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cheil(o), labi(o) stom(at)-, or(o) sin gloss(o), glott-, linguaodont(o), dent-
:-) :-) :-) :-) :-)
Brain Cheek Ear Eye Forehead Head Nose Neck Skull
encephal(o), cerebr(o) bucc(o) ot(o), auri ophthalm(o), ocul(o) frons cephal(o), capit(o) rhin(o), nas(o) trachel(o), cervic(o) crani(o)
:-) :-) :-) :-) :-) :-) :-) :-) :-)
Bladder Kidney Ureter Urethra Urine
cyst(o), vesic(o) nephr(o), ren(o) ureter(o) urethr(o) urin(o)
:-) :-) :-) :-) :-)
Aorta Artery Blood Blood Clot Blood Vessel Heart Vein
aort(o) arteri(o) haem(o), sangui(o) thromb(o) angi(o), vas(o) cardi(o) phleb(o), ven(o)
:-) :-) :-) :-) :-) :-) :-)
Abdomen Arm Breast Chest Finger Foot Hand Rib Toe Wrist
abdomin(o), lapar(o) brachi(o) mast(o), mamm(o) thorac(o), steth(o) dactyl(o) pod(o), ped(o) chir(o) pleur(o), cost(o) pod(o), ped(o) carp(o)
:-) :-) :-) :-) :-) :-) :-) :-) X :-)
Ovary Uterine or Fallopian Tube Vagina Womb
oo(o), oophor(o), ovar(o)
colp(o), vagin(o) hyster(o), metr(o), uter(o)
The following word parts also appear in medical terms.
Word Starch (amylo-) amylolysis
Defintion digestion of starch production of glucose
Sugar (gluco- glucogenesis glycosaccharo-) Potassium (kalo-) Milk (lacto-) kalemia lactosuria
Water (hydro-) hydrocephalus excess of fluid inside the skull presence of potassium in the blood lactose in the urine benign tumour containing fatty tissue instrument for crushing a stone in the urinary bladder abnormal amounts of sodium in the urine a type of fat
Laymen's term beside between bile birth birth, labour black bladder, sac bladder, sac blood body bone bone marrow, both, two bowl of kidney brain brain breast Medical prefix para inter chole natus part melan cysto vesic haemo soma osteo myelo bi pyelo cerebro encephal mamm-, mast-
Fat (lipolipoma stearo- adipo-) Stone (litho-) lithotrite Sodium (natro-) Fat
Laymen's term abdomen above above acros agains against all arm around around artery away from back backward band (fibrous) before before
Medical prefix laparsuper supra trans anti contra pan brachio circum peri arterio ab dors retro fascia pre ante -
cyte buccal paed thrombo col kerat cort hypo phrenic diplo oto aud-. within intestine intestine (part) iris (eye) joint kidney kidney knee large larynx like.chiro -. aur ovi cubitus hyper ocul Medical prefix intra endo enter ile iri arthronephroren genu macro laryngal - ped -. cephalocardio thermcoxa ili Medical prefix stomaor myx myo stric cervictrachelneuro neo thel rhin nares-/nas - crooked. scaly covering deficient diaphragm double ear. hearing ear. bone mucus muscle narrowing neck neck nerve new nipple nose nose. pod pro cholecyst aden gingiva hemi chiro -. forearm excessive eye Layman's term inside inside.behind below post sub - bronchial bronchi-. hearing egg elbow. toe nail fluid foot forward gallbladder gland gums half hand head heart heat hip hip bone Layman's term mouth mouth.broncho - Layman's term cancer cartilage cell cheek child clot colon cornea. face false fat finger. similar carcin - Medical term Layman's term eye facies. looped ankyl - hundredth(100th) centi - . nostrils ophthalfaci pseudolip onych lymph - Medical term chondro cyt -.
lip liver lung lung many membrane menstruate middle milk mind.mens mesolacto psycho- one. lack weight white without woman wrist Medical prefix kilo milli gloss lingua dent odont ad trache salpingoepi hyster metro colp phleb vas angio hydro sebum asthenbar leuko a -. womb uterus. above uterus. womb vagina vein vessel vessel (blood) water wax. suet weakness. single organ outside ovary ovary pharynx pleura of lung pregnant pus mono viscera ecto oophoroovariopharyngpleur gravidpyo - painful. abdominal dys - Layman's term rapid rectum red ribs saliva scaly seed skin skin skull slow small spinal cord spine spleen starch stomach stone straight swelling (fluid) tail tenth (10th) testes thorax Medical prefix tachy procto erythrocosto sial squam semin cut derma cranio brady micro myelo spondylsplen amyl gastro lith ortho edem caud deci orchidthorac - Layman's term thousand thousandth(1000th) tongue tongue tooth tooth toward trachea tube upper. soul labia hepato pneumopulm Poly meningmeno. an gyne carpo - .
sarcoma .scope plastic surgery .lysis -malacia -genic -phasia -stasis .ology . cancer urine Medical term -rrhexis -crine .sclerosis hemorrhage -rrhagia incision -otomy inflammation -itis like.physis Medical suffix hardening .ectomy .uria .desis -ostomy .oid mental disorder -phrenia opening -duct pain -algia pain -dynia paralysis -plegia picture -gram. origin speech disorder stoppage study of surgical fixation surgical opening surgical removal suture. inspection .Medical suffix blood -emia breakdown -olysis contraction -spasm crushing .rrhaphy -phagia -dema -cele -oma . similar .-graph picture.plasty puncture . condition -osis dropping down -ptosis enlarged -megaly enlargement -ectasis fear -phobia finger. toe -dactyl fixation (tissue) -pexy flowing -rrhea Layman's term growth (physical) . stitch swallow swelling (fluid) swelling tumor tumor.centesis Layman's term Layman's term rupture secrete within separation softening source.tripsyc deficiency -penia disease -pathy disease.
 English is the dominant international language in communications. New Zealand. Borrowing Many words in English seem to have a Latin quality to them . It is used extensively as a second language and as an official language throughout the world. that till the end of the 19th century was used by mariners in the Mediterranean Sea. thus formerly it was said that French was the lingua franca of diplomacy. Canada. Occasionally the term "lingua franca" is applied to a fully established formal language. it meant a language with a Romance lexicon (most words derived from Latin which then evolved into early forms of Spanish and Italian) and a very simple grammar. especially in the Commonwealth of Nations. especially diplomacy. or Indo-European itself. The term "lingua franca" was originally used by Arabs to name all Romance languages. in the development of Esperanto. entertainment. as well as in many international organizations. A related concept is that of a Ŗvehicular language. business. The de facto status of lingua franca is usually "awarded" by the masses to the language of the most influential nation(s) of the time. The influence of the British Empire is often cited as one of the primary reasons for the language's initial spread far beyond the British Isles.ŗ for example. in countries such as in India or South Africa. and the United States. a West Germanic language originating in England. the increased economic and cultural influence of the United States led to English permeating many other cultures. chiefly through development of telecommunications technology. the United Kingdom. particularly in the Middle East and Northern Africa. Then. and especially Italian (Arabs used the name 'Franks' for all peoples in Western Europe). education ministries throughout the world mandate the teaching of English to at least a basic level (see English language learning and teaching) in an effort to increase the competitiveness of their economies. aviation. Any given language normally becomes a lingua franca primarily by being used for international commerce.this is because some of them have developed from French vocabulary learnt during the Norman occupancy many . science. Ireland. Modern English is sometimes described as the world lingua franca. and occupations. but can be accepted in other cultural exchanges. Following World War II. Because a working knowledge of English is required in many fields. and diplomacy and also on the Internet. the use of an Indo-European language. A lingua franca is any language widely used beyond the population of its native speakers. professions.English. It has been one of the official languages of the United Nations since its founding in 1945 and is considered by many to be on its way to becoming the world's first universal language. is the first language for most people in Australia.ŗ It is defined as a basic linguistic structure for proposed Ŗinternational auxiliary languages.
butterfly/papilionaceous. Borrowing Many words in English seem to have a Latin quality to them . while others were coined from Latin roots. apparatus. It was the language of a higher civilization. bird/avian. component. and it will be of interest to consider more in detail the character and extent of these borrowings. while the Germanic tribes who later became the English were still occupying their continental homes. carp/cyprine. this new cultural influence resulted in a really extensive adoption of Latin elements into the language. prefixes. fish/piscine. However. and suffixes. . theory. vertebra. worm/vermian. and Latin word elements freely combine with elements from all other languages including native AngloSaxon words. aqueous. Many words were borrowed from Latin. experiment. a civilization from which the Anglo-Saxons had much to learn. ratio. songbird/oniscine. crow/corvine. not just French some of them are now extinct or almost never used. nucleus. structure. Later when they came to England they saw the evidences of the long Roman rule in the island and learned from the Celts a few additional Latin words which had been acquired by them. For several hundred years. formula. Contact with that civilization. machinery. molecule. when Roman missionaries reintroduced Christianity into the island. However. data. Some of the words which entered English at this time are: analysis. incubate. spider/arachnidan. extended over many centuries and was constantly renewed. later religious and intellectual. carnivorous.years ago. corpuscle. not just French some of them are now extinct or almost never used. mechanics. And a century and a half later still. bee/apian. organic. wasp/vespine.this is because some of them have developed from French vocabulary learnt during the Norman occupancy many years ago. at first commercial and military. There were thus three distinct occasions on which borrowing from Latin occurred before the end of the Old English period. Latin was not the language of a conquered people. snake/anguine. the use of Latinate words in the sciences gives us pairs with a native Germanic noun and a Latinate adjective: animals: ant/formicid. Industrial Age The dawn of the age of scientific discovery in the 17th and 18th centuries created the need for new words to describe newfound knowledge. It began long before the Anglo-Saxons came to England and continued throughout the Old English period. synthesis. gull/laridine. atomic. words have been borrowed from many languages. cod/gadoid. words have been borrowed from many languages. Consequences for English As with Latinate/Germanic doublets from the Norman period. they had various relations with the Romans through which they acquired a considerable number of Latin words.
reindeer/rangiferine. There is no transfer from one language to another. nor in what form. physiology: head/capital. and rotund/round. arm/bracchial. through French or another Romance language at one time and directly from Latin at another. ratio/reason. "Loan" and "borrowing" are of course metaphors. finger/digital. army/armada. sheep/ovine. nipple/papillary. foot/pedal. kangaroo/macropine. kidney/renal. Multiple borrowings explain other word pairs and groups with similar roots but different meanings and/or pronunciations: canal/channel. It is not always easy to tell at what point a word entered English. grouse/tetraonine. ape/simian. sister/sororal. in the case of armada). ostrich/struthionine. sole of the foot/plantar. rabbit/cunicular. heart/cardial. cattle/bovine. sun/solar. cat/feline. coy/quiet. marsh/paludal. The first word in each pair came directly from Latin. A loanword can also be called a borrowing. father/paternal. door/portal. brain/cerebral. hair/pilar. edge/marginal. sociology: son or daughter/filial. brother/fraternal. hand/manual. horse/equine. The abstract noun borrowing refers to the process of speakers adopting words from a source language into their native language. earth/terrestrial. ear/aural. deer/cervine. whale/cetacean. Thus we have pairs like fragile/frail. but different pronunciations reflecting changing pronunciation in French. some words have entered English twice from French. goose/anserine. liver/hepatic. and no "returning" words to the source . soldier/military. starling/sturnine. hare/leporine. wife/uxorial. lung/pulmonary. man/human or hominid. blood/sanguine. tooth/dental. with the result that they have the same source. while the second entered English from French (or Spanish. tree/arboreal. mother/maternal. nail/unguial. agouti/dasyproctine. king/regal. other: book/literary. for example chief/chef (the former a Middle English borrowing and the latter modern). water/aquatic. star/stellar. Some words have come into English from Latin more than once. sight/visual. astronomy: moon/lunar. chicken/gallinaceous. leg/crural. chest/pectoral. In addition. because there is no literal lending process. house/domestic. bell/tintinnabulary. mongoose/herpestine. poor/pauper. lips/labial. straight/strait/strict. bear/ursine. sword/gladiate. turtle/testudinian. fox/vulpine. dog/canine. pig/porcine. swan/cygnean. mouth/oral. neck/cervical. light/optical. fire/igneous. wolf/lupine. mind/mental. goat/caprine. bone/osteotic. eye/ocular or visual. tongue/lingual. disc/disk/dish/desk/dais/discus. corona/crown. boat/naval. Major Periods of Borrowing in the History of English Loanwords are words adopted by the speakers of one language from a different language (the source language). town/urban.
To these speakers the word may sound 'foreign'. when most speakers do not know the word and if they hear it think it is from another language. passed into Latin. Presumably the very first speakers who used the word in English knew at least some French and heard the word used by French speakers. they do not reach the loanword stage. they might pronounce the words the same or similar to the way they are pronounced in the source language. if they fall out of use before they become widespread. For example.e. at first with a pronunciation nearer to the French pronunciation than is now usually found. on the other hand. or at least enough of it to utilize the relevant words. but at some point they come to use the word with those to whom the word was not previously known. For example.language. (Not all foreign words do become loanwords. Those who first use the new word might use it at first only with speakers of the source language who know the word. Few Germanic words. and even use the novel word themselves. but often there is an asymmetry. At this point we call it a borrowing or loanword. If they are bilingual in the source language. adopted numerous loanwords from Latin as they adopted new products via trade with the Romans. The community of users can grow to the point where even people who know little or nothing of the source language understand. the Germanic tribes in the first few centuries A. As part of its becoming more . The new word becomes conventionalized. which is often the case. in time more speakers can become familiar with a new foreign word. At this stage. Generally. such that more words go from one side to the other. some speakers of the borrowing language know the source language too. They simply come to be used by a speech community that speaks a different language from the one they originated in. Borrowing is a consequence of cultural contact between two language communities.D.) Conventionalization is a gradual process in which a word progressively permeates a larger and larger speech community. Borrowing of words can go in both directions between the two languages in contact. In this case the source language community has some advantage of power. instances of use of the new word). prestige and/or wealth that makes the objects and ideas it brings desirable and useful to the borrowing language community. However. They adopt them when speaking the borrowing language. the word can be called a foreign word. The actual process of borrowing is complex and involves many usage events (i. English speakers adopted the word garage from French.
ancor butere cealc ceas 'anchor' 'butter' (L < Gr. and continued strongly well after the Norman Conquest brought a large influx of Norman French to the language.familiar to more people. the more it resembles the native words of the language. The source words are generally attested in Latin texts. as there has been in many continental European countries. butyros) 'chalk' 'cheese' (caseum) . because of very similar forms found in the other old Germanic languages (Old High German. in the large body of Latin writings that were preserved through the ages. The following list is a small sampling of the loanwords that came into English in different periods and from different languages. English has gone through many periods in which large numbers of words from a particular language were borrowed. It can be deduced that these borrowings date from the time before the Angles and Saxons left the continent for England. people in the borrowing community do not perceive the word as a loanword at all. the U. In time. These periods coincide with times of major cultural contact between English speakers and those speaking other languages. The original Latin source word is given in parentheses where significantly different. For example. Germanic period Latin The forms given in this section are the Old English ones. Some Latin words were themselves originally borrowed from Greek. the longer a borrowed word has been in the language. It is part of the cultural history of English speakers that they have always adopted loanwords from the languages of whatever cultures they have come in contact with.. and there has never been a national academy in Britain. with conventionalization a newly borrowed word gradually adopts sound and other characteristics of the borrowing language. I. The waves of borrowing during periods of especially strong cultural contacts are not sharply delimited. the Norse influence on English began already in the 8th century A.S.). and can overlap. Old Saxon. There have been few periods when borrowing became unfashionable. Generally. or other English-speaking countries to attempt to restrict new loanwords. and the more frequently it is used.D. etc.
Many of the Old English words that have disappeared were replaced by other words of French/ Latin origin or they are now archaic or dialectal. 85% of the Old English vocabulary has gone out of use. An Old English dictionary contains around 20. oinos) II. On the other hand. The use of prefixes was particularly important in the formation of verbs. The manuscripts that have been preserved allow us to establish the main dialects. Wessex began to enjoy political supremacy over the other countries under King Alfred the Great.g. for-. ecclesia) 'dish' (discus) 'mile' (milia [passuum] 'a thousand paces') 'pepper' 'pound' (pondo 'a weight') 'sack' (saccus) 'sickle' 'street' ([via] strata 'straight way' or stone-paved road) 'wall' (vallum) 'wine' (vinum < Gr. The West Saxon dialect began to be used as a sort of literary language.(negative meaning): to forgo=to give up. to leave mis. etc) The principal means of enriching the vocabulary were represented by wordformation and borrowing. Nevertheless.(some are still ffound in Modern English but they are not as productive as they were in Old English) e. around the year 700 AD. The vocabulary used in this period is almost purely Germanic. miss-. There were four dialects: Northumbrian (Northern Scotland) Mercian (Central) Kentish (in the county of Kent. prepositions. There were several prefixes which occurred with great frequency: be-. the 15% of the words which have been preserved constitute the basic word stock and this is of Germanic origin (auxiliary verbs. On one hand there were differences between the language of the earliest written documents. to forsake=to desert.cetel cycene cirice disc mil piper pund sacc sicol straet weall win 'kettle' 'kitchen' 'church' (ecclesia < Gr. strong/ irregular verbs. with. Old English Period (600-1100) Old English was not an entirely uniform language. a) Word building The main devices were affixation (conversion did not exist) and composition. owing to the hegemony established by Alfred the Great and to the influences of his writings. and the language of the later literary texts. the south-eastern part of the island) West Saxon (in the county of Wessex. for. in the south-west) In the 19th century. languages differed from one place to another.(negative meaning): to misunderstand=to understand incorrectly . conjunctions.000 words of which only a few hundred are not Germanic.
the contact became religious and intellectual. During the roman occupation the linguistic contact was military and commercial. railway steamboat This type of composition was extremely prevalent in Old English as it is in Modern German. The main Celtic borrowings referred to names of places (Cornwall. Dover. Fernsprecher=telephone) b) Borrowings (foreign influences on Old English) Old English was not merely the product of the dialects brought to England by the Angles. the Thames). The situation was different with the second great influence exerted upon English. valley' (few ordinary words. Thames.) 'tile' (tegula) Celtic brocc 'badger' cumb 'combe. Latin and Scandinavian. in the course of its existence in England.g. From each of these contacts it shows certain effects. The contact with the Latin civilization extended over many centuries. Starting with the introduction of Christianity in Britain (597). Apart from this. that of Latin.g. e. Saxons and Jutes. from Gr. This fact was going to facilitate later Latin influences as well as French influences in the Middle and Modern English period. probably because the Germanic conquerors had enough terms to denote the various notions existind=g at the time. These Germanic dialects formed its basis. Carlisle. Old English vocabulary was brought into contact with three other languages: Celtic. being based on selfexplaining compounds (compounds of two or more words whose meaning in combination is self evident). They were the sole basis of its grammar and the source of the largest part of its vocabulary.. Even after the Scandinavian invasion. But. Devon. from which the English had much to learn. apostolos) 'caesar. especially additions to its vocabulary.. London. Cornwall. Avon. Latin was the language of a higher civilization. (e. the influence of the Celtic language on the Old English vocabulary was a slight one. Latin apostol casere ceaster cest circul cometa maegester martir paper tigle 'apostle' (apostolus < Gr.) .Composition was extremely productive in Old English. emperor' 'city' (castra 'camp') 'chest' (cista 'box') 'circle' 'comet' (cometa < Greek) 'master' (magister) 'martyr' 'paper' (papyrus. Latin remained the language of learning. but thousands of place and river names: London.
