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PD-TESTING AND MONITORING AT GAS INSULATED SWITCHGEARS

Mohan Watwe mwatwe@doble.com Matthias Boltze boltze@doble-lemke.eu

Introduction
-Failure rates of GIS
Voltage level [kV] 125-145 245 300 420 550 All voltages International experience, failures per 100 bay years 0.26 0.67 1.8 3.9 0.9

IEC 7171-2 recommend target failure rates for GIS to be 0.1 failures per 100 baybay-years
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GIS- Failure Statistics
Distribution of failures according to location given by CIGRE JWG 33/23.12: • 41% of the failures occur in the switching compartments, i.e. at the circuit breaker, switches,disconnectors (13% on spacers). 17% occurs at the voltage transformer, surge arresters or bushing compartments (5% on spacers)

• 42% in other compartments (22% on spacers) i.e. 40% on spacers

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Teething troubles 4 .

Most common defects in Gas Insulated Switchgears Protrutions at ground potential Protrutions at high voltage potential Particle on Spacer Void in Spacer Free particle Free potential 5 .

Defects Probable Causes: •Presence of foreign bodies •contaminants such as free metallic particles •Protrusions •Incorrect assembly •Damage during transport. 6 . storage or installation This might give rise to an internal fault in service.

CX Wang. 7 . Ref. The failure track is often very faint with minimal carbonisation of the epoxy.trapped charge flashovers There have been flashovers on spacers where on-line PD did not indicate prior discharges. September 1993. pp346-350. But this is not a PD breakdown. If there is no resistive path (ex-a voltage transformer) then the voltage may remain until re-energisation.GIS. This has led to flashovers. A Wilson and MW Watts. This can be caused when the switchgear is operated and the current is chopped at a voltage maximum. 140 (5). “Surface flashover sustained by electrostatic surface charge on an epoxy resin insulator in SF6” IEE Proc A.

Failure rate statistic Bath tub curve of the failure rate versus time 8 .

Partial discharge in gas •Partial Discharges (PD) occur due to excessive electrical stress of gas distances in any dielectric media • Partial Discharge activity leading to gradual insulation deterioration often takes place before eventual breakdown or flashover of insulation. 9 . •The characteristic of partial discharge for different type of defects exhibit recognizable patterns.

Partial Discharge Detection Principles Macroscopic-Physical Effects Optical Effects (Light) Pressure Wave (Sound) Discharge Effects Dielectric Losses High Frequency Waves Chemical Effects Detection Methods Optical HV Acoustic Opto-acoustic Mechanical Draft IEC 62 478 Electrical IEC 60270 HF/VHF/UHF Chemical Heat 10 .

GIS catastrophes Advanced diagnosis technologies can be used to prevent catastrophes: 11 .

Advanced Diagnosis Technologies •The field conditions introduce noise in the measurement and as such suitable techniques have to be employed. The classical method of measurement is not suitable for field measurement because of poor signal to noise (S/N) ratio. •The signal to noise (S/N) ratio can be substantially improved if the measurements are done in the UHF/VHF range which is typical for transients due to PD events. • In fact a very small range of complete frequency spectrum of the original PD pulse is used. 12 . This is mainly because of the limitation of measuring frequency which is in KHz range.

PD – Measurements (GIS – PD – Decoupling) external sensor ultra wide band inductive coupler external sensor acoustic coupler Spacer standard coupling capacitance external sensor window sensor internal sensor capacitive (sensor 13 .

Internal UHFSensors 14 .UHF-Window Sensor Field grading electrodes .UHF – PD-Sensors for GIS Detector Detector Conductor Conductor Cage Cage .

UHF coupler for GIS. as the sensor plate is not directly connected to earth. The frequency response of the sensor is influenced by the shape of the sensor. The sensor plate forms a capacitance C1 to the inner conductor and has a stray capacitance C2 to the earth. 15 . The basic working principle of the sensor can be explained as a capacitive divider. Internal UHF coupler for GIS.

