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Abundantsuppliesoffreshwaterareessentialtothedevelopmentofindustry. Enormousquantitiesarerequiredforthecoolingofproductsandequipment,for processneeds,forboilerfeed,andforsanitaryandpotablewatersupply. THEPLANETARYWATERCYCLE Industryisasmallparticipantintheglobalwatercycle.Thefiniteamountofwateron theplanetparticipatesinaverycomplicatedrecyclingschemethatprovidesforits reuse.Thisrecyclingofwateristermedthe"HydrologicCycle"(seeFigure11). Evaporationundertheinfluenceofsunlighttakeswaterfromaliquidtoagaseous phase.Thewatermaycondenseincloudsasthetemperaturedropsintheupper atmosphere.Windtransportsthewaterovergreatdistancesbeforereleasingitin someformofprecipitation.Asthewatercondensesandfallstotheground,it absorbsgasesfromtheenvironment.Thisistheprincipalcauseofacidrainand acidsnow. WATERASASOLVENT Purewater(H20)iscolorless,tasteless,andodorless.

Itiscomposedofhydrogen andoxygen.Becausewaterbecomescontaminatedbythesubstanceswithwhichit comesintocontact,itisnotavailableforuseinitspurestate.Tosomedegree, watercandissolveeverynaturallyoccurringsubstanceontheearth.Becauseofthis property,waterhasbeentermeda"universalsolvent."Althoughbeneficialto mankind,thesolvencypowerofwatercanposeamajorthreattoindustrial equipment.Corrosionreactionscausetheslowdissolutionofmetalsbywater. Depositionreactions,whichproducescaleonheattransfersurfaces,representa changeinthesolvencypowerofwaterasitstemperatureisvaried.Thecontrolof corrosionandscaleisamajorfocusofwatertreatmenttechnology. WATERIMPURITIES Waterimpuritiesincludedissolvedandsuspendedsolids.Calciumbicarbonateisa solublesalt.Asolutionofcalciumbicarbonateisclear,becausethecalciumand bicarbonatearepresentasatomicsizedionswhicharenotlargeenoughtoreflect light.Somesolublemineralsimpartacolortothesolution.Solubleironsaltsproduce paleyelloworgreensolutionssomecoppersaltsformintenselybluesolutions. Althoughcolored,thesesolutionsareclear.Suspendedsolidsaresubstancesthat arenotcompletelysolubleinwaterandarepresentasparticles.Theseparticles usuallyimpartavisibleturbiditytothewater.Dissolvedandsuspendedsolidsare presentinmostsurfacewaters.Seawaterisveryhighinsolublesodiumchloride suspendedsandandsiltmakeitslightlycloudy.Anextensivelistofsolubleand suspendedimpuritiesfoundinwaterisgiveninTable11. Table11.Commonimpuritiesfoundinfreshwater. Constituent ChemicalFormula Turbidity nonexpressedin analysisasunits DifficultiesCaused impartsunsightly appearancetowater depositsinwaterlines, processequipment,etc. interfereswithmost processuses chiefsourceofscalein heatexchange equipment,boilers,pipe lines,etc.formscurds withsoap,interfereswith MeansofTreatment coagulation,settling, andfiltration

Hardness

calciumand magnesiumsalts, expressedas CaCO3

softening demineralization internalboilerwater treatmentsurface

withsoap,interfereswith dyeing,etc. foamandcarryoverof bicarbonate(HCO3), solidswithsteam carbonate(CO32), embrittlementofboiler steelbicarbonateand Alkalinity andhydroxide(OH), carbonateproduceCO2 expressedas insteam,asourceof CaCO3 corrosionincondensate lines H2SO4,HCI.etc., Free expressedas corrosion MineralAcid CaCO 3 corrosioninwaterlines, Carbon CO2 particularlysteamand Dioxide condensatelines hydrogenion concentration definedas: 1 pH = log [H+]

CaCO3

treatmentsurface activeagents limeandlimesoda softeningacid treatmenthydrogen zeolitesoftening demineralization dealkalizationbyanion exchange neutralizationwith alkalies aeration,deaeration, neutralizationwith alkalies