In the Middle English period. It has been observed that in their development of meaning. there is a visible decline in the use of these old methods of word formation. Endocentric compounds are compounds in which one of the words determines the meaning of the compound. almost every word could be negated through the prefix un-: unable unbold unfriend French and Latin brought some other negative prefixes: Dis. servantŗ .(French): dishonorable In. a) Inner resources are represented by affixation.000 words. Husband originally meant the master of a house. a man to whom a woman was married.g. A consequence of the French .g.g. that is the meaning of the new word is determined by neither of the elements. exocentric compounds began to be used. . words often pursue certain tendencies: .Extention of meaning (generalization) e. Old English had enriched its vocabulary chiefly by use of prefixes and suffixes. Meat had the meaning of any kind of food.Degradation of meaning (a neutral word becomes depreciating in meaning) e. Middle English Period (1100-1500) Middle English vocabulary development is due to the inner resources of the language as well as to borrowings from other languages. It later began to be used with a more generic meaning.(Latin): immovable Composition also lost some of its productive power in Middle English. Its meaning restricted to edible flesh. Many of the Old English prefixes and suffixes gradually lost their productivity because of the large influx of French words. e.Narrowing of meaning (specialization) e.g.g. . three quarters of which are still in use. Starting with this period. Knabe (boy) became knave meaning a young person of loose morals b) Borrowings The greatest number of words come from French and Latin.g. the types of composition began to be diversified starting with Middle English.III. Knight originally meant Ŗboy. On the other hand.Elevation of meaning (the new meaning of a word acquires a higher status) e. it is liable to change. composition and changes of meaning. French has enriched the English vocabulary by about 10. The French influence was strongest in the years 1250-1400. (e. In Old English. pickpurse-nowadays pickpocket) Changes of meaning occurred due to the fact that the meaning of words is not fixed.
state. hit.terms which were introduced in English was the enrichment of synonymy. low. corporal. chaplain. royal (contrast native words: king. princess. thrust. bailiff. clergy. husband. skill. verdict Church abbot. volunteer Cooking beef. lord. defense. artillery. saint. judge. scorch. raise. chapter. count. they. sermon Nobility: baron. call. chattel. but many were no doubt borrowed earlier. skin. thrall. captain. court. plea. larceny. scrub. marquess. baroness. during the period of the Danelaw (9th10th centuries). country. plaintiff. mutton. cake. want. dine. lady. lump. revenue. marquis. navy. rag. pork. prince. friar. blight. earl. gear. by-law. sly. butcher. fry. countess. Scandinavian Most of these first appeared in the written language in Middle English. -thorpe. evidence. take. skirt. anger. fellow. score. hale. prison. sergeant. their. duke. prayer. duchess. sky. give. noble. get. window.marine. preach. -gate French Law and government attorney. kill. company. soldier. wing Place name suffixes: -by. poultry. tax. jury. kindle. ugly. egg. boil. roast. defendent. viscount.enemy. queenly) Military army. crime. sacrament. veal Culture and luxury goods . knight. battle. chancellor. scrape. queen. while the French word has a more formal. doze. them. government. law. parliament. scathe. viscountess. abstract meaning. religion. seat. broil. kick. stew. kilt. salmon. root. clumsy. kingly. The English words are used in colloquial style. jail. scowl. priest. noble.
so a uniform method of communication is . The beginning of the Modern English period are the same as the beginning of the Renaissance in England. art and literature flourised. devout. many of them learned words imported by scholars well versed in those languages. proud. con-. IV. jewel. feign. dance. "climax. oboe. painting. Words for which this difficulty occurs are those in which there were no special sound and/or spelling changes of the sort that distinguished French from Latin. ruby. -ity. Another major influence upon the English language was Greek. diamond. fur. and pre-. During this period.art. chart." and "crisis. bracelet. However. The 16th century was a period when science. Because of their efforts. Modern English Period (16th-20th century) The effects of the renaissance begin to be seriously felt in England. special Also Middle English French loans: a huge number of words in age. The classicists of that time intentionally tried to enrich the English language by borrowing from such classic languages as Greek and Latin. regard. claret. change. as we approach the end of the 16th century we see that English had slowly won recognition as a language of serious thought. Many concepts and discoveries need to be communicated internationally. the study of classics was stressed. mirror. satin. charge. letter. -ant/-ent. -ment. which also occurred during the Renaissance. but science as a whole often uses Greek when forming words to express new ideas. that is the struggle for recognition in the fields where Latin had for centuries been supreme. We see the beginnings of a huge influx of Latin and Greek words. But many are borrowings from other languages. literature. courage. The English language faced a number of problems. the English language now includes such words as "catastrophe" and "lexicon". Sometimes it's hard to tell whether a given word came from French or whether it was taken straight from Latin. as words from European high culture begin to make their presence felt and the first words come in from the earliest period of colonial expansion. clarinet. and "chaos" . -tion. which came directly from Greek. dignity. female. de-. Not only do its different fields exhibit signs of a Greek influence in the histories of their respective vocabularies. Modern science has also failed to escape Greek influences in its vocabulary. -ance/ence. magic. question. sculpture Other adventure. fruit. the most important of which was the struggle with Latin in science and literature. pilgrimage. enamor." which came from Greek through Latin. male. fashion. pendant.
manganese. ectasy. Modern English (1650-present) . hydrogen. However. If one only considers the periodic table of the elements. and platinum. Botany. much of the technical terminology is Latin in form. algebra. epidermis. copper. discus. the SI international measurement system. superintendent. admiral Arabic via other Romance languages: amber. peninsula. magnesium. nitrogen. zenith. A Pediatrician. although using a two-part Latin naming system. deci. algorithm. janitor. gynecology. -ize Arabic via Spanish alcove. ultimate. sugar. anatomy. compensate. uses a system of Greek prefixes to identify the various measurements as powers of ten (centi. and retina are from Greek. almanac. autograph. notorious. owes his occupational name to the Greek παιδός (paidos. alchemy. etc. parasite. iodine. is from Greek: γυvή (gyne) means woman. azimuth. vindicate Greek (many of these via Latin) anonymous. data. calcium. helium. atmosphere. pneumonia. However. at least 183 of them (or about 25 percent) are either Greek or hybrids of Latin and Greek. Even the title of a doctor of female ills. Latin agile. around half are Greek in origin. fictitious. Another area of science greatly influenced by Greek is chemistry. habitual. physician.) When one speaks of anatomy. comedy. critic. abdomen. dexterity. skeleton. Many common anatomical terms. area. previously known as the metric system. excavate. child). coffee V. a doctor who works with children. cipher. and college courses are directly derived from the Greek language. meditate. such as cranium. tragedy Greek bound morphemes: -ism. ostracize. For example. Some common examples include arsenic. deka. disc/disk. occupations. chemistry cannot claim a greater Greek heritage than the science of medicine. catastrophe. kilo. history. tonic. expensive. orbit. saffron. oxygen. capsule.necessary. insane. zero. larynx. A hypodermic needle is so-called because it goes under (Greek hypo) the skin (Greek derma). In a glossary of 726 botanical terms. Many medical terms. a closer inspection reveals that many of these words are Latinized Greek. iris. climax. is also dependent on Greek for many words. orange. gradual. phosphorus.
freight. yacht . barricade. prima donna. brigade. bayonet Other bigot. leak. duo. spumante. nom de plume. scour. fugue. studio. corsage. cupola. yawl. embargo. cachet. bowsprit. canyon. grenade. rouge. spaghetti. chic. mafioso. alpaca. opera. saloon. piano. violin. ghetto. pantaloons. scoop. cruise. Flemish Shipping. cognac. tackle. sequin. cabernet. umbrella. gondola. ravioli. grotesque. broccoli. madrigal. tempo. cavalry. boom. Words from Italian American immigrants: cappuccino. pallisade. viola. sloop. stucco. soprano. alligator. keelhaul. pasta. regatta. faux pas. shock French Canadian chowder Louisiana French (Cajun) jambalaya Spanish armada. still dominated by classical borrowings). ranch. High culture ballet. fresco. taco. coyote. opera. desperado. casino. cannibal. sachet. commodore. torso. adobe. mustang. tornado. niche. chassis. jean(s). mosquito. keel. cameo. industrial/technological revolution. battalion. gazette (via French). quiche. Words from European languages French French continues to be the largest single source of new words outside of very specialized vocabulary domains (scientific/technical vocabulary. vigilante Italian alto. rebuff. garage.Period of major colonial expansion. balcony. zabaglione. splice. mesa. chaise longue. guitar. enchilada. macaroni. bow. skipper. roulet. pump. clique. tortilla. grotto. denim. bouillabaise. smuggle. armadillo. savoir faire War and Military bastion. and American immigration. stanza. salon. arsenal. dock. marijuana. infantry. buoy. reef. zucchini Dutch. motto. bravado. champagne. pizza. sang froid. espresso. linguini. naval terms avast.
etching. oy vey. mart. dreidel. selvage. sketch War beleaguer. czar/tsar. schmuck. duck (fabric). crullers. scum. schlepp. punch (the drink). spiel. holster. nap (of cloth). poodle. curl. dungaree. hex. zeppelin. juggernaut. fuller's earth. knackwurst. loafer. landscape. hamburger. yoga Hindi bandanna. kosher. pretzel. swastika. freebooter. dirndl 20th century German loanwords: blitzkrieg. hausfrau. wiener. lager. shampoo. kibbitzer. klutz. stripe Art easel. coleslaw. strafe.Cloth industry bale. liverwurst. Oktoberfest. thug. dunk. nabob. spool. chutzpah. glasnost. uproar German bum. Scandinavian fjord. cranberry. matzoh. schlimazel. spritz (cookies). stockfish. delicatessen. borscht. crap. knish. kindergarten. mahatma. pumpernickel. quartz. dachshund. waffle Other bugger (orig. Chanukkah (Hanukkah). pinochle. schnook. pastrami (orig. chintz. bangle. feldspar. ombudsman. split (orig. nautical term). maharaja. from Romanian). dollar. perestroika. zwieback. lederhosen. French). (apple) strudel Yiddish (most are 20th century borrowings) bagel. schnitzel. schlep. pajamas. cummerbund. jamboree . kedgeree. gin. onslaught Food and drink booze. noodle. wunderkind. frankfurter. ski. sauerkraut. U-boat. lox. jungle. maelstrom. schuss. hops. furlough. schlemiel. karma. cookie. slalom. vodka Words from other parts of the world Sanskrit avatar. (beer)stein. gefilte fish. goy. cambric. smorgasbord Russian apparatchik. brandy(wine). loot. bungalow. icon. cot. bundt (cake).
vizier. jakir. tamale (via Spanish). giraffe. bazaar. ukulele. caravan African languages banana (via Portuguese). soy. woodchuck (plus thousands of place names. eventually came to dominate. chocolate. succotash. ginseng. Illinois) Chinese chop suey. taboo. moose. The first was by language speakers of the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic family. teepee. chess Arabic bedouin. Nebraska. kangaroo (and many more in Australian English) History of the English language English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers and Roman auxiliary troops from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the Northern Netherlands. sushi. jitters. cannibal. gumbo. canoe. wigwam.S. hammock. dim sum. tsunami Pacific Islands bamboo. hashish. The original Old English language was then influenced by two waves of invasion. juke(box). Texas. The second was the Normans . possum. karaoke. sirocco. gazelle. budgerigar.Dravidian curry. cacao. boogie-woogie. judo. gingham. emir. litchee Japanese geisha. sultan. lute. jitterbug. One of these dialects. chipmunk. goober. toboggan. banjo. salaam. squaw. tobacco. skunk. terrapin. tattoo. zombie American Indian languages avocado. zebra. voodoo. mosque. Initially. myrrh. maize. tea. hurricane. kowtow. reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms of England. West Saxon. gorilla. yam. kimono. moccasin. including Ottawa. potato. squash. Saskatchewan and the names of more than half the states of the U. checkmate. kamikaze. chigger. jazz. didgeridoo. hara kiri. they conquered and colonized parts of Britain in the 8th and 9th centuries. chow mein.. samurai. pecan. mango. sumo. pariah Persian (Farsi) check. Old English was a diverse group of dialects. papoose. including Michigan. teak. tomahawk. tomato. minaret. rattan. ketchup. Toronto. chili. boondocks Australia boomerang. hominy. harem. jujitsu.
table. Angles and Jutes). Further aid was sought and in response "came men of Ald Seaxum of Anglum of Iotum" (Saxons. mile. Vortigern. p. giant. who develop a hybrid tongue for basic communication). mixed languages arise from the cohabitation of speakers of different languages. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. spoken by the Vikings who invaded and settled mainly in the north-east of England (see Jórvík and Danelaw). examples include camp. pin. including the prefix. cook. many of their lexical roots were the same or similar. kettle. kitchen. Wales and Cornwall. chest. Saxons. Later. around the year 449. This Norman influence entered English largely through the courts and government. The Romans also gave English words which they had themselves borrowed from other languages: anchor. Jutes and perhaps even the Franks). These two invasions caused English to become "mixed" to some degree (though it was never a truly mixed language in the strict linguistic sense of the word. street. mint (coin). especially since the Anglo-Saxon language is more similar to Frisian than any single one of the others. Proto-English The Germanic tribes who gave rise to the English language (the Angles. Old English The invaders' Germanic language displaced the indigenous Brythonic languages of what became England. traded with and fought with the Latin-speaking Roman Empire in the process of the Germanic invasion of Europe from the East. mill. In return. cheese. devil. The dialects spoken by the Anglo-Saxons formed what is now called Old English. pound. punt (boat). butter. invited the "Angle kin" (Angles led by Hengest and Horsa) to help him in conflicts with the Picts. inch. who spoke a variety of French. fork. noon. The Chronicle talks of a subsequent influx of settlers who eventually established seven kingdoms. The Celtic languages remained in Scotland. it was strongly influenced by the North Germanic language Norse. linen. Thus. 46ff). Modern scholarship considers most of this story to be legendary and politically motivated and the identification of the tribes with the Angles. known as the heptarchy. suffix and inflection patterns for many of their . pillow. English developed into a "borrowing" language of great flexibility and with a huge vocabulary. Many Latin words for common objects therefore entered the vocabulary of these Germanic people even before any of these tribes reached Britain. wall and wine. The new and the earlier settlers spoke languages from different branches of the Germanic family. dragon. dish and sack.in the 11th century. the Angles were granted lands in the south-east of England. Saxons and Jutes is no longer accepted as an accurate description (Myres. King of the Britons. cat. Frisians. 1986. although their grammars were more distinct. gem. the later Norman occupation led to the grafting onto that Germanic core of a more elaborate layer of words from the Romance branch of the European languages. Cohabitation with the Scandinavians resulted in a significant grammatical simplification and lexical enrichment of the Anglo-Frisian core of English. oil.
The use of Anglo-Saxon to describe a merging of Anglian and Saxon languages and cultures is a relatively modern development. The Old English period formally ended with the Norman conquest. Another example is that of the names for meats. Among the changes was an increase in the use of a unique aspect of English grammar. though substantially modified. who seems to be the person most responsible for the term becoming well-known in modern times. which may have been responsible for some of the morphological simplification of Old English.words. with French remaining the prestige language of government and law largely out of social inertia. which did not exist in French. Various contemporary sources suggest that within fifty years of the Invasion most of the Normans outside the royal court had switched to English. The best-known writer from the Middle English period is Geoffrey Chaucer and of his works The Canterbury Tales is best known. such as beef and pork from French boeuf and porc. comes during the reign of Elizabeth I." Middle English For about 300 years following the Norman Conquest in 1066. a historian born in 1075 and the son of a Norman knight. For example. The introduction of Christianity added another wave of Latin and some Greek words. . from a historian named Camden. Orderic Vitalis. the "continuous" tenses. ox/beef. The Germanic language of these Old English speaking inhabitants of Britain was influenced by contact with Norse invaders. by an unknown poet. While the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle continued until 1154. 14 Dec 2001) "The first citation for the second definition of 'Anglo-Saxon'. likely by one or more Christian clerics long after its composition. According to Lois Fundis. referring to early English language or a certain dialect thereof. by the Norman French-speaking Normans. most modern English speakers would consider a "cordial reception" (from French) to be more formal than a "hearty welcome" (Germanic). English spelling was also influenced by French in this period. The Norman influence reinforced the continued changes in the language over the following centuries. said that he learned French only as a second language. the Norman kings and their high nobility spoke only a variety of French called Anglo-Norman. with the /ζ/ and /ð/ sounds being spelled th rather than with the Old English letters þ and ð. to an even greater extent. when the language was influenced. Fri. including loss of grammatical gender and explicitly marked case (with the notable exception of the pronouns). most other literature from this period was in Old French or Latin. English continued to be the language of the common people. producing what is now referred to as Middle English. The most famous surviving work from the Old English period is a fragment of the epic poem "Beowulf". with the suffix "-ing". (Stumpers-L. A large number of Norman words were taken into Old English. A tendency for French-derived words to have more formal connotations has continued to the present day. sheep/mutton and so on). with many doubling for Old English words (examples include.
but it had ceased to be a living language. his Dictionary of the English Language. Early Modern English Modern English is often dated from the Great Vowel Shift which took place mainly during the 15th century. the risk of mispronunciation is high.English literature started to reappear ca 1200. indirectly through other intermediate language(s). with modern coinages or new Greek. By the time of William Shakespeare (mid-late 16th century) the language had become clearly recognizable as Modern English. and 3. English has continuously adopted foreign words. when a changing political climate and the decline in Anglo-Norman made it more respectable. directly as an immediate donor. In 1755 Samuel Johnson published the first significant English dictionary. As there are many words from different languages and English spelling is variable (to be charitable). English was further transformed by the spread of a standardised London-based dialect in government and administration and by the standardising effect of printing. Anglo-Norman remained in use in limited circles somewhat longer. most notably in the West Country. By the end of that century. especially from Latin and Greek since the Renaissance. GREEK WORDS The Greek language has contributed to the English vocabulary in three ways: 1. Overview . but remnants of the older forms remain in a few regional dialects. 2. even the royal court had switched to English. as an original donor (mainly through Latin and French).
priest from presbyter. the percentage increases. hoi polloi.205. and church from kyriakon. bishop. Unlike later borrowings. which in turn comes from the Greek ἐιαίϜα. either borrowed from or calqued on a Scythian word. about 5% of the English vocabulary comes from Greek directly. One is to count the proportion of distinct words in the vocabulary (type frequency). The English word olive comes through the Romance from the Latin word olīva. The Greek word was in turn apparently borrowed from a pre-Indo-European Mediterranean substrate (see also Greek substrate language). In the 19th and 20th centuries a few learned words and phrases were introduced using a more or less direct transliteration of Ancient Greek (rather than the traditional Latinbased orthography) for instance nous. The written form of Greek words in English Greek words borrowed through the literary tradition (not butter and bishop) are often recognizable from their spelling. Already in Latin. Based on this sample. 13 February 2007 (UTC) Since the living Greek and English languages were not in direct contact until modern times. olive. βνύηπξνλ. a huge number of scientific. Until the 16th century. another is to count the proportion of words in continuous text (token frequency). This must have been an early borrowing. corresponding very roughly to the vocabulary of an English-speaking adult.201. so their English spelling does not reflect its Greek form. Most of the early borrowings are for expressions in theology for which there were no English equivalents. have been introduced with orthography reflecting Modern Greek. Finally with the growth of tourism. A later Greek word. learned tradition. If modern technical and scientific coinages using Greek roots are also counted. which came from a written. the percentage decreases dramatically.93. the few Greek words that were absorbed into English came through their Latin derivatives. some words.One can estimate the contribution of Greek words to English in two basic ways. Still. mainly reflecting aspects of current Greek life. becomes Latin butyrum and eventually English butter.228 22:57.000 words. in intellectual fields and the new science. or from Ancient Greek texts. More recently. there are a few Greek words which were borrowed organicallyŕthough indirectly. then through various vernaculars. we can use a typical English dictionary of 80. coming either through Latin (through texts or various vernaculars). medical. there were specific conventions for . and technical neologisms have been coined from Greek rootsŕand often re-borrowed back into Modern Greek. comes from Christian language: bishop from episkopos (originally meaning just an 'overseer'). again transmitted first through Latin. In the late 16th century an influx of Greek words were derived directly. and so on were transmitted through vernaculars. and about 25% indirectly. To estimate type frequency. since the Latin v reflects a still-pronounced digamma. borrowings were necessarily indirect. Conversely. not the living language. A larger group of early borrowings. if token frequency in typical running text is used.
but usual in British usage. And there are misleading cases: pentagon comes from Greek pentagonon. Ch is pronounced like k rather than as in "church" (e. initial x. schemas or schemata. chth-. demons not *demones. Consecutive vowels are often pronounced separately rather than forming a single vowel sound or one of them becoming silent (e. but some have become productive in English. but not Italian or Spanish). . ct-. In clusters such as ps. colons not *cola (except for the very rare technical term of rhetoric). θ as 'ph'. chaos). If it includes ph or includes y between consonants. which is from a Gaelic word. Usage is mixed in some cases: schema. rh-. phth. If it includes rrh. ps-. but also metalinguistic (Greek prefix. These conventions (which originally reflected differences in pronunciation) have carried over into English and other languages with historical orthography (like French. They make it possible to recognize words of Greek origin. mn-. oedema / œdema / edema. the ligatures æ and œ. or the rarer pt-. tetrahedra. topos. character. pentathlons not *pentathla. pn-. One exception is ptarmigan. or bd-.g. Oedipus / Œdipus / Edipus (rare). the p having been added by false etymology. and give hints as to their pronunciation and inflection. The verbal ending -ηδσ is spelled -ize in American English and -ise or -ize in British English. so we now have not only metaphor (good Greek word) and metamathematics (modern word using Greek roots). hypotheses. it is pentagons (Greek πεντάγωνα/pentagona). and will combine with other stems. In some cases. stigmata. hypothesis. the usual English pronunciation drops the first consonant. The Ancient Greek diphthongs αη and νη may be spelled in three different ways in English: the digraphs ae and oe. haemoglobin / hæmoglobin / hemoglobin. phenomena. so its plural cannot be *pentaga.borrowing Greek.g. x-. or chr-. crisis. Latin stem). tetrahedron. lexicons or lexica. or starts with hy-.at the start of a word. topoi. So Greek π was written as 'y'. it is very likely Greek. pentathlon. "theatre" contrast "feat"). or the simple letter e. νη as 'œ'. but often do not: colon. sth-. The digraphs and ligatures are uncommon in American usage. stigma. or chth. lexicon. In English. Greek prefixes and suffixes are usually attached to Greek stems. a word's spelling clearly shows its Greek origin. αη as 'æ'. crises.is pronounced z. Plurals The plurals of learned Greek-derived words sometimes follow the Greek rules: phenomenon. demon. Examples include: encyclopaedia /encyclopædia / encyclopedia. etc. then it is with very few exceptions Greek.
the first ξ always had the smooth breathing and the second the rough breathing Ŕ ῤῥ Ŕ leading to the transiliteration rrh. and a smooth breathing Ŕ ἀ ἐ ἠ ἰ ὀ ὐ ὠ Ŕ indicates the absence of an h. For a fuller discussion of these matters. see the Greek alphabet. The letter rho (ξ) at the start of a word always had the rough breathing Ŕ ῥ Ŕ and is transliterated rh.There are considerable differences between the various transliterations used to represent the Greek alphabet in English. The table in the sidebar shows: the "traditional" transliteration. An initial upsilon (π) always had the rough breathing Ŕ ὑ Ŕ hence hy is very common at the start of words derived from Greek. but no (or very few) such words start with y. Greek Words with Modern Derivatives . Greek had no letter h: a rough breathing over an initial vowel or diphthong Ŕ ἁ ἑ ἡ ἱ ὁ ὑ ὡ Ŕ indicates that the word was pronounced with an initial h. representing classical Greek: this is the form in which most Greek words have made their way into English a "classical" transliteration. Note: the distinction between the rough and smooth breathings as shown above may not be very clear on certain browsers. but this has since disappeared in speech. commonly used to represent more accurately the pronunciation of Ancient Greek the "modern" transliteration often used for Modern Greek ŕ see Transliteration of Greek into English for some variations. in other words that used in Latin. and Modern Greek omits the breathings. If a rho occurred doubled within a word.
ancylνpἀγθπιἀγθπιἀγθπινancylangulankylν- ancylopoda ancylus. agnostic. anhydrous. ageustia. The Greek words are shown in polytonic orthography. Α (h)a Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative ἀ- a- ἀἀλ- aan- without. not adiabatic. The "classical" transliteration as described above is used for both the Citation form and the Root form. asymmetric. asymptote. ankyloglossia. ahistorical. hence the Root form is also shown. am anaemia. anaesthesia. atrophic ἄβνπινο āboulos ἀβνπι- aboul- indecisive abulia. as used in Ancient Greek and in Modern Greek for those who do not accept the 1982 "monotonic reform". but this form is often unrepresentative of the word as used to form a compound word.The Citation form shown is the form most commonly shown in dictionaries. apathy. curved  stiffening of the joints ἀγθύισζηο ankulōsis ankylosis. in other words showing the breathings and the fuller range of accents. ankylosa . anonymous. hyperboulia ἄγεπζηνο ageustos ἀγεπζ- ageus- not tasting or having tasted with bent legs  ageusia. ἀγθπιόπνπο ankulōpous ἀγθύινο ankulos ἀγθπινπ. angle crooked.
