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Critical reception Unlike the original novel, 3 Idiots received highly positive reviews upon its release.

Subhash K. Jha (film critic and author of The Essential Guide to Bollywood) states: "It's not that 3 Idiots is a flawless work of art. But it is a vital, inspiring and life-revising work of contemporary art with some heart imbued into every part. In a country where students are driven to suicide by their impossible curriculum, 3 Idiots provides hope. Maybe cinema can't save lives. But cinema, sure as hell, can make you feel life is worth living. 3 Idiots does just that, and much more. The director takes the definition of entertainment into directions of social comment without assuming that he knows best."[40] Nikhat Kazmi of the Times of India gave it four and a half stars and suggests that, "The film is a laugh riot, despite being high on fundas [...] Hirani carries forward his simplistic `humanism alone works' philosophy of the Lage Raho Munna Bhai series in 3 Idiots too, making it a warm and vivacious signature tune to 2009. The second half of the film does falter in parts, specially the child birth sequence, but it doesn't take long for the film to jump back on track." [41] Mayank Shekhar of the Hindustan Times gave the film three and a half out of five stars and comments that "this is the sort of movie youll take home with a smile and a song on your lips." [42] Taran Adarsh of Bollywood Hungama gave 3 Idiots four and a half out of five stars and states: "On the whole, 3 Idiots easily ranks amongst Aamir, Rajkumar Hirani and Vidhu Vinod Chopra's finest films. Do yourself and your family a favour: Watch 3 Idiots. It's emotional, it's entertaining, it's enlightening. The film has tremendous youth appeal and feel-good factor to work in a big way." [43] Kaveree Bamzai of India Today gave 3 Idiots five stars and argues that "it's a lovely story, of a man from nowhere who wanted to learn, told like a fairy tale, with the secret heart carrying its coded message of setting all of us free."[44] Other critics gave the film a mixed review. Sonia Chopra of Sify gave the film 3 stars and said "Though a bit too calculated and designed, 3 Idiots is still an ok option for the significant message, interesting cast and scattered breezy moments." [45] Rajeev Masand of CNN-IBN gave the film three out of five stars and states: "Going home after watching 3 Idiots I felt like I'd just been to my favorite restaurant only to be a tad under-whelmed by their signature dish. It was a satisfying meal, don't get me wrong, but not the best meal I'd been expecting." [46] Shubhra Gupta from The Indian Express also gave it 3 stars, stating "3 Idiots does not do as much for me. The emotional truth that shone through both the Munnabhai movies doesnt come through strongly enough."[47] Raja Sen of Rediff gave the film two out of five stars and states: "Rajkumar Hirani's one of the directors of the decade, a man with immense talent and a knack for storytelling. On his debut, he hit a hundred. With his second, he hit a triple century. This time, he fishes outside the offstump, tries to play shots borrowed from other batters, and hits and misses to provide a patchy, 32*-type innings. It's okay, boss, *chalta hai*. Even Sachin has an off day, and we still have great hope." [48] The film has also been highly acclaimed overseas. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds a 100% "fresh" critics' rating based on five reviews as well as an audience rating of 92% based on nearly 20,000 votes. Derek Elley of Variety wrote that "3 Idiots takes a while to lay out its game plan but pays off emotionally in its second half." Robert Abele of Los Angeles Times wrote that there's an "unavoidable joie de vivre (symbolized by Rancho's meditative mantra "All is well") and a performance charm that make this one of the more naturally gregarious Bollywood imports." Louis Proyect described it as a "fabulous achievement across the board. A typical Bollywood confection but also social commentary on a dysfunctional engineering school system that pressures huge numbers of students into suicide." [49] The Korean site Naver gave the film a review rating of 9.4 out of 10. [50] On the Chinese site Douban, 3 Idiots currently holds an average audience rating of 9.1 out of 10 based on nearly 250,000 votes.[51] Five Point Someone What not to do at IIT! is a 2004 novel written by Chetan Bhagat, an alumnus of Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi and Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Ahmedabad. This was his debut novel. It is one of the highest selling English novels published in India[citation needed], and remained on the bestseller list until now since its release in 2004, tied along with other novels by Chetan Bhagat Synopsis