PH

pHvariesaccordingto acidicoralkalinesolidsin pHcanbeincreasedby watermostnatural alkaliesanddecreased watershaveapHof6.0 byacids 8.0 addstosolidscontentof water,butinitselfisnot usuallysignificant, combineswithcalciumto formcalciumsulfate scale addstosolidscontent andincreasescorrosive characterofwater demineralization, reverseosmosis, electrodialysis, evaporation demineralization, reverseosmosis, electrodialysis, evaporation

Sulfate

SO42

Chloride

Cl

Nitrate

NO3

Fluoride

Sodium

Na+

Silica

SiO2

addstosolidscontent, butisnotusually significantindustrially: demineralization, highconcentrations reverseosmosis, cause methemoglobinemiain electrodialysis, evaporation infantsusefulforcontrol ofboilermetal embrittlement causeofmottledenamel adsorptionwith inteethalsousedfor magnesiumhydroxide, controlofdentaldecay: calciumphosphate,or notusuallysignificant boneblackalum industrially coagulation addstosolidscontentof water:whencombined demineralization, reverseosmosis, withOH,causes electrodialysis, corrosioninboilersunder evaporation certainconditions hotandwarmprocess removalbymagnesium scaleinboilersand saltsadsorptionby coolingwatersystems highlybasicanion insolubleturbineblade exchangeresins,in depositsduetosilica conjunctionwith vaporization demineralization, reverseosmosis, evaporation discolorswateron aerationcoagulation

Iron

Fe2+(ferrous) Fe3+(ferric)

Manganese Mn2+ Aluminum AI3+

Oxygen Hydrogen Sulfide Ammonia

O2 H2S

discolorswateron aerationcoagulation precipitationsourceof andfiltrationlime depositsinwaterlines, softeningcation boilers.etc.interferes exchangecontact withdyeing,tanning, filtrationsurfaceactive papermaking,etc. agentsforironretention sameasiron sameasiron usuallypresentasa resultoffloccarryover fromclarifiercancause improvedclarifierand depositsincooling filteroperation systemsandcontribute tocomplexboilerscales corrosionofwaterlines, deaerationsodium heatexchange equipment,boilers,return sulfitecorrosion inhibitors lines,etc. aerationchlorination causeof"rottenegg" highlybasicanion odorcorrosion exchange corrosionofcopperand zincalloysbyformation ofcomplexsolubleion referstototalamountof dissolvedmatter, determinedby evaporationhigh concentrationsare objectionablebecauseof processinterferenceand cationexchangewith hydrogenzeolite chlorinationdeaeration limesofteningand cationexchangeby hydrogenzeolite demineralization, reverseosmosis, electrodialysis,

NH3

Dissolved Solids

none

Suspended none Solids

TotalSolids none SurfaceWater

asacauseoffoamingin evaporation boilers referstothemeasureof undissolvedmatter, determined subsidencefiltration, gravimetricallydeposits usuallyprecededby inheatexchange coagulationandsettling equipment,boilers,water lines,etc. referstothesumof dissolvedandsuspended see"DissolvedSolids" solids,determined and"SuspendedSolids" gravimetrically

Theultimatecourseofrainormeltingsnowdependsonthenatureoftheterrain overwhichitflows.Inareasconsistingofhardpackedclay,verylittlewater penetratestheground.Inthesecases,thewatergenerates"runoff".Therunoff collectsinstreamsandrivers.Theriversemptyintobaysandestuaries,andthe waterultimatelyreturnstothesea,completingonemajorphaseofthehydrologic cycleshowninFigure11. Aswaterrunsoffalongthesurface,itstirsupandsuspendsparticlesofsandand soil,creatingsiltinthesurfacewater.Inaddition,thestreamingactionerodesrocky surfaces,producingmoresand.Asthesurfacewatercascadesoverrocks,itis aerated.Thecombinationofoxygen,inorganicnutrientsleachedfromtheterrain, andsunlightsupportsawidevarietyoflifeformsinthewater,includingalgae,fungi, bacteria,smallcrustaceans,andfish. Often,riverbedsarelinedwithtrees,anddrainageareasfeedingtheriversare forested.Leavesandpineneedlesconstitutealargepercentageofthebiological contentofthewater.Afteritdissolvesinthewater,thismaterialbecomesamajor