circular halo arcade at Delphi without measure oblivion forgetfulness. choke agony gland angina anxious agonize. halobacteri halosaur alopecia round shape. arthralgia. acolyte αἰζζάλεζζαη aisthanesthai αἰζζἀθέθαινο ἀθκή ἀθόινπζνο ἀθνύεηλ ἄιγνο ἅιο ἀιώπεμ ἅισο ἄκεηξνο ἀκλεζία ἀκλεζηία akephalos akmē akoluthos akouein algos hals alōpēx halōs ametros amnēsia amnēstia ἀθεθαιἀθκ- esthacephalacmacn ἀθόινπζ. adenosine anemia. acnestis anacoluthon.ἂγρεηλ ankhein ἀγρεηἀγρεηἀγσλἀδελν- angianxiagōnadenoemhemhaemAeolaepiaepy- to compress. acoustical engineering. aepycamelus. antagonistic. aco -algia. myalgia.acousticἀιγἁιἀισπἁισοἀκεηξνἀκλεζἀκλεζηalghalalophaloametroamnēsamnēst- acoustic guitar. throttle. lofty high and steep. odontalgia. amnestic . hemophilia.acoluthἀθνπζηηθ. amnesiphobia amnesty. adenomyosis. hemorrhage ἀγσλία ἀδήλ agōnia adēn αἳκα Aἴνινο αἰπεηλόο αἰπύο or αἰπόο haima Aeolus aipeinos aipus or aipos αἳκAἴνιαἰπεηαἰππ- blood Keeper of the Winds Aeolic. amnesiac. aepyornis. nostalgia. aco theory. cepha fibromyalgia. anemic. Myth high. neuralgia. adenomelablastoma. ametropia amnesia. press tight. acephaly. otalgia halogen. acoustic nerve. the disk of the sun. aepyornit aepyceros anesthesia acephali. haloaromatic. acephalous acme acne. Aeolotropy Gk. apprehend by the senses headless highest point facial eruption follower to hear pain salt sea fox aepisaurus. utter to perceive. to strangle. cardialgia. agony adenoma. Aeolian.
arid the great artery without feeling antidote. anarthrous asthenia.astragal- . anaesthesiologist. amorphic amylin. ap ἀπνπιήζεηλ apoplēssein ἀπνπιεarthritis arthron arthrōsis astheneia asthma to cripple by a stroke apoplexy. amniocentesis. antidoting antrum anodyne.dilation ἀλήξ anēr ἀλδξν-αλδξη andrν-andri man (male human) androcentrism. androsteph androsterone misandry. arthroscopy. backward. ampulla anabolism. knucklebone arthropod. amylop amylase. astragal ἀζηξάγαινο astragalos ἀζηξάγαι. amy amphora. androgen.aneurysm. aorta anhydrite.amnesty ἀκλόο ἄκνξθνο ἄκπινλ ἀκθνξεύο ἀλά amnos amorphos amylon amphoreus ana ἀκλἄκνξθἄκπιἀκθνξἀλαἀλαηζζεamnamorphamylamphoranalamb shapeless starch bearer again. analgesics aneurysm. polyandry ἀληίδνηνλ ἄληξνλ ἄλπδξνο ἀλώδπλνο ἀνξηή ἀπαζέο ἀξζξῖηηο ἄξζξνλ ἄξζξσζηο ἀζζέλεηα ἄζζκα antidoton antron anhudros anōdunos aortē apathēs ἀληηδνηἀληξἀλπδξἀλσδπλἀνξηἀπαζἀξζξηηἀξζξνἀξζξἀζζελἀζζκα- antidotantranhydranodynaortapathapoplearthritarthrνarthrasthenasthma- to give as a remedy against cave. andrology. analgetic.insensibility under surgical treatment painlessnes ἀλαιγεζ. anodynous aortic. anhydrous. apathetic. cavity waterless. upward amnion. apoplectic inflammation of joint arthritis. anachronism. microaneurysm ἀλαηζζεζία anaisthēsia ἀλαιγεζία ἀλεύξηζκα analgesia aneurusma lack of sensation. anaplasia anaesthesia. anaesthetic analgesia. monandry. amyls. anhydrobios apatheism. andrologist. anaesthe. amniotic. arid waterless. amorphous. apatheist. amyloid. arthropath dysarthria. android. osteoarthritis joint articulation weakness asthma vertebra. amnioscope. asthenopia asthmatic astragalus.analges- ἀλεύξηζκ. amylophagia. amylose. diarthrosis.
agnostic . astronaut.borea. astrology. biopsy. gene γηγλῶζθεηλ gignōskein γλῶ- gnōgnē- to know diagnostic. astrophysics astrodynamics.hyperborean βξαρύο brachus βξαρπ.brachu.genesis .short brachycephalic g Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative γάκνο gamos γακ- gam- marriage polygamy.north. gamete γέλλεζηο genesis γέλ- gen- to give birth.ἄζηξνλ ἄζπινλ ἀζθπμία ἄηξνπνο ἄηξνθνο astron asulon asphuxia atropos atrophos ἀζηξνἀζπιἀζθπμἀηξνπἀηξνθ- astroasylasphyxatropatroph- constellation sanctuary inexorable ill-nourished astronomy. astrolabe asylum atropos. beget genetic.bios βνξέαο boreas βνξεα. the north wind Aurora Borealis. atropine. atropa atrophy stopping of the pulse asphyxiant Β b Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative βίνο bios βην- bio- life biology.
iatro.physician. rounded encyclopedia education Ι (h)i Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative ἰαηξόο iatros ἰαηξν.kinetic energy. motion psychokinesis.encycloped.woman polygyny. healer psychiatrist Κ k.kinesis- to move.γπλή gunē γπλαηθ. gynecology misogynist Ε (h)e Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative encyclopedia. c Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative θαθόο kakos θαθν- kako- bad cacophony θηλεζζαη kinesthai θηλεζηο.gunaik.lit.kinesis . ἐγθπθινπαίδεηα enkyklopaideia ἐγθπθινπαηδ.
Lysistrata Μ m Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative καζεκαηηθά mathimatika καζεκαηηθ. lexicon. twig clone.lysis. macrobiotic κέγαο megas κεγ- mega- big.(prefix).leuko. loosen lysis. analysis.white leukocyte.mathematics mathematics. electrolysis. large Mega. as in megabyte.mathematik.to break. megaphone κέζνδνο methodos κεζνδ- method- method method . leukemia ιπεηλ lyein ιπζηο. megafauna. Alexia ιεπθνζ leukos ιεπθν. mathematical καθξόο makros καθξν- makro- long macron.θιῶλνο klōnos θαθν- klōn- branch. cloning Λ l Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative ιεμηο lexis ιεμη- lexi- word dyslexia.
black.xero. guest xenophobia μέξνο xeros μεξν. xerophthalmia Ο (h)o Citation form ὀδνύο ὅκνηνο ὀμύο Root form ὀδνλη. melancholy κηθξόο mikros κηθξν- mikro- small microscope κλῆζηηο mnēstis κλε- mne- memory amnesia.dry xerophyte. acid.strange. amnesty. ink Melanesia. sour oxygen . stranger.odont- Meaning English Derivative odous tooth orthodontia homoios ὁκνην.κέιαο melas κειαλ- melan- pigmented.homoio. melanocyte. mnemonic Ξ x Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative μέλνο xenos μελν.similar ὀμπ- homeopathy oxus oxu- sharp.xeno.
pedophilia Ρ r(h) Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative ῥεῦκα rheuma ῥεπκαη.paid. organism Π p Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative παǐο pais παηδ.fast tachycardia. tachometer ηέρλε techni ηερλ. tool organ.a flowing. rhinoplasty Τ t Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative ηαρύο tachys ηαρπ.tach(y).organ- organ. rheum ῥίο ῥηλ- rhis rhin- nose rhinoceros.ὄξγαλνλ organon ὀξγαλ. child paediatrician. instrument.rheumat. rheum rheumatism.techn- art technique .boy.
philosophy.tox- archerřs bow. photogenic .hudro.hupno. hydrolysis hypnotism Φ ph Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative θαγεηλ phagein θαγε- phage- to eat bacteriophage. telemedicine ηόμνλ toxon ηνμ.sleep English Derivative hydrodynamics.ηῆιε tēle ηειε.phaenomen- observable phenomenon phenomenon θηιία θίινο philia. telepathy. photography. (h)y Citation form Root form Meaning ὕδσξ hudōr ὑδξν. philo- friendship friend Philadelphia. pedophilia θσο phos θνο- phos- light phosphorus.sarcophagus θαηλόκελνλ phaenomenon θαηλνκελ.water ὕπλνο hupnos ὑπλν.tēle- distant telephone. philos θηιηαθηιν- philia-. zoophilia. poison toxin Υ (h)u.
soul psychology.θνβία θόβνο phobia phobos θνβηα θνβν- phobia phobo- irrational fear fear phobia. chiromancy.psukhē. psychedelic ]Ψ (h)ō Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative ὠόλ ὠν. flowing hair polychaete ρεηξ kheir ρεηξ. Cryophobia Phobos.egg ōon oocyte.loose.spirit. chiropractor Χ ps Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative ςπρή psukhē ςπρε.ōo. Φ kh.khaitē.hand Chiroptera. oology .kheir. ch Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative ραίηε khaitē ραηηε.
Prepositions used to form compound words Latin Preposition Latin word Meaning Compound Form ā. behind postsub under sub-. about deē. together con-. on top of supertrāns across trāns- Other parts of speech Latin word meaning cur? why? et and & in in. that paene almost pen-. ecin in. redse away from sēper through perprō for. illinter between inter-. occprae before prae-(pre-) re again. succsuper above. close to juxtā ob in front of. she. intelljuxtā near. by abad to. ar-. into in-. alante before. in front of antecum with. ab away from. toward ad-. e-. sus-. com-. ac-. ex out of ex. back re-. on is he. on account of ob-. on behalf of prōpost after. it id it. peninsula quis who quid what quo where ubique from all sides ubiquitous esse to be essence laudare to praise laud annum year annual cogitare to think cognition . colldē down from. im-. in front of.
Old English segued into Middle English." is a word used to describe a person's unconscious desires ego "I. This French vocabulary is found in every domain. and it's estimated that English speakers who have never studied French already .and stayed there for 300 years. and culture ." is a word used to describe a person's conscience libido "lust" persona "mask." is a word used to describe the personality that you show to others FRENCH Bill Bryson calls the Norman conquest of 1066 the "final cataclysm [which] awaited the English language." (1) When William the Conqueror became king of England. since English was essentially ignored by grammarians during this time. Meanwhile. about 10. unprestigious uses. Vocabulary During the Norman occupation. from government and law to art and literature . English was "demoted" to everyday. after only 70 or 80 years existing side-by-side with French. French took over as the language of the court.000 French words were adopted into English. More than a third of all English words are derived directly or indirectly from French. administration. in fact. some three-fourths of which are still in use today. These two languages existed side by side in England with no noticeable difficulties.learn some." is a word used to describe a person's conscious self superego "above the ego. it took advantage of its lowly status to become a grammatically simpler language and.scire to know science MEDICAL WORDS AND PHRASES post mortem "after the death" id "it.
(the). (2) Pronunciation English pronunciation owes a lot to French as well. and (shin).000 French words. French influence helped to distinguish their voiced counterparts . (as in thin). and (mirage). Whereas Old English had the unvoiced fricative sounds . where English has retained the noun + adjective word order typical in French. . and also contributed the diphthong (boy). (3) (What is voiced/unvoiced/fricative?) Grammar Another rare but interesting remnant of French influence is in the word order of expressions like secretary general and surgeon general.know 15. . rather than the usual adjective + noun used in English. .
anti-infective. Chlamydia psittaci. Antero-: Prefix signifying before. and not be harmful.+ gredior (to step or go). and adrenal (toward the kidney). away from. called amyloid.take on new meanings as has occurred with antibiotic and antibody. Anterograde memory is memory for what occurs after an event such as an accident. usually chemically related to natural antibiotics. From the Latin antero. a broadspectrum agent effective against a wide variety of bacteria including Hemophilus influenzae. From the Latin anterior meaning before. "Anti" is the Greek word for "against. Sometimes medical terms containing anti. The term "angina pectoris" comes from the Latin "angere" meaning "to choke or throttle" + "pectus" meaning "chest". or in can cause serious changes in virtually any organ of the body. anti. The first drug of the tetracycline family. Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin. earlier." Adenocarcinoma: A cancer that develops in the lining or inner surface of an organ. and contrary. Synthetic antibiotics. off" as in abduction (movement of a limb away from the midline of the body). In 1926. Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In 1939.as in antacid. Originally. front. Angina pectoris: Chest pain that is typically severe and crushing with a feeling just behind the breastbone (the sternum) of pressure and suffocation. Anterograde: Moving forward or extending forward. abnormal (away from normal)." as in adduction (movement of a limb toward the midline of the body)." Antibiotic: A drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. an antibiotic was a substance produced by one microorganism that selectively inhibits the growth of another. Ab in Latin means "from. Angina pectoris was first described by the English physician William Heberden (1710-1801) and may be referred to simply as angina. More than 95 percent of prostate cancers are adenocarcinoma. Ad-: Latin prefix meaning "toward" and "in the direction of. Amyloidosis: A disorder that results from the abnormal deposition of a particular protein. is tetracycline (brand names: Achromycin and Sumycin). Also called antegrade. Amyloid protein can be deposited in a localized area." In medicine.may be shortened to ant.before a consonant. Edward Chain and Howard Florey further studied penicillin and later carried out trials of penicillin on humans (with what were deemed fatal bacterial infections). adhesion. meaning starch. absorb (to suck away). ablate (carry or cut away). and antiviral. . Chlamydia trachomatis. Amyl-: (Amylo. opposite or opposing. Florey and Chain shared the Nobel Prize in 1945 for their work which ushered in the era of antibiotics. Fleming. As a prefix. Anti-: Prefix generally meaning "against. due to an inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart muscle.) A prefix pertaining to starch. Neisseria gonorrhoea. chlortetracycline. was introduced in 1948. From the Greek amylon. a substance produced by fungi that appeared able to inhibit bacterial growth. and many others. have since been produced that accomplish comparable tasks.Ab-: Prefix meaning "from. Streptococcus pneumoniae. Another antibiotic. antioften connotes "counteracting or effective against" as in antibacterial. in various tissues of the body. for example.
Antibodies can be triggered by and directed at foreign proteins. Lustral) The MAOIs or monoamine oxidase inhibitors include: phenelzine (Nardil) tranylcypromine (Parnate) . + dotos. Antidote: An agent that counteracts a poison and neutralizes its effects. produced because of the introduction of an antigen into the body. The SSRIs or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors include: citalopram (Celexa. tetracyclic antidepressants. an "antibody" referred to any of a host of different substances that served as "bodies" (foot soldiers) in the fight against infection and its ill effects. and especially a drug. Antidepressant: Anything. MAOIs or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The word "antidote" is from the Greek antidotos which came from anti. used to prevent or treat depression. The term "antibody" dates to 1901. a specialized immune protein. Lexapro) fluvoxamine maleate (Luvox) paroxetine (Paxil. and others. travel through the bloodstream. Prior to that time. Cipramil) escitalopram oxalate (Cipralex. and lodge therein. Thrombi are clots. what is given = what is given against (something). Anticoagulant: Any agent used to prevent the formation of blood clots. or toxins. Seroxat. Some are used for the prophylaxis (prevention) or the treatment of thromboembolic disorders. A chemical antidote is a substance that unites with a poison to form a harmless chemical compound.which act by inhibiting the liver's production of vitamin K dependent factors crucial to clotting. Oral anticoagulants such as warfarin and dicumarol -. The production of antibodies is a major function of the immune system and is carried out by a type of white blood cell called a B cell (B lymphocyte). against. The available antidepressant drugs include the SSRIs or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The anticoagulant drugs used for these clinical purposes include: Intravenous heparin -. Some antibodies are autoantibodies and home in against our own tissues. microorganisms.which acts by inactivating thrombin and several other clotting factors required for a clot to form. and which possesses the remarkable ability to combine with the very antigen that triggered its production. tricyclic antidepressants. A mechanical antidote is a substance that prevents the absorption of a poison from the intestine into the body. Aropax) fluoxetine (Prozac) sertraline (Zoloft.Antibody: An immunoglobulin. Anticoagulants have various uses. Emboli are clots that break free.
Arteritis. as in biceps or bicuspid. From the Latin bini. . Sinequan) imipramine (Tofranil) nortryptyline (Pamelor) protriptyline (Vivactil) trimipramine (Surmontil) The tetracyclic antidepressant is maprotiline (Ludiomil). Other antidepressant drugs include: bupropion (Wellbutrin) buspirone (Buspar) duloxetine (Cymbalta) mirtazapine (Remeron. Binaural: Relating to both ears. Zispin. It is detected by a biopsy of an artery. The vessels affected by inflammation are the arteries (hence the name "arteritis"). Bronchi is the plural of bronchus from the Greek word bronchos. and finally the subsegmental bronchi. Synonymous with stereophonic. this is a serious disease characterized by inflammation of the walls of the blood vessels (vasculitis). It is treated with high dose cortisone. Norset. + auris. The bronchi have cartilage as part of their supporting wall structure. temporal: Also called giant cell arteritis or cranial arteritis. Giant cell arteritis can lead to blindness and/or stroke. in turn. Bi-: Prefix meaning two. Bronchoscopy: A procedure that permits the doctor to see the breathing passages through a lighted tube. or thickening of the muscular wall of the arteries from chronically elevated blood pressure (hypertension). divide to form the lobar. The age of affected patients is usually over 50 years of age. a conduit to the lungs. a pair. The trachea divides to form the right and left main bronchi which. Endep) clomipramine (Anafranil) desipramine (Norpramin. Vestra) trazodone (Desyrel) venlafaxine (Effexor) Arteriosclerosis: Hardening and thickening of the walls of the arteries. calcification of the wall of the arteries. segmental. ear = a pair (of) ears = both ears. While hearing aids may be binaural (in both ears) or monaural (in just one ear). Pertofrane) doxepin (Adapin. Bronchi: The large air tubes leading from the trachea to the lungs that convey air to and from the lungs. Arteriosclerosis can occur because of fatty deposits on the inner lining of arteries (atherosclerosis). Avanza.The tricyclic antidepressants include: amitriptyline (Elavil. binaural aids are generally considered to be superior. Remergil) nefazodone (Serzone) reboxetine (Edronax.
stubby fingers and toes. Cholecystectomy Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder. brachydactyly. Contraceptive. Surgery (standard or laparoscopic) is considered for patients with severe symptoms and for patient with cholecystitis. Cephalgia: Headache. literally. (One of those things we all know but that defies an easy definition. The Greek "algos" means "pain. It is pain in the head. Brachy-: Short. Brachydactyly means short. Cholecyst. The most common symptom is pain in the upper abdomen. one that is short in diameter from front to back. It comes from chol." combined oral contraceptives are the most commonly used form of reversible birth control in the United States. Cholecystogram is an x-ray of the gallbladder. Diagnosis is usually made with ultrasound of the abdomen. Contraindication: A condition which makes a particular treatment or procedure inadvisable. female gender. Some patients have no symptoms. surrounding. multiple pregnancies. which is often a tumor. referring to bile + cyst. From the Latin preposition circum meaning round. The word cholecyst is not much used today but it figures into a number of other terms to do with the gallbladder Cholecystectomy is removal of the gallbladder. From the Greek brachys meaning short. Brachytherapy is radiation treatment given by placing radioactive material directly in or near the target. or encircling. and brachytherapy: Brachycephaly is a short head.) Literally. Risk factors for cholesterol gallstones include age. a bladder. birth control pills. Cholecystitis is frequently associated with infection in the gallbladder." Cerebral: Pertaining to the brain. The word "cerebral" was borrowed directly from the French "cérébral" which was derived from "cerebrum" (Latin for the "brain"). Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder. Brachdactyly is a frequent feature of syndromes of congenital malformation (constellations of birth defects) including Down syndrome (trisomy 21). and heredity. headache is an ache in the head. pill: Commonly called "the pill. means. The opposite of brachytherapy is teletherapy. bilebladder. . Patients with mild and infrequent symptoms may consider oral medication to dissolve gallstones. A contraindication may be absolute or relative. circumflex. Cerebritis: Inflammation of the brain Cholecyst: The gallbladder. and circumjacent. As in circumcision. a complication of gallstones which are formed by cholesterol and pigment (bilirubin) in bile. treatment in which the radiation source is at a distance from the target. The prefix "brachy-" appears in a number of medical terms including brachycephaly.Brachial artery: The artery that runs from the shoulder down to the elbow. the cerebrum or the intellect. (Bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder). obesity. Circum-: Prefix meaning around.
A hematoma is caused by a break in the wall of a blood vessel. mitochondrial (MELAS): MELAS is the acronym for Mitochondrial Encephalopathy. It is caused by mutations in the genetic material (DNA) in the mitochondria. Laparoscopy: A type of minimally invasive surgery in which a small incision (cut) is made in the abdominal wall through which an instrument called a laparoscope is inserted to permit structures within the abdomen and pelvis to be seen. . It may start (up to 3 weeks) after onset of the measles rash and present with high fever. and Strokelike episodes. While most of our DNA is in the chromosomes in the cell nucleus. for example. aspirin is absolutely contraindicated because of the danger that aspirin will cause Reye syndrome. Much of the DNA within the mitochondrion is used to manufacture proteins that help in the mitochondrion's energy-producing function. Facial nerve paralysis is also called Bell's palsy. for example. MELAS is a form of dementia. Lactic Acidosis. convulsions. It usually runs a blessedly short course with full recovery within a week. In a baby. A relative contraindication is a condition which makes a particular treatment or procedure somewhat inadvisable but does not rule it out. Or it may eventuate in central nervous system impairment or death. Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain.000 cases of measles. but is thought to be due to a virus.An absolute contraindication is a situation which makes a particular treatment or procedure absolutely inadvisable. another important cell structure that carries DNA is the mitochondrion. X-rays in pregnancy are relatively contraindicated (because of concern for the developing fetus) unless the X-rays are absolutely necessary. such as within a muscle. Encephalitis occurs. and coma. Hematophobia: An abnormal and persistent fear of blood is called hematophobia. or caused by trauma. as in the case of an aneurysm. and gives blood its red colour Hematoma: An abnormal localized collection of blood in which the blood is usually clotted or partially clotted and is usually situated within an organ or a soft tissue space. Laparotomy: An operation to open the abdomen. in 1 in 1. For example. haemoglobin UK. The disease typically starts suddenly and causes paralysis of the muscles of the side of the face on which the facial nerve is affected. Encephalopathy. Facial nerve paralysis: Loss of voluntary movement of the muscles on one side of the face due to abnormal function of the facial nerve (also known as the 7th cranial nerve) which supplies those muscles. The break may be spontaneous. US hemoglobin noun [U] a substance in red blood cells which combines with and carries oxygen around the body. The cause of facial nerve paralysis is often not known.
