# MaintenanceCircleTeam

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March 1st 2009

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Word for the day: EFFICIENCY

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It is quite amusing but a little humorous to have 1 st of April as fool’s day, especially when most of us will be tired of paying hefty taxes and have little money left, for financial year ending March 31 st in this subcontinent, at least. Someone in the past must have thought of having a good laugh after going bankrupt! Well, at the same time it is also a period during which many targets, objectives and budgetary proposals will be set for another financial year. Although financial wizards mutter many confusing jargons, in this newsletter, let us try to understand EFFICIENCY, one of the commonly used objectives in a typical manufacturing unit (for that matter, efficiency can be used in any field). EFFICIENCY: This is one of the most common & widely used parameter for determining how well or bad a single machine, an assembly (or One of the process) line or an entire unit is performing. In very simple terms, definitions of efficiency efficiency – normally represented by Greek symbol η (ETA) – is the as per English dictionary is: “ability to accomplish ratio of (OUTPUT / INPUT). In this simple yet powerful ratio, INPUT or finish a job or task refers to a resource that is expected to undergo certain process and with minimum produce an OUTPUT. Any type of input that undergoes a conversion expenditure of time and process will produce some losses along with output. Under no effort or energy” conditions will output be exactly equal to input. For many practical purposes – like in a production process – the efficiency can also be defined as the ratio of (ACTUAL RESULT / EXPECTED RESULT). Note: In time based calculations, the ratio has to be reversed since actual time will be more than or equal to expected time. Efficiency is usually expressed in percentage. Let us write the formula for efficiency in percentage as: η =(OUTPUT / INPUT) X 100 = ((INPUT-LOSSES) / INPUT) X 100 Before measuring efficiency or declaring a magical number, it is important to understand few points:
Point I
Do you know?

The efficiency is an interdependent parameter that will be affected by all its inter-connected elements and their efficiencies. (Example: an inefficient motor will REDUCE the overall machine efficiency in which it is fixed)
Point II

When more than one activity is involved in the conversion process, efficiency should NOT be measured in isolation. Efficiency of all activities should be considered. This also applies to interdependent departments in a manufacturing set-up. (Example: if stores department does not release required material in time, efficiency of production department REDUCES which actually REDUCES the efficiency of the complete unit in totality)
Point III When a mix of old and high-end machines or process exists in a line, the component with

“least” efficiency decides the “overall” line or process efficiency. (Example: if a high speed robot is installed in a assembly line which has lot of manual operations, robot’s high efficiency will NOT INCREASE overall line efficiency)
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March 1st 2009

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Point IV Efficiency should be a “dynamic” parameter measured regularly rather than a static one that

will be calculated. (Example: in one month, if efficiency for one week was 90% and three weeks was 60%, the average efficiency will be 67.5% only, HIDING one week’s good efficiency) To obtain clarity on these points, let us take a small tour thru the process of an assembly machine producing some sub-assembly component for an automobile. This critical activity has three important components for accomplishing the job (Refer flow chart below): A pneumatic clamping system – This system is expected to clamp and unclamp the component. o Technical Requirements: Air Pressure: 5 to 6 Kg / cm2 ( 73 to 88 PSI); Air Volume: 12 CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute) (0.334 Cubic Meter per Minute) o As per the design, the clamping time is 4 seconds and unclamping time is 2 seconds A stand alone hydraulic power pack – This system is expected to bend and create a profile on the component o Technical Specifications: Pump working pressure: 140 Kg / cm2 (1991 PSI) Required Operating Pressure: 75 Kg / cm2 (1066 PSI) Pump Volume: 20 LPM (Liters Per Minute) (5.38 Gallon Per Minute) Motor HP: 7.5 (5.5 Kilowatt) 3 Phase o As per the design, the total “hydraulic cycle time” is 6 seconds An inspection table – This is a manual process where a quality inspector is checking the produced components referring some dimensional and visual standards and his / her judgment skills. o From past experience it is agreed upon that one component can be inspected completely in 12 seconds At the outset, the total time required to make the component ready for next operation is 24 seconds (sum of all times). Ideally, it should be able to produce 150 pieces per hour. Now, let us build a flow chart for this production process.
Pick the component from bin & place it on the machine jig. Start the process Pneumatic cylinders advances and clamps the component firmly in place. Hydraulic bending tool advances and bends the desired portion of the component Hydraulic profile tool advances and creates a profile on the bent portion of the component

Complete the inspetcion process and store the material for further operation

Pick the finished component and place it in the inspection area

Pneumatic cylinders retract and umclamp the component

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March 1st 2009

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14-15 85 100

The data from production record showed that the “average” output achieved from the process is 100 pieces per hour. When compared to the designed output, the efficiency will be only 66.6% (η = (ACTUAL RESULT / DESIRED RESULT) X 100 = (100 / 150) X 100 = 66.6%). Before investigating further on this, let us take a look at the process log book for twelve hours starting 6AM in the morning to check the hourly outputs and other details. This information was almost same for entire week.
6-7 85 7-8 100 8-9 125 9-10 85 10-11 90 11-12 90 12-13 125 13-14 15-16 85 16-17 110 17-18 125 AVG 100.4

