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NCP 27

Quality: Dr.Joseph M Juran has defined quality as ‘’fitness for use’’.Quality is viewed as one that requires every member of the organization to provide the next person in the process with an acceptable product or service. This means that everyone is responsible to perform a task in such a manner that the product can be used immediately and in the most efficient manner possible. As per ISO 9000 quality is the totality of feature and characteristics a product or service that bears on its ability to safely stated or implied needs. There is an urgent need for observance of quality in all aspects of construction via quality of materials, quality of workmanship and proper balance in the quality attained vis a vis the quality desired. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR MAKING AND TRANSPORTING CONCRETE The quality of construction depends upon right materials used, the correct methods followed and produce end product of acceptable performance. The means of quality control are tests, inspection, supervision and analysis of data etc. Quality tests are conducted in laboratories and inspection & supervision are carried out on the site and the data analysis is done by experts in office. SPECIFICATIONS The project authorities prepare the process of working out specifications of various facilities where concrete will be used. However, the standards and specifications for concrete and its various ingredients are universally standardized and they are required to be in conformity with same. Indian Standards IS for concrete and its basic ingredients viz cement, coarse and fine aggregates, water admixtures and various aspects of concreting its placement and final acceptance should be as per IS specifications. The quality control of concrete comprises of the following four functions: i. ii. iii. iv. Control of ingredients of concrete viz. cement, coarse and fine aggregates, water and admixtures. Concrete mix proportioning of concrete mix design to attain the required strength specifications. Concrete production and placement operations. Acceptance

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iii. the department or client and the quality control staff. INSPECTION Inspection is the act of physical verification of the subject work on the site and under normal day to day working conditions. iv. vii. The inspection for quality is done by quality control inspectors who are posted at all active sites and who should be persons at deputy engineer and above levels. v. vi. Material inspection at supplier’s end Material inspection at the stage of receipt Material inspection at the stage of issue Inspection of the process at the time of initial setting of machine / equipment Inspection of the trial run batch Inspection while the execution is in progress Inspection of finished process Inspection before erection and commissioning Inspection of commissioning Inspection of machinery and equipment commissioned CHECKLIST Following items must be checked by Quality control engineer. Once quality standards and other things are laid out inspection becomes a routine matter.NCP 27 The responsibility of all the four functions is shared by contractor. viii. ix. ii. They are member of the quality control team and unrelated to the production process directly. PRELIMINARY i. 1. Inspection stages are as follow: i. [PGP-CM] Page 2 Plans and specifications availability at sites . x.

[PGP-CM] Page 3 Water Admixture Reinforcing steel . ii. iv. specific gravity. organic matter. 2. ix. yield Air content 3. waste. iii.soundness. PROPORTIONING i. deleterious substances. batch quantities . vi. quantities ( used on hand ) . unit weight. equipment organisation and methods. Tests of aggregates Proportioning of mix Mix computations Grading of mixed aggregates. iii. iii. iv. STOCKPILING i. v. iii. iv. v. General ( applies to all materials) Identification. uniformity. x. storage conditions.NCP 27 ii.acceptability. absorption . voids undesirable 4. ii. viii. MATERIALS i. job descriptions and work assignments Permissible tolerance of measurements Provisions of records and reports Contractor’s plant. calibrations. handling methods. schedule of testing Cement Sampling for laboratory test Protection from dampness Aggregates Acceptability tests Gradation . Organization chart.resistance to abrasion. v. ii. vii. other tests Control test Moisture.

location width. iii. BATCHING AND MIXING OF CONCRETE [PGP-CM] Page 4 . GANGWAY AND LADDERS i. foundations location . Size. Working platforms . dimensions. v. Specified type of forms Location Alignment . shape. iv. provision for settlement Stability ( bearing . vii. ii. ii. ties and spaces) Inspection of openings Preparation of surfaces Final clean up 7. iii. vii. preparation for surfaces 6. surface condition Accessories Fixtures Other materials 5. iv. BEFORE CONCRETING i. bending. drainage. ii.shores.NCP 27 iv. vi. Lines and grades Excavation. properly braced Suitable guards on all gangway and stairs Ladders securely fixed 8.vibrators and other machines Adequate electric and petromax lamps for concreting at night Adequate quantity of tarpaulin to cover concrete in case of rains 9. ii. PLANT AND MACHINERY i. iii. FORMWORK i. Availability of spare concrete mixers. guardrails Scaffoldings of adequate strength securely supported. v. vi.

vii.yielding concrete of uniform colour and consistency Checking cleanliness and adequacy of chairs in the area of concreting Checking that concrete is placed and compacted before the expiry of initial setting time of cement and left undisturbed afterwards Checking that concrete is placed in even layers. fine aggregate .NCP 27 i. v. xii. xi. before laying new concrete ii. iv. cleaned with wire brush and wetted with a coat of cement slurry. 10. For each batch. serviceable conditions and cleanliness of all the measuring equipments Checking that water / cement ratio is maintained at the stipulated value. quantity of water being corrected from the viewpoints of dry wet conditions of the coarse and the fine aggregate Periodical checking of accuracy. cement and water.EMBEDDED PARTS i. iv. Further control over the amount of water used shall be exercised in terms of slump/compaction factor value Physical checking of the quantities of the constituents per batch periodically Checking of workability of concrete at frequent intervals Checking cleanliness of the mixer machine drum Checking the working of the mixer as per the rating of the mixer . the surface is chipped. ii. check the quantity of coarse aggregate. viii. x. vi. ix. iii. iii. depth and size of bolt holes [PGP-CM] Page 5 . each layer being compacted before placing the next layer Ensuring that concreting is carried out continuously up to the construction joint Ensuring that while concreting an old work. Inspection of embedded parts and embedment of lugs Position and level of embedded parts Precautionary measures to keep the embedded parts in position Position .