Osteomalacia is a characteristic feature of vitamin D deficiency in adults. usually to remove cancerous tissue. which are often slow to heal and heal poorly. Osteoarthritis: A type of arthritis caused by inflammation. the parathyroid glands are called "para-thyroid" because they are adjacent to the thyroid. Osteomalacia may be caused by poor dietary intake or poor absorption of calcium and other minerals needed to harden bones. particularly post-menopausal women. near. particularly in the sense of bone weakened by demineralization (the loss of mineral) and most notably by the depletion of calcium from bone. and in those who take steroidal drugs.screening mammograms and diagnostic mammograms. Examples of terms containing melan. black. darkening of the skin. breast + algos.The word "laparotomy" was first used to designate this operation in 1878 by an English surgeon. in patients on steroids.(bone) + malakia (softness) = softness of bone Osteoporosis: Thinning of the bones with reduction in bone mass due to depletion of calcium and bone protein. including: alongside of. paraumbilical means alongside the umbilicus (the belly button). Thomas Bryant. It is more common in older adults. Mammaplasty. and abnormal. Melan. pain. The word has an interesting derivation. melanocytes. Osteoporosis predisposes a person to fractures.include melancholia. . Para. From the Greek osteo. Unchecked osteoporosis can lead to changes in posture. apart from. From the Greek masto-. physical abnormality (particularly the form of hunched back known colloquially as "dowager's hump"). and eventual loss of cartilage in the joints. The prefix "para-" comes straight from the Greek. Mastectomy: A general term for removal of the breast. It comes from the Greek "melas". Mammogram: An X-ray of the breast with the breast in a device that compresses and flattens it.(prefix): Prefix meaning dark or black. Myelodysplastic syndrome: A group of bone marrow disorders characterized by the underproduction of one or more types of blood cells due to dysfuntion of the marrow. Osteomalacia: Softening of bone. beyond. For another example. melanin. It was compounded from Greek roots "lapara" referring to "the soft parts of the body between the rib cage and the hips" and "tome" meaning "a cutting" = a cutting into that area. melanoma and melena. breakdown. There are two basic mammogram tests -.(prefix): A prefix with many meanings. For example. Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord. beside. Also known as degenerative arthritis. Melanoderma: Increased skin pigmentation. Pancolitis:Ulcerative colitis that involves the entire colon (the large intestine). and decreased mobility. resembling. Mastalgia: Pain in the breast or mammary gland. reduction Breast reduction.
As distinguished from the gonads. And periumbilical is around the umbilicus (the belly button). Transcranial: Through the cranium. It is most often due to the ascent of bacteria from the bladder up the ureters to infect the kidneys. and general malaise. ventricles.is a useful prefix in anatomy and so is much employed in medicine. for example. Bradlee. b. frequency (urinating). and I for one am sick of wasting my time communicating with you" (Benjamin C.(back) + mingent from mingere (to urinate). As. Also an animal such as a raccoon that urinates backwards. It means "around or about. and arytenoids. retromingent vigilante.Perianal: Located around the anus. The symptoms of pyelonephritis include flank (side) pain. a. aryepiglottic folds. Periaortic lymph nodes are lymph nodes around the aorta. Pyelonephritis can be acute (sudden) or chronic (slow. Also known as the foreskin. the opening of the rectum to the outside of the body. in transcranial magnetic stimulation. As opposed to deep. Supraglottis: The part of the larynx above the glottis (where the vocal cords are located).is a prefix borrowed from the Greek. sometimes foulsmelling urine. subtle. Premature birth: A birth that takes place before 37 weeks of gestation have passed. urgency (to urinate). Prehypertension is a precursor to chronic high blood pressure. The skin is superficial to the muscles. Prehypertension: A systolic pressure of 120 to 139 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure of between 80 and 89 mm Hg. Pericardial fluid is fluid around the heart. As in: "You have revealed yourself as a miserable. Relating to the body. Perinatal is around birth. A perianal abscess is an abscess (a local accumulation of pus) that forms next to the anus causing tender swelling in that area and pain on defecation. shaking chills. The supraglottic larynx includes the epiglottis as well as the false vocal cords." So pericardial is around the heart. Editor. Peri. on the surface or shallow. fever. From the Latin retro. Somatic: 1. Peri. . Retromingent: Urinating backwards. and stubborn). Prepuce: The fold of skin that covers the head of the penis. As distinguished from the mind (the psyche). Pyelo: Short for pyelonephritis. From the Greek word somatikos meaning body. The Washington Post). The cornea is on the superficial surface of the eye. Tenderness is elicited on gently tapping over the kidney with a fist (percussion). Somatoform disorder: Body dysmorphic disorder Superficial: In anatomy. which is bacterial infection of the kidney. carping. Retrosternal: Behind the sternum (the breastbone).
cleft palate.: If a medicine is to be taken every so-many hours (from "quaque". = drops (from "guttae".d. The gene for the Xlinked form has been mapped to chromosome band Xp11.c._h. as circumstances require. a malformed ("saddle-bag") scrotum.d.d. Norwegian and American pediatricians. The base pairs in RNA are therefore A-U and G-C.21 and identified as the FGD1 gene. and C. Aase-Smith syndrome I: A syndrome of congenital malformations (birth defects) characterized by hydrocephalus. orally (from "per os". by mouth) p.c. Some others: b.o. (1934-). In DNA. = once a day (from "quaque die". = every hour q.h. This is one of a number of hallowed abbreviations of Latin terms that have traditionally been used in writing prescriptions. = as directed (from "ut dictum". after meals) p.: Abbreviation on a prescription meaning before meals. The bases are the "letters" that spell out the genetic code. .d. every and the "h" indicating the number of hours) q. guanine. Jr. and guanine always pairs with cytosine. Other anomalies may include deformed ears. a molecule of phosphoric acid. ptosis (drooping) of the eyelids. once a day) q. faciodigitogenital dysplasia. which stand for the chemicals adenine. front-facing (anteverted) nostrils.i. for an occasion that has arisen. G. = four times a day (from "quater in die". = every 4 hours t.4h. from the Latin "ante cibum". It is also known as Aarskog syndrome. = by mouth. The disease is named for DJ Aarskog (1928-) and CI Scott. There are X-linked and autosomal forms of the disease. and faciogenital dysplasia. A stands for adenine.3h. inability to open the mouth fully. as directed) Aarskog-Scott syndrome: A syndrome of wide spaced eyes (ocular hypertelorism). Adenine is also one of the bases in RNA. thymine. There it always pairs with uracil (U). The other base pair in DNA is G-C (guanine-cytosine).2h. one member of the A-T (adenine-thymine) base pair in DNA. and cytosine. 3 times a day) ut dict.i. who described it in 1970 and 1971. Each base pair forms a "rung of the DNA ladder. drops) p. and overly extensible fingers. a. In DNA base pairing.A (adenine): In genetics. the code letters are A. = after meals (from "post cibum". and severe arthrogryposis (joint contractures). and a molecule called a base. = when necessary (from "pro re nata". and laxity of the ligaments resulting in bending back of the knees (genu recurvatum). = every 2 hours q. = three times a day (from "ter in die". adenine always pairs with thymine.n. as needed) q. flat feet.i. 4 times a day) q. = every 3 hours q. twice a day) gtt. before meals. respectively.r. T. = twice a day (from "bis in die"." A DNA nucleotide is made of a molecule of sugar. a broad upper lip.
What may be less well known is that a prescription has several parts: The superscription (or heading) with the symbol R or Rx which stands for the word Recipe. It is one of a number of hallowed abbreviations of Latin terms that have been traditionally used in prescriptions to specify the frequency with which medicines should be taken. The exact cause of the syndrome is unknown. not too surprisingly. transmitted from generation to generation. and The signature which is often preceded by the sign s. Ab ovo: Latin expression for "from the beginning." before meals) ad lib: use as much as one desires (from "ad libitum") b. It means twice (two times) a day and is an abbreviation for "bis in die" which in Latin means." drops) h." Ab ovo literally means "from the egg. affecting both males and females. reduced creases over the joints and inability to make a full fist. = before meals (from "ante cibum. Smith.heart defects.i. You may see some chicken scrawl marks on a prescription. = drops (from "guttae. giving the directions to be marked on the container. The inscription which contains the names and quantities of the ingredients. Abbreviations. as is well known. It is named for the American dysmorphologists (birth-defect experts) Jon Aase and David W. The fingers are thin with absent knuckles. Smith. However. most evidence suggests that the disorder is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. The subscription or directions for compounding the drug. Aase-Smith syndrome II: A genetic disorder that may be detected during early infancy and is characterized by the presence of three bones (phalanges) within the thumbs (triphalangeal thumbs) rather than the normal two and abnormally reduced production of red blood cells (hypoplastic anemia). is a physician's order for the preparation and administration of a drug or device for a patient." "Abs" in the plural is commonly used slang for the abdominal muscles.d. twice a day. The syndrome is named for the American dysmorphologists (birth-defect experts) Jon Aase and David W. b. mark. Aase-Smith type. = twice a day caps = capsules da or daw = dispense as written g (or gm or GM) = gram gtt. = hour mg = milligram ml = milliliter .d. Some of the abbreviations of terms commonly used in prescriptions with their meanings are: a. meaning (in Latin) to take. For example.i. The syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. standing for signa. and clubfoot. prescription: A prescription.c. Alternative names for the syndrome include: Anemia and triphalangeal thumbs Congenital anemia and triphalangeal thumbs Hypoplastic anemia-triphalangeal thumbs.
orally (from "per os." for an occasion that has arisen." every and the "h" indicating the number of hours) q. Abdomen: The belly.3h. = by mouth. In the United States and some other countries. as circumstances require. = four times a day (from "quater in die. talk to your pharmacist about it before using the medicine.4h. a person with hypertension might see the generic "C" code on a prescription bottle or vial if the medication might raise his or her blood pressure. = after meals (from "post cibum. so that prescription meant "to write before. = three times a day (from "ter in die. that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the chest and the pelvis." This reflected the historic fact that a prescription had traditionally to be written before a drug could be prepared and then administered to a patient.h.o. = once a day (from "quaque die." 4 times a day) q.r." by mouth) p. If you see one of the universal or special caution codes on a prescription. ABCD rating: A staging system for prostate cancer. = every hour q." 3 times a day) ut dict.p.i." before + "scribere. a system of stickers with pictographs is also used to warn of side effects such as drowsiness. as needed) q.n. ." to write. Drug caution codes: Abbreviations on medications that indicate caution." once a day) q. = every 3 hours q.i.c. = every 2 hours q. The abdomen is separated anatomically from the chest by the diaphragm. They include both universal and specific caution codes: Universal caution codes: D = drowsiness H = habit forming I = interaction X = SOS (contains a substance such as acetaminophen that could cause problems -.d.2h. drug caution codes provide very valuable warnings._h.: If a medicine is to be taken every so-many hours (from "quaque. = when necessary (from "pro re nata." after meals) p.d. = as directed (from "ut dictum." as directed) The word "prescription" also comes from the Latin "praescriptus" and is made up of "prae.d. = every 4 hours t.consult your pharmacist) Special caution codes ASA = contains acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) C = caution G = glaucoma S = diabetes These special caution codes are intended to be warnings for patients with specific medical conditions. For example. While not a part of the historical heritage of ancient prescription abbreviations. the powerful muscle spanning the body cavity below the lungs.
As opposed to a vaginal hysterectomy in which the incision is made within the vagina. emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium). From the Latin "ab-" meaning "away from" + "ducere" meaning "to draw or lead" = "to draw away from. the gallbladder (inflamed = cholecystitis). gallbladder. An aneurysm is a localized widening (dilatation) of an artery. Paralysis of the abducent nerve causes inward turning of the eye (internal strabismus) leading to double vision. or the heart. Abduction of both legs spreads the legs. acute:The abrupt (acute) onset of abdominal pain. an acute abdomen may reflect a major problem with one of the organs in the abdomen such as the appendix (being inflamed = appendicitis). The opposite of abduction is adduction. rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is a surefire catastrophe. Abdominal aneurysm: An aneurysm situated within the abdomen (belly). A potential medical emergency. the acidity. vein. At the area of an aneurysm." An aneurysm may involve the aorta. colon. as it courses down through the abdomen. as opposed to the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in venous blood. The abducent nerve is also called the abducens nerve. Incompatible with life or antagonist to it. the spleen (that has ruptured). pancreas. . Typically. Also called abiological. Abduction: In medicine. to draw = to draw away. rectum. All 12 cranial nerves. Abiotic: 1. The abducent nerve is the sixth cranial nerve. small intestine. the largest artery in the body.The abdomen includes a host of organs including the stomach. the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body. The word "aneurysm" comes from the Greek "aneurysma" meaning "a widening. and bladder Abdomen. Because of the great volume of blood flowing under high pressure in the aorta. 2. The term "acute abdomen" is medical shorthand. Adduction of the legs brings them together. or pH. See: spasmodic dysphonia. Abducent nerve: A small motor nerve that has one task: to supply a muscle called the lateral rectus muscle that moves the eye outward. ABG (arterial blood gas): The sampling of the blood levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the arteries. The word "abducent" comes from the Latin "ab-". of the blood is measured simultaneously in ABG sampling." Abductor spasmodic dysphonia: A disorder in which sudden muscle spasms cause the vocal folds (or vocal cords) to stay open. appendix. liver. Abdominal hysterectomy: Surgical removal of the uterus (a hysterectomy) done through an incision made in the abdominal wall. Anything in the environment incapable of life. such as the soil or weather. the abducent nerve included. spleen. kidneys. as opposed to the spinal nerves which emerge from the vertebral column. It has nonetheless come into common usage in medical parlance. The abducent (or abducens) operates the lateral rectus muscle that draws the eye toward the side of the head. away from + "ducere". the intestine (an ulcer that has perforated). etc. 3. Not associated with living organisms. there is typically a bulge and the wall is weakened and may rupture.
they are type O. Abortion. their red blood cells are type A. sometimes going in shock. Historically. Ablation is usually carried out surgically. And someone who is type AB has neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies in plasma. the body often clumped the transfused blood cells and rejected the transfusion. Landsteiner received the Nobel Prize in 1930 for his pioneering research in immunology and blood grouping. B. A person's ABO type depends upon the presence of absence of two genes --the A and B genes. induced: An abortion that is brought about intentionally. In 1901 a Viennese pathologist named Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) published an article entitled "On Agglutination Phenomena of Normal Human Blood. any pregnancy that is not viable (the fetus cannot survive) or in which the fetus is born before the 20th week of pregnancy.Abiotrophy: Loss of function or degeneration for reasons unknown. The first recorded blood transfusion may have taken place in 1492 when Pope Innocent VIII. Spontaneous . ABO blood group: The major human blood group system. or O. was given the blood of 3 young men." in which he observed that. AB. surgical removal of the thyroid gland (a total thyroidectomy) is ablation of the thyroid. AB and O and showed that the body rejects transfusions of a different blood type. Someone who is type O has both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in plasma. As opposed to a spontaneous abortion (a miscarriage). Also called an artificial or therapeutic abortion. their red cells are type AB. As opposed to a spontaneous abortion (a miscarriage). as did the 3 donors. A person can be A. spontaneous: A miscarriage. The word ablation comes from the Latin ablatum meaning to carry away. Someone with type B red cells has anti-A antibodies in plasma. Abortion. It is most important to determine the ABO status of both donor and recipient in transplants and transfusions by typing and cross-matching. Abortifacient: A substance that causes pregnancy to end prematurely and causes an abortion. For example.1). The situation with antibodies in blood plasma is just the opposite. Blood typing and crossmatching was not done. laying in a coma. But by 1846 "ablation" had taken on a specifically surgical edge and today it applies principally to the surgical removal of any part of the body. If the person has one A and one B gene. Also called an induced or therapeutic abortion. when blood was transfused from one human to another. the word ablation once had mainly a general meaning so that in 1671 the ablation (removal) of a disease was a matter for consideration. They determine part of the configuration of the red blood cell surface. ABO incompatibility in such procedures can be a disaster. B. cerebellar abiotrophy may affect coordination while cone-rod abiotrophy may cause blindness at birth. their red cells are type B. Abortion. For example. Ablation: Removal or excision. The pope died. If a person has two B genes. Someone with type A red cells has anti-B antibodies (antibodies directed against type B red cells) in their blood plasma. that is. If the person has neither the A nor B gene. These genes are encoded on chromosome 9 (in band 9q34. artificial: An abortion that is brought about intentionally. In 1909 Landsteiner classified red blood cells into types A. After moving to the Rockefeller Institute in New York. If a person has two A genes.
that is spontaneous. A test for hearing and brain (neurological) functioning. Absinthe has been banned but something of its taste of absinthe is still available in such drinks as ouzo in Greece and in France. In a spontaneous abortion. licorice and aromatic flavorings in a alcohol base. Magnan in the medical journal The Lancet. blindness. Neurologic integrity (and hearing) in patients who are comatose. ABR test: Auditory brainstem response test. A perianal abscess is a pool of pus that forms next to the anus. and mental deterioration. He put cats. ABR (auditory brainstem response): Abbreviation for auditory brainstem response. Absinthe was manufactured. as in surgery Absinthe: Once a major medical hazard. The first important medical research on absinthe was initiated in 1864 by a psychiatrist." . A skin abscess is better known as a common boil. Meniere's disease. A spontaneous abortion is as opposed to an induced abortion.abortion occurs in at least 15-20% of all recognized pregnancies and usually takes place before the 13th week of pregnancy. the poet Charles Baudelaire. It became an extremely popular and addictive drink. hallucinations. absinthe is an emerald-green liqueur flavored with extracts of the wormwood plant. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Pablo Picasso. Abscission: To remove tissue by cutting it away. commercialized and popularized in France in the late 1700s by Henri-Louis Pernod. Among the famous figures who made absinthe a symbol of decadence were the writer Oscar Wilde. pastis. and the artists Edouard Manet. The ABR test involves attaching electrodes to the head to record electrical activity from the auditory nerve (the hearing nerve) and other parts of the brain. an acoustic neuroma (tumor on the hearing nerve). reported Dr. and guinea pigs under an individual glass case next to a saucer of either wormwood oil or alcohol. who exposed a veritable Noah's arkful of animals to wormwood oil (the essence of absinthe) and alcohol (the base of absinthe). etc. The following are some examples of abscesses: 1. Also known as brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). 2. Valentin Jacques Joseph Magnan. The animals that breathed the alcohol fumes became drunk while those that inhaled the vapors of wormwood had epileptic seizures. it is purely accidental. or impaired due to a stroke. Vincent Van Gogh. rabbits. ABR may be used in the evaluation of: Hearing integrity (and neurologic normalcy) in infants and young children. long considered "the mother's milk of Provence. A peritonsillar abscess is a persistent collection of pus behind the tonsils. unresponsive. and 3. Prolonged drinking of absinthe causes convulsions. often causing considerable tenderness and swelling in that area and pain on sitting down and on defecating. Abscess: A local accumulation of pus anywhere in the body.
Also called a T4 count. Abstemious: Marked by restraint. usually a chemical. the absolute CD4 count declines as the infection progresses. Acaricide: An agent. labor and the puerperium (the time after delivery). especially in the folds of skin in the axilla (armpit). and many others. From the Latin prefix "abs-. Acanthosis nigricans also occurs with underlying malignancies (especially carcinomas of the vicera).Absinthism: The disorder associated with the habitual abuse of absinthe. subsidiary to the main thing. organophosphate acaricides. There has been debate over whether absinthism was due to absinthe or the alcohol contained therein. This class of pesticides is large and includes antibiotic acaricides. tremors. groin and back of the neck. and convulsions. superior and inferior acromioclavicular. and as a genetic disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. AC joint: Acromioclavicular joint located between the acromion (a projection of the scapula that forms the point of the shoulder) and the clavicle (the collar bone). antecubital (crook of elbow). ACC: Adenoid cystic carcinoma Accessory: Additional." AC: Abbreviation for a. Acapnia: Less than the normal level of carbon dioxide in the blood. a mite + -cide. The opposite of hypercapnia." and the Latin noun "temetum. acromioclavicular (shoulder joint). that kills mites. sleeplessness. Acanthosis nigricans: A skin condition characterized by dark thickened velvety patches. An accessory digestive organ is an organ that helps with digestion but is not part of the digestive tract. The symptoms included hallucinations. articular disk. . From the Latin acarus. supplementary. It can occur with endocrine diseases such as Cushing disease. Absolute CD4 count: The number of "helper" CD4 T-lymphocytes in a cubic millimeter of blood.c. It is common in people who have insulin resistance -. and diabetes mellitus. especially in the consumption of food or alcohol. An accessory placenta is an extra placenta separate from the main placenta. mite growth regulators. carbamate acaricides. administration of certain drugs. The condition is complex. Accoucheur: French for a male obstetrician. to kill. With HIV. formamidine acaricides. extra." meaning "from" or "away. tumors of the pituitary. and coracoclavicular (trapezoid and conoid) ligaments. It comes from the Greek "a-" meaning "without" + "kapnos" meaning "smoke" so acapnia literally means "smokeless" referring to carbon dioxide which is a principal part of smoke. The accessory nerve is so-called because it receives an additional (accessory) root from the upper part of the spinal cord. The ligaments that serve to support and strengthen this joint are called the capsular. (ante cibum on a prescription). This is a gliding type of joint. The absolute CD4 count is frequently used to monitor the extent of immune suppression in persons with HIV. The origin of the word "acapnia" is curious." meaning "intoxicating drink.whose body is not responding correctly to the insulin that they make in their pancreas. a physician skilled in the art and science of managing pregnancy.