PD Monitoring of Gas Insulated Switchgears Window Sensor (3) GIS Barrier (1-2) 16 .

Sensors GIS Barrier Sensor 17 .

PD Monitoring of Gas Insulated Switchgears The UHF adapter for decoupling of the PD Signals at inbuilt capacitances The connections of the UHF adapter to the inbuilt cap. and the PD measuring system LDS-6 Inbuilt capacitance flanged at the GIS 18 18 .

Instrumentation The PD pulses derived from various sensors installed on the GIS are further processed either in time domain or frequency domain. This instrument operates in time domain and records the peak value of PD pulse sequences in full spectrum of the ultra wide bandwidth from 100 MHz to 1 GHz. A fast peak detection of the wide band signal leads to phase related pulse sequence. Ultra wide band of the acquired signal is generally used in the time domain mode. PD Guard UHF. 19 .

center frequency 623 MHz. band width 5 MHz 20 . center frequency 623 MHz. bandwidth 5 MHz Phase Resolved PD Pattern Zero-span mode.PD Measuring Results. Needle at high voltage potential in GIS Frequency Spectrum zero-span mode. PRPD Pattern.

PD Localization at GIS. Schematic Diagram (I) 21 .

PD Localization at GIS. Schematic Diagram (II) 22 .

China Test Setup for Inspection Test at 110 KV Gas Insulated Switchgear 23 .Case Study A) GIS Inspection Test.

Performance Check •Sensitivity verification at site is very difficult as the decoupling capacitor used for measurements is relatively much small which is insufficient to detect the PD pulse. •The performance check is functional check of the whole measuring path including sensors and the PD measuring system 24 .

Case Study A) GIS Inspection Test. China Measuring configurations 25 .

TEST SEQUENCE • • • • Setup of the PDM system incl. the UHF-PD-sensor Voltage synchronization Performance Check (instrument functional check) Recording of the measuring signals (Recordings using different measuring frequencies) Evaluation of the measuring recordings by using the LDS-6/UHF Analysis software: PRPD Pattern Recognition and Replay-Mode for signal evaluation • 26 .

Case StudyTest Results GIS Inspection Test. China 27 .

GIS Inspection Test. China Test Results MP7 28 .Case Study .

Case Study - GIS Inspection Test. China #1 #2 29 .

The PD source could be isolated between the measuring points MP5.GIS Inspection Test. MP6 and MP7. China The origin of the Pattern could be clearly assigned to the GIS System #1 due to comparison of the detected magnitudes at measured decoupling points (MP1 to MP7).Case Study . 30 .

3) Transmission line and 4) Visualization unit General layout of the GIS-PD-Monitoring-System: sensing.GIS Monitoring. data transmission line (FOL). instrumentation unit PD Guard/UHF.System Configuration 1) UHF-PD-sensing. data acquisition and evaluation server 31 . 2) PD instrumentation unit.

System Configuration – GIS Monitoring 4 15 24 6 7 10 11 16 20 12 17 18 21 22 23 26 41 31 27 32 36 37 42 43 1 3 8 13 5 28 25 29 33 34 38 39 2 44 9 14 19 30 35 40 GIS Sensor Arrangement: GIS Barriers Sensors 32 .

data acquisition and evaluation server 33 .System Configuration – GIS Monitoring GIS PD Monitoring System: Acquisition unit PDGuard/UHF. data transmission line (FOL).

Permanent PD Monitoring Layout for GIS Systems 34 34 .

Concept – GIS Monitoring Primary GIS PD Monitoring Software Software concept for GIS PD Monitoring System The topographic overview allows quickly an assessment of the GIS status 35 .

View 36 . Concept – GIS Monitoring Primary GIS PD Monitoring Software in Data.in one view./ Realtime.

etc. enabling time-based maintenance.g. on-line quick start of PD monitoring.Conclusion sensitive UHF PD measurement with UHF probes applicable in service provide advantageous robust and easy PD decoupling significant diagnostic information are derived from advanced tools for PD monitoring valuable application benefits e. are at hand 37 .