Although output from the process has been less for many hours, it has increased predominantly in three different hours. Therefore, the first objective will be to elevate output of balance hours. A thorough data collection from the concerned personnel and log book revealed few reasons for reduced production.  Pneumatic clamping is operating very slowly  High oil temperature in hydraulic power pack is frequently stopping the process  Inspection delay Let us understand how individual efficiency of each of these reasons influences the overall efficiency of the process. Start with first one. Pneumatic clamping is operating very slowly: For optimum operation, this pneumatic system requires minimum of 12 CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute) (0.334 Cubic Meter per Minute) air at a minimum pressure of 5 Kg / cm2 (73 PSI) to complete process within the rated time. If both of these values decrease, the efficiency of pneumatic system decreases. On an hourly basis, pressure readings were taken from the gauge fitted to the INLET pipe of the assembly machine. Table below gives the values in Kg/cm2 (PSI). The readings were almost same for entire week.
6-7
5.2 (74)

7-8 5.9 (84)

8-9 5.8 (83)

9-10 4.7 (66.8)

10-11 4.7 (66.8)

11-12 4.5 (64)

12-13 5.8 (83)

13-14 5 (71.1)

14-15 5.5 (78.2)

15-16 5.5 (78.2)

16-17 6.0 (85.3)

17-18 6.2 (88)

As you can see from the above table, the air pressure is reduced below the required limit between 9 and 12 hours. Reduction in pressure also means reduction in the volume (CFM or Cubic Meter per minute) and hence the pneumatic system works slower. The production is less between 14 and 16 hours as well, but looks like air supply is not the cause. During these hours, the duration for clamping and unclamping was recorded – using a simple stop-watch – at 5.5 and 3.2 seconds respectively. Now, let us calculate the pneumatic efficiency1 from these values. For the sake of simplicity, we will consider clamp and unclamp time together.
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Important Note: It is quite difficult to measure the efficiency of a pneumatic system directly and very clearly. The efficiency of compressor will NOT indicate the end efficiency of intended pneumatic components. If pneumatic system is designed to perform certain activities, we can calculate the actual total cycle time and refer it to the designed total cycle time for calculation. If a new pneumatic system is installed, it is highly recommended to take all relevant readings initially and store the information for future reference. If you like to improvise this article or contribute or comment please mail us at: feedback@maintenancecircle.com This document contains information for reference only. We assume no responsibility for its implication.

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Pneumatic efficiency, Pη = (DESIRED TOTAL TIME / ACTUAL TOTAL TIME) X 100 = ((4+2) / (5.5 + 3.2)) X 100 = 69%. Since the pneumatic system did not clamp or unclamp within desired time, overall cycle time is increased and hence output is reduced. On further investigation as to why pressure dropped specifically in these time windows, following points were discovered: Limitation I A punching machine located upstream (before) of the assembly machine performs certain operations during this period and is consuming more air – This is a regular activity and cannot be avoided Limitation II Compressor is running fully loaded to meet the sudden demand and it is running very hot – As the temperature of air increases, its density reduces. So, as the compressor starts running hot (beyond specified limits), its output efficiency (CFM or Cubic meter per minute) actually reduces Limitation III The size of inlet pipe to assembly machine is found to be ½” (12.7mm) - The actual inlet size required is ¾” (19mm). As the size of pipe reduces, volume flowing thru the pipe also reduces. For further discussion, let us assume that all components of the pneumatic system are in good, clean working condition. No component level problems exist. All these three limitations should be eliminated to increase the production. Limitation III was immediately eliminated by replacing the specified pipe size. To eliminate limitations I & II, a brain storming session was conducted with and a YES / NO matrix with any readings / remarks was created to explain the situation. This will further help in taking a decision, which we will see very soon. Question YES NO Remark Can the punching machine be stopped to reduce air NO consumption? Is it possible to reduce the air consumption of NO punching machine? Will a separate line from air receiver to assembly The compressor is running fully loaded. So NO machine help? re-piping may not help Is compressor’s capacity sufficient to meet this NO It is short by 12% sudden demand? No budget at this point of time. It is Can we buy a new large compressor to eliminate NO expensive also. Difficult for one more this shortage? year, at least. Is the present compressor running at its full YES It is delivering at 90% efficiency? Is it acceptable to run assembly machine with It has to produce minimum 125 pieces per NO reduced output? hour (could be more, but later) Is the punching machine running 24 hours? NO It runs only eight to nine hours in day shift Which means big compressor is running rest of the Increased power cost / maintenance cost of YES day to support only the small assembly machine?]p compressor / early wear and tear
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March 1st 2009

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Can a small stand-alone compressor be bought for YES the assembly machine?

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A cost-benefit analysis report needs to be prepared considering following points i) Power saving by stopping big compressor ii) Consistent output from assembly machine iii) Return on investment for small compressor

The efficiency measurement at a higher level and further exploration using the above matrix gave a conclusion for this scenario: To buy new small low-cost compressor for the assembly machine, to have long term advantages and avoid running bigger compressor in then night shift. Now let us revisit the list and take up second point. High oil temperature in hydraulic power pack is frequently stopping the process: The hydraulic power pack fixed on this assembly machine uses water based oil. Its temperature must be maintained around 45°C (113°F) for optimum operation. If the temperature rises, oil viscosity reduces and performance of the system decreases. So, hydraulic system efficiency decreases. Oil temperature can rise due to many reasons. Some causes are contaminated or degraded oil, excessive pressure settings, poor heat exchange, and choked filters. If the pump operates beyond required pressure for long time, the oil will be subjected to extreme pressure pulses and its temperature increases. And, the circulating oil needs to be cooled properly – either by air or water or other cooling medium – to maintain a constant operating temperature. On an hourly basis, reading of working pressure and oil temperature were recorded. Table below gives the values in Kg/cm2 (PSI) and Degree Celsius (Degree Fahrenheit) respectively.

6-7
75 (1066)

43 (116)

7-8 74 (1052) 48 (118)

8-9 78 (1109) 47 (116)

9-10 75 (1066) 49 (120)

10-11 73 (1038) 49 (120)

11-12 75 (1066) 50 (122)

12-13 74 (1052) 48 (118)

13-14 78 (1109) 51 (124)

14-15 73 (1038) 53 (127)

15-16 72 (1024) 54 (129)

16-17 75 (1066) 54 (129)

17-18 74 (1052) 52 (125)

From this table, we can infer that the oil pressure is fairly constant throughout the 12-hour observation period and it has remained pretty much same for the whole week. Oil temperature seems to be on the high side always, reaching peak during afternoon between 14 and 17 hours. Between 14 and 16 hours, the power pack was forced to be stopped intermittently to let the oil cool and resume production. In this scenario, even though the hydraulic power pack has a problem, measuring its efficiency is little difficult. Since this problem is reducing machine output, we can consider the PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY as an indirect indicator of power pack efficiency. To calculate, let us consider the realistic output of 125 per hour as DESIRED OUTPUT (Achieving 150 products per hour must be our ultimate goal). Consider it for the two hours when production was reduced due to frequent hydraulic power pack stoppages.
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March 1st 2009

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March 1st 2009

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Inspection Delay: The production output numbers are considered only after inspection is complete. Due to space constraint, the component produced must be inspected continuously to avoid work-inprogress inventory. So any delay in inspection affects “inspection efficiency” and output is reduced. It was observed that between 7 & 8 and 13 & 14 hours the output was reduced due to inspection delay. Since it is a combination of machine and human factor, very discrete measurement of efficiency is little difficult. So, like earlier case, reduced and desired outputs were taken for calculating the efficiency. Production Efficiency, PE η= (ACTUAL OUTPUT / DESIRED OUTPUT) X 100 = (100/125) X 100 = 80% = Indirect Inspection Efficiency A small brainstorming session was conducted to understand the inspection process and following points were recorded: The inspector spends around fifteen minutes between 7 & 8 and 13 & 14 to prepare quality / inspection reports – it was agreed that machine should not run without “on-line” inspection A 100% inspection plan is in place to inspect every component produced Once in a while, inspector also takes additional work of auditing, inspection of other components After a thorough exploration and cross consultation between departments – ideally production & quality – following points were considered to be implemented, as soon as possible.  Since the machine has been producing consistent quality components, 100% inspection can be gradually reduced to a sampling plan, probably starting with 75% and reducing 25% every week till about 5 to 10% sample rate is established  Once the sampling plan is implemented, inspector can utilize the balance time to fill quality / inspection reports without hampering output  To standardize inspection procedure, fabricate special fixtures – like GO-NO GO gauges – to perform repetitive inspections, quicker This small tour of an assembly machine showed us how efficiency can be discretely measured at every level without huge investments or additional resources. It requires one-time and focused effort to establish the procedures. A graphical representation of the efficiency effect in an organization is presented in next page for making the concept a bit clear. If you have had some similar interesting experience, send it to us. Let our friends, colleagues know about it and benefit from it.

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March 1st 2009

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Efficiency is a cumulative parameter which must originate from the subcomponent level, proceed to machine level and eventually end at company level

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Someone said, if some work is done today better than yesterday, then you are already efficient than yesterday. The journey never stops. Good luck……
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March 1st 2009

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TECHUZZLE

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2

1 3 4

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6

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8

Across
1. 5. 6. 8.

EclipseCrossword.com

Leading Generator manufacturing company Leading refrigerating compressor manufacturer Pioneers in electrical products, now in every field - & T? A leading air compressor manufacturer – Name of a city in USA

Down
2. 3. 4. 7. A big German company - makes everything, almost everything. Another generating set manufacturing company - becomes a butterfly later Leading Indian pump manufacturer - brothers? Leaders in brushless alternators - not a ford product

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