Diagnosis is made by an X-ray. retina and the basal ganglia region of the brain. Narrowing the diameter of the blood vessels sends up the blood pressure. In a typical case. The absence of ceruloplasmin leads to the abnormal deposition of iron in cells. lisinopril (brand names: Zestril and Prinivil). quinapril (brand name: Accupril).ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme): The angiotensins are peptides (substances smaller than proteins) that act as vasoconstricting agents (causing blood vessels to narrow). Acetabulum: The cup-shaped socket of the hip joint. in Latin an "acetabulum" is cup. Treatment of the diabetes was begun. There may sometimes be chest pain. The underlying problems are weakness of the lower portion of the esophagus and failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to open and allow passage of food. forming a ball-and-socket joint. or esophageal manometry (to measure the pressure in the esophagus). The head (upper end) of the femur (the thighbone) fits into the acetabulum and articulates with it. Achalasia may occur at any age but is predominantly a disease of young adults. and ramipril (brand name: Altace). Acetaminophen reduces fever through its action on the heat-regulating center (the "thermostat") of the brain. Acetaminophen relieves pain by elevating the pain threshold (that is. captopril (brand name: Capoten). dilation (stretching) to widen the lower part of the esophagus. a man in his 40s had a recent history of excessive thirst and urination (due to diabetes) and of progressive confusion. Ceruloplasmin normally removes iron from cells. In fact. The iron deposition damages these tissues and leads to the clinical features of the disease which usually appear between 30 and 50 years of age. as can coughing or breathing problems due to entry of food into the lungs. Brand name: Tylenol. The acetabulum is a feature of the pelvis. A fairly recent approach involves injecting medicines into the lower esophagus to relax the sphincter. including those of the pancreas. When asked why he was not at work he replied. "What work?" Dementia progressed thereafter. Treatment includes medication. The ACE inhibitors are drugs that inhibit the formation of angiotensin II and are used for blood pressure control and congestive heart failure. a chelating agent that takes up iron. . Aceruloplasminemia: A genetic disorder in which there is absence of the protein ceruloplasmin from blood and accumulation of iron in the pancreas. liver. The ACE inhibitors include benazepril (brand name: Lotensin). The exact mechanism of action of acetaminophen is not known. a vinegar cup. Regurgitation of undigested food can occur. causing diabetes and progressive neurodegeneration with the tremors and gait abnormalities characteristic of Parkinson disease. One day he suddenly left work and was found at home the next day sitting in a chair with the appearance of not having been to bed. by requiring a greater amount of pain to develop before it is felt by a person). liver and brain. and surgery to open the lower esophagus. ACE converts angiotensin to its activated form (called angiotensin II) enabling it to function. endoscopy. Acetaminophen: A pain reliever and fever reducer. may halt the progression of these complications. Aggressive treatment with deferoxamine. Achalasia: A disease of the esophagus caused by the abnormal function of nerves and muscles of the esophagus that makes swallowing difficult.
Acne happens when oil (sebaceous) glands come to life around puberty. Achromatopsia: An hereditary disorder of sight due to a lack of cone vision . Acne: Localized skin inflammation as a result of overactivity of the oil glands at the base of hair follicles. Lacking cones. failure or absence + "chalasis". There are also incomplete rod monochromats and blue cone monochromats who are less severely affected. . was the only part of his body where he could be hurt. . relaxation = a failure of relaxation. It protrudes laterally (away from the midline) and is triangular in shape. Of all achromats. Acidosis is associated with diabetic ketoacidosis. Also referred to as acquired immunodeficiency disease. when these glands are stimulated by male hormones that are produced in the adrenal glands of both boys and girls. The opposite of acidosis is alkalosis in which there is too high a pH due to excess base or insufficient acid in the body. they are located largely in the center of the retina. Acidosis: Too much acid in the body. The top of the shoulder is acromial. In the normal eye. persons with achromatopsia have to rely on their rod photoreceptors. The Achilles tendon is one of the better known anatomic features in sports medicine due to the abrupt dramatic nature of some injuries to this tendon. The word "acromion" comes from the Greek "akron". peak + "omos". The acromion is part of the scapula. those who are complete rod monochromats have the most severely impaired vision. Achromats (people with achromatopsia) are therefore completely colorblind or nearly so and have very poor visual acuity.that type of vision provided by the cone photoreceptors in the retina. There are about 100 million rod photoreceptors which are located mainly around the periphery of the retina. referring to failure of the lower sphincter muscle of the esophagus to relax.The "ch" in achalasia is pronounced "k" as in "ache". There are many degrees of severity of symptoms among achromats. a distinctly abnormal condition resulting from the accumulation of acid or from the depletion of alkaline reserves. The word achalasia comes from the Greek "a-". Their eyes do not adapt normally to higher levels of illumination and are very light sensitive (photophobic). Acromion: The projection of the scapula (the shoulder blade) that forms the point of the shoulder. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: AIDS. and severe kidney disease. Inflammation in the Achilles tendon and bursa is collectively known as achillodynia. there are some 6 million cone photoreceptors. Achillobursitis: Pain due to inflammation of the bursa associated with the Achilles tendon. lung disease. It is in the back of the lower leg and connects the calf muscle (the triceps surae) with the calcaneus bone in the heel. the pH of the blood is abnormally low. Acromegaly: Condition due to the production of too much growth hormone by the pituitary gland after the end of adolescence. AIDS is a disease due to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In acidosis. shoulder = the peak of the shoulder. This tendon is so named for the hero whose heel. according to Greek mythology. Rods saturate at higher levels of illumination and do not provide color vision or good detail vision.
" Adjuvant: The Latin "adjuvans" means to help. ADH secretion. Genetic factors. . all too often. an acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) may last a week while an acute sore throat may only last a day or two. prostate cancer. the doctor's order might read: "Water ad lib" (water as desired). Addiction: A chronic relapsing condition characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and abuse and by long-lasting chemical changes in the brain. and causes nausea. Every addictive substance induces pleasant states or relieves distress. or nicotine. The genetic factors predisposing to addiction are not yet fully understood. An adjuvant is a substance that helps and enhances the pharmacological effect of a drug or increases the ability of an antigen to stimulate the immune system. marijuana. muscle cramps. uncontrollable craving and. People with pituitary gigantism can truly be giants. in reference to a disease. adenobecomes aden-. heroin. cocaine. rapidly progressive. "Chronic" indicates indefinite duration or virtually no change. This syndrome may occur. From the Greek aden meaning originally "an acorn" and later "a gland" in the form of an acorn. For example. during an overnight fast when the patient is not to eat any food but can have water.When there is secretion of too much growth hormone before the end of adolescence." "Subacute" indicates longer duration or less rapid change. physical dependence." Sometimes seen on a prescription or doctor's order. amphetamines. pancreatic cancer. gigantism results. The time scale depends on the particular disease. Continued use of the addictive substance induces adaptive changes in the brain that lead to tolerance. with oat-cell lung cancer. account for about 40% of the risk of alcoholism. relapse. Ad lib: Abbreviation for the Latin "ad libitum" meaning "at pleasure" and "at one's pleasure. Dependence is at such a point that stopping is very difficult and causes severe physical and mental reactions from withdrawal. Acute: Of abrupt onset. as in adenoma and adenopathy. particularly lard. as much as one desires. confusion and convulsions. Acute often also connotes an illness that is of short duration. Addiction is the same irrespective of whether the drug is alcohol. Adipose: "Adipose" means "fat" but is usually used to refer specifically to tissue made up of mainly fat cells such as the yellow layer of fat beneath the skin. as in adenitis (inflammation of a gland). Before a vowel. they can sometimes end up over 7 or 8 feet in height. vomiting. Adeno-: Prefix referring to a gland. The word "adipose" comes from the Latin "adeps" meaning "fat. for example. and in need of urgent care. for example. and Hodgkin's disease as well as a number of other disorders. "Acute" is a measure of the time scale of a disease and is in contrast to "subacute" and "chronic. to the full extent of one's wishes. perturbs fluid (and electrolyte) balance. The risk of addiction is in part inherited. For example. particularly to reach a goal. inappropriate: The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) results in the inability to put out dilute urine. Adjuvant therapy for cancer is surgery followed by chemotherapy or radiation to help decrease the risk of the cancer recurring (coming back).
fatigue. and progressive dementia. Symptoms may include mental retardation. It affects only boys because the gene is on the X chromosome. vessel. ataxia. coming from abroad or from outside." Other English words that stem from "advenire" include "adventure" and "avenue. For example. Adnexa: This Latin word (in the plural) is used in medicine in reference to appendages. disturbances of gait and coordination. "Adventitia" comes from the Latin "adventicius" meaning "foreign. The treatment for all forms of ALD is symptomatic and supportive. Symptoms may include leg stiffness. . There are several forms of ALD: The classic childhood form. dysarthria (poorly articulated speech). and ataxia. may occur between ages 4 and 10. or other structure. The milder adult-onset form typically begins between ages 21 and 35. Symptoms are mild and may include spastic paraparesis of the lower limbs. intermittent vomiting. Physical therapy. which is the most severe and affects only boys. Although adult-onset ALD progresses more slowly than the classic childhood form. strange. and adrenal dysfunction. The myelin sheath is a fatty covering which acts as an electrical insulator. For example. melanoderma (increased skin pigmentation). mild peripheral neuropathy. Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is one of a group of genetic disorders called the leukodystrophies that cause damage to the myelin sheath of the nerve fibers in the brain. The prognosis for patients with ALD is generally poor due to progressive neurological deterioration. in gynecology the adnexa are the "appendages" of the uterus. namely the ovaries. and urinary problems. the connective tissue that surrounds an artery is called the adventitia because it is considered extraneous to the artery. psychological support. seizures. learning disabilities. Neonatal (newborn) ALD affects both male and female babies. progressive spastic paraparesis (stiffness. retinal degeneration." When a doctor or nurse listens to the chest or abdomen. Adrenoleukodystrophy: A rare genetic (inherited) disorder characterized by the breakdown or loss of the myelin sheath surrounding nerve cells in the brain and progressive dysfunction of the adrenal gland. Features of this form may include visual loss. and special education may be useful for some individuals. dysphagia (difficulty swallowing). and poor school performance. extraneous. it can also result in deterioration of brain function. hypertonia (excessive muscle tone).Admitting physician: The doctor responsible for admitting a patient to a hospital or other inpatient health facility. deafness. Women carriers: Another form of ALD is occasionally seen in women who are carriers of the disorder." A related term is "adventititious" meaning "coming from an external source or occurring in an unusual place or manner. The most common symptoms are usually behavioral changes such as abnormal withdrawal or aggression. hepatomegaly (enlarged liver). seizures. Adventitia: The outermost connective tissue covering of any organ. Death usually occurs within 1 to 10 years after the onset of symptoms. hypotonia (low muscle tone). facial abnormalities. Fallopian tubes and ligaments that hold the uterus in place. weakness and/or paralysis) of the lower extremities. This form is usually quickly progressive. adventitious sounds are those that are normally not heard coming from the chest or abdomen. poor memory.
People with agnosia may retain their cognitive abilities in other areas. Aerophagia: Swallowing too much air. fear of thoroughfares themselves. highways and other thoroughfares pose no threat commensurate with their fear. The first letter. Agnosia: The inability to recognize and identify objects or persons despite having knowledge of the characteristics of those objects or persons. People with agnosia may have difficulty recognizing the geometric features of an object or face or may be able to perceive the geometric features but not know what the object is used for or whether a face is familiar or not. For example." Aerophagia is literally to eat air. It typically results from damage to specific brain areas in the occipital or parietal lobes of the brain." is privative--that is. dementia. rapid eating or drinking. . or salty substances. "a.Adverse effect: A harmful or abnormal result. Everyone swallows small amounts of air when eating or drinking. An adverse effect may be caused by administration of a medication or by exposure to a chemical and be indicated by an untoward result such as by illness or death. or ill-fitting dentures may cause a significant increase in swallowed air. smoking. Agnosia can result from strokes. bitter. Some people can taste but their ability to do so is reduced. they are said to have hypogeusia. an agyrophobiac shuns or avoids the whirl of traffic. or other neurological disorders. chewing gum. Ageusia: The inability to taste sweet. it creates a negative. The word "phage" in Greek means "to eat. highways and other thoroughfares. Formed from the Greek "gyrus" (turning or whirling) and the Greek "phobos" (fear). Agyrophobia: Abnormal and persistent fear of crossing streets. Thus. a common cause of gas in the stomach and belching. Agnosia can be limited to one sensory modality such as vision or hearing. a person may have difficulty in recognizing an object as a cup or identifying a sound as a cough. However. sour. Sufferers experience anxiety even though they realize that streets.
stubby fingers and toes.(oxygen) + –ia == the state of being without oxygen. From the Latin calor. rubor and tumor). Chronic: This important term in medicine comes from the Greek chronos. See also: Dolor. Brachdactyly is a frequent feature of syndromes of congenital malformation (constellations of birth defects) including Down syndrome ( The calf is made up mainly of the gastrocnemius muscle (which comes from the Greek "gastroknemia" meaning calf of the leg. pain. grief or sorrow. . From an– (without) + -ox. Vasculitis is a general term for a group of uncommon diseases that feature inflammation of the blood vessels. heat. the absence of oxygen. Pain. A chronic condition is one lasting 3 months or more. Adenitis: Inflammation of a gland. By extension. From the Latin gastricus meaning stomach + -itis. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach. meaning inflammation. Subacute has been coined to designate the mid-ground between acute and chronic. the "father of medicine" Hippocrates distinguished diseases that were acute (abrupt. inflammation. one of the four classic signs of inflammation (together with calor. </P< HTML> Brachy-: Short. Strictly speaking.-itis: Suffix meaning inflammation. Rubor. gland + -itis. + "kneme. The prefix "brachy-" appears in a number of medical terms including brachycephaly. From the aden-." leg). one of the four classic signs of inflammation (together with dolor. sharp and brief) from those that were chronic. The ending -itis is one of the building blocks derived from Greek (in this case) or Latin used to construct medical terms. it is thought. belly. and brachytherapy: Brachycephaly is a short head. and tumor). This is still a very useful distinction. from the Indo-European "gelbh" meaning to bunch up. rubor and tumor). The word "calf" comes through the Anglo-Saxon. Tumor. one of the four classic signs of inflammation (together with dolor. calor. The near absence of oxygen.S. From the Greek brachys meaning short. The blood vessels of the body are referred to as the vascular system. From the Latin rubor. From Latin dolor. For example. Anoxia: 1. one that is short in diameter from front to back. heat. colitis is literally colon inflammation or figuratively inflammation of the colon. brachydactyly. National Center for Health Statistics. by the definition of the U. The blood vessels are composed of arteries that pass oxygen-rich blood to the tissues of the body and veins that return oxygen-depleted blood from the tissues to the lungs for oxygen. Vasculitis is characterized by inflammation in and damage to the walls of various blood vessels. 2. from "gaster" (gastr-). as do the muscles of the calf. Calor: Heat. Dolor: 1. 3. time and means lasting a long time. 2. In ancient Greece. Sometimes used loosely as a synonym for hypoxia. Brachydactyly means short. Rubor: Redness.
At one point in the development of the human embryo. Congenital comes from the Latin congenitus which is made up of com-. as a cell or container. as in dacryocyst (tear sac) and dacryocystorhinostomy (surgery to open up a tear duct)." Cyto-: Prefix denoting a cell. pancytopenia. From the Greek kolpos meaning a fold. or hollow. cytoplasm. Colpo-: Combining form referring to the vagina. elliptocytosis.Cloaca: A common passageway for feces. agranulocytosis. cleft. It is the far end of a structure called the hindgut. to bring forth. However. or a collection of blood. As a general rule. hemi. monocyte. some fish. Dacryo-: A combining form denoting tears. hemiplegia. The term "congenital" is synonymous with "innate. spherocytosis. and genitalia. From the Greek hemisus meaning half and equivalent to the Latin semi-. and even a few mammals). The word "congenital" has not been used in English since its birth but first appeared in 1796. as in hemiparesis.goes with words of Greek origin and semi. histiocyte.and -cyte enter into many words and terms used in medicine. with + genitus. as in colposcopy (inspection of the vagina) and colpotomy (incision of the vagina). there is a cloaca. -cyto. erythrocyte. Cyto-. cytometry. thrombocyte. referring to the blood + -oma. from soma meaning body = a bloody body. megakaryocyte. urine and reproduction. The confusion may have arisen because the word "colon" came from "kolon" which to the ancient Greeks meant the large intestine. Hemi-: Prefix meaning one half. . oocyte. It was devised from Greek roots -. macrocyte." The word "hematoma" came into usage around 1850. Cloaca is the Latin word for drain or sewer. amphibians. The colon is sometimes inaccurately called the large intestine or large bowel. the persistence of a persistent cloaca in a person is a birth defect (a congenital malformation). The presence of a cloaca is normal in many adult animals (birds. From the Greek dakry meaning "a tear. melanocyte.with those of Latin origin. cytotoxic. a bladder. the past participle of gignere. lymphocytosis. not always followed. including adipocyte. granulocyte.hemat-. cytokine. "Cyto-" is derived from the Greek "kytos" meaning "hollow." From the same root come the combining form "-cyto-" and the suffix "-cyte" which similarly denote a cell. Hepatic-: A combining form used before a vowel to indicate a relationship to a hepatic duct or the liver. This structure then divides to form a rectum. lymphocyte. phagocyte. cytogenetics. and thrombocytopenia. reptiles. and hemithorax. It is only a part of the large intestine/bowel. leukocyte. From the Greek hepar meaning liver. cytomegalovirus.
p.Keith Gordon Irwin. 1962). W. 1968)." in The Legacy of Greece. (Oxford. (New York: The Viking Press. The Romance of Writing. 253. "Literature. p. 57. Great Britain: University Press. R. . Livingstone.