iv. iii. specified interval placement.CONCRETING i. cleanliness) Opening not shown on plans Calibration of batching devices Conditions of mixer. stability. amount of concrete iv. finishing and curing 12. admixtures Check batching devices Check yield of concrete iii.hot or cold weather Adequate tools and men for compaction. number of revolutions of drum. vi. viii.bends and anchorage) Location ( number of bars. vii. speed of operation Provision for continuous placement Provision for curing Provision for protection against sun. paint dried mortar etc) Fixtures ( location. ix.REINFORCEMENT IN PLACE i. Mixing Minimum time. [PGP-CM] Page 6 Control of consistency since previous . v. ii.lenghth. maximum time. minimum clear spacing. Working conditions Weather. preparations completed. aggregates. Batching Cement.rain. no oil. loading.NCP 27 11.mimimum cover) Splicing Stability ( binding by wire. xiii. xii. covering and protection ii. chairs and spacers) Cleanliness ( no loose rust. batches delayed in mixer. x. water used. water. Size (diameter. lighting for night work. xi. mixing capacity of drum.

No segregation of materials.location.alignment. water gain. alignment of surface. no over working first floating. Location b. removal of temporary ties and spacers. depth of layers. water gain. repair of defects. x. ragged from lines). no surface drying Schedule of testing ix. no excessive stiffening or drying out. Monitoring of air content c. Dowels or ties (if any) in place and aligned c. Conveying e.adjustments of water or admixtures in mix b. surface treatment. ragged tie holes. placing concrete under water vi. from Finishing of formed surfaces shallow surfaces. plastic shrinkage cracks Finishing of formed surfaces condition of surfaces upon removal of forms (honeycomb peeling. Observations of concrete being placed. Concrete temperature check d. disposal of rejected batches. little or no flow after depositing. Placing uniform and dense concrete Continuous operation. vertical drop. preparation of surfaces b.NCP 27 a.tests. Dowels of ties (if any ) in place and aligned vii. time limits v. preparation of contact surfaces. 13. Joint filler material. Expansion and isolation joints d. final hard trowelling. no dropping against forms or reinforcement. Forming or tooling c. rock pockets.stability. Construction and hinge joints a. mortar bedding. Contraction joints a. layer of mortar. Location.freedom interference with subsequent movement viii.AFTER CONCRETING [PGP-CM] Page 7 .

Records. length of curing period. vii. Protection from damage impact. vi. objectives and resources. Reports. Organisation structure of the project team and quality assurance department Responsibilities and powers of the various personnel involved Identification of the coordinating personnel Quality and its programmes Quality education and awareness Quality circles Training Setting up of MIS for quality [PGP-CM] Page 8 . v. summary c. iv. daily. iv. appropriate actions to deal with deviations and all steps necessary for promoting quality awareness at all levels and in all parts of the project organisation. time of beginning curing. ii. iii.NCP 27 i. batching and mixing. iii. vi.mix computations. Photographs.materials. Diary d. A typical quality assurance programme addresses itself to the following: i. performance standards and feedback on the project’s performance. v. the project team. viii. ii. funding agencies. concreting in cold and hot weather required precautions Joints clean and seal Tests of concrete Records and reports a. video recording QUALITY ASSURANCE Quality assurance refers to the managerial process which determine the organisation’s design. placing and curing b. overloading of surfaces Time of removal of forms Curing surface continuously moist.

Resolution of technical differences and disputes Preparation of quality assurance manuals and their checklists Vendor survey procedure Vendor surveillance procedure QUALITY ASSURANCE ORGANISATION/ UNIT AT SITE At construction site generally a Quality control engineer is responsible for the quality assurance and quality control. inspection etc Appraising failures to these standard and acting when standards are not being adhered to Planning improvements in the standards and specifications. viii. vii. x. vi. He has mainly four functions as follow: i. iii. ii. ix. ii. x. Quality control engineer’s functions include the following: i. Setting up of standards and specifications Evaluating materials. iv. iv. xi. iii.NCP 27 ix. v. xii. Development of specifications Interaction with project designers Reliability and development testing Process capability studies QC of incoming materials Vendor QC and vendor development Quality planning for control of construction process Inspection and testing during construction Interaction with services engineering Records and procedures [PGP-CM] Page 9 QC record accumulation procedure . processes and outputs through appropriate tests.

Bhd.Published by Golden Books Centre Sdn. Total Quality Management by Parag Diwan. Construction Quality Management. Published by NICMAR .Kuala lampur.NCP 27 Document control procedure In built drawing control procedure Non conformance control procedure BIBILOGRAPHY / REFERENCE 1.2008 2.1999 [PGP-CM] Page 10 .