The novel is set in the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, in the period 1991 to 1995. It is about the adventures of three mechanical engineering students (and friends), Hari Kumar (the narrator), Ryan Oberoi, and Alok Gupta, who fail to cope with the grading system of the IITs. Ryan is a bit smart and outspoken, whereas Alok and Hari are mildly cry babies. The three hostelmates Alok, Hari and Ryan get off to a bad start in IIT they screw up the first class quiz. And while they try to make amends, things only get worse. It takes them a while to realize: If you try and screw with the IIT system, it comes back to double screw you. Before they know it, they are at the lowest echelons of IIT society. They have a five-point-something GPA out of ten, ranking near the bottom of their classes. The book is narrated in the first person by Hari, with some small passages by his friends Ryan and Alok, as well as a letter by Hari's girlfriend Neha Cherian. It deals with the lives of the three friends, whose elation on making it to one of the best engineering colleges in India is quickly deflated by the rigor and monotony of academic work. Most of the book deals with the numerous attempts by the trio to cope with and/or beat the system as well as Hari's fling with Neha who just happens to be the daughter of Prof. Cherian, the domineering head of the Mechanical Engineering Department. Their most important attempt was "C2D" (Cooperate to Dominate). While the tone of the novel is humorous, it takes some dark turns every now and then, especially when it comes to the families of the protagonists. Most of the action, however, takes place inside the campus as the boys, led by the ever creative Ryan, frequently lamenting how the internationally lauded IIT system has stifled their creativity by forcing them to value grades more than anything else. Uninspiring teaching and numerous assignments add to their woes, though the boys do find a sympathizer in Prof. Veera, the new fluid mechanics professor. Insights In the beginning of the movie, Prof. Viru showed the class a very special pen which was given to him by his former professor several years back. His former professor told him, When you see an extraordinary student, give it to him. A few minutes into watching and my brother and I were laughing out so loud, Papa had to hush us as it was already past 10pm and we might disturb our neighbors. Then there were parts when we cried a bit, then laughed again. The movie brought us in a roller coaster of emotions. Like a well-crafted speech, 3 Idiots challenged our minds, touched our hearts, and definitely tickled our funny bones. What a masterpiece! More than the entertainment, 3 Idiots taught me profound lessons on some of the most important aspects of life.

On Friendship Rancho, the lead star, considers a friend as a mans greatest bosom. There were a couple of scenes in the movie where he put his friends needs before his needs. Like a true friend, he would go out of his way to help his friends and his friends families, even if this could endanger his life. Despite his super bubbly nature, he touched his friends in a very deep way, it made Farhan and Raju cry. It made me and my brother cry as well. And I bet if you watched the movie, it made you cry too. He taught Farjan to pursue his real passion in Wildlife photography and Raju to face his fear of failure.

On Success

Follow excellence and success will chase you. Make your passion your profession. Study with all your heart, not just for grades. Study to be accomplished, not affluent. These were some of Ranchos favorite lines, which he lived by..ancho always tops the exams. When asked by his friend Farhan how come he always excels, Ranchos answer was simple. I love engineering. Its my passion. He further said, Follow your talent. Quit Engineering. Marry photography. This was because Farhan was so good at Wildlife Photography, yet, hes taking up Engineering because it was his parents dream for him to become an Engineer. Raju then asked Rancho how come he (Raju) doesnt excel even if he studies hard. Rancho said, Cause youre a coward. Scared of the future. With such fear of tomorrow, howll you live today? Howll you focus in your studies? Go live your life. Rancho said it very well, his words pierced my heart. So true. And so I decided to adopt his mantra Make your passion your profession. Everyday, I am taking baby steps towards making that a reality. On Education As opposed to Chatur, his competitor, Rancho studied for the love of it. In fact, he didnt see Chatur as a competitor. He questioned the educational system. He said the system highlights grades and jobs instead of ideas and inventions. This made Prof. Viru furious. There was a scene when Prof. Viru dragged Rancho to an ongoing class and put him on the spot. Rancho was in front of his classmates and two professors, all anticipating his move. He looked at the big book the class prof was using, and he wrote two words in the blackboard. Then ha gave everyone 30 seconds to define the words. No one was able to answer. Then Rancho said, When you were asked to define the two words, were you excited, curious? Thrilled that youll learn something new? No. You all got into frantic race. Whats the use of such methods even if you come first? Will your knowledge increase? No. Just the pressure. This is college, not a pressure cooker. Again, this made Prof. Viru really mad. He challenged Rancho to define the two words. Rancho was such a clever. He said, I just invented the words. I was not trying to teach Engineering. I was teaching you how to teach. And off he ran to escape from Prof. Virus rage. Rancho believes that by changing the educational system, we can change the world. He manifested this in his own special way as shown in the latter part of the movie. Rancho also questioned the grading system. He said that grades create a divide A Graders = Masters and C graders = Slaves. He said this because after the term, their class would have a class picture and those who excel would sit in front (where Rancho usually sits being the class topnotcher and those who have the lowest grades sit at the back (where his friends Raju and Rancho usually sit). I share Ranchos view on education. This was one of the many reasons why I was glued to the movie. Indeed, learning should be exciting and inspiring! This is actually the tagline of Seminar Philippines. Its a dynamic classroom that educates and empowers us to

achieve the kind of life we want. We learn not just in classrooms, but also through seminars, books, interviews, movies, etc.