How Languages Influence Each Other
LANGUAGES, like cultures, are rarely sufficient unto themselves. The necessities of intercourse bring the speakers of one language into direct or indirect contact with those of neighboring or culturally dominant languages. The intercourse may be friendly or hostile. It may move on the humdrum plane of business and trade relations or it may consist of a borrowing or interchange of spiritual goodsŕart, science, religion. It would be difficult to point to a completely isolated language or dialect, least of all among the primitive peoples. The tribe is often so small that intermarriages with alien tribes that speak other dialects or even totally unrelated languages are not uncommon. It may even be doubted whether intermarriage, intertribal trade, and general cultural interchanges are not of greater relative significance on primitive levels than on our own. Whatever the degree or nature of contact between neighboring peoples, it is generally sufficient to lead to some kind of linguistic interinfluencing. Frequently the influence runs heavily in one direction. The language of a people that is looked upon as a center of culture is naturally far more likely to exert an appreciable influence on other languages spoken in its vicinity than to be influenced by them. Chinese has flooded the vocabularies of Corean, Japanese, and Annamite for centuries, but has received nothing in return. In the western Europe of medieval and modern times French has exercised a similar, though probably a less overwhelming, influence. English borrowed an immense number of words from the French of the Norman invaders, later also from the court French of Isle de France, appropriated a certain number of affixed elements of derivational value (e.g., -ess of princess, -ard of drunkard, -ty of royalty), may have been somewhat stimulated in its general analytic drift by contact with French, 1 and even allowed French to modify its phonetic pattern slightly (e.g., initial v and j in words like veal and judge; in words of Anglo-Saxon origin v and j can only occur after vowels, e.g., over, hedge). But English has exerted practically no influence on French. The simplest kind of influence that one language may exert on another is the Ŗborrowingŗ of words. When there is cultural borrowing there is always the likelihood that the associated words may be borrowed too. When the early Germanic peoples of northern Europe first learned of wine-culture and of paved streets from their commercial or warlike contact with the Romans, it was only natural that they should adopt the Latin words for the strange beverage (vinum, English wine, German Wein) and the unfamiliar type of road (strata [via], English street, German Strasse). Later, when Christianity was introduced into England, a number of associated words, such as bishop and angel, found their way into English. And so the process has continued uninterruptedly down to the present day, each cultural wave bringing to the language a new deposit of loan-words. The careful study of such loan-words constitutes an interesting commentary on the history of culture. One can almost estimate the rôle which various peoples have played in the development and spread of cultural ideas by taking note of the extent to which their vocabularies have filtered into those of other peoples. When we realize that an educated Japanese can hardly frame a single literary sentence without the use of Chinese resources, that to this day Siamese and Burmese and Cambodgian bear the unmistakable imprint of the Sanskrit and Pali that came in with Hindu Buddhism centuries ago, or that whether we
argue for or against the teaching of Latin and Greek our argument is sure to be studded with words that have come to us from Rome and Athens, we get some inkling of what early Chinese culture and Buddhism and classical Mediterranean civilization have meant in the worldřs history. There are just five languages that have had an over-whelming significance as carriers of culture. They are classical Chinese, Sanskrit, Arabic, Greek, and Latin. In comparison with these even such culturally important languages as Hebrew and French sink into a secondary position. It is a little disappointing to learn that the general cultural influence of English has so far been all but negligible. The English language itself is spreading because the English have colonized immense territories. But there is nothing to show that it is anywhere entering into the lexical heart of other languages as French has colored the English complexion or as Arabic has permeated Persian and Turkish. This fact alone is significant of the power of nationalism, cultural as well as political, during the last century. There are now psychological resistances to borrowing, or rather to new sources of borrowing, 2 that were not greatly alive in the Middle Ages or during the Renaissance. Are there resistances of a more intimate nature to the borrowing of words? It is generally assumed that the nature and extent of borrowing depend entirely on the historical facts of culture relation; that if German, for instance, has borrowed less copiously than English from Latin and French it is only because Germany has had less intimate relations than England with the culture spheres of classical Rome and France. This is true to a considerable extent, but it is not the whole truth. We must not exaggerate the physical importance of the Norman invasion nor underrate the significance of the fact that Germanyřs central geographical position made it peculiarly sensitive to French influences all through the Middle Ages, to humanistic influences in the latter fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, and again to the powerful French influences of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It seems very probable that the psychological attitude of the borrowing language itself towards linguistic material has much to do with its receptivity to foreign words. English has long been striving for the completely unified, unanalyzed word, regardless of whether it is monosyllabic or polysyllabic. Such words as credible, certitude, intangible are entirely welcome in English because each represents a unitary, well-nuanced idea and because their formal analysis (cred-ible, certitude, in-tang-ible) is not a necessary act of the unconscious mind (cred-, cert-, and tang- have no real existence in English comparable to that of good- in goodness). A word like intangible, once it is acclimated, is nearly as simple a psychological entity as any radical monosyllable (say vague, thin, grasp). In German, however, polysyllabic words strive to analyze themselves into significant elements. Hence vast numbers of French and Latin words, borrowed at the height of certain cultural influences, could not maintain themselves in the language. Latin-German words like kredibel Ŗcredibleŗ and French-German words like reussieren Ŗto succeedŗ offered nothing that the unconscious mind could assimilate to its customary method of feeling and handling words. It is as though this unconscious mind said: ŖI am perfectly willing to accept kredibel if you will just tell me what you mean by kred-.” Hence German has generally found it easier to create new words out of its own resources, as the necessity for them arose. The psychological contrast between English and German as regards the treatment of foreign material is a contrast that may be studied in all parts of the world. The Athabaskan languages of America are spoken by peoples that have had astonishingly
varied cultural contacts, yet nowhere do we find that an Athabaskan dialect has borrowed at all freely 3 from a neighboring language. These languages have always found it easier to create new words by compounding afresh elements ready to hand. They have for this reason been highly resistant to receiving the linguistic impress of the external cultural experiences of their speakers. Cambodgian and Tibetan offer a highly instructive contrast in their reaction to Sanskrit influence. Both are analytic languages, each totally different from the highly-wrought, inflective language of India. Cambodgian is isolating, but, unlike Chinese, it contains many polysyllabic words whose etymological analysis does not matter. Like English, therefore, in its relation to French and Latin, it welcomed immense numbers of Sanskrit loan-words, many of which are in common use to-day. There was no psychological resistance to them. Classical Tibetan literature was a slavish adaptation of Hindu Buddhist literature and nowhere has Buddhism implanted itself more firmly than in Tibet, yet it is strange how few Sanskrit words have found their way into the language. Tibetan was highly resistant to the polysyllabic words of Sanskrit because they could not automatically fall into significant syllables, as they should have in order to satisfy the Tibetan feeling for form. Tibetan was therefore driven to translating the great majority of these Sanskrit words into native equivalents. The Tibetan craving for form was satisfied, though the literally translated foreign terms must often have done violence to genuine Tibetan idiom. Even the proper names of the Sanskrit originals were carefully translated, element for element, into Tibetan; e.g., Suryagarbha ŖSun-bosomedŗ was carefully Tibetanized into Nyi-mai snying-po ŖSun-of heart-the, the heart (or essence) of the sun.ŗ The study of how a language reacts to the presence of foreign wordsŕrejecting them, translating them, or freely accepting themŕmay throw much valuable light in its innate formal tendencies. The borrowing of foreign words always entails their phonetic modification. There are sure to be foreign sounds or accentual peculiarities that do not fit the native phonetic habits. They are then so changed as to do as little violence as possible to these habits. Frequently we have phonetic compromises. Such an English word as the recently introduced camouflage, as now ordinarily pronounced, corresponds to the typical phonetic usage of neither English nor French. The aspirated k, the obscure vowel of the second syllable, the precise quality of the l and of the last a, and, above all, the strong accent on the first syllable, are all the results of unconscious assimilation to our English habits of pronunciation. They differentiate our camouflage clearly from the same word as pronounced by the French. On the other hand, the long, heavy vowel in the third syllable and the final position of the Ŗzhŗ sound (like z in azure) are distinctly un-English, just as, in Middle English, the initial j and v 4 must have been felt at first as not strictly in accord with English usage, though the strangeness has worn off by now. In all four of these casesŕinitial j, initial v, final Ŗzh,ŗ and unaccented a of fatherŕEnglish has not taken on a new sound but has merely extended the use of an old one. Occasionally a new sound is introduced, but it is likely to melt away before long. In Chaucerřs day the old Anglo-Saxon ü (written y) had long become unrounded to i, but a new set of ü-vowels had come in from the French (in such words as due, value, nature). The new ü did not long hold its own; it became diphthongized to iu and was amalgamated with the native iw of words like new and slew. Eventually this diphthong appears as yu, with change of stressŕdew (from Anglo-Saxon deaw) like due (Chaucerian dü). Facts like these show how stubbornly a language resists radical tampering with its phonetic
North German. to North German and Scandinavian dialects. k). of Russian and other Slavic languages to the unrelated Ural-Altaic languages 5 of the Volga region. for instance. aspirated stops of English. for instance. in certain special phonetic respects. whether related or not. say. Here are a few examples. have now nasalized vowels in lieu of the older vowel + nasal consonant (n).pattern. we know that languages do influence each other in phonetic respects. neighbors of French. 7 In the northern part of the area all the languages. there are certain general phonetic features that mark off Dutch and Flemish in contrast. One of the most puzzling cases of phonetic parallelism is afforded by a large number of American Indian languages spoken west of the Rockies. Chief of these is the presence of a Ŗglottalizedŗ series of stopped consonants of very distinctive formation and of quite unusual acoustic effect. or practically all. and Indo-Iranian. Nevertheless. The Germanic languages as a whole have not developed nasalized vowels. the languages of this immense area have some important phonetic features in common. but which contrast with the stronger. We may at least suspect that the Slavic vowel is not historically unconnected with its Ural-Altaic parallels. and that quite aside from the taking over of foreign sounds with borrowed words. The peculiar. in two of the three European examples I have instanced. Even at the most radical estimate there are at least four totally unrelated linguistic stocks represented in the region from southern Alaska to central California. also possess various voiceless l-sounds and a series of Ŗvelarŗ (backguttural) stopped consonants which are etymologically distinct from the ordinary k-series. that they are the unmodified descendants of the old Germanic consonants. which have a precise. Armenian. These parallels become especially impressive when they are seen contrastively from a wide phonetic perspective. It must be ruled entirely out of court. known in Russian as Ŗyeriŗ 6 has Ural-Altaic analogues. the nearest Indo-European congeners of Slavic. We may suppose that 7 8 . One of these is the presence of unaspirated voiceless stops (p. which makes abundant use of nasalized vowels? Again. Certain Upper German (Suabian) dialects. dull vowel. It is difficult to believe that three such peculiar phonetic features as I have mentioned could have evolved independently in neighboring groups of languages. however. However we envisage the process in detail. and Danish. One of the most curious facts that linguistics has to note is the occurrence of striking phonetic parallels in totally unrelated or very remotely related languages of a restricted geographical area. Greek. but is entirely wanting in Germanic. t. Is it only accidental that these dialects are spoken in proximity to French. both nasalized vowels and the Slavic Ŗyeriŗ are demonstrably of secondary origin in Indo-European. metallic quality reminiscent of the corresponding French sounds. were inhibited from modifying these consonants in accordance with what seems to have been a general Germanic phonetic drift? Even more striking than these instances is the peculiar resemblance. How are we to explain these and hundreds of similar phonetic convergences? In particular cases we may really be dealing with archaic similarities due to a genetic relationship that it is beyond our present power to demonstrate. is it not perhaps a significant historical fact that the Dutch dialects. But this interpretation will not get us far. Even if we assume that the unaspirated stops are more archaic. Nevertheless all. we cannot avoid the inference that there is a tendency for speech sounds or certain distinctive manners of articulation to spread over a continuous area in somewhat the same way that elements of culture ray out from a geographical center.
is hardly different in kind from the mere borrowing of words. 8 Does it follow that the voiceless l of language B has had the same history? Not in the least. English was already prepared for the relation of pity to piteous by such a native pair as luck and lucky. Eventually their phonetic systems. I have already pointed out in passing that English has taken over a certain number of morphological elements from French.individual variations arising at linguistic borderlandsŕwhether by the unconscious suggestive influence of foreign speech habits or by the actual transfer of foreign sounds into the speech of bilingual individualsŕhave gradually been incorporated into the phonetic drift of a language. In phonetics. that an old alternation s: sh has been shifted to the new alternation l (voiceless): s. provided always that these new variations (or reinforced old variations) are in the direction of the native drift. like the -ize of materialize or the -able of breakable. was originally followed by a marked aspiration. we must be careful not to exaggerate the importance of interlinguistic influences. these languages cannot be said to have diverged materially from the line of their inherent drift. Setting aside the fact that they belong to the sphere of derivational concepts and do not touch the central morphological problem of the expression of relational ideas. English also uses a number of affixes that are derived from Latin and Greek. So long as its main phonetic concern is the preservation of its sound patterning. its alternation in related words with medial voiced l is very likely to have led to its analogical spread. they have added nothing to the structural peculiarities of our language. Let us suppose that two neighboring and unrelated languages. The highly significant thing about such phonetic interinfluencings is the strong tendency of each language to keep its phonetic pattern intact. In other words. so that the final l. the morphological influence exerted by foreign languages on English. Perhaps comparative study reveals the fact that in language A the voiceless l-sounds correspond to a sibilant series in other related languages. there is really no reason why a language may not unconsciously assimilate foreign sounds that have succeeded in working their way into its gamut of individual variations. are even productive to-day. so long as they have differing Ŗvaluesŗ and Ŗweightsŗ in the unrelated languages. Such examples as these are hardly true evidences of a morphological influence exerted by one language on another. if it is to be gauged by such examples as I have cited. like a final vowel. Once the final voiceless l emerged. though this is an extreme case hardly ever realized in practice. Perhaps B has a strong tendency toward audible breath release at the end of a word. The introduction of the suffix -ize 9 10 . A simple illustration will throw light on this conception. judged as mere assemblages of sounds. So long as the respective alignments of the similar sounds is different. material and materialize merely swelled the ranks of a form pattern familiar from such instances as wide and widen. Yet this final l with its latent tendency to unvoicing might never have actually developed into a fully voiceless l had not the presence of voiceless l-sounds in A acted as an unconscious stimulus or suggestive push toward a more radical change in the line of Břs own drift. A and B. not of its sounds as such. as in vocabulary. Individuals perhaps tended to anticipate a little the voiceless release and to Ŗunvoiceŗ the latter part of the final l-sound (very much as the l of English words like felt tends to be partly voiceless in anticipation of the voicelessness of the t). The result would be that both A and B have an important phonetic trait in common. each possess voiceless l-sounds (compare Welsh ll). might even become completely assimilated to each other. We surmise that this is not an accident. Some of these foreign elements.
But such farreaching influences are not demonstrable. then. self-contained morphological development of English and the very modest extent to which its fundamental build has been affected by influences from without. but we cannot say that such and such other languages are not genetically related. though here and there we may surmise that this drift was hastened a little by the suggestive influence of French forms. Yet certain morphological distributions are too specific in character to be so lightly dismissed. Some times we may suspect that the resemblance is due to a mere convergence. May it not be. it remained so true to its own type and historic drift. that a similar morphological feature has grown up independently in unrelated languages. indeed. All we can do is to say that the evidence for relationship is not cumulative enough to make the inference of common origin absolutely necessary. then. conditions that do not happen to be realized in our documentary material. We may infer one of several things from this:ŕThat a really serious morphological influence is not. that it is customary to consider them genetically unrelated. that many instances of morphological similarity between divergent languages of a restricted 11 12 . which has gone even further than English in certain leveling tendencies. Meanwhile we are confronted by the baffling fact that important traits of morphology are frequently found distributed among widely differing languages within a large area. so widely differing. but that. or. There must be some historical factor to account for them. that we have not the right to assume that a language may easily exert a remolding morphological influence on another.made hardly more difference to the essential build of the language than did the mere fact that it incorporated a given number of words. or that there are certain favorable conditions that make for profound morphological disturbances from without. The history of the English language has sometimes been represented as though it relapsed into a kind of chaos on the arrival of the Normans. exposed as it was to remolding influences. perhaps. That a far-reaching analytic development may take place without such external foreign influence as English was subjected to is clear from the history of Danish. Now it should be remembered that the concept of a Ŗlinguistic stockŗ is never definitive 10 in an exclusive sense. but that its operation is so slow that it has hardly ever had the chance to incorporate itself in the relatively small portion of linguistic history that lies open to inspection. who proceeded to play nine-pins with the Anglo-Saxon tradition. that such and such languages are descended from a common source. Within the whole course of the history of the English language we can hardly point to one important morphological change that was not determined by the native drift. We can only say. say a peculiar instability of linguistic type or an unusual degree of cultural contact. The wonder. 9 It is important to realize the continuous. The experience gained from the study of the English language is strengthened by all that we know of documented linguistic history. Students are more conservative today. It was flooded with French loan-words during the later Middle Ages. mere accretions on its concrete inventory. at a time when its drift toward the analytic type was especially strong. Had English evolved a new future on the model of the synthetic future in French or had it borrowed from Latin and Greek their employment of reduplication as a functional device (Latin tango: tetigi. finally. we should have the right to speak of true morphological influence. English may be conveniently used as an a fortiori test. Nowhere do we find any but superficial morphological interinfluencings. with reasonable certainty. is not that it took on a number of external morphological features. It was therefore changing rapidly both within and on the surface. impossible. Greek leipo: leloipa).
13 14 . in the absence of all but their own descriptive evidence. in all probability. to Semitic and Hamitic. It is easier to kill it off than to disintegrate its individual form. such as Basque and Finnish. gradually making themselves at home in cultures to which they were at one time alien. will these vestigial resemblances receive their true historic value. the points of resemblance are likely to have become so obliterated that English and Irish. now that.area are merely the last vestiges of a community of type and phonetic substance that the destructive work of diverging drifts has now made unrecognizable? There is probably still enough lexical and morphological resemblance between modern English and Irish to enable us to make out a fairly conclusive case for their genetic relationship on the basis of the present-day descriptive evidence alone. I cannot but suspect that many of the more significant distributions of morphological similarities are to be explained as just such vestiges. We must not allow ourselves to be frightened away by the timidity of the specialists. and other features of culture may spread from point to point. not to the complicating effect of single. industrial devices. say.ŗ Attempts have sometimes been made to explain the distribution of these fundamental structural features by the theory of diffusion. Only in the light of the contrastive perspective afforded by still more divergent languages. therefore.ŗ and that even morphological elements may be taken over. to the various Soudanese languages. hidden away in the very core of the linguistic complex. The theory of Ŗborrowingŗ seems totally inadequate to explain those fundamental features of structure. So long as such direct historical testimony as we have gives us no really convincing examples of profound morphological influence by diffusion. It is true that the case would seem weak in comparison to the case that we can actually make with the help of the historical and the comparative data that we possess. We also know that words may be diffused no less freely than cultural elements. that have been pointed out as common. An examination of such cases. We may go further and recognize that certain languages have. On the whole. the most massively resistant of all social phenomena. types of social organization. It would not be a bad case nevertheless. diffused features that cluster now this way. Language is probably the most self-contained. we shall do well not to put too much reliance in diffusion theories. taken on structural features owing to the suggestive influence of neighboring languages. however. They will still have in common certain fundamental morphological features. 12 to Athabaskan and Tlingit and Haida. In another two or three millennia. that sounds also may be Ŗborrowed. 13 however. who are often notably lacking in the sense of what I have called Ŗcontrastive perspective. to Malayo-Polynesian and Mon-Khmer 11 and Munda. We know that myths. will have to be set down as Ŗunrelatedŗ languages. almost invariably reveals the significant fact that they are but superficial additions on the morphological kernel of the language. we shall ascribe the major concordances and divergences in linguistic formŕphonetic pattern and morphologyŕto the autonomous drift of language. religious ideas. but it will be difficult to know how to evaluate them.
After that there followed a great movement of English words in the course of the eighteenth century which led L..P. The English language itself is spreading because the English have colonized immense territories. The generosity of English as a donor language began much later and some authors state that prior to 1900 the influence of English on other languages was modest. The Italians followed the continental Anglomania. nay not there over all'.. and then spread to the rest of Europe. and the humble trade terms. stretching no further than this island of ours.. The Germans . However. This process of borrowing has gone on for centuries and evidence can be found not only in etymological dictionaries of English but also in every general dictionary of English that denotes the origin of source of words recorded in it. particularly to Italy.. Books and articles have been written to prove its hospitality in accepting words from various languages. fashions and even English games which appeared about 1750 in some European countries. The only English word borrowed in the sixteenth century which has become a general European term is dog'. a few English words connected with trade and with the sea found their way into the French language. which had been borrowed in the previous centuries'. Richard Mulcaster wrote that 'the English tongue is of small reach.. This linguistic fact corresponds very accurately in date to that great historical event which has been called 'the discovery of England'.. he admits that 'during the Middle Ages. first in France. and in the sixteenth and the greater part of the seventeenth century the terms that were borrowed are of some unimportant kind. Smith to say that 'there is perhaps nothing in linguistic history more striking than the contrast between the great English words which reached the continent at that period. But there is nothing to show that it is anywhere entering into the lexical heart of other languages.it is a little disappointing to learn that the general cultural influence of English has so far been all but negligible. not merely terms from trades and shipping. Towards the end of the seventeenth and in the first half of the eighteenth century a remarkable change took place. Foreign nations began to borrow English words in ever increasing numbers. but words of a much more important kind. was called 'Anglomania'. the names of boats and fishes. English has developed into the most generous donor of words to other languages..Early contacts From having been one of the most hospitable languages of the world in its acceptance of foreign loans. borrowing the same words and imitating the same sentiments. our country [England] made no additions before a comparatively late date towards the end of the seventeenth century'. Sapir in his book Language is more explicit when he says that . The interest in England. in English opinion.Logan Pearsall Smith believes that 'to the great vocabulary of European civilization. By the end of the sixteenth century (in 1582). The infiltration of English words into French (at that time the universal language) led to their adoption by other European languages..
The main deposit of English words in French and German during the eighteenth century is much the same in the other languages of Europe regardless of whether they had direct or indirect contact with French and German which acted as important intermediaries. In the nineteenth century. English as a giving language and a European language as a receiving language. political etc. is enriched in the various fields of human knowledge to which Anglicisms belong. in fact. ties that the borrowed objects. Italian. Twentieth century contact In the twentieth century the contact of English with other languages of Europe became closer due to new means of communication. This specific feature is analysed below as a part of the adaptation of Anglicisms in the receiving language. On the other hand. notions etc. Swedish and Norwegian.got their first knowledge of England from France. when there is no direct contact between the two countries and their languages. English contributions to the vocabulary of European languages became more numerous and more widely spread. English loan-words reflect all these elements and in the receiving language they may have a direct influence on the vocabulary and the form of the receiving language. Danish. ideas or notions require their names to be transferred into the borrowing language. The most obvious result of the linguistic contact of English with other languages of Europe is the transfer of English words into other European languages. (b) Germanic: German. (c) Slavonic: Russian. covering all main European languages: (a) Romance: French. have such close geographic. This indirect transfer is performed through various media and the process is called indirect borrowing. ideas. To study the linguistic links in the twentieth century means. Spanish and Portuguese. Dutch. the consequences of the contact can be best illustrated by the number and the kind of loan-words taken from English. The contact between the two languages in question can also be established through a third language called an intermediary language. sociological. more recently with America) because this influence is mostly reflected in English loan-words in European languages. The study of Anglicisms The vocabulary of any receiving language after it has been in the direct or indirect contact with the giving language. The result was a very free and versatile linguistic borrowing of English words by European languages. cultural. Although the degree of English contact with other languages of Europe depends on various factors. there is no direct transfer of words needed to name borrowed objects. English. Polish and Croatian. to investigate the degree of cultural and economic contact with England (and. Direct transfer is performed when two languages. In the course of the three previous centuries (from the seventeenth to the nineteenth) there was a continuous linguistic intertraffic which was almost entirely governed by cultural relations and by the direct or indirect influence of England on other European countries. Our work on the project The English Element in . Their vocabulary is directly enriched through the transfer which can be direct or indirect.
trench coat. yard slang. reprint. They depend on the human activities of various nations and their contact with the English culture and civilisation. The kinds of Anglicisms and their number are not the same in various European languages. jam. whisk(e)y alligator. (m) technical terms etc. (i) philosophy and religion. back. bulldog. check. politics and law. The existing dictionaries of Anglicisms in the main European languages document the way in which an English source word is adapted into an Anglicism. (The principles of adaptation are discussed below). It is impossible in this limited space to quote all the languages of Europe and all the fields of human knowledge from which Anglicisms were borrowed. dumping. (h) journalism. watt. skunk ace. gallon. broker. inflation. (e) economy. It is quite difficult to enumerate all the fields of human activities of European nations on which English has exercised an influence. tennis bikini. the bigger number and more versatile the fields of contact are. grapefruit. We can quote only a limited number of English source words in the selected fields which were adapted into Anglicisms: (a) food and drink. Ulster boycott. The more linked they are. we will illustrate each thematic group by a few examples of the English source words from which Anglicisms in individual languages were developed and adapted according to the linguistic system of each receiving language. The result of English influence is that the receiving languages of Europe borrow English loans. adapt them as Anglicisms and subsequently integrate them into their vocabulary. bourbon. mustang. football. antelope. pint. column. alliteration. essay. strike bank note. An average contact between English and a European language results in 1500 to 2000 Anglicisms. blazer. juice. cardigan. (g) language and literature. (d) clothing. (k) science and natural science. (l) sea terms and navigation. (b) animals. export.the European Languages . Thematic fields food drink animals sports clothing economy banking and money measures language and literature journalism English source words bacon. which analyses about twenty European languages. beefsteak. dollar. banking and money. ounce. dog. pudding. (j) medicine. leader. raglan. (c) sports. boxer. pullover. safe acre. bantam. kangaroo. (f) trade and measures. has proved that nearly all fields of human knowledge have been represented in our dictionaries of Anglicisms. import. foot. blank verse. penny. digest. magazine . sandwich brandy. budget. pidgin. interview. bushel. In order to illustrate these. cent. Yiddish art director.
and (d) its meaning. waggon ballast. lift. western blizzard. trolley bus. kidnap. container. loyalist. film. whose linguistic systems are different from that of English. mumps. cowboy. if it is a noun. its gender. The analysis of every Anglicism in our dictionaries of Anglicisms in European languages is organised so that it defines: (a) the origin of the Anglicism (i. bypass. to determine which meaning of the English source word is transferred into the corresponding Anglicism. blues. lend-lease. English source words in passing from one system into several others must be adapted before they can be integrated. club. (c) the morphological level. lazer. to show how the spelling of an English source word is adapted into the orthography of the receiving language. (c) its morphological categories (parts of speech and gender). twist antifreeze. blister. beat. liberal. PASCAL. barge. airbus. Oscar. bit. anaesthesia. disc. freight. dominion. transmitter. radar aids. byte. typhoon accident. hurricane. chip. park. car ferry. channel. petition acculturation. radio. cable. vitamin aberration.politics law philosophy religion music and dance transport sea terms computer terms technical terms medicine science social life film. flirt. picnic. comfort.radio. hobby. bus. . bebop.TV weather miscellaneous apartheid. live. Anglican. behaviourism. Tory affadavit. bridge. indicated by sb-m/f/n) are determined. cracking. from which English model-source it was developed). the analysis is performed on four levels: (a) the orthographic level. isotope bar. Darwinism Adventist. to explain the pronunciation of the Anglicism especially when it differs from the English source word. cinerama. isolationism. folklore. penicillin. COBOL. assembler. conformism. jury. lynch. imperialism. pantheism band. (d) the semantic level. nylon. steamer. break dance. all right. camp.e. To achieve this. cameraman. computer. ROM amplifier. cyclone. ingot. (b) the phonological level. to show how the citation form of the Anglicism (and. poker cable TV. television. antibiotic. parliament. Mormon. labourist. derrick. tramway. monsoon. requires a linguistic analysis to explain how the process is performed. dandy. pacemaker. (b) its pronunciation in the receiving language. plastic Adaptation of Anglicisms The integration of a great number of Anglicisms into the receiving languages of Europe. clone. bloom. ALGOL. gravitation. cinemascope.
