust

temperature measuring points must be ranked in the ﬁnal

stage of IP turbine, or calculate N1 leakage quantity and then

ﬁnd the exact IP exhaust temperature, as the N1 leakage affects

the test accuracy of N2 leakage rate greatly.

(7) With the same leakage quantity, N2 leakage has greater impact

on IP efﬁciency than N1 leakage.

The impact of N1 and N2 leakage on IP turbine efficiency under different operation conditions

90.000%

90.500%

91.000%

91.500%

92.000%

92.500%

100% 75% 50% 40% 30%

load

I

P

t

u

r

b

i

n

e

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

c

y

tested IP turbine efficiency

IP turbine efficiency,considering N1

leakage

IP turbine efficiency,considering N2

leakage

IP turbine efficiency,considering the

two leakages

Fig. 5. Impact of N1 leakage and N2 leakage on IP turbine efﬁciency under different operation conditions.

J.-q. Xu et al. / Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 311e318 317

Acknowledgements

The tests in this paper were ﬁnished with the help of the

researcher Xiao-ling Zhu, who helped us to do these tests exactly,

and provided us a lot of valuable experience.

References

[1] T. Fiadjoe, Estimating HPeIP midspan packing leakage in combined cycles,

Eng. Gas Turbines Power 30 (2) (2008) 023007.1e023007.4.

[2] J.D. Denton, Loss mechanisms in turbomachines, Turbomachinery 115 (1993)

621e656.

[3] T.S. Kim, K.S. Cha, Comparative analysis of the inﬂuence of labyrinth seal

conﬁguration on leakage behavior, Mech. Sci. Technol. 23 (2009) 2830e2838.

[4] J. Li, S.R. Kong, X. . Yan, et al., Numerical investigations on leakage perfor-

mance of the rotating labyrinth honeycomb seal, Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132

(2010) 062501.1e062501.10.

[5] L.S. Andres, J. Baker, A. Delgado, Measurements of leakage and power loss in

a hybrid brush seal, Eng. Gas Turbines Power 131 (2009) 012505.1e012505.6.

[6] J.A. Booth, D.E. Kantemann, Estimating the Leakage from HP to IP Turbine

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Washington, DC; October 24, 1984.

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HP and IP Turbines using PEPSE, PEPSE User’s Group Meeting, Rochester, New

York; June, 1991, com/papers/1991.

[9] R. Beebe, Monitoring Central Gland Leakage on Combined HP-IP Casing steam

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[10] J.Q. Xu, X.H. Jiang, Z.Q. Cao, The calculation and error analysis for HPeIP

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102e105 (in Chinese).

[11] H. Jiang, H. Li, Z.W. Wang, et al., Determination of target valve for steam

Turbine’s cylinder efﬁciency, Therm Power Gener. 37 (7) (2008) 15e19

(in Chinese).

[12] W. Hopson, Finding and ﬁxing leakage within combined HPeIP steam

turbines: Part I, Power 115 (7) (2007) 26e33.

[13] W. Hopson, Finding and ﬁxing leakage within combined HP-IP steam

turbines: Part II, Power 115 (8) (2007) 35e43.

[14] J.B. Jones, R.E. Dugan, Engineering Thermodynamics. Prentice Hall Inc, New

Jersey, 1996.

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