Though Ranchos ways and beliefs were unconventional and he was always scolded by Prof. Viru, his passion and his good nature were so vibrant, Prof. Viru gave the pen to Rancho towards the end of the term. Even Chatur who competed wildly against Rancho bowed down to him towards the end of the movie. The movie was beautifully crafted, with some exciting twists, which I dare not reveal in this post for the benefit of those who havent watched it yet. Pursuing ones passion is not easy. Well encounter so many setbacks. Always remember, when a problem bugs you, put your hand in your heart and say All is well. Have you watched 3 Idiots? Share us your insights by leaving a comment below.If you havent watched it yet, its highly recommended.

Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data.[1][2] It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.[1] A statistician is someone who is particularly well-versed in the ways of thinking necessary to successfully apply statistical analysis. Such people often gain experience through working in any of a wide number of fields. A discipline called mathematical statistics studies statistics mathematically. The word statistics, when referring to the scientific discipline, is singular, as in "Statistics is an art."[3] This should not be confused with the word statistic, referring to a quantity (such as mean or median) calculated from a set of data,[4] whose plural is statistics ("this statistic seems wrong" or "these statistics are misleading").

More probability density is found the closer one gets to the expected (mean) value in a normal distribution. Statistics used in standardized testing assessment are shown. The scales include standard deviations, cumulative percentages, percentile equivalents, Zscores, T-scores, standard nines, and percentages in standard nines. Scope Some consider statistics a mathematical body of science that pertains to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data,[5] while

others consider it a branch of mathematics[6] concerned with collecting and interpreting data. Because of its empirical roots and its focus on applications, statistics is usually considered a distinct mathematical science rather than a branch of mathematics.[7][8] Much of statistics is non-mathematical: ensuring that data collection is undertaken in a way that produces valid conclusions; coding and archiving data so that information is retained and made useful for international comparisons of official statistics; reporting of results and summarised data (tables and graphs) in ways comprehensible to those who must use them; implementing procedures that ensure the privacy of census information. Statisticians improve data quality by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples. Statistics itself also provides tools for prediction and forecasting the use of data and statistical models. Statistics is applicable to a wide variety of academic disciplines, including natural and social sciences, government, and business. Statistical consultants can help organizations and companies that don't have in-house expertise relevant to their particular questions. Statistical methods can summarize or describe a collection of data. This is called descriptive statistics. This is particularly useful in communicating the results of experiments and research. In addition, data patterns may be modeled in a way that accounts for randomness and uncertainty in the observations. These models can be used to draw inferences about the process or population under studya practice called inferential statistics. Inference is a vital element of scientific advance, since it provides a way to draw conclusions from data that are subject to random variation. To prove the propositions being investigated further, the conclusions are tested as well, as part of the scientific method. Descriptive statistics and analysis of the new data tend to provide more information as to the truth of the proposition. "Applied statistics" comprises descriptive statistics and the application of inferential statistics.[9][verification needed] Theoretical statistics concerns both the logical arguments underlying justification of approaches to statistical inference, as well encompassing mathematical statistics. Mathematical statistics includes not only the manipulation of probability distributions necessary for deriving results related to methods of estimation and inference, but also various aspects of computational statistics and the design of experiments. Statistics is closely related to probability theory, with which it is often grouped. The difference is, roughly, that probability theory starts from the given parameters of a total population to deduce probabilities that pertain to samples. Statistical inference, however, moves in the opposite directioninductively inferring from samples to the parameters of a larger or total population. History Main articles: History of statistics and Founders of statistics Statistical methods date back at least to the 5th century BC. The earliest known writing on statistics appears in a 9th century book entitled Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages, written by Al-Kindi. In this book, Al-Kindi provides a detailed description of how to use statistics and frequency analysis to decipher encrypted messages. This was the birth of both statistics and cryptanalysis, according to the Saudi engineer Ibrahim Al-Kadi.[10][11] The Nuova Cronica, a 14th century history of Florence by the Florentine banker and official Giovanni Villani, includes much statistical information on population, ordinances, commerce, education, and religious facilities, and has been described as the first introduction of statistics as a positive element in history. [12] Some scholars pinpoint the origin of statistics to 1663, with the publication of Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality by John Graunt.[13] Early applications of statistical thinking revolved around the needs of states to base policy on demographic and economic data, hence its stat- etymology. The scope of the discipline of statistics broadened in the early 19th century to include the collection