contentofthewater.Afteritdissolvesinthewater,thismaterialbecomesamajor causeoffoulingofionexchangeresinusedinwatertreatment. Thephysicalandchemicalcharacteristicsofsurfacewatercontaminationvary considerablyovertime.Asuddenstormcancauseadramaticshorttermchangein thecompositionofawatersupply.Overalongertimeperiod,surfacewater chemistryvarieswiththeseasons.Duringperiodsofhighrainfall,highrunoffoccurs. Thiscanhaveafavorableorunfavorableimpactonthecharacteristicsofthewater, dependingonthegeochemistryandbiologyoftheterrain. Surfacewaterchemistryalsovariesovermultiyearormultidecadecyclesofdrought andrainfall.Extendedperiodsofdroughtseverelyaffecttheavailabilityofwaterfor industrialuse.Whereriversdischargeintotheocean,theincursionofsaltwaterup theriverduringperiodsofdroughtpresentsadditionalproblems.Industrialusers musttakesurfacewatervariabilityintoaccountwhendesigningwatertreatment plantsandprograms. Groundwater

Waterthatfallsonporousterrains,suchassandorsandyloam,drainsorpercolates intotheground.Inthesecases,thewaterencountersawidevarietyofmineral speciesarrangedincomplexlayers,orstrata.Themineralsmayincludegranite, gneiss,basalt,andshale.Insomecases,theremaybealayerofverypermeable sandbeneathimpermeableclay.Wateroftenfollowsacomplexthreedimensional pathintheground.Thescienceofgroundwaterhydrologyinvolvesthetrackingof thesewatermovements. Table12.Acomparisonofsurfacewaterandgroundwatercharacteristics. Characteristic Turbidity Dissolvedminerals Biologicalcontent Temporalvariability SurfaceWater high lowmoderate high veryhigh GroundWater low high low low

Incontrasttosurfacesupplies,groundwatersarerelativelyfreefromsuspended contaminants,becausetheyarefilteredastheymovethroughthestrata.The filtrationalsoremovesmostofthebiologicalcontamination.Somegroundwaterswith ahighironcontentcontainsulfatereducingbacteria.Theseareasourceoffouling andcorrosioninindustrialwatersystems. Groundwaterchemistrytendstobeverystableovertime.Agroundwatermay containanundesirablelevelofscaleformingsolids,butduetoitsfairlyconsistent chemistryitmaybetreatedeffectively. MineralReactions:Asgroundwaterencountersdifferentminerals,itdissolvesthem accordingtotheirsolubilitycharacteristics.Insomecaseschemicalreactionsoccur, enhancingmineralsolubility. Agoodexampleisthereactionofgroundwaterwithlimestone.Waterpercolating fromthesurfacecontainsatmosphericgases.Oneofthesegasesiscarbondioxide, whichformscarbonicacidwhendissolvedinwater.Thedecompositionoforganic matterbeneaththesurfaceisanothersourceofcarbondioxide.Limestoneisa mixtureofcalciumandmagnesiumcarbonate.Themineral,whichisbasic,isonly slightlysolubleinneutralwater.Theslightlyacidicgroundwaterreactswithbasic limestoneinaneutralizationreactionthatformsasaltandawaterofneutralization. Thesaltformedbythereactionisamixtureofcalciumandmagnesiumbicarbonate. Bothbicarbonatesarequitesoluble.Thisreactionisthesourceofthemostcommon depositionandcorrosionproblemsfacedbyindustrialusers.Thecalciumand magnesium(hardness)formscaleonheattransfersurfacesifthegroundwaterisnot treatedbeforeuseinindustrialcoolingandboilersystems.Inboilerfeedwater applications,thethermalbreakdownofthebicarbonateintheboilerleadstohigh levelsofcarbondioxideincondensatereturnsystems.Thiscancausesevere