The orthography of Anglicisms The adaptation of an English source word into an Anglicism begins on the orthographic level in order to determine the spelling of the Anglicism (the citation form) and its relation to the orthography of the model (the English source). There are four possibilities: .
The second period is the Romanizationŕ following the Roman conquest of the Dacians. the answer is no. Turkish. "The Dacians. Romanian is also the most spoken language in Moldova. During that period. In this book he describes what the Dacians may have looked like. are believed to have spoken a Thracian tongue" (1). the rest are newer and come from Dacian. Colloquial Romanian. After the Romanization was a period of Slavic influence on the Proto Romanian of that time. "They are the autochthonous ethnic element which lies at the foundation of the Romanian people" (49).edu/classes/ling450ch/reports/romanian. There are 40 million speakers. It is related to French and mostly to Italian. and what their main activities were. Romania is unique in that it is the only Eastern Block country that speaks a Romance language. Constantin C. Of the Dacians. Not much is known of the Dacians. in his book Outline History of the Romanian Language says. The Making of the Romanian People and Language. . It illustrates the story of a nation of survivors. when studying this language. They also engaged in viticulture. "What language do they speak in Romaniaŕ Russian?" To the surprise of many however. The Dacians were also known for their cattle and their bee-keeping (50-51). The Dacians were the first known civilization to live in the area where Romania is now situated. It contains 66% Latin based words.byu. and two monuments that were erected following the Roman invasionŕ Tropeaum Traiani. followed by a Re-Latinization movement during the 19th Century. very beautiful language. in the introduction to his text book. words remaining in modern Romanian from that time period. or the cultivation of vinyards. Giurescu says. "Romanian is the only Romance language which has developed in the Eastern part of Latin Europe" (16).Romanian language comes from Latin. has its own. but speculations and theories have been made based on archeological finds. Greek or English. Alexandru Niculescu. Romanian reflects the turbulent history of its native speakers. located NE of Romania. from http://linguistics. Romania. the small country in the center of Eastern Europe. The first period I will look at is the Dacian period. The Daciansř main activity was agriculture.html The History of the Romanian Language Melodie Hanners Linguistics 450 "I have been asked many times. usually go back in their studies as far as two thousand years. 20% Slavic based words. They were skilled craftsmen in working metals to create tools and weapons. Dennis Deletant. The history of Romanian can be traced through different periods of outside influence on the language. the area that is now known as Romania was occupied by a civilization known as the Dacians (pronounced dachyanz). Dacians It would be impossible to report on the history of Romanian without reporting also on the history of the people. Historians. says. Giurescu wrote a book entitled. and Trajanřs Column. who occupied much of this area [the lower Danube region].
in our opinion. the family (copil = child. "How can this extraordinary power of Dacian Romanization be explained? How was it possible that it should grow so deep roots in such a short time? The answer. Trajan then "colonized it with settlers from all parts of the Empire who intermarried with the local population and romanized it" (Deletant 1). . baci = shepherd making cheese. piscicultural activities (maz| re = peas. This Dacian vocabulary tells us the story of an industrious people who worked the land. They have discovered one hundred and sixty words with this origin. are not the only ancestors of the Romanian people and its language. It is natural for words to remain from a proto language that have to do with the body and familial relations because these are common topics of conversation in every civilization. could only be one: Romanization won in Dacia because it won over the native population.. succeeded in conquering the Dacians after many years of battles. -e Õ te. mînz = colt.Linguists have studied the Romanian language to find which words come from Dacian origin. As their countryřs name suggests. copac = tree) .D. Certainly the number of these terms will increase following subsequent research. which are so frequent in Romanian and characteristic of it (Giurescu 60-61). because the Romans only ruled over Dacia for 165 years. mal = bank) the flora (brad = fir-tree. scholars already consider as belonging to this inheritance the suffixes -esc. guÕ| = goitre). grumaz = neck. under Trajan. . . Giurgescu says. In the summer of 106 A. at the beginning of the second century A. . . pastoral. the same thing would have happened in the Carpatho-Danubian area that happened in Pannonia and Britania: the Romanizing element would have gradually disappeared" (98). Romanization Dacians though. "He was a great general. Their Romanization happened rather rapidly. prunc = baby. Ûarc = enclosure . the Roman army. strung| = small gate through which sheep are passed to be milked. These terms cover a very wide area beginning with the human body (buz| = lip. agricultural. the soldier Trajan was appointed emperor. Ûarin| =tilled land. It is interesting to note the types of words that remain in the language from the Dacian era. Besides military virtues he also had those of a civilian ruler" (Giurescu 43). Romans played a major role in their history and development. mastering all the secrets of military art and bearing all hardships and sufferings of the war together with his soldiers who worshipped him for it. they will also show us other aspects of the linguistic inheritance. .D. zestre = dowry) . viticultural. In Rome. . If the Romans had not won the Dacians over for their civilization and culture.gard = fence). The Dacians seem to have been very accepting of their conquerors. the physical environment (m | gur| = lone hill or mountain. ceaf| = nape.
This citizenship was extended to every member of his family (Giurescu 98-101). a iubi. they substituted "Slavonic words for a number of Latin emotional terms. Many of the soldiers in the Roman army were of Dacian origin. An example of pronunciation change that Niculescu gives is the yodization or palatalization of initial /e/ in the personal pronouns.One of the ways that the Romans "won the Dacians over" was through the veterans of their army. Their language greatly influenced Romanian. the services were done in Latin. "The Sclavini engaged upon ever closer relations of cohabitation with the Romanized native population both North and South of the Danube" (Niculescu 46). It is apparent that the Slavs acquired the Latin language because of the absence of many emotional terms of Latin origin in the Romanian language. This is an important point. Another way in which the Slavs influenced the language of the Dacians of that time was pronunciation. . Often we hear coinages such as Spanglish to describe such a concept. At the end of a soldierřs military service he was granted Roman citizenship if he did not already have it. drag. replacing them by dragoste. but the Slavs learned Latin. When people attended church at that time. Another way that Latin was spread throughout this area was through missionaries who brought with them the Christian Religion and a whole Latin liturgy to go with it. Anyone who has learned to speak a second language can understand the Slavsř preference for their own emotional terms. travelers and colonists "turned into agents of Romanization" (24-25). merchants. etc. Niculescu says. a logodi (= to betrothe)" (49). Initial /e/ in most words is pronounced the same as in all Romance languages. it is apparent that they would speak this second language with a quite heavy accent. Slavic Influence During the 7th century and throughout the 9th century the Slavs came to the Dacia area. Niculescu goes on to explain that "Romanian is the only Romance language that has failed to preserve amor. because not only did the Dacians adopt Slavonisms. . carus. The Romanian of today is pronounced somewhat differently than all of the other languages in its family. nevasta. By the end of their 25 year service they had learned Latin and the ways of the Romans.. causing it to have an initial /y/ sound. As the Slavs adopted the Romance language. logodna (= betrothal). The urban centers had rural areas around them. On learning the Romanian Latinate. . So the word el (he) is pronounced /yel/ (49). amare. but in the personal pronouns the sound has been palatalized. Many of those soldiers who were of Roman descent were married to Dacian women. sponsa. "Another major role in Romanizing Dacia was played by urbanization" (24). "Most of the Romanian words designating the essential notions connected with the Christian faith are of Latin origin" (Giurescu 141). The Roman administrators. the Slavs preferred to use in this language words of their native language whose meaning and expressive connotations they knew" (Niculescu 49). Remembering that the Slavs had adopted the Latin spoken in that region. Almost all of the linguists and historians who have studied this topic "uphold the idea that the Balkan and Slavic elements contributed to rounding off the individuality of Romanian as a Romance language" (Niculescu 48).
the entire cloth must be destroyed. Russian and Greek. . The author is showing how many spiritual and religious words come from their Latin roots. In 1828 he wrote. Negruzzi. . and follow up by creating a more beautiful language. . aruncau unde Õi unde cîte un fir de b|t|tur| de a lor. "Românul crede în Dumnezeu. He began to cultivate the Romanian literary language. în zîne Õi a fost botezat de preot la biseric| . and was baptized by a priest at church . threw here and there a string of their thick. Another writer from that period made a statement about his opinions on Slavonisms. He goes on to show how many words showing weakness and infirmities come from Slavic.româneasc| (209). At this time a Romanian writer and theorist. In the first half of the 19th century there began an "Enlightenment" in Romania.] The italicized words are all of Latin origin. c|riia nimic nu i-ar lipsi alta decît de a fi-.Re-Latinization During the 1800's Romanian linguists made an effort to re-Latinize their language. and Lamartine were translated into Romanian. Now in order to remove those knotty fibers. as we have already seen. [Oh! The sin is undeniable and the wound unhealable! When the barbarous nations flooded Romania like a ravishing stream. trebui a destr|ma toat| pînza. "scrieÛi cum s| v| . Thus our language was woven. gnarled thread. from which nothing would be missing other than beingŕ Romanian] This shows us the great desire to make a "pure" Latin-based language." [The Romanian believes in God. in fairies. Moliere. luau suveiea Õi. It also shows the resolution that they had to face. Heliadeřs movement began by selecting Italian words and eliminating contributions to the language from German. [To cultivate a language is to clean it of all that which doesnřt make it progress]. g|sind pînza limbei urzit|. maybe more noble and learned. în îngeri. . Of course. groas|Õi nodoroas|. so not all Slavonisms were harsh words. in angels. prin dreptul celui main tare. through the right of the strongest. Astfel se Ûesu limba noastr|. Õi prin urmare a crea o limb| mai frumoas| poate. We donřt need to look any farther than the literature of their day to see the dissatisfaction of that era with the Slavonisms in the language. a famous author from that period compares Romanian to a cloth that has been corrupted with coarse and ugly threads. He wanted to "s| ne unim în scris Õi s| ne facem o limb| literar|" [unite ourselves in writing and to make for ourselves a literary language]. He says. Pentru a scoate acum acele l| tunoiase fire. that if those proposed changes were made it would change the language into something other than their own Romanian. finding the cloth of the fated language. "A cultiva o limb| va s| zic| a o cur|Ûi de tot ceeace nu o face s| înainteze" (Niculescu 131). Books from the west by authors such as Racine. Ion Heliade R|dulescu wrote his opinion on the purification of the Romanian literary language. some of the words referring to love and relationships have their roots in Slavic. mai nobil| si mai înv|Ûat|. they took the needle and. He said: Oh! p|catul este net|g>|duit Õi rana nevindecabil| ! Cînd neamurile barbare au înundat România ca un r| pide Õiroi.
On any given Friday a Romanian could wish you a "week-end bun" meaning. manager < manager. . Their language shows this. They are now (as most European countries are) influenced greatly by American English. . As all languages do. as Negruzzi said. an increasing number of English words have been borrowed (such as: gem < jam. we write for those who live and not for the dead]. But the Romanians of today have come to accept the more "coarse" threads and recognize their "cloth" as a unique. fotbal < football). but the Romanians are still with us today. Romanians are survivors. Romania has been opened up to a whole world that they only could have imagined before. meci < match." In the 20th century. . . thus "the manager" is managerul.calqued or borrowed/constructed from Latin or other Romance languages. Since the Revolution in 1989. it borrows many words from other languages. scrim pentru cei care tr|iesc iar nu pentru cei morÛi" (132). like "management" and "interview" (from the French "entrevue"). "good weekend. . Some of these English words are in turn Latin lexical constructions . Their history is filled with stories of being conquered by stronger civilizations. From the core of Dacian words to the Latinization and the Slavic influence. especially French." Romanian is. the Romanian language tells the story of a nation of survivors. [You write to be understood by your contemporaries .înÛeleag| contemporanii . indeed. interviu < interview. These words are assigned grammatical gender in Romanian and handled according to Romanian rules. beautiful tapestry that illustrates their history. Modern Romanian Romanian continues to change even now. a cloth woven with many different threads.
[< fr.) în scopul menţinerii stabilităţii si echilibrului lor faţă de influenţe exterioare. 1. artère. [Pr. Sursa: DEX '98 BIOFEEDBACK s. (Biol. (Psih.: f'idbec] . Sursa: DEX '98 | ARTÉRĂ. Boală determinată de scăderea cantitativă sau calitativă a globulelor roşii şi a hemoglobinei din sânge. Sursa: DEX '98 | BIOPSÍE. cauzalitate inelară. Fir fabricat din intestinul unor animale. anemii. retroacţiune inversă. Sursa: DEX '98 BIORÍTM. ♦ Conductă hidraulică principală de alimentare prin care se transportă apa spre locul de consum. biorhythm. Sursă : DEX'98 BY-PASS s.f. ♦ Linie electrică de alimentare prin care se transportă energie spre locul de consum. s. báipas. anémie. The lubricant is a fatty substance called sebum characteristic of sebaceous glands. engl. catgut]. Cale importantă de comunicaţie şi de transport.Cuvinte | ANEMÍE. folosit în chirurgie pentru cusături. 2. Sursa: DN | catgut noun [U] strong cord. s. Ŕ Din fr. Ŕ Din fr.) Retroacţiune (1) care se manifestă la nivelul a diferite sisteme (biologice.n. which is used for the strings of musical instruments A cyst of the little glands in the eyelids that make a lubricant which they discharge through tiny openings in the edges of the lids. [Pr.n.) Ritm (2) al activităţii organismului datorat particularităţilor biologice individuale. Scoatere prin procedee chirurgicale a unui fragment dintr-un ţesut viu pentru a fi studiat la microscop. bioritmuri. .. made from the dried intestines of animals. biopsii.f.f.: bi-o-] Ŕ Din engl. v. engl. s.n. artere. tehnice etc. [Pr. Vas sangvin care asigură circulaţia sângelui de la inimă la diverse organe şi ţesuturi. s.n. conexiune inversă. biopsie. especially sheep. Sursa: DN | CÁTGUT s.: bi-o-] Ŕ Din fr. lanţ cauzal închis.Cuv.
. (Tehn. Tub. s. meibomitis.. pentru evacuarea forţată a materiilor fecale. pl.. destinat să colecteze apa de infiltraţie. provocată de o reprimare a funcţiilor sistemului nervos central. Colagéne CLÍSMĂ. sg. colagéni.. Ŕ Din ngr. colagénă. 2. clistir. Disfunktion. Sursa: DEX '98 | Trimisă de Valery. 16 Jun 2004 | Greşeală de tipar colagén adj.) Proteină care se găseşte în ţesutul conjunctiv. fr. aparat sau sistem. Conductă subterană pentru colectarea şi evacuarea apei de pe un teren mlăştinos. drain]. Ŕ Din fr.) Tulburare a funcţiei unui organ. chemoterapie/chimioterapie. Sursa: DN COLAGÉN s. Chemotherapie.f. Dopaj. ~ diabetică. m.) Reducere a adaptării sau integrării unui subsistem la sistemul din care face parte. collagène.f.n. [< fr. Like a pimple. But instead of being on the skin. (Med. ♢ A fi în ~ a fi în agonie. s. Sursa: DEX '98 CÓM//Ă1 ~e f. (engl.: fít-nis] (< engl. disfunzione. 2. Sursa: DN DREN s.n. Sursa: DEX '98 DÓPING s. meşă de tifon prin care se scurge puroiul sau lichidul dintr-o rană. fitness) Sursa: MDN . alternatively. engl. (Biol. disfuncţii. Sursa: DN | FÍTNESS s. fr. f.-D. (Med. [G. Introducere a unui lichid în intestinul gros. Chronic inflammation of the meibomian glands leads to meibomian cysts or chalazions.These glands are called the meibomian glands.. 1. sănătate. [Pr. [< fr. a chalazion is an inflamed swelling. Inflammation of them is termed meibomianitis or. comei] /<fr. pl. o boltă etc. Klysma. s. pe cale rectală. coma Sursa: NODEX | DISFÚNCŢIE.f. chimiothérapie). Ŕ Din germ. chéimosis]. germ. [< engl. Pierdere a cunoştinţei în timpul unei boli grave.terapie prin substante chimice CHEMÓZIS s.).n. ♦ Strat pietros care căptuşeşte spatele unui zid de sprijin. The word "chalazion" is Greek for small pimple (and little hail).n. amfetamine etc. klísma.n. mod artificial de a mări rezistenţa şi randamentul fizic în concursuri sportive prin administrarea de medicamente stimulatorii (stricnină. ♢ (Adjectival) Ţesut colagen. clisme. Condiţie fizică bună. doping]. it. de obicei în cazurile de constipaţie. osos şi cartilaginos şi care prin fierbere se transformă în gelatină.) Edem al conjunctivei datorit unei inflamaţii sau unui traumatism. 1. a chalazion is in the margin of the eyelid. ~ apoplectică.
: me-nigi-ment] Ŕ Cuv. arhitectură) care reflectă realitatea prin imagini vizuale. propriu artelor care reflectă realitatea prin imagini vizuale. ♢ Materiale (sau mase) ~ce materiale sintetice din care se produc diferite obiecte.. Operaţie ~că plastie. expresiv. engl.n. Ansamblul activităţilor de organizare. gr. 3) lit. /Cuv. Plastique. Chirurgie ~că ramură a medicinei care se ocupă cu operaţiile plastice. engl. Sursa: NODEX HORMÓN s. Dispozitiv.. [< fr. engl. Ştiinţa şi tehnica organizării şi conducerii unei întreprinderi.n.. Sursa: Neoficial PLÁSTI//C2 ~că (~ci. care stimulează şi coordonează activitatea anumitor organe sau a întregului organism. fr. (Med. Sursa: DN . Sursa: DEX '98 RAŞ s. foarte intense şi înguste. I. migrene].n. cf. [< fr. engl. [< fr. Activitatea şi arta de a conduce. 3. ~ce) 1) (despre corpuri solide) Care poate fi modelat. [Pl.siveco PACEMAKER s.) -ri. -re. care apare în perioada de invazie a unor boli eruptive. Secreţie a glandelor endocrine. (Englezism) A distribui întâmplător variantele din câmpul de experienţă (pentru eliminarea erorilor experimentale). sculptură. Ŕ Din engl. cu mare directivitate.m. n. Sursa: DN | n'ursing s. Sursa: DN MANAGEMENT s. plastic Sursa: NODEX | RANDOMIZÁ. ♢ Arte ~ce ansamblu de arte (pictură. Durere de cap (localizată într-o anumită regiune a capului şi însoţită de tulburări digestive). / < engl. Alergare uşoară practicată pentru întreţinerea sănătăţii. Ŕ Cuv. engl. Sursă : DOR (266029) . vb. sugestiv. [Pr.JOGGING [pr.) Erupţie eritematoasă de scurtă durată. de conducere şi de gestiune a întreprinderilor. (s.f. horman Ŕ a excita]. engl. (Pr: péis-méicăr) Stimulator cardiac. desen. engl. /<fr. folosit în telecomunicaţii. hormone. care se pretează modelării. engl. Sursa: DN | LÁSER s. metalurgie etc. rash]. cf. 2. randomize. Sursa: DEX '98 | MIGRÉNĂ s.m. laser. amplificator cuantic de radiaţii electromagnetice vizibile.. Care exprimă ceva cu mare putere de evocare. Tranz.: gióghing] n. l(ight) a(mplification by) s(timulated) e(mission of) r(adiation) Ŕ amplificare a luminii prin stimularea emisiunii radiaţiei].n. Migraine. randomizez. 2) Care ţine de artele ce reflectă realitatea prin imagini vizuale.
RÁTING s. A interna pe cineva în spital pentru tratament. 2) rar Plantare a unei plante în alt loc. engl. fr. a flat face.) Presiune laterală tangenţială care se produce în sinclinale şi determină formarea cutelor muntoase. [Sil. wiring. Ŕ Din engl. a unui fir metalic lung şi subţire. în altă parte a corpului sau grefat la un alt individ..n. and feelings such as anxiety. and sloping eyes HIV Show phonetics noun [U] ABBREVIATION FOR human immunodeficiency virus: the virus that causes AIDS (= a serious disease that destroys the body's ability to . Transplant TRIÁL2. (Geol. constând din introducerea în interiorul lui. trial [match].n. Sursa: Sinonime SPITALIZÁ vb. or unhappiness for a few days before their period Down's syndrome Show phonetics noun [U] a genetic condition in which a person is born with lower than average mental ability.) Nume dat oricărui factor (sau ansamblu de factori) de mediu care provoacă organismului uman o reacţie anormală. 2. s. grefă. şi transplante] /<engl. Sursa: DN Tourette's syndrome Show phonetics noun [U] a rare illness of the brain in which the sufferer swears. tr. efect nefavorabil produs asupra organismului uman de un factor de mediu.: tri-al] Ŕ Din engl. to wire Ŕ a fixa cu o sârmă]. pe cale chirurgicală. trialuri. Sursa: DEX '98 WÍRING s. stress. apreciere. s. v. anger. 1) med. Meci de selecţie. în formă de ghem. stresuri. makes noises and moves in a way that they cannot control premenstrual syndrome [U] (UK ALSO premenstrual tension) a condition in which some women experience pain and swelling in particular parts of their bodies. hospitalize Sursa: DN |Sursa: DN STRES. cf. [Pr. [< fr.n. ext. Sursa: DEX '98 TRANSPLÁNT ~uri n. p. 1. [După fr. trans-plant. (Med. hospitaliser].. fr. Ţesut sau organ luat dintr-un corp şi mutat. engl. de triere..) Procedeu de tratare a unui anevrism al aortei. (Med. I. Pl.
fight infection) (from Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary) .
a æ ʌ b k tʃ d e f g dʒ h i ʒ k l m n o p r s ʃ t ts îâăţş .