and analysis of data in general. Today, statistics is widely employed in government, business, and natural and social sciences. Its mathematical foundations were laid in the 17th century with the development of the probability theory by Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat. Probability theory arose from the study of games of chance. The method of least squares was first described by Carl Friedrich Gauss around 1794. The use of modern computers has expedited largescale statistical computation, and has also made possible new methods that are impractical to perform manually. Overview In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or societal problem, it is necessary to begin with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all persons living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". A population can also be composed of observations of a process at various times, with the data from each observation serving as a different member of the overall group. Data collected about this kind of "population" constitutes what is called a time series. For practical reasons, a chosen subset of the population called a sample is studiedas opposed to compiling data about the entire group (an operation called census). Once a sample that is representative of the population is determined, data is collected for the sample members in an observational or experimental setting. This data can then be subjected to statistical analysis, serving two related purposes: description and inference. Descriptive statistics summarize the population data by describing what was observed in the sample numerically or graphically. Numerical descriptors include mean and standard deviation for continuous data types (like heights or weights), while frequency and percentage are more useful in terms of describing categorical data (like race). Inferential statistics uses patterns in the sample data to draw inferences about the population represented, accounting for randomness. These inferences may take the form of: answering yes/no questions about the data (hypothesis testing), estimating numerical characteristics of the data (estimation), describing associations within the data (correlation) and modeling relationships within the data (for example, using regression analysis). Inference can extend to forecasting, prediction and estimation of unobserved values either in or associated with the population being studied; it can include extrapolation and interpolation of time series or spatial data, and can also include data mining.[14]

"... it is only the manipulation of uncertainty that interests us. We are not concerned with the matter that is uncertain. Thus we do not study the mechanism of rain; only whether it will rain." Dennis Lindley, 2000[15] The concept of correlation is particularly noteworthy for the potential confusion it can cause. Statistical analysis of a data set often reveals that two variables (properties) of the population under consideration tend to vary together, as if they were connected. For example, a study of annual income that also looks at age of death might find that poor people tend to have shorter lives than affluent people. The two variables are said to be correlated; however, they may or may not be the cause of one another. The correlation phenomena could be caused by a third, previously unconsidered phenomenon, called a lurking variable or confounding variable. For this reason, there is no way to immediately infer the existence of a causal relationship between the two variables. (See Correlation does not imply causation.) To use a sample as a guide to an entire population, it is important that it truly represent the overall population. Representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can safely extend from the sample to the population as a whole. A major problem lies in determining the extent that the sample chosen is actually representative. Statistics offers methods to estimate and correct for any random trending within the sample and data collection procedures. There are also methods of

experimental design for experiments that can lessen these issues at the outset of a study, strengthening its capability to discern truths about the population. Randomness is studied using the mathematical discipline of probability theory. Probability is used in "mathematical statistics" (alternatively, "statistical theory") to study the sampling distributions of sample statistics and, more generally, the properties of statistical procedures. The use of any statistical method is valid when the system or population under consideration satisfies the assumptions of the method. Misuse of statistics can produce subtle, but serious errors in description and interpretationsubtle in the sense that even experienced professionals make such errors, and serious in the sense that they can lead to devastating decision errors. For instance, social policy, medical practice, and the reliability of structures like bridges all rely on the proper use of statistics. See below for further discussion. Even when statistical techniques are correctly applied, the results can be difficult to interpret for those lacking expertise. The statistical significance of a trend in the data which measures the extent to which a trend could be caused by random variation in the samplemay or may not agree with an intuitive sense of its significance. The set of basic statistical skills (and skepticism) that people need to deal with information in their everyday lives properly is referred to as statistical literacy. [Statistical methods Experimental and observational studies A common goal for a statistical research project is to investigate causality, and in particular to draw a conclusion on the effect of changes in the values of predictors or independent variables on dependent variables or response. There are two major types of causal statistical studies: experimental studies and observational studies. In both types of studies, the effect of differences of an independent variable (or variables) on the behavior of the dependent variable are observed. The difference between the two types lies in how the study is actually conducted. Each can be very effective. An experimental study involves taking measurements of the system under study, manipulating the system, and then taking additional measurements using the same procedure to determine if the manipulation has modified the values of the measurements. In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation. Instead, data are gathered and correlations between predictors and response are investigated. Experiments The basic steps of a statistical experiment are: 1. Planning the research, including finding the number of replicates of the study, using the following information: preliminary estimates regarding the size of treatment effects, alternative hypotheses, and the estimated experimental variability. Consideration of the selection of experimental subjects and the ethics of research is necessary. Statisticians recommend that experiments compare (at least) one new treatment with a standard treatment or control, to allow an unbiased estimate of the difference in treatment effects. 2. Design of experiments, using blocking to reduce the influence of confounding variables, and randomized assignment of treatments to subjects to allow unbiased estimates of treatment effects and experimental error. At this stage, the experimenters and statisticians write the experimental protocol that shall guide the performance of the experiment and that specifies the primary analysis of the experimental data. 3. Performing the experiment following the experimental protocol and analyzing the data following the experimental protocol. 4. Further examining the data set in secondary analyses, to suggest new hypotheses for future study. 5. Documenting and presenting the results of the study. Experiments on human behavior have special concerns. The famous Hawthorne study examined changes to the working environment at the Hawthorne plant of the Western

Electric Company. The researchers were interested in determining whether increased illumination would increase the productivity of the assembly line workers. The researchers first measured the productivity in the plant, then modified the illumination in an area of the plant and checked if the changes in illumination affected productivity. It turned out that productivity indeed improved (under the experimental conditions). However, the study is heavily criticized today for errors in experimental procedures, specifically for the lack of a control group and blindness. The Hawthorne effect refers to finding that an outcome (in this case, worker productivity) changed due to observation itself. Those in the Hawthorne study became more productive not because the lighting was changed but because they were being observed. [citation needed] ] Observational study An example of an observational study is one that explores the correlation between smoking and lung cancer. This type of study typically uses a survey to collect observations about the area of interest and then performs statistical analysis. In this case, the researchers would collect observations of both smokers and non-smokers, perhaps through a case-control study, and then look for the number of cases of lung cancer in each group. [Levels of measurement Main article: Levels of measurement There are four main levels of measurement used in statistics: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.[16] Each of these have different degrees of usefulness in statistical research. Ratio measurements have both a meaningful zero value and the distances between different measurements defined; they provide the greatest flexibility in statistical methods that can be used for analyzing the data. [citation needed] Interval measurements have meaningful distances between measurements defined, but the zero value is arbitrary (as in the case with longitude and temperature measurements in Celsius or Fahrenheit). Ordinal measurements have imprecise differences between consecutive values, but have a meaningful order to those values. Nominal measurements have no meaningful rank order among values. Because variables conforming only to nominal or ordinal measurements cannot be reasonably measured numerically, sometimes they are grouped together as categorical variables, whereas ratio and interval measurements are grouped together as quantitative variables, which can be either discrete or continuous, due to their numerical nature. [edit] Key terms used in statistics [edit] Null hypothesis Interpretation of statistical information can often involve the development of a null hypothesis in that the assumption is that whatever is proposed as a cause has no effect on the variable being measured. The best illustration for a novice is the predicament encountered by a jury trial. The null hypothesis, H0, asserts that the defendant is innocent, whereas the alternative hypothesis, H1, asserts that the defendant is guilty. The indictment comes because of suspicion of the guilt. The H0 (status quo) stands in opposition to H 1 and is maintained unless H1 is supported by evidence"beyond a reasonable doubt". However,"failure to reject H0" in this case does not imply innocence, but merely that the evidence was insufficient to convict. So the jury does not necessarily accept H0 but fails to reject H0. While one can not "prove" a null hypothesis one can test how close it is to being true with a power test, which tests for type II errors. [edit] Error Working from a null hypothesis two basic forms of error are recognized: Type I errors where the null hypothesis is falsely rejected giving a "false positive".

Type II errors where the null hypothesis fails to be rejected and an actual difference between populations is missed giving a false negative.

Error also refers to the extent to which individual observations in a sample differ from a central value, such as the sample or population mean. Many statistical methods seek to minimize the mean-squared error, and these are called "methods of least squares." Measurement processes that generate statistical data are also subject to error. Many of these errors are classified as random (noise) or systematic (bias), but other important types of errors (e.g., blunder, such as when an analyst reports incorrect units) can also be important. [edit] Interval estimation Main article: Interval estimation Most studies only sample part of a population , so results don't fully represent the whole population. Any estimates obtained from the sample only approximate the population value. Confidence intervals allow statisticians to express how closely the sample estimate matches the true value in the whole population. Often they are expressed as 95% confidence intervals. Formally, a 95% confidence interval for a value is a range where, if the sampling and analysis were repeated under the same conditions (yielding a different dataset), the interval would include the true (population) value 95% of the time. This does not imply that the probability that the true value is in the confidence interval is 95%. From the frequentist perspective, such a claim does not even make sense, as the true value is not a random variable. Either the true value is or is not within the given interval. However, it is true that, before any data are sampled and given a plan for how to construct the confidence interval, the probability is 95% that the yet-to-be-calculated interval will cover the true value: at this point, the limits of the interval are yet-to-be-observed random variables. One approach that does yield an interval that can be interpreted as having a given probability of containing the true value is to use a credible interval from Bayesian statistics: this approach depends on a different way of interpreting what is meant by "probability", that is as a Bayesian probability. [edit] Significance Statistics rarely give a simple Yes/No type answer to the question asked of them. Interpretation often comes down to the level of statistical significance applied to the numbers and often refers to the probability of a value accurately rejecting the null hypothesis (sometimes referred to as the p-value). Referring to statistical significance does not necessarily mean that the overall result is significant in real world terms. For example, in a large study of a drug it may be shown that the drug has a statistically significant but very small beneficial effect, such that the drug is unlikely to help the patient noticeably. Criticisms arise because the hypothesis testing approach forces one hypothesis (the null hypothesis) to be "favored," and can also seem to exaggerate the importance of minor differences in large studies. A difference that is highly statistically significant can still be of no practical significance, but it is possible to properly formulate tests in account for this. (See also criticism of hypothesis testing.) One response involves going beyond reporting only the significance level to include the p-value when reporting whether a hypothesis is rejected or accepted. The p-value, however, does not indicate the size of the effect. A better and increasingly common approach is to report confidence intervals. Although these are produced from the same calculations as those of hypothesis tests or p-values, they describe both the size of the effect and the uncertainty surrounding it. [edit] Examples Some well-known statistical tests and procedures are: Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

Chi-squared test Correlation Factor analysis MannWhitney U Mean square weighted deviation (MSWD) Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient Regression analysis Spearman's rank correlation coefficient Student's t-test Time series analysis

[edit] Specialized disciplines Main article: List of fields of application of statistics Statistical techniques are used in a wide range of types of scientific and social research, including: biostatistics, computational biology, computational sociology, network biology, social science, sociology and social research. Some fields of inquiry use applied statistics so extensively that they have specialized terminology. These disciplines include: Actuarial science (assesses risk in the insurance and finance industries) Applied information economics Biostatistics Business statistics Chemometrics (for analysis of data from chemistry) Data mining (applying statistics and pattern recognition to discover knowledge from data) Demography Econometrics Energy statistics Engineering statistics Epidemiology Geography and Geographic Information Systems, specifically in Spatial analysis Image processing Psychological statistics Reliability engineering Social statistics

In addition, there are particular types of statistical analysis that have also developed their own specialised terminology and methodology: Bootstrap & Jackknife Resampling Multivariate statistics Statistical classification Statistical surveys Structured data analysis (statistics) Structural equation modelling Survival analysis Statistics in various sports, particularly baseball and cricket

Statistics form a key basis tool in business and manufacturing as well. It is used to understand measurement systems variability, control processes (as in statistical process control or SPC), for summarizing data, and to make data-driven decisions. In these roles, it is a key tool, and perhaps the only reliable tool. Level of measurement From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Levels of measurement) Jump to: navigation, search

In statistics and quantitative research methodology, levels of measurement or scales of measure are types of data that arise in the theory of scale types developed by the psychologist Stanley Smith Stevens. The types are nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. Typology Stevens proposed his typology in a 1946 Science article titled "On the theory of scales of measurement".[1] In that article, Stevens claimed that all measurement in science was conducted using four different types of scales that he called "nominal", "ordinal", "interval" and "ratio", unifying both qualitative (which are described by his "nominal" type) and quantitative (to a different degree, all the rest of his scales). The concept of scale types later received the mathematical rigour that it lacked at its inception with the work of mathematical psychologists Theodore Alper (1985, 1987), Louis Narens (1981a, b) and R. Duncan Luce (1986, 1987, 2001). As Luce (1997, p. 395) stated: S. S. Stevens (1946, 1951, 1975) claimed that what counted was having an interval or ratio scale. Subsequent research has given meaning to this assertion, but given his attempts to invoke scale type ideas it is doubtful if he understood it himself no measurement theorist I know accepts Stevens' broad definition of measurement in our view, the only sensible meaning for 'rule' is empirically testable laws about the attribute. Stanley Smith Stevens' typology # Scale type Logical/math operations allowed Examples: name values) Dichotomous: 1 Nomin al =/ Gender (male vs. Mode Qualitative Variable (data Measure of Qualitative central Quantitative tendency or

female) Non-dichotomous: Nationality (American/Chinese/etc) Dichotomous: vs. Health (healthy sick), Truth (true vs. false), Beauty (beautiful

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9999 Interva 3 =/ ; </> ; +/ l AD) +90 to 90)

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4 Ratio

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Age (from to

0 Geometric 99 Mean


Nominal scale The nominal type, sometimes also called the qualitative type, differentiates between items or subjects based only on their names and/or (meta-)categories and other qualitative classifications they belong to. Examples include gender, nationality, ethnicity, language, genre, style, biological species, visual pattern, and form (gestalt).... Central tendency The mode, i.e. the most common item, is allowed as the measure of central tendency for the nominal type. On the other hand, the median, i.e. the middle-ranked item, makes no sense for the nominal type of data since ranking is not allowed for the nominal type. Ordinal scale The ordinal type allows for rank order (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc) by which data can be sorted, but still does not allow for relative degree of difference between them. Examples include, on one hand, dichotomous data with dichotomous (or dichotomized) values such as 'sick' vs. 'healthy' when measuring health, 'guilty' vs. 'innocent' when making judgments in courts, 'wrong/false' vs. 'right/true' when measuring truth value, and, on the other hand, non-dichotomous data consisting of a spectrum of values, such as 'completely agree', 'mostly agree', 'mostly disagree', 'completely disagree' when measuring opinion. Central tendency The median, i.e. middle-ranked, item is allowed as the measure of central tendency; however, the mean (or average) as the measure of central tendency is not allowed. The mode is allowed. In 1946, Stevens observed that psychological measurement, such as measurement of opinions, usually operates on ordinal scales; thus means and standard deviations have no validity, but they can be used to get ideas for how to improve operationalization of variables used in questionnaires. Most psychological data collected by psychometric instruments and tests, measuring cognitive and other abilities, are of the interval type, although some theoreticians have argued they can be treated as being of the ratio type (e.g. Lord & Novick, 1968; von Eye, 2005). However, there is little prima facie evidence to suggest that such attributes are anything more than ordinal (Cliff, 1996; Cliff & Keats, 2003; Michell, 2008). In particular,[2] IQ scores reflect an ordinal scale, in which all scores are meaningful for comparison only.[3][4][5] There is no absolute zero, and a 10-point difference may carry different meanings at different points of the scale. [6][7] Interval scale The interval type allows for the degree of difference between items, but not the ratio between them. Examples include temperature with the Celsius scale, and date when measured from an arbitrary epoch (such as AD). Ratios are not allowed since 20C cannot be said to be "twice as hot" as 10C, nor can multiplication/division be carried out between any two dates directly. However, ratios of differences can be expressed; for example, one difference can be twice another. Interval type variables are sometimes also called "scaled variables", but the formal mathematical term is an affine space (in this case an affine line).

Central tendency and statistical dispersion The mode, median, and arithmetic mean are allowed to measure central tendency of interval variables, while measures of statistical dispersion include range and standard deviation. Since one cannot divide, one cannot define measures that require a ratio, such as the studentized range or the coefficient of variation. More subtly, while one can define moments about the origin, only central moments are meaningful, since the choice of origin is arbitrary. One can define standardized moments, since ratios of differences are meaningful, but one cannot define the coefficient of variation, since the mean is a moment about the origin, unlike the standard deviation, which is (the square root of) a central moment. Ratio scale The ratio type takes its name from the fact that measurement is the estimation of the ratio between a magnitude of a continuous quantity and a unit magnitude of the same kind (Michell, 1997, 1999). Informally, the distinguishing feature of a ratio scale is the possession of a zero value. Most measurement in the physical sciences and engineering is done on ratio scales. Examples include mass, length, duration, plane angle, energy and electric charge. The Kelvin temperature scale has a non-arbitrary zero point of absolute zero, which is equal to 273.15 degrees Celsius. Central tendency and statistical dispersion The geometric mean and the harmonic mean are allowed to measure the central tendency, in addition to the mode, median, and arithmetic mean. The studentized range and the coefficient of variation are allowed to measure statistical dispersion. All statistical measures are allowed because all necessary mathematical operations are defined for the ratio scale. Debate on typology While Stevens' typology is widely adopted, it is still being challenged by other theoreticians, particularly in the cases of the nominal and ordinal types (Michell, 1986). .[8] Duncan (1986) objected to the use of the word measurement in relation to the nominal type, but Stevens (1975) said of his own definition of measurement that "the assignment can be any consistent rule. The only rule not allowed would be random assignment, for randomness amounts in effect to a nonrule". However, so-called nominal measurement involves arbitrary assignment, and the "permissible transformation" is any number for any other. This is one of the points made in Lord's (1953) satirical paper On the Statistical Treatment of Football Numbers. The use of the mean as a measure of the central tendency for the ordinal type is still debatable among those who accept Stevens' typology. Many behavioural scientists use the mean for ordinal data, anyway. This is often justified on the basis that the ordinal type in behavioural science is in fact somewhere between the true ordinal and interval types; although the interval difference between two ordinal ranks is not constant, it is often of the same order of magnitude. For example, applications of measurement models in educational contexts often indicate that total scores have a fairly linear relationship with measurements across the range of an assessment. Thus, some argue that so long as the unknown interval difference between ordinal scale ranks is not too variable, interval scale statistics such as means can meaningfully be used on ordinal scale variables. Statistical analysis software such as PSPP requires the user to select the appropriate measurement class for each variable. This ensures that subsequent user errors cannot inadvertently perform meaningless analyses (for example correlation analysis with a variable on a nominal level). L. L. Thurstone made progress toward developing a justification for obtaining the interval type, based on the law of comparative judgment. A common application of the law is the analytic hierarchy process. Further progress was made by Georg Rasch (1960), who developed the probabilistic Rasch model that provides a theoretical basis and justification for obtaining interval-level measurements from counts of observations such as total scores on assessments.

Another issue is derived from Nicholas R. Chrisman's article "Rethinking Levels of Measurement for Cartography",[9] in which he introduces an expanded list of levels of measurement to account for various measurements that do not necessarily fit with the traditional notions of levels of measurement. Measurements bound to a range and repeating (like degrees in a circle, clock time, etc.), graded membership categories, and other types of measurement do not fit to Steven's original work, leading to the introduction of six new levels of measurement, for a total of ten: (1) Nominal, (2) Graded membership, (3) Ordinal, (4) Interval, (5) Log-Interval, (6) Extensive Ratio, (7) Cyclical Ratio, (8) Derived Ratio, (9) Counts and finally (10) Absolute. The extended levels of measurement are rarely used outside of academic geography. Scale types and Stevens' "operational theory of measurement" The theory of scale types is the intellectual handmaiden to Stevens' "operational theory of measurement", which was to become definitive within psychology and the behavioral sciences,[citation needed] despite Michell's characterization as its being quite at odds with measurement in the natural sciences (Michell, 1999). Essentially, the operational theory of measurement was a reaction to the conclusions of a committee established in 1932 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science to investigate the possibility of genuine scientific measurement in the psychological and behavioral sciences. This committee, which became known as the Ferguson committee, published a Final Report (Ferguson, et al., 1940, p. 245) in which Stevens' sone scale (Stevens & Davis, 1938) was an object of criticism: any law purporting to express a quantitative relation between sensation intensity and stimulus intensity is not merely false but is in fact meaningless unless and until a meaning can be given to the concept of addition as applied to sensation.

That is, if Stevens' sone scale genuinely measured the intensity of auditory sensations, then evidence for such sensations as being quantitative attributes needed to be produced. The evidence needed was the presence of additive structure a concept comprehensively treated by the German mathematician Otto Hlder (Hlder, 1901). Given that the physicist and measurement theorist Norman Robert Campbell dominated the Ferguson committee's deliberations, the committee concluded that measurement in the social sciences was impossible due to the lack of concatenation operations. This conclusion was later rendered false by the discovery of the theory of conjoint measurement by Debreu (1960) and independently by Luce & Tukey (1964). However, Stevens' reaction was not to conduct experiments to test for the presence of additive structure in sensations, but instead to render the conclusions of the Ferguson committee null and void by proposing a new theory of measurement: Paraphrasing N.R. Campbell (Final Report, p.340), we may say that measurement, in the broadest sense, is defined as the assignment of numerals to objects and events according to rules (Stevens, 1946, p.677).

Stevens was greatly influenced by the ideas of another Harvard academic, the Nobel laureate physicist Percy Bridgman (1927), whose doctrine of operationism Stevens used to define measurement. In Stevens' definition, for example, it is the use of a tape measure that defines length (the object of measurement) as being measurable (and so by implication quantitative). Critics of operationism object that it confuses the relations between two objects or events for properties of one of those of objects or events (Hardcastle, 1995; Michell, 1999; Moyer, 1981a,b; Rogers, 1989). The Canadian measurement theorist William Rozeboom (1966) was an early and trenchant critic of Stevens' theory of scale types.