levelsofcarbondioxideincondensatereturnsystems.Thiscancausesevere systemcorrosion. Structurally,limestoneisporous.Thatis,itcontainssmallholesandchannelscalled "interstices".Alargeformationoflimestonecanholdvastquantitiesofgroundwater initsstructure.Limestoneformationsthatcontaintheselargequantitiesofwaterare calledaquifers,atermderivedfromLatinrootsmeaningwaterbearing. Ifawellisdrilledintoalimestoneaquifer,thewatercanhewithdrawncontinuously fordecadesandusedfordomesticandindustrialapplications.Unfortunately,the waterisveryhard,duetotheneutralization/dissolutionreactionsdescribedabove. Thisnecessitatesextensivewatertreatmentformostuses. CHEMICALREACTIONS Numerouschemicaltestsmustbeconductedtoensureeffectivecontrolofawater treatmentprogram.MostofthesetestsareaddressedindetailinChapters3971. Becauseoftheirsignificanceinmanysystems,threetests,pH,alkalinity,andsilica, arediscussedhereaswell. pHControl GoodpHcontrolisessentialforeffectivecontrolofdepositionandcorrosioninmany watersystems.Therefore,itisimportanttohaveagoodunderstandingofthe meaningofpHandthefactorsthataffectit. PureH2Oexistsasanequilibriumbetweentheacidspecies,H+(morecorrectly expressedasaprotonatedwatermolecule,thehydroniumion,H30+)andthe hydroxylradical,OH.Inneutralwatertheacidconcentrationequalsthehydroxyl concentrationandatroomtemperaturetheybotharepresentat107gram equivalents(ormoles)perliter. The"p"functionisusedinchemistrytohandleverysmallnumbers.Itisthenegative logarithmofthenumberbeingexpressed.Waterthathas107gramequivalentsper literofhydrogenionsissaidtohaveapHof7.Thus,aneutralsolutionexhibitsapH of7.Table13liststheconcentrationofH+over14ordersofmagnitude.Asitvaries, theconcentrationofOHmustalsovary,butintheoppositedirection,suchthatthe productofthetworemainsconstant. Table13.pHrelationships. H+ Concentration pHa Exponential Notation,gram moles/L 0 100 1 101 2 102 3 103 4 104 5 105 6 106 7 107 8 108 9 109 10 1010 11 1011 12 1012 13 1013 14 1014 OH Concentration, H+Concentration, Concentration, Exponential Normality Normality Notation,gram moles/L 1 0.00000000000001 1014 0.1 0.0000000000001 1013 0.01 0.000000000001 1012 0.001 0.00000000001 1011 0.0001 0.0000000001 1010 0.00001 0.000000001 109 0.000001 0.00000001 108 0.0000001 0.0000001 107 0.00000001 0.000001 106 0.000000001 0.00001 105 0.0000000001 0.0001 104 0.00000000001 0.001 103 0.000000000001 0.01 102 0.0000000000001 0.1 101 0.00000000000001 1 100 OH pOH

14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

apH+pOH=14. ConfusionregardingpHarisesfromtwosources:

theinversenatureofthefunction thepHmeterscale Itisimportanttorememberthatastheacidconcentrationincreases,thepHvalue decreases(seeTable14). Table14.ComparativepHlevelsofcommonsolutions. 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 OHalkalinity500ppmasCaCO3 OHalkalinity50ppmasCaCO3 Columbus.OH,drinkingwater,a OHalkalinity5ppmasCaCO3 strongbaseanionexchangereffluents phenolphthaleinendpoint neutralpointat25C Weymouth,NIA,drinkingwater,a methylorangeendpoint FMA4ppmasCaCO3 FMA40ppmasCaCO3 strongacidcationexchangereffluent FMA400ppmasCaCO3

aExtremesofdrinkingwaterpH

ThepHmetercanbeasourceofconfusion,becausethepHscaleonthemeteris linear,extendingfrom0to14inevenincrements.BecausepHisalogarithmic function,achangeofIpHunitcorrespondstoa10foldchangeinacid concentration.Adecreaseof2pHunitsrepresentsa100foldchangeinacid concentration. Alkalinity Alkalinitytestsareusedtocontrollimesodasofteningprocessesandboiler blowdownandtopredictthepotentialforcalciumscalingincoolingwatersystems. Formostwatersystems,itisimportanttorecognizethesourcesofalkalinityand maintainproperalkalinitycontrol. Carbondioxidedissolvesinwaterasagas.Thedissolvedcarbondioxidereacts withsolventwatermoleculesandformscarbonicacidaccordingtothefollowing reaction: CO2+H2O=H2CO3