Constat de la o vreme ca limba romana este tot mai atacata si chiar batjocorita in fel si chip. Ultima mea sedere in tara, de cateva saptamani, m-a convins pe deplin de aceasta stare. Zilnic citesti si auzi anglicisme - singurele preferate, din prostie si snobism -, adio deci francofonie (sic!), de crezi ca romanii sunt acum cu totii anglofoni. Noii parveniti ai zilei isi exprima cu aroganta prostul-gust, atacand miseleste si graiul romanesc. Pe Calea Victoriei si-a facut aparitia o mostra de asemenea snobism prin „Big fashion ice cream”. Cati inteleg despre ce e vorba? (citeam ca pana si un Nastase ar fi poposit la acel local - oare nu l-au deranjat anglicismele indigeste?). E adevarat, mai toate apucaturile cu iz occidental au falitii lor - cu bani, se intelege, si cu aere, altele decat cele romanesti. Pe bulevardul Magheru, intr-o patiserie, sta scris cu litere mari: „Thank you for your shopping”. Multumirile in romaneste sunt, desigur, inexistente! Nu mai vorbim de „rent”, „let”, „car wash”, „open door”, „dining room”... etc., pentru care se crede ca nu ar exista corespondente in limba romana. Radio Contact, ce se asculta si in autobuze, este pronuntat cu o asemenea voluptate americanizata, ca si titlurile cantecelor (mai toate, se intelege, anglosaxone), de ai impresia ca te afli la New York! Cine sa puna ordine in aceste apucaturi, pe cat de frecvente, pe atat de nocive si de naucitoare? Academia Romana? Doarme! Menirea ei este tocmai aceea de a veghea la corecta folosire a limbii romane. Poate ca nu a primit inca nici un semnal de la Cotroceni sau Victoria! Cand totul in Romania este afacere de partid si de stat, se intelege si mizeria cultural-lingvistica, pe langa toate celelalte acumulate in anii trandafirii. Avortata lege a limbii romane a iscat lupte intestine, reactii epidermice de rea-vointa si nepricepere. O tara ca Franta poseda o lege in acest sens. Sa nu existe organizatii nonguvernamentale, romani de buna-credinta care sa reactioneze cum se cuvine la o asemenea terfelire a limbii romane? O reactie fireasca si de bun-simt. Unele acronime se impun, dar altele nu! DNA şi RNA nu prea cred că vor înlocui ADN şi ARN în viitorul apropiat. Mai sunt unii care se încăpăţânează să traducă ECG prin EKG, myself included, dar mai ştiu pe cineva BP va fi multă vreme TA în româneşte. Nu e "presiunea sângelui" în general, pentru că există presiune venoasă, arterială, periferică, centrală... În româneşte se face referinţă (vorbire!) numai despre tensiunea periferică a sângelui arterial (dacă est e centrală, se menţionează TA centrală şi, de regulă, la ce nivel). O altă chestie, de data asta cred că ilogică, a englezei medicale, este că pulsului (la încheietura mâinii sau la carotidă, inghinală...) i se spune Heart Rate. Frecvenţa reală a bătăilor inimii nu se poate stabili decât prin EKG (sic!), nu prin palpare sau auscultaţie.Şi nici nu este o "rată" adevărată. "Rata" implică un raport (x/y), atât x cât şi y fiind cunoscute. De acord că ceea ce simt eu luând pulsul este pulsul periferic real (cel care "se simte", "ajunge" în situl respectiv), dar care este raportul adevărat? Ştiu care e y, dar x cât este? Inima, acolo, în piept, cu ce frecvenţă bate de fapt? Care e heart rate?
"Job" Procesul de anglicizare a limbii noastre capata amploare din ce in ce mai primejdioasa. In tot mai multe publicatii este preferat, aproape in tot timpul, anglicismul "job" (la plural "joburi"). Redactia unui cotidian central scoate un supliment gratuit cu titlul "Educatie & joburi". Iar semnul grafic "&" care substituie conjunctia engleza "and" (=si) apare nu numai in ziare, reviste, carti, pe micul si pe marele ecran, ci si in titulatura multor firme. Cat despre sintagma "second-hand", de asemenea anglicism, aceasta-i atat de raspandita incat aproape niciun vorbitor nu mai spune, nici nu mai scrie "la mana a doua", cand se au in vedere marfurile invechite sau cele care sunt de calitatea a II-a inca de la fabricarea lor. Deosebit de grav este faptul ca autorii editiei a II-a a DOOM au inregistrat
atat termenul "job" cat si expresia (sintagmatica) "second-hand". Este foarte grav acest fapt stricator de limba, avand in vedere ca aceia care au menirea sa opreasca invazia barbarismelor, tocmai ei incurajeaza patrunderea anglicismelor extrem de suparatoare in limba romana, prin intermediul dictionarului fundamental pe care l-au scos in anul 2005. Iar cand va aparea editia a III-a a DEX-ului, autorii acestui lexicon, imitandu-i pe cei ai DOOM, vor atesta si ei noile anglicisme si cele care vor patrunde in continuare in lexicul limbii romane. Mentionam ca "job" ("giob" in pronuntarea englezilor, a britanicilor, si "giab" in rostirea anglofonilor din Statele Unite ale Amercii si din Canada) inseamna "serviciu, slujba, loc de munca". Ca sa se vada cat de expresiva este sintagma romaneasca "locuri de munca", in comparatie cu barbarismul "joburi" (citindu-se "gioburi" si "giaburi") dam, in doua variante aceeasi propozitie. Intreprinderea "Tractorul" ofera zece joburi. Intreprinderea "Tractorul" ofera zece locuri de munca. Deosebit de suparator este si raspunsul stereotip (de multe ori, nepotrivit) "Nu-i nicio problema" (traducere a locutiunii engleze "No problem"), despre care am mai scris.
În opinia lui Th. Hristea, care este şi a autoarelor DOOM , „acţiunea de cultivare ştiinţifică a limbii naţionale nu trebuie să aibă nimic în comun nici cu imuabilitatea anumitor norme gramaticale, nici cu neaoşismul, nici cu neologismomania [...] şi nici cu fanatismul unor purişti întârziaţi, care resping orice inovaţie lingvistică sub pretext că ei apără frumuseţea şi puritatea limbii strămoşeşti. Este în afară de orice discuţie că limba trebuie lăsată să evolueze”; „nici vorbă nu poate fi despre o încercare de a ţine în loc evoluţia firească a limbiiŗ, aceasta trebuind „să se dezvolte (adică să se schimbe)ŗ When we analyse diachronically the Romanian medical and pharmaceutical terminology, we can say that it represents a lexical ensemble characterized by heterogeneousness. It has its own dynamics due to the specific character of the terms. New lexical elements have been added permanently in the twentieth century to the corpus of medical terms established in the last century. Another characteristic of the medical terminology in our century is its international tendency. The great number of international words--among which those of Latin, Greek and, more recent, English origin--make it easier to decode the message for the specialists speaking different languages. The great number of words of this type emphasize the scholarly, artificial character of the vocabulary. A well-represented class, from the point of view of its number, are the neologism of Latin-Romantic origin, terms that have been adapted phonetically and morphologically to the system of the Romanian language. The linguistic facts we find in the specialty texts (in the XIX
and XX centuries) confirm our belief that, as a whole, the medical terminology is a linguistic field in a continuous process of modeling, and mainly that is open to be renewed.
The language of medicine
There is no recognized discipline called medical linguistics, but perhaps there ought to be one. The language of medicine offers intriguing challenges both to medical historians and to linguists. Classical scholars have analysed the contents and language of the most ancient medical records in great detail, but the later development of medical terminology has received much less attention. The oldest written sources of western medicine are the Hippocratic writings from the 5th and 4th centuries BC, which cover all aspects of medicine at that time and contain numerous medical terms. This was the beginning of the Greek era of the language of medicine, which lasted even after the Roman conquest, since the Romans, who had no similar medical tradition, imported Greek medicine. Most of the doctors practising in the Roman Empire were Greek, and the works by Galen of Pergamum, from the 2nd century AD, were for centuries valued as highly as the Hippocratic ones. Our Greek legacy comprises numerous names of diseases and symptoms, such as catarrh (downflow), diarrhoea (throughflow), dyspnoea (bad breathing), melancholic (pertaining to black bile) and podagra (a foot trap). At the beginning of the first century AD, when Greek was still the language of medicine in the Roman world, an important development took place. At that time a Roman aristocrat from Narbonensis (now Narbonne in the South of France) by the name of Aulus Cornelius Celsus wrote De Medicina, which was an encyclopaedic overview of medical knowledge based on Greek sources. He is sometimes called Cicero medicorum (the Cicero of doctors) on account of his elegant Latin. Celsus faced the difficulty that most Greek medical terms had no Latin equivalents, and the manner in which he solved this problem is of considerable interest from a linguistic point of view. First, he imported a few Greek terms directly, even preserving their Greek grammatical endings. He included, for instance, the Greek words pyloros (now pylorus) and eileos (now ileus), written with Greek letters in his Latin text. Secondly, he latinized Greek words, writing them with Latin letters and replacing Greek endings by Latin onesŕe.g. stomachus and brachium. Thirdly, and most importantly, he retained the vivid imagery of the Greek anatomical terminology by translating Greek terms into Latin, such as dentes canini from Greek kynodontes (dog teeth) and caecum from Greek to typhlon (the blind [gut]). Thus, we can still enjoy the old Greek tradition of likening the shape of anatomical structures to, for instance, musical instruments (e.g. tuba=trumpet, tibia= flute), armour (thorax=breastplate, galea=helmet), tools (fibula=needle, falx=sickle), plants (uvea=grape, glans= acorn) and animals (helix=snail, concha=mussel, musculus= mouse, tragus=goat so named because that part of the external ear may be covered with hair,
g.g. medical Italian and many others. and medical English tends to follow the Romance pattern except in placing the adjective before the noun. Medical Latin continued to be ordinary Latin with the admixture of numerous Greek and Latin medical terms. for instance. e. those by Vesalius.e. medical German. is to myodermatiko neuro. at the time of the renaissance. Russian kozhno-myzhechny nerv (Řskin-muscle nerveř) and jasva zheludka (Řulcer of stomachř). Then followed the era of the national medical languages. Modern Greek is noteworthy in allowing only Greek terms. Gradually. and in Britain William Heberden's Commentarii was probably the last notable medical work to be written in Latin.g. whereas the same terms in Romance languages are usually Řnaturalizedř according to the norms of each particular language. but most of the others were only used nationally.resembling the tuft on a goat's chin). but there were systematic differences that still persist.g. and it was followed by Latin editions of Galen. Dutch and Scandinavian ones. hospital doctors wrote patients' notes in Latin until 1853. nucha) found their way into western medicine. However. The musculocutaneous nerve. During the Middle Ages a third language gained importance as many of the classical Greek medical texts were translated into Arabic. ordinary English with the admixture of medical terms). English-speaking doctors also accept direct loans with Latin endings (e. and the era of medical Latin began. In Slav languages it is customary to translate the terms. e. both Greek and Arabic works were translated into Latin. e. such as medical English (i. including many of those that Celsus translated into Latin two millennia ago. Harvey and Sydenham). especially French. anatomical terms and disease names are often imported directly with their correct Latin endings. and il nervo musculocutaneo and ulcera gastrica in Italian. . a Romance and a Slav pattern is no more than a tendency with numerous exceptions.g. while others are Latin equivalents introduced by Celsus and his successors. however. the medical vocabulary expanded but basically did not change.g. e. when Greek was no longer widely understood. In Germanic languages such as the German. the musculocutaneous nerve and gastric ulcer. nervus musculocutaneus and ulcus ventriculi. It appeared in 1802 and Dr Johnson referred to the author as ultimus Romanorum (the last of the Romans). In other countries medical Latin survived a little longer: in Denmark. However. During the subsequent centuries almost all important medical works were published in Latin (e. only a couple of decades after the introduction of the printing press. replaced Latin as vehicles for international communication. the distinction described here between a Germanic. medical French. English is a Germanic language but half its vocabulary is of Romance origin. Celsus' De Medicina appeared in print as early as 1478. Scholars from the Arab world also made original contributions to medical literature. and a few Arabic terms (e. German and English.g. Some of these words are the original Greek ones. the national languages gained ground at the expense of Latin. The national medical languages had much in common since most of the medical terms were derived from medical Latin. A few of these. le nerf musculo-cutané and ulcère gastrique in French.
Naturalization of the English words is also quite common in some languages: in Danish. once again. who do not favour anglicisms. we use the verbs at screene and at skanne (to screen and to scan). Medical scientists continued to develop new concepts that had to be named. CT. We have entered the era of medical English. Scandinavian. The national medical languages did not confine themselves to importing terms already found in medical Latin.medulla oblongata and diabetes mellitus).g. for instance. partly or wholly.g. Whereas in former times new medical terms were derived from classical Greek or Latin roots. now they are often. which resembles the era of medical Latin in that.g. is more productive than Latin super-. though in French and Spanish it is SIDA and in Russian SPID. Magengeschwür instead of ulcus ventriculi). and our classically schooled predecessors coined a multitude of new terms. which would have been the correct Latin term. They introduced. all the most influential medical journals are written in English. screening. Coronararterien for arteriae coronariae) or translate them into German (e. is widely accepted and has almost become a noun in its own right. English acronyms such as AIDS. MR and PCR present the difficulty that usually the initials no longer fit when the English term is translated. Italian and Romanian. for instance. Medical English Today. for instance. whereas the French. but as a rule such discrepancies are simply ignored. . bypass operation. since Latin does not to the same extent permit the formation of composite words. base excess. This huge neoclassical word stock with Greek roots. being derived from English shunt. The term bypass. and English has become the language of choice at international conferences.g. Dutch. AIDS. for instance. scanningŕand doctors from non-English-speaking countries now have the choice between importing these English terms directly and translating them into their own language. the terms nephrectomy. which is still being used. Therefore. and German doctors may naturalize the Latin terms (e. ophthalmoscopy and erythrocyte. Greek hyper-. and the Russians use shuntirovanie. also presents other characteristics of linguistic interest such as the special meaning attached to certain suffixes of a Greek origin (e. translated it to pontage. inspectio oculorum and cellula rubra. -itis and -oma) and the fact that some prefixes and suffixes are more productive than others. The Poles chose pomostowanie. which is a Greek-Latin hybrid. which has the same meaning as pontage (most being a bridge). which in medical Latin would have been the rather more cumbersome excisio renis. rather than supertension. reflecting the order of the equivalent words in these languages. most of which were composed of Greek rather than Latin roots. is accepted in German. which is just another anglicism. clearance. composed of words borrowed from ordinary Englishŕ e. medical doctors have chosen a single language for international communication. although originally they had exactly the same meaning. we say hypertension.
The ebb and flow between the standardisation of the language and its diversification have been ever present throughout its history. English is the language of technological and scientific development.e. the belief that an international language would inherently need to be a constructed one (e. trade. On the other hand.. and the movement towards an international standard for the language. laymen do not understand most of the terms and they cannot even predict their meaning from the context. which perfectly fill the gaps in the Romanian medical terminology (they consider them adequate and they prefer ortographically non adapted forms. throughout the world. We can conclude that this research will have both practical and theoretical impact on the creation of Croatian medical equivalents and the formation of up-to-date Romanian medical terminology. consensus on the terminology and path to standardisation has not been reached. around the world. General English or Standard English. American English words. phrases. original graphics e.S. However. They consider that the Romanian equivalents are the only possible solution. World English. i. Recently. Unlike proponents of constructed languages. sometimes they refer to a desired standardisation.For linguists the language of medicine is fascinating for the flow of concepts and words from one tongue to another. media and it is widely used in everyday conversation as well. nothing needs to be done to promote it further) and. It is also referred to as Global English. diplomacy. and grammar are also being used more frequently in many British English based speaking countries (see Americanization) due to the popularitiy of American TV. an appreciation of the history and original meaning of words offers a new dimension to their professional language. due to the increased popularity of American media. while the latter has cultural autonomy and flexibility. there has been a trend for people to want to learn American English. It is a never ending process. Doctors prefer anglicisms. English is widely regarded as having become the global language. pace maker instead of pejsmejker etc). movies. Sometimes these terms refer simply to the array of varieties of English spoken throughout the world. The flagship of the former is intelligibility and practicality. Technical vocabulary is most likely to accept foreign words and the language of medicine is not excluded from this angloamerican influence. This is even the case in countries which have traditionally taught British English at schools.g. and music. Their acceptance is closely connected to general state policy and the degree of linguistic purism. Today it is used for many purposes and it is present in all spheres of life. International English proponents face on the one hand the belief that English already is a world language (and as such. For medical doctors. which is present in all the languages in varying degrees. International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects. sports. because we notice everyday penetration of English words into Romanian language. screening instead of skrining. as well as the political and economic influence of the U. Esperanto in Chinese is . But we noticed differences in the attitudes regarding the age and the level of education. on the other.g. Common English.
It is certainly also commonly used in connection with the acquisition. as a language owned not just by native speakers. The importance of non-native English language skills can be recognised behind the long-standing joke that the international language of science and technology is broken English. 444Ŕ45) It especially means English words and phrases generally understood throughout the English-speaking world as opposed to localisms. International English is a product of an emerging world culture. which tends to mitigate both U. use. some in contrast with. but conceptually based on a far greater degree of cross-talk and linguistic transculturation. and others in opposition to. very much attributable to the influence of the United States as well. International English is a concept of English that minimises the aspects defined by either the colonial imperialism of Victorian Britain or the so-called "cultural imperialism" of the 20th century United States. and creative and flowery use of the language is at a minimum. .S. South African English. and study of English as the world's lingua franca ('TEIL: Teaching English as an International Language'). and the like. Any regional variety of English has a set of political. but by all those who come to use it. influence and British colonial influence. Basically." ŕ Peters (2004. even the so-called 'standard' forms. methods used to advance constructed international auxiliary languages. In such an environment. without British or American or Canadian or Australian colouring. where formal English usage is prevalent. While British colonialism laid the foundation for English over much of the world. This has a practical use: "What could be better than a type of English that saves you from having to re-edit publications for individual regional markets! Teachers and learners of English as a second language also find it an attractive idea ŕ both often concerned that their English should be neutral.generally just referred to as "shijie yu" or "world language"). ŕ McArthur (2002. International English reaches towards cultural neutrality. it covers the English language at large. The development of International English often centres around academic and scientific communities. This formal International English allows entry into Western culture as a whole and Western cultural values in general. at least four basic approaches have been proposed or employed toward the further expansion or consolidation of International English. often (but not always or necessarily) implicitly seen as standard. social and cultural connotations attached to it. International English sometimes refers to English as it is actually being used and developed in the world. p. and especially when the language is considered as a whole in contrast with American English. British English. International English) According to this viewpoint.
mainly French). politics and fashion. which obliged the shop owners and advertisers to indicate in Hungarian too what is on offer. Words. its pronunciation and grammatical features are adapted to the host language and sooner or later it is accepted as a part of the vocabulary. with references to necessity. After the change of regime in 1990. In 2000 a new regulation appeared. Purist languages may want to go further and replace the foreign element by a calque. It was not only a political question or one of mere fashion but there were too many new concepts arriving and too few people with the necessary knowledge of language to handle the problem. A new wave of English names on shop-signs appeared. This language is generally held in highest regard by the younger generation of Romanians. Essentially. the whole new notion raises objections and it is rejected through abolishing the word. merely proposing a substitution of a precedent influence (Slavic. which are shared by several languages. most frequently than not misspelling the unfamiliar foreign word. The loanwords created in this way share with the rest of the receptor language lexicon the structural and semantic potential for dynamic development leading to the creation of further new meanings and words. My presentation is intended to present the situation of Anglicisms in Romanian today with regard to the dominant attitudes and evaluations which influence the process of acceptation and adaptation of the loan words. were adopted. This approach is supported with an analysis of the factors underlying the independent lexical development. The paper offers an alternative approach which recognizes the active role of the borrowing language. modernity. Greek. Then. In . The reason is that main Romanian purism was only partially of the xenophobic type. specialization or the advantages of international communication. it is only natural to conclude that various traits from the cultures or languages in contact will begin to influence each other. The main theoretical aspect of this issue could effectively be the connection between cultural and sociolinguistic factors and the more structural properties of a language. Also responsible for the impact of English is the prestige associated with this language. This influence may be something as minor as a new phrase or a word. The last substitution is oriented in the same direction. stylistically marked: many traditional Romanian terms are connotated "archaic" and "popular". in some ways seeming incompatible with the modern culture. Turkish) with another one (Romance. a tradition of loan acceptation (the loan translation had no cultural success). sometimes only the connecting word was in Romanian. Each of those resources has influenced the Romanian population on numerous levels.e.why. radio. which were not new in essence. which are considered to be trendy and cool. Thus lexical borrowing is not merely a linguistic problem but also one of history. all restriction fell away and the veritable flood of English words started streaming in. often along similar lines. of some Anglicisms in DEA. against all expectation. situational relevance. or markedly? The traditional treatment of borrowings as foreign words in a receptor language fails to answer this question convincingly. Occasionally. the dominant attitude in the Romanian society (with an obvious difference respect to age and generation) is very favorable to anglicisms. This role is interpreted as an ability to create close lexical copies of the respective model words in the source language. and other media that are supplied by British and American entertainment. of European Anglicisms [DEA] How important are lexical borrowings? The usