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Subhash K. Jha (film critic and author of The Essential Guide to Bollywood) states: "It's not that 3 Idiots is a flawless work of art. But it is a vital, inspiring and life-revising work of contemporary art with some heart imbued into every part. In a country where students are driven to suicide by their impossible curriculum, 3 Idiots provides hope. Maybe cinema can't save lives. But cinema, sure as hell, can make you feel life is worth living. 3 Idiots does just that, and much more. The director takes the definition of entertainment into directions of social comment without assuming that he knows best."[40] Nikhat Kazmi of the Times of India gave it four and a half stars and suggests that, "The film is a laugh riot, despite being high on fundas [...] Hirani carries forward his simplistic `humanism alone works' philosophy of the Lage Raho Munna Bhai series in 3 Idiots too, making it a warm and vivacious signature tune to 2009. The second half of the film does falter in parts, specially the child birth sequence, but it doesn't take long for the film to jump back on track." [41] Mayank Shekhar of the Hindustan Times gave the film three and a half out of five stars and comments that "this is the sort of movie you’ll take home with a smile and a song on your lips." [42] Taran Adarsh of Bollywood Hungama gave 3 Idiots four and a half out of five stars and states: "On the whole, 3 Idiots easily ranks amongst Aamir, Rajkumar Hirani and Vidhu Vinod Chopra's finest films. Do yourself and your family a favour: Watch 3 Idiots. It's emotional, it's entertaining, it's enlightening. The film has tremendous youth appeal and feel-good factor to work in a big way." [43] Kaveree Bamzai of India Today gave 3 Idiots five stars and argues that "it's a lovely story, of a man from nowhere who wanted to learn, told like a fairy tale, with the secret heart carrying its coded message of setting all of us free."[44] Other critics gave the film a mixed review. Sonia Chopra of Sify gave the film 3 stars and said "Though a bit too calculated and designed, 3 Idiots is still an ok option for the significant message, interesting cast and scattered breezy moments." [45] Rajeev Masand of CNN-IBN gave the film three out of five stars and states: "Going home after watching 3 Idiots I felt like I'd just been to my favorite restaurant only to be a tad under-whelmed by their signature dish. It was a satisfying meal, don't get me wrong, but not the best meal I'd been expecting." [46] Shubhra Gupta from The Indian Express also gave it 3 stars, stating "‘3 Idiots’ does not do as much for me. The emotional truth that shone through both the ‘Munnabhai’ movies doesn’t come through strongly enough."[47] Raja Sen of Rediff gave the film two out of five stars and states: "Rajkumar Hirani's one of the directors of the decade, a man with immense talent and a knack for storytelling. On his debut, he hit a hundred. With his second, he hit a triple century. This time, he fishes outside the offstump, tries to play shots borrowed from other batters, and hits and misses to provide a patchy, 32*-type innings. It's okay, boss, *chalta hai*. Even Sachin has an off day, and we still have great hope." [48] The film has also been highly acclaimed overseas. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds a 100% "fresh" critics' rating based on five reviews as well as an audience rating of 92% based on nearly 20,000 votes. Derek Elley of Variety wrote that "3 Idiots takes a while to lay out its game plan but pays off emotionally in its second half." Robert Abele of Los Angeles Times wrote that there's an "unavoidable joie de vivre (symbolized by Rancho's meditative mantra "All is well") and a performance charm that make this one of the more naturally gregarious Bollywood imports." Louis Proyect described it as a "fabulous achievement across the board. A typical Bollywood confection but also social commentary on a dysfunctional engineering school system that pressures huge numbers of students into suicide." [49] The Korean site Naver gave the film a review rating of 9.4 out of 10. [50] On the Chinese site Douban, 3 Idiots currently holds an average audience rating of 9.1 out of 10 based on nearly 250,000 votes.[51] Five Point Someone – What not to do at IIT! is a 2004 novel written by Chetan Bhagat, an alumnus of Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi and Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Ahmedabad. This was his debut novel. It is one of the highest selling English novels published in India[citation needed], and remained on the bestseller list until now since its release in 2004, tied along with other novels by Chetan Bhagat Synopsis

frequently lamenting how the internationally lauded IIT system has stifled their creativity by forcing them to value grades more than anything else. It takes them a while to realize: If you try and screw with the IIT system. who fail to cope with the grading system of the IITs. the domineering head of the Mechanical Engineering Department. It is about the adventures of three mechanical engineering students (and friends). in the period 1991 to 1995. Prof. it takes some dark turns every now and then. On Friendship Rancho. What a masterpiece! More than the entertainment. The movie brought us in a roller coaster of emotions. Hari Kumar (the narrator). considers a friend as a man’s greatest bosom. Veera. Like a well-crafted speech. he would go out of his way to help his friends and his friends’ families. they are at the lowest echelons of IIT society. especially when it comes to the