Onlyatraceamountofcarbonicacidisformed,butitisacidicenoughtolowerpH fromtheneutralpointof7.Carbonicacidisaweakacid,soitdoesnotlowerpH below4.3.However,thislevelislowenoughtocausesignificantcorrosionofsystem metals. IftheinitialloadingofCO2isheldconstantandthepHisraised,agradual transformationintothebicarbonateionHCO3occurs.ThisisshowninFigure12. ThetransformationiscompleteatpH8.3.FurtherelevationofthepHforcesa secondtransformationintocarbonate,CO32.Thethreespeciescarbonicacid, bicarbonate,andcarbonatecanbeconvertedfromonetoanotherbymeansof

bicarbonate,andcarbonatecanbeconvertedfromonetoanotherbymeansof changingthepHofthewater. VariationsinpHcanbereducedthrough"buffering"theadditionofacid(orcaustic). Whenacid(orcaustic)isaddedtoawatercontainingcarbonate/bicarbonate species,thepHofthesystemdoesnotchangeasquicklyasitdoesinpurewater. Muchoftheaddedacid(orcaustic)isconsumedasthecarbonate/bicarbonate(or bicarbonate/carbonicacid)ratioisshifted. Alkalinityistheabilityofanaturalwatertoneutralizeacid(i.e.,toreducethepH depressionexpectedfromastrongacidbythebufferingmechanismmentioned above).ConfusionarisesinthatalkalinepHconditionsexistatapHabove7, whereasalkalinityinanaturalwaterexistsatapHabove4.4. Alkalinityismeasuredbyadoubletitrationacidisaddedtoasampletothe Phenolphthaleinendpoint(pH8.3)andtheMethylOrangeendpoint(pH4.4). TitrationtothePhenolphthaleinendpoint(thePalkalinity)measuresOHand1/2 CO32titrationtotheMethylOrangeendpoint(theMalkalinity)measuresOH, CO32andHCO3. Silica Whennotproperlycontrolled,silicaformshighlyinsulating,difficulttoremove depositsincoolingsystems,boilers,andturbines.Anunderstandingofsomeofthe possiblevariationsinsilicatestingisvaluable. Mostsalts,althoughpresentascomplicatedcrystallinestructuresinthesolidphase, assumefairlysimpleionicformsinsolution.Silicaexhibitscomplicatedstructures eveninsolution. Silicaexistsinawiderangeofstructures,fromasimplesilicatetoacomplicated polymericmaterial.Thepolymericstructurecanpersistwhenthematerialis dissolvedinsurfacewaters. Thesizeofthesilicapolymercanbesubstantial,ranginguptothecolloidalstate. Colloidalsilicaisrarelypresentingroundwaters.Itismostcommonlypresentin surfacewatersduringperiodsofhighrunoff. Thepolymericformofsilicadoesnotproducecolorinthestandardmolybdatebased colorimetrictestforsilica.Thisformofsilicaistermed"nonreactive".Thepolymeric formofsilicaisnotthermallystableandwhenheatedinaboilerrevertstothebasic silicatemonomer,whichisreactivewithmolybdate.

Asaresult,molybdatetestingofaboilerfeedwatermayreveallittleornosilica, whileboilerblowdownmeasurementsshowalevelofsilicathatisabovecontrol limits.Highboilerwatersilicaandlowfeedwatervaluesareoftenafirstsignthat colloidalsilicaispresentinthemakeup. Onemethodofidentifyingcolloidalsilicaproblemsistheuseofatomicemissionor absorptiontomeasurefeedwatersilica.Thismethod,unlikethemolybdate chemistry,measurestotalsilicairrespectiveofthedegreeofpolymerization. Previous TableofContents Next (Chapter02 Environmental Considerations)

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Concernfortheenvironmentisnotanewissue,asevidencedbythe noticeprintedintheJanuary,1944issueofTheBetzIndicator.(Figure2 1) Inthe1960'sitbecameevidentthattherecouldbeadarksidetothe economicdevelopmentthatresultedfromthedecadesofrapidindustrial growthfollowingWorldWarII.Duringthisperiodthegeneralpublic becameawareoftheconsequencesofimproperwastematerialhandling andindustrialaccidents.FrighteningincidentsatLoveCanal,Seveso, andBhopalinthe1970'sand1980'shadtragiceffectsonmembersof thegeneralpublicbeyondthefencelineofthefacilities.Inthepastfew decades,publicawarenesshasgrownconcerningmanyotherimportant environmentalissues: acidrain globalwarming("greenhouseeffect") stratosphericozonedepletion tropicaldeforestation theurbantrashcrisis pesticidesingroundwater hazardouswastedisposal naturalandsyntheticcarcinogens Focusonenvironmentalconsiderationshasshiftedfromasinglemedium approach(air,water,land)toaholisticapproach.Earlyregulations permittedtheremovalofasolvent,suchastrichloroethane(methyl chloroform),fromcontaminatedgroundwaterbycountercurrentair stripping.Itwassoonrealizedthatwhilethewaterwasnolonger contaminated,anairpollutanthadbeencreatedintheprocess.Today's regulationsaddressthefactthatmovingapollutantfromonemediumto anotherdoesnoteliminatetheproblem.Intheexamplegivenabove,the solventremovedfromthewatermusthecondensedoradsorbedby activatedcarbonandrecoveredorincinerated. Anotherchangeisarecognitionthatcitysewersareanappropriate meansofdisposalonlyforthoseindustrialwastesthatareremovedor degradedtoenvironmentallycompatibleproductsinthemunicipal treatmentplant.Industrialwastesthatcauseadegradationofeffluent waterqualityorrenderthesewagesludgehazardousmustbemanaged inwaysthatareenvironmentallyacceptable.Theaccomplishmentofthis goalwillrequirethecontinuing,longtermeffortsofallconcerned. Thecostofmanufacturingaproductnowincludesfactorsforwaste disposalandpollutionprevention.Often,itismoreeconomicaltoalter

disposalandpollutionprevention.Often,itismoreeconomicaltoalter processestoproducelesswasteormorebenignwastes,andtorecover usablematerialsfromwastestreams,thantomakeacontaminated wastestreamsuitablefordisposal. THEINDUSTRIALUSEOFWATER Itisbecomingincreasinglyapparentthatfreshwaterisavaluable resourcethatmustbeprotectedthroughpropermanagement, conservation,anduse. AlthoughtwothirdsoftheEarth'ssurfaceiscoveredbywater,mostofit isseawater,whichisnotreadilyusableformostneeds.Allfreshwater comesfromrainfall,whichpercolatesintothesoilorrunsoffintorivers andstreams.Thehydrologiccycleisdynamic,asshowninChapter1. Inordertoensureanadequatesupplyofhighqualitywaterforindustrial use,thefollowingpracticesmustheimplemented: purificationandconditioningpriortoconsumer(potable)orindustrial use conservation(andreusewherepossible) wastewatertreatment Coolingsystemsarebeingmodifiedinindustrialapplicationstoreduce theuseoffreshwatermakeup.Theoperationofcoolingtowersathigh cyclesofconcentrationandthereuseofwastestreams(including municipalplanteffluentforcoolingtowermakeup)cancontribute significantlytoreducedwaterconsumption. Bothgroundwaterandsurfacewaterscanbecomepollutedasaresultof theimpropermanagementofwastes(Figure23).Becauseofthe increasingdemandsforfreshwater,thereisacontinuingneedtoshare resources.Regulationswillrequiretheincreasingtreatmentofall domesticandindustrialwastewatersinordertoremoveindustrialand prioritypollutantsandrestoretheeffluentwatertothequalityrequiredby thenextuser.Facilitiesthattreatdomesticwastemustalsocontrolthe moreconventionalpollutants,suchasBOD(biologicaloxygendemand), ammonia,andnitrates,andrestorethepHifitisoutoftheneutralzone. Concernsaboutthesafetyofdrinkingwatersuppliesarewidespread. Althoughtherearemanypollutantsthatdegradewaterquality(including naturalpollutants),thosethatattractthegreatestpublicattentionresult fromindustrialactivityandtheuseofagriculturalpesticidesand fertilizers. Environmentalregulationsestablishqualitycriteriaforbothindustrialand domesticwastetreatmentdischarges.Althoughsomecountrieshave morecomprehensivelawsandpermitregulationsthanothers,stringent pollutioncontrolstandardswillprobablybeadoptedgloballyinthe comingyears. AIRQUALITY Geographicboundariesarenotrecognizedbythewinds.Airquality issuesarecomplicatedbythefactthattheyareusuallyofmultinational concern.Significantissuessuchasacidrain,stratosphericozone depletion,andthegreenhouseeffectrequireadegreeofinternational cooperationthatisdifficulttoachieve(seeFigure24).Technologies availabletodaycanhaveapositiveandmeasurableimpactonthese issues.Severalchaptersinthishandbookdescribetechnologiesthat increaseboilerandindustrialcoolingefficiency.Inpapermills,generating plants,steelmills,refineries,andothermajorenergyconsumers,each incrementalincreaseinenergyefficiencyrepresentsareductionin requiredfuel.Asaresultofreducedfuelconsumption,lesscarbon dioxideisproduced,andwherecoalorothersulfurcontainingfuelsare usedthereisalsoadecreaseinsulfuroxideemissions.Fluidizedbed boilersarebeingusedincreasinglytoreducethepresenceofacidic

boilersarebeingusedincreasinglytoreducethepresenceofacidic gasses(SOxandNOx)intheboilerfluegas. Oneoftheproblemsfacedbygovernmentsistheamountofenergy requiredtoaccomplishwetscrubbing(toremoveacidgases)and electrostaticprecipitationofparticulates.Theseprocesses,combined, consumeupto30%oftheenergyreleasedbytheburningofcoal.While theseprocessesreducethecontaminantsthoughttocauseacidrain, theyincreasetheamountofcoalburnedandtherebyincreasethe productionofcarbondioxide,oneofthegasesthoughttocausethe "greenhouseeffect." Manyoftheairpollutantsofconcerncouldbegreatlyreducedthrough theuseofalternativeenergysources,suchasnuclearfission(andat somepoint,probablynuclearfusion),geothermal,wind,hydroelectric, photovoltaic,biomass,andsolar.Atthistime,manyofthealternatives aresignificantlymoreexpensivethantheuseoffossilfuels,andeach hasitsownproblems.Therearenoclearandsimplesolutionsnosource ofenergyhasbeendevelopedthatisbotheconomicallyattractiveand withoutenvironmentaldrawbacks. Overthepastseveralyears,mostindustrializedcountrieshavepassed lawsaddressingairpollutionconcernsandindustrialandpowerplant emissions.Nationshavebeguntocometogetherinacooperative fashiontoformulateagreementsandprotocolstodealwithglobal atmosphericconcerns.Therehasbeenamultinationalagreementto phaseouttheuseofcertainchlorofluorocarboncompounds(usedas refrigerantgasesandforotherpurposes)becausetheyhavebeenlinked withareductionofozoneinthestratosphere.Thereisreasontobelieve thatareductioninstratosphericozonewillallowahigherlevelofUV radiationtoreachtheearth'ssurface,andthisisexpectedtocausean increaseintheincidenceofskincanceralongwithotherundesirable effects. Therearemovementstoestablishmultinationalagreementsthatprovide incentivestoalloweconomicprogresstooccurindevelopingcountries withoutthedestructionoftheirrainforests.Therainforestsshouldbe preservednotonlyforthesakeofconservationbutalsobecausethey removevastquantitiesofatmosphericcarbondioxidethrough photosynthesisandthushaveafavorableeffectonglobalwarmingand thegreenhouseeffect. Humanunderstandingofatmosphericchemistryisfarfromcomplete.As ourunderstandinggrowstherewillundoubtedlybemanychangesin directionandemphasisregardingatmosphericpollutants.Becausea sizeableamountofatmosphericpollutionresultsfromindustrialactivity andpowergeneration,thescopeandstringencyofindustrialairpollution regulationswillcontinuetoincrease. INDUSTRIALWASTEREDUCTIONANDENERGYCONSERVATION Inthe20thcentury,industrializednationsevolvedfromexploitersof bountifulnaturalresourcestoconservatorsofscarceresources.Inthe early1900's,theconsumptionofindustrialproductswasmodestand naturalresourcesappearedtohelimitless.Asthedemandforelectric powerandindustrialproductsgrew,thelimitationsoftheEarth'snatural resourcesbecameanincreasingconcern.Today,evendeveloping countriesareveryinterestedinthecontrolleddevelopmentandutilization oftheirresources. Inadditiontoproducingadesiredoutputatacertaincost,industrial producersmustnowconsiderthefollowingobjectives: toconsumeaminimumofrawmaterialsandenergy tominimizewastethroughefficientuseofresources torecoverusefulmaterialsfromproductionwaste

totreatanyresidualwastesothatitcanbeconvertedtoan environmentallyacceptableformbeforedisposal Inadditiontoconcernsaboutthedepletionofnaturalresources,there arewidespreadconcernsaboutwastedisposalpractices.Theburyingof untreatedindustrialwastes,whetherclassifiedashazardousor nonhazardous,isnolongeranacceptablepractice.Landfillofstabilized residuesfromtheincineration,thermaltreatment,orbiological oxidation/degradationofindustrialwastesistheapproachacceptedby mostcountriestoday. Certainmaterialsthatarethewasteproductsofoneprocesscanbe recoveredforreuseinanotherapplication.Forexample,boilerblowdown maybeusedascoolingtowermakeupincertaininstances.Otherwaste productsmaycontainvaluablecomponentsthatcanbeextracted.Asthe costofwastedisposalhasescalated,ithasbecomeeconomically feasibletousealternativerawmaterialsandtoalterprocessessothat lesswasteorlesshazardouswasteisproduced.Thetreatmentofwaste andwastewatersothatitcanbesuccessfullyreusedisanincreasing need. Themostefficientdrivingforcefortheselectionofalternative,waste reducingrawmaterialsandprocessesisthemarketplace.Becauseofthe highcostofwastetreatmentanddisposal,certainprocessescanoffset higherinitialcostswithreducedoperatingexpenses.Forexample, membranesystems(reverseosmosis,electrodialysisreversal,etc.) havebeenusedsuccessfullytotreatboilermakeupwaterandreducethe totallevelofcontaminationinthewastedischargeincomparisonwithion exchangesystems.Membranetreatmentofcoolingtowerblowdownhas alsobeenusedtoreducethetotalquantityofwastewater.Thestripping ofcarbondioxideandammoniafromprocesscondensatestreamshas madeitfeasibletoreusethemasboilerfeedwater.Thereductionof coolingtowerblowdownbytheuseofsidestreamsoftenersand/or filters,alongwitheffectivedepositcontrolandcorrosioninhibition programs,isalsoincreasing. Althoughglobaleffortsarebeingmadetoensurethatthewastesfrom industrialprocessesareproperlymanaged,thecostofremedyingthe damagefrompastpracticesmustalsobeaddressed.Injudiciousburialof industrialwastesinthepasthasresultedinsignificantgroundwater contamination(leaching)problems.Becausetheundergroundmovement ofchemicalsleachingfromdumpingareasisextremelydifficulttomonitor andtrack,thisformofpollutionisofmajorconcerntothegeneralpublic. Alargepercentageoftheworld'spopulationreliesongroundwaterfrom wellsorspringsforitspotablewatersupply. Becausetheturnoverofanaquifercantakeyears,orevendecades,any contaminationcanbeserious.Fortunately,certainnaturalprocesses, includingmicrobiologicaldigestion,maybreakdownleachingpollutants tononharmfulmaterials.Oneremedythatisgainingacceptanceisthe additionofcertainnutrientsandinoculumculturestocontaminatedsoils toacceleratethebiologicaldegradationofpollutants.Thisprocessis referredtoasbioremediationandhasmanyusefulvariants. Industrialandcommercialproducershaveanobligationtominimize consumptionoftheEarth'snaturalresourcesandtogenerateaminimum ofpollutantsandwaste. Theterm"zerorisk"isoftenusedtorepresenttheultimategoalof generatingproductswithoutanypossibilityofproducingenvironmental effects.Aszeroriskisapproached(althoughinmostcasesitcannever befullyattained),thecosttotheproducerandtosocietyingeneral becomesincreasinglylargerforeachincrementofriskavoided(see Figure27).

Ithasbecomecleartoallnationsthattheprotectionoftheenvironmentis animmediateandongoingconcern.Itwilltakeagreatdealoftimeand efforttoredesignindustrialprocessestominimizewastesproduced. Depositandcorrosioncontroltreatmentsthatareeffectiveunder demandingconditionsandalsoenvironmentallyacceptableare necessary.Efficienttreatment.handling,feeding,andcontrolsystems areessentialtoensureoptimumsystemperformancewithminimum impactontheenvironment. Previous (Chapter01Water Sources,Impuritiesand Chemistry) TableofContents Next (Chapter03Applying QualityMethods)

Water&ProcessTechnologiesHome|Industries|Solutions|Products|AboutUs|SiteMap GECorporate|GEEnergy|ContactUs|PrivacyPolicy|AccessibilityStatement|Terms& Conditions|Library CopyrightGeneralElectricCompany19972012 *TrademarkofGeneralElectricCompanymayberegisteredinoneormorecountries.