families of the protagonists. When you see an extraordinary student. the lead star. whereas Alok and Hari are mildly cry babies. the new fluid mechanics professor. Insights In the beginning of the movie. as well as a letter by Hari's girlfriend Neha Cherian. it comes back to double screw you. it made Farhan and Raju cry.The novel is set in the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. takes place inside the campus as the boys. There were a couple of scenes in the movie where he put his friends’ needs before his needs. The book is narrated in the first person by Hari. even if this could endanger his life. Ryan Oberoi. And while they try to make amends. Like a true friend. Then there were parts when we cried a bit. it made you cry too. A few minutes into watching and my brother and I were laughing out so loud. led by the ever creative Ryan. He taught Farjan to pursue his real passion in Wildlife photography and Raju to face his fear of failure. though the boys do find a sympathizer in Prof. And I bet if you watched the movie. On Success . His former professor told him. Cherian. 3 Idiots challenged our minds. The three hostelmates – Alok. Viru showed the class a very special pen which was given to him by his former professor several years back. Uninspiring teaching and numerous assignments add to their woes. Despite his super bubbly nature. They have a five-point-something GPA out of ten. however. 3 Idiots taught me profound lessons on some of the most important aspects of life. and Alok Gupta. whose elation on making it to one of the best engineering colleges in India is quickly deflated by the rigor and monotony of academic work. It deals with the lives of the three friends. ranking near the bottom of their classes. Before they know it. Their most important attempt was "C2D" (Cooperate to Dominate). Most of the action. with some small passages by his friends Ryan and Alok. Ryan is a bit smart and outspoken. things only get worse. and definitely tickled our funny bones. Papa had to hush us as it was already past 10pm and we might disturb our neighbors. Hari and Ryan get off to a bad start in IIT – they screw up the first class quiz. While the tone of the novel is humorous. then laughed again. It made me and my brother cry as well. he touched his friends in a very deep way. Most of the book deals with the numerous attempts by the trio to cope with and/or beat the system as well as Hari's fling with Neha who just happens to be the daughter of Prof. give it to him. touched our hearts.

There was a scene when Prof. I was teaching you how to teach. This was because Farhan was so good at Wildlife Photography. I am taking baby steps towards making that a reality. Viru’s rage. Scared of the future. What’s the use of such methods even if you come first? Will your knowledge increase? No. Again. In fact. When you were asked to define the two words. “I love engineering. Rancho was in front of his classmates and two professors. Cause you’re a coward. Indeed. He manifested this in his own special way as shown in the latter part of the movie. which he lived by.” He further said.. Rancho was such a clever. Rancho said it very well. Quit Engineering. I share Rancho’s view on education.ancho always tops the exams. No one was able to answer. Rancho believes that by changing the educational system. his words pierced my heart. Make your passion your profession. Follow your talent. I just invented the words. He questioned the educational system. not affluent. and he wrote two words in the blackboard. He challenged Rancho to define the two words. Viru furious. I was not trying to teach Engineering. Rancho studied for the love of it. how’ll you live today? How’ll you focus in your studies? Go live your life. And so I decided to adopt his mantra “Make your passion your profession. we can change the world. Study with all your heart. He said this because after the term. not a pressure cooker. With such fear of tomorrow. yet. He said the system highlights grades and jobs instead of ideas and inventions. Rancho said. He said. his competitor.” Everyday. He looked at the big book the class prof was using. It’s a dynamic classroom that educates and empowers us to . These were some of Rancho’s favorite lines. He said that grades create a divide — A Graders = Masters and C graders = Slaves. Raju then asked Rancho how come he (Raju) doesn’t excel even if he studies hard. not just for grades. Marry photography. Then ha gave everyone 30 seconds to define the words. curious? Thrilled that you’ll learn something new? No. So true. all anticipating his move. It’s my passion. You all got into frantic race. On Education As opposed to Chatur. Then Rancho said. And off he ran to escape from Prof. Study to be accomplished. were you excited. their class would have a class picture and those who excel would sit in front (where Rancho usually sits being the class topnotcher and those who have the lowest grades sit at the back (where his friends Raju and Rancho usually sit). This is college. This was one of the many reasons why I was glued to the movie. This made Prof. learning should be exciting and inspiring! This is actually the tagline of Seminar Philippines. Rancho also questioned the grading system. he’s taking up Engineering because it was his parents’ dream for him to become an Engineer.Follow excellence and success will chase you. Rancho’s answer was simple. Viru really mad. When asked by his friend Farhan how come he always excels. this made Prof. Just the pressure. Viru dragged Rancho to an ongoing class and put him on the spot. he didn’t see Chatur as a competitor.

and percentages in standard nines. when a problem bugs you. Viru gave the “pen” to Rancho towards the end of the term. Even Chatur who competed wildly against Rancho bowed down to him towards the end of the movie.[1] A statistician is someone who is particularly well-versed in the ways of thinking necessary to successfully apply statistical analysis. Statistics Statistics is the study of the collection. Scope Some consider statistics a mathematical body of science that pertains to the collection. Viru. Always remember. interpretation. More probability density is found the closer one gets to the expected (mean) value in a normal distribution. A discipline called mathematical statistics studies statistics mathematically. Such people often gain experience through working in any of a wide number of fields. movies. etc. analysis. put your hand in your heart and say “All is well. which I dare not reveal in this post for the benefit of those who haven’t watched it yet.” Have you watched 3 Idiots? Share us your insights by leaving a comment below. interviews.[1][2] It deals with all aspects of this. with some exciting twists. We learn not just in classrooms. T-scores. The movie was beautifully crafted.achieve the kind of life we want. Though Rancho’s ways and beliefs were unconventional and he was always scolded by Prof. organization. and presentation of data. Statistics used in standardized testing assessment are shown.[5] while . interpretation or explanation. The scales include standard deviations. Zscores. and presentation of data. is singular. as in "Statistics is an art. but also through seminars. Pursuing one’s passion is not easy.If you haven’t watched it yet. including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. Prof. when referring to the scientific discipline. books. his passion and his good nature were so vibrant."[3] This should not be confused with the word statistic. cumulative percentages. it’s highly recommended. standard nines.[4] whose plural is statistics ("this statistic seems wrong" or "these statistics are misleading"). analysis. percentile equivalents. referring to a quantity (such as mean or median) calculated from a set of data. We’ll encounter so many setbacks. The word statistics.

data patterns may be modeled in a way that accounts for randomness and uncertainty in the observations. This is particularly useful in communicating the results of experiments and research. ordinances. statistics is usually considered a distinct mathematical science rather than a branch of mathematics. commerce. Because of its empirical roots and its focus on applications. Statistical inference. In addition. education. Statistics is applicable to a wide variety of academic disciplines. History Main articles: History of statistics and Founders of statistics Statistical methods date back at least to the 5th century BC. roughly. The difference is. with the publication of Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality by John Graunt. but also various aspects of computational statistics and the design of experiments. The scope of the discipline of statistics broadened in the early 19th century to include the collection . according to the Saudi engineer Ibrahim Al-Kadi.[7][8] Much of statistics is non-mathematical: ensuring that data collection is undertaken in a way that produces valid conclusions. The earliest known writing on statistics appears in a 9th century book entitled Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages. with which it is often grouped. and has been described as the first introduction of statistics as a positive element in history. "Applied statistics" comprises descriptive statistics and the application of inferential statistics. Al-Kindi provides a detailed description of how to use statistics and frequency analysis to decipher encrypted messages. that probability theory starts from the given parameters of a total population to deduce probabilities that pertain to samples. including natural and social sciences.[13] Early applications of statistical thinking revolved around the needs of states to base policy on demographic and economic data. government. This is called descriptive statistics. and religious facilities. a 14th century history of Florence by the Florentine banker and official Giovanni Villani. as part of the scientific method.etymology. Statisticians improve data quality by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples. Descriptive statistics and analysis of the new data tend to provide more information as to the truth of the proposition. Statistics is closely related to probability theory.[9][verification needed] Theoretical statistics concerns both the logical arguments underlying justification of approaches to statistical inference. hence its stat.[10][11] The Nuova Cronica. moves in the opposite direction—inductively inferring from samples to the parameters of a larger or total population. written by Al-Kindi. as well encompassing mathematical statistics. In this book. and business.others consider it a branch of mathematics[6] concerned with collecting and interpreting data. Mathematical statistics includes not only the manipulation of probability distributions necessary for deriving results related to methods of estimation and inference. Inference is a vital element of scientific advance. since it provides a way to draw conclusions from data that are subject to random variation. however. This was the birth of both statistics and cryptanalysis. Statistical consultants can help organizations and companies that don't have in-house expertise relevant to their particular questions. To prove the propositions being investigated further. Statistical methods can summarize or describe a collection of data. coding and archiving data so that information is retained and made useful for international comparisons of official statistics. includes much statistical information on population. Statistics itself also provides tools for prediction and forecasting the use of data and statistical models. These models can be used to draw inferences about the process or population under study—a practice called inferential statistics. implementing procedures that ensure the privacy of census information. reporting of results and summarised data (tables and graphs) in ways comprehensible to those who must use them. the conclusions are tested as well. [12] Some scholars pinpoint the origin of statistics to 1663.

previously unconsidered phenomenon. A population can also be composed of observations of a process at various times. a chosen subset of the population called a sample is studied—as opposed to compiling data about the entire group (an operation called census)." Dennis Lindley. Thus we do not study the mechanism of rain. with the data from each observation serving as a different member of the overall group. a study of annual income that also looks at age of death might find that poor people tend to have shorter lives than affluent people. it is only the manipulation of uncertainty that interests us. describing associations within the data (correlation) and modeling relationships within the data (for example. business. statistics is widely employed in government. This data can then be subjected to statistical analysis. • Descriptive statistics summarize the population data by describing what was observed in the sample numerically or graphically. it is important that it truly represent the overall population. Its mathematical foundations were laid in the 17th century with the development of the probability theory by Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat. and can also include data mining. Statistical analysis of a data set often reveals that two variables (properties) of the population under consideration tend to vary together. The two variables are said to be correlated. A major problem lies in determining the extent that the sample chosen is actually representative. There are also methods of . they may or may not be the cause of one another. For example. Inferential statistics uses patterns in the sample data to draw inferences about the population represented. estimating numerical characteristics of the data (estimation). accounting for randomness. data is collected for the sample members in an observational or experimental setting. or societal problem. only whether it will rain..) To use a sample as a guide to an entire population. These inferences may take the form of: answering yes/no questions about the data (hypothesis testing). Data collected about this kind of "population" constitutes what is called a time series. called a lurking variable or confounding variable. Inference can extend to forecasting. (See Correlation does not imply causation. Statistics offers methods to estimate and correct for any random trending within the sample and data collection procedures. and natural and social sciences.[14] • ". however. The correlation phenomena could be caused by a third. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all persons living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Numerical descriptors include mean and standard deviation for continuous data types (like heights or weights). prediction and estimation of unobserved values either in or associated with the population being studied.and analysis of data in general. and has also made possible new methods that are impractical to perform manually. Probability theory arose from the study of games of chance. industrial. it is necessary to begin with a population or process to be studied. For practical reasons. using regression analysis). 2000[15] The concept of correlation is particularly noteworthy for the potential confusion it can cause. The use of modern computers has expedited largescale statistical computation. We are not concerned with the matter that is uncertain. as if they were connected. Once a sample that is representative of the population is determined. For this reason.. while frequency and percentage are more useful in terms of describing categorical data (like race). The method of least squares was first described by Carl Friedrich Gauss around 1794. there is no way to immediately infer the existence of a causal relationship between the two variables. Overview In applying statistics to a scientific. serving two related purposes: description and inference. it can include extrapolation and interpolation of time series or spatial data. Representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can safely extend from the sample to the population as a whole. Today.

but serious errors in description and interpretation—subtle in the sense that even experienced professionals make such errors. In both types of studies. In contrast. Instead. Further examining the data set in secondary analyses.experimental design for experiments that can lessen these issues at the outset of a study. to allow an unbiased estimate of the difference in treatment effects. Randomness is studied using the mathematical discipline of probability theory. to suggest new hypotheses for future study. strengthening its capability to discern truths about the population. and randomized assignment of treatments to subjects to allow unbiased estimates of treatment effects and experimental error. The set of basic statistical skills (and skepticism) that people need to deal with information in their everyday lives properly is referred to as statistical literacy. the properties of statistical procedures. [Statistical methods Experimental and observational studies A common goal for a statistical research project is to investigate causality. At this stage. Each can be very effective. Documenting and presenting the results of the study. Even when statistical techniques are correctly applied. the effect of differences of an independent variable (or variables) on the behavior of the dependent variable are observed. the results can be difficult to interpret for those lacking expertise. The statistical significance of a trend in the data —which measures the extent to which a trend could be caused by random variation in the sample—may or may not agree with an intuitive sense of its significance. using the following information: preliminary estimates regarding the size of treatment effects. Statisticians recommend that experiments compare (at least) one new treatment with a standard treatment or control. Performing the experiment following the experimental protocol and analyzing the data following the experimental protocol. and serious in the sense that they can lead to devastating decision errors. data are gathered and correlations between predictors and response are investigated. The difference between the two types lies in how the study is actually conducted. 3. "statistical theory") to study the sampling distributions of sample statistics and. Planning the research. The famous Hawthorne study examined changes to the working environment at the Hawthorne plant of the Western . 5. The use of any statistical method is valid when the system or population under consideration satisfies the assumptions of the method. For instance. and then taking additional measurements using the same procedure to determine if the manipulation has modified the values of the measurements. including finding the number of replicates of the study. and the reliability of structures like bridges all rely on the proper use of statistics. medical practice. more generally. using blocking to reduce the influence of confounding variables. an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation. and the estimated experimental variability. See below for further discussion. social policy. and in particular to draw a conclusion on the effect of changes in the values of predictors or independent variables on dependent variables or response. alternative hypotheses. Experiments The basic steps of a statistical experiment are: 1. Experiments on human behavior have special concerns. Probability is used in "mathematical statistics" (alternatively. Misuse of statistics can produce subtle. the experimenters and statisticians write the experimental protocol that shall guide the performance of the experiment and that specifies the primary analysis of the experimental data. 4. manipulating the system. Design of experiments. An experimental study involves taking measurements of the system under study. Consideration of the selection of experimental subjects and the ethics of research is necessary. 2. There are two major types of causal statistical studies: experimental studies and observational studies.

the study is heavily criticized today for errors in experimental procedures. The researchers first measured the productivity in the plant. It turned out that productivity indeed improved (under the experimental conditions). ordinal. due to their numerical nature. However. [citation needed] Interval measurements have meaningful distances between measurements defined. which tests for type II errors. but merely that the evidence was insufficient to convict. but have a meaningful order to those values.[16] Each of these have different degrees of usefulness in statistical research. The indictment comes because of suspicion of the guilt. However. asserts that the defendant is guilty. the researchers would collect observations of both smokers and non-smokers. The best illustration for a novice is the predicament encountered by a jury trial. Because variables conforming only to nominal or ordinal measurements cannot be reasonably measured numerically. whereas ratio and interval measurements are grouped together as quantitative variables. H1. In this case. but the zero value is arbitrary (as in the case with longitude and temperature measurements in Celsius or Fahrenheit). Ordinal measurements have imprecise differences between consecutive values. Nominal measurements have no meaningful rank order among values."failure to reject H0" in this case does not imply innocence. sometimes they are grouped together as categorical variables. H0. and then look for the number of cases of lung cancer in each group. [Levels of measurement Main article: Levels of measurement There are four main levels of measurement used in statistics: nominal. worker productivity) changed due to observation itself. which can be either discrete or continuous. [edit] Key terms used in statistics [edit] Null hypothesis Interpretation of statistical information can often involve the development of a null hypothesis in that the assumption is that whatever is proposed as a cause has no effect on the variable being measured. and ratio. asserts that the defendant is innocent. The Hawthorne effect refers to finding that an outcome (in this case. The H0 (status quo) stands in opposition to H 1 and is maintained unless H1 is supported by evidence"beyond a reasonable doubt". whereas the alternative hypothesis. [citation needed] ] Observational study An example of an observational study is one that explores the correlation between smoking and lung cancer. This type of study typically uses a survey to collect observations about the area of interest and then performs statistical analysis. then modified the illumination in an area of the plant and checked if the changes in illumination affected productivity. While one can not "prove" a null hypothesis one can test how close it is to being true with a power test. Those in the Hawthorne study became more productive not because the lighting was changed but because they were being observed. [edit] Error Working from a null hypothesis two basic forms of error are recognized: • Type I errors where the null hypothesis is falsely rejected giving a "false positive". perhaps through a case-control study. they provide the greatest flexibility in statistical methods that can be used for analyzing the data. So the jury does not necessarily accept H0 but fails to reject H0. .Electric Company. The researchers were interested in determining whether increased illumination would increase the productivity of the assembly line workers. The null hypothesis. Ratio measurements have both a meaningful zero value and the distances between different measurements defined. specifically for the lack of a control group and blindness. interval.

such a claim does not even make sense. such that the drug is unlikely to help the patient noticeably. but other important types of errors (e. Any estimates obtained from the sample only approximate the population value. From the frequentist perspective. if the sampling and analysis were repeated under the same conditions (yielding a different dataset). in a large study of a drug it may be shown that the drug has a statistically significant but very small beneficial effect. the probability is 95% that the yet-to-be-calculated interval will cover the true value: at this point. that is as a Bayesian probability. One approach that does yield an interval that can be interpreted as having a given probability of containing the true value is to use a credible interval from Bayesian statistics: this approach depends on a different way of interpreting what is meant by "probability". Formally. it is true that. A difference that is highly statistically significant can still be of no practical significance. Criticisms arise because the hypothesis testing approach forces one hypothesis (the null hypothesis) to be "favored. The p-value. does not indicate the size of the effect." and can also seem to exaggerate the importance of minor differences in large studies. before any data are sampled and given a plan for how to construct the confidence interval. [edit] Examples Some well-known statistical tests and procedures are: • Analysis of variance (ANOVA) . blunder. a 95% confidence interval for a value is a range where. Many statistical methods seek to minimize the mean-squared error. (See also criticism of hypothesis testing. This does not imply that the probability that the true value is in the confidence interval is 95%. such as the sample or population mean. but it is possible to properly formulate tests in account for this. the limits of the interval are yet-to-be-observed random variables. they describe both the size of the effect and the uncertainty surrounding it.g. the interval would include the true (population) value 95% of the time. as the true value is not a random variable. [edit] Significance Statistics rarely give a simple Yes/No type answer to the question asked of them. A better and increasingly common approach is to report confidence intervals. Referring to statistical significance does not necessarily mean that the overall result is significant in real world terms. Confidence intervals allow statisticians to express how closely the sample estimate matches the true value in the whole population.) One response involves going beyond reporting only the significance level to include the p-value when reporting whether a hypothesis is rejected or accepted. Interpretation often comes down to the level of statistical significance applied to the numbers and often refers to the probability of a value accurately rejecting the null hypothesis (sometimes referred to as the p-value). however. For example. [edit] Interval estimation Main article: Interval estimation Most studies only sample part of a population . Often they are expressed as 95% confidence intervals. such as when an analyst reports incorrect units) can also be important. However.• Type II errors where the null hypothesis fails to be rejected and an actual difference between populations is missed giving a false negative. so results don't fully represent the whole population. and these are called "methods of least squares.. Many of these errors are classified as random (noise) or systematic (bias). Although these are produced from the same calculations as those of hypothesis tests or p-values. Error also refers to the extent to which individual observations in a sample differ from a central value. Either the true value is or is not within the given interval." Measurement processes that generate statistical data are also subject to error.

Level of measurement From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Levels of measurement) Jump to: navigation. particularly baseball and cricket Statistics form a key basis tool in business and manufacturing as well. In these roles. Some fields of inquiry use applied statistics so extensively that they have specialized terminology. computational sociology. It is used to understand measurement systems variability. sociology and social research. specifically in Spatial analysis Image processing Psychological statistics Reliability engineering Social statistics In addition. it is a key tool. for summarizing data. computational biology. social science. network biology. control processes (as in statistical process control or SPC). search . there are particular types of statistical analysis that have also developed their own specialised terminology and methodology: • • • • • • • • Bootstrap & Jackknife Resampling Multivariate statistics Statistical classification Statistical surveys Structured data analysis (statistics) Structural equation modelling Survival analysis Statistics in various sports. and to make data-driven decisions.• • • • • • • • • • Chi-squared test Correlation Factor analysis Mann–Whitney U Mean square weighted deviation (MSWD) Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient Regression analysis Spearman's rank correlation coefficient Student's t-test Time series analysis [edit] Specialized disciplines Main article: List of fields of application of statistics Statistical techniques are used in a wide range of types of scientific and social research. including: biostatistics. and perhaps the only reliable tool. These disciplines include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Actuarial science (assesses risk in the insurance and finance industries) Applied information economics Biostatistics Business statistics Chemometrics (for analysis of data from chemistry) Data mining (applying statistics and pattern recognition to discover knowledge from data) Demography Econometrics Energy statistics Engineering statistics Epidemiology Geography and Geographic Information Systems.

and ratio. The concept of scale types later received the mathematical rigour that it lacked at its inception with the work of mathematical psychologists Theodore Alper (1985. interval. "interval" and "ratio". Subsequent research has given meaning to this assertion.In statistics and quantitative research methodology. Stanley Smith Stevens' typology # Scale type Logical/math operations allowed Examples: name values) Dichotomous: 1 Nomin al =/≠ Gender (male vs. +/− l AD) +90° to −90°) BC 2013 Arithmetic Mean Latitude (from Quantitative . As Luce (1997.[1] In that article. Stevens claimed that all measurement in science was conducted using four different types of scales that he called "nominal". levels of measurement or scales of measure are types of data that arise in the theory of scale types developed by the psychologist Stanley Smith Stevens. ugly) Non-dichotomous: Opinion ('complet ely agree'/ 'mostly agree'/ 'mostly disagree'/ 'complet ely disagree') Date (from to Median Qualitative 9999 Interva 3 =/≠ . 1951. 1987). The types are nominal. false). Truth (true vs. Stevens (1946. ordinal. b) and R. Beauty (beautiful 2 Ordinal =/≠ . 395) stated: S. 1975) claimed that what counted was having an interval or ratio scale. Health (healthy sick). </> vs. 1987. Louis Narens (1981a. unifying both qualitative (which are described by his "nominal" type) and quantitative (to a different degree. Typology Stevens proposed his typology in a 1946 Science article titled "On the theory of scales of measurement". "ordinal". Duncan Luce (1986. </> . p. the only sensible meaning for 'rule' is empirically testable laws about the attribute. S. Mode Qualitative Variable (data Measure of Qualitative central Quantitative tendency or female) Non-dichotomous: Nationality (American/Chinese/etc) Dichotomous: vs. 2001). all the rest of his scales). but given his attempts to invoke scale type ideas it is doubtful if he understood it himself… no measurement theorist I know accepts Stevens' broad definition of measurement… in our view.

the mean (or average) as the measure of central tendency is not allowed. Examples include temperature with the Celsius scale. is allowed as the measure of central tendency for the nominal type. In particular. 1968. on one hand. Interval type variables are sometimes also called "scaled variables". but the formal mathematical term is an affine space (in this case an affine line). 2003. biological species. Ordinal scale The ordinal type allows for rank order (1st. Examples include gender. However. nationality. for example. makes no sense for the nominal type of data since ranking is not allowed for the nominal type. in which all scores are meaningful for comparison only. but they can be used to get ideas for how to improve operationalization of variables used in questionnaires. and date when measured from an arbitrary epoch (such as AD). the most common item. 2005). middle-ranked. Ratios are not allowed since 20°C cannot be said to be "twice as hot" as 10°C. and a 10-point difference may carry different meanings at different points of the scale. i. Most psychological data collected by psychometric instruments and tests. . dichotomous data with dichotomous (or dichotomized) values such as 'sick' vs. however.e. measuring cognitive and other abilities. sometimes also called the qualitative type. the median. 'completely disagree' when measuring opinion. +/− . item is allowed as the measure of central tendency. but not the ratio between them. visual pattern. differentiates between items or subjects based only on their names and/or (meta-)categories and other qualitative classifications they belong to. i. In 1946. such as 'completely agree'. 'mostly disagree'.. 'innocent' when making judgments in courts. Michell. Cliff & Keats. thus means and standard deviations have no validity. on the other hand. 'mostly agree'. non-dichotomous data consisting of a spectrum of values. Lord & Novick. 1996. On the other hand. language. i. usually operates on ordinal scales. 2008). However.[2] IQ scores reflect an ordinal scale. ethnicity. there is little prima facie evidence to suggest that such attributes are anything more than ordinal (Cliff. ratios of differences can be expressed.e. but still does not allow for relative degree of difference between them. the middle-ranked item. 'guilty' vs. genre. von Eye. are of the interval type. such as measurement of opinions.4 Ratio =/≠ . one difference can be twice another. ×/÷ years) Age (from to 0 Geometric 99 Mean Quantitative Nominal scale The nominal type. and form (gestalt).e. Central tendency The median. The mode is allowed.[3][4][5] There is no absolute zero. 'healthy' when measuring health. 'wrong/false' vs. and. Central tendency The mode. Stevens observed that psychological measurement.. </> . etc) by which data can be sorted. 3rd. [6][7] Interval scale The interval type allows for the degree of difference between items. although some theoreticians have argued they can be treated as being of the ratio type (e.. 2nd.g. nor can multiplication/division be carried out between any two dates directly. style. Examples include. 'right/true' when measuring truth value.

which is equal to −273. in addition to the mode. Further progress was made by Georg Rasch (1960). interval scale statistics such as means can meaningfully be used on ordinal scale variables. Statistical analysis software such as PSPP requires the user to select the appropriate measurement class for each variable. energy and electric charge. and the "permissible transformation" is any number for any other. some argue that so long as the unknown interval difference between ordinal scale ranks is not too variable. Most measurement in the physical sciences and engineering is done on ratio scales. Thus. length. Thurstone made progress toward developing a justification for obtaining the interval type. 1986). one cannot define measures that require a ratio. which is (the square root of) a central moment. but Stevens (1975) said of his own definition of measurement that "the assignment can be any consistent rule. The Kelvin temperature scale has a non-arbitrary zero point of absolute zero. A common application of the law is the analytic hierarchy process. Since one cannot divide. unlike the standard deviation. for randomness amounts in effect to a nonrule". since the mean is a moment about the origin.Central tendency and statistical dispersion The mode. anyway. duration. particularly in the cases of the nominal and ordinal types (Michell. since ratios of differences are meaningful. Informally. The only rule not allowed would be random assignment. L. median. applications of measurement models in educational contexts often indicate that total scores have a fairly linear relationship with measurements across the range of an assessment. who developed the probabilistic Rasch model that provides a theoretical basis and justification for obtaining interval-level measurements from counts of observations such as total scores on assessments. More subtly. such as the studentized range or the coefficient of variation. This is often justified on the basis that the ordinal type in behavioural science is in fact somewhere between the true ordinal and interval types.15 degrees Celsius.[8] Duncan (1986) objected to the use of the word measurement in relation to the nominal type. Many behavioural scientists use the mean for ordinal data. and arithmetic mean. Examples include mass. it is still being challenged by other theoreticians. the distinguishing feature of a ratio scale is the possession of a zero value. it is often of the same order of magnitude. . based on the law of comparative judgment. only central moments are meaningful. For example. 1997. median. This is one of the points made in Lord's (1953) satirical paper On the Statistical Treatment of Football Numbers. and arithmetic mean are allowed to measure central tendency of interval variables. Debate on typology While Stevens' typology is widely adopted. All statistical measures are allowed because all necessary mathematical operations are defined for the ratio scale. since the choice of origin is arbitrary. 1999). but one cannot define the coefficient of variation. The use of the mean as a measure of the central tendency for the ordinal type is still debatable among those who accept Stevens' typology. Central tendency and statistical dispersion The geometric mean and the harmonic mean are allowed to measure the central tendency. L. However. Ratio scale The ratio type takes its name from the fact that measurement is the estimation of the ratio between a magnitude of a continuous quantity and a unit magnitude of the same kind (Michell. . The studentized range and the coefficient of variation are allowed to measure statistical dispersion. plane angle. while one can define moments about the origin. so-called nominal measurement involves arbitrary assignment. while measures of statistical dispersion include range and standard deviation. One can define standardized moments. This ensures that subsequent user errors cannot inadvertently perform meaningless analyses (for example correlation analysis with a variable on a nominal level). although the interval difference between two ordinal ranks is not constant.

(4) Interval. (3) Ordinal. Scale types and Stevens' "operational theory of measurement" The theory of scale types is the intellectual handmaiden to Stevens' "operational theory of measurement". the Nobel laureate physicist Percy Bridgman (1927).340). 1999.[citation needed] despite Michell's characterization as its being quite at odds with measurement in the natural sciences (Michell.[9] in which he introduces an expanded list of levels of measurement to account for various measurements that do not necessarily fit with the traditional notions of levels of measurement. ” That is. is defined as the assignment of numerals to objects and events according to rules (Stevens. and other types of measurement do not fit to Steven's original work. for a total of ten: (1) Nominal. whose doctrine of operationism Stevens used to define measurement. Moyer. 1995. 1981a.b. Stevens' reaction was not to conduct experiments to test for the presence of additive structure in sensations. ” Stevens was greatly influenced by the ideas of another Harvard academic. p. the committee concluded that measurement in the social sciences was impossible due to the lack of concatenation operations. (8) Derived Ratio. the operational theory of measurement was a reaction to the conclusions of a committee established in 1932 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science to investigate the possibility of genuine scientific measurement in the psychological and behavioral sciences. The Canadian measurement theorist William Rozeboom (1966) was an early and trenchant critic of Stevens' theory of scale types. 1938) was an object of criticism: “ …any law purporting to express a quantitative relation between sensation intensity and stimulus intensity is not merely false but is in fact meaningless unless and until a meaning can be given to the concept of addition as applied to sensation. The extended levels of measurement are rarely used outside of academic geography.. (6) Extensive Ratio. graded membership categories. 1946. which was to become definitive within psychology and the behavioral sciences.R. Rogers. 1901). The evidence needed was the presence of additive structure – a concept comprehensively treated by the German mathematician Otto Hölder (Hölder. if Stevens' sone scale genuinely measured the intensity of auditory sensations. 1940. In Stevens' definition. which became known as the Ferguson committee. Essentially. leading to the introduction of six new levels of measurement. for example. in the broadest sense. This committee.). et al. (2) Graded membership. Measurements bound to a range and repeating (like degrees in a circle. etc. we may say that measurement.Another issue is derived from Nicholas R. Campbell (Final Report. (7) Cyclical Ratio. Michell. . p. published a Final Report (Ferguson. 1999). (9) Counts and finally (10) Absolute. 245) in which Stevens' sone scale (Stevens & Davis. but instead to render the conclusions of the Ferguson committee null and void by proposing a new theory of measurement: “ Paraphrasing N. (5) Log-Interval. However. Given that the physicist and measurement theorist Norman Robert Campbell dominated the Ferguson committee's deliberations. Critics of operationism object that it confuses the relations between two objects or events for properties of one of those of objects or events (Hardcastle. clock time. 1989). it is the use of a tape measure that defines length (the object of measurement) as being measurable (and so by implication quantitative). then evidence for such sensations as being quantitative attributes needed to be produced. Chrisman's article "Rethinking Levels of Measurement for Cartography".677). This conclusion was later rendered false by the discovery of the theory of conjoint measurement by Debreu (1960) and independently by Luce & Tukey (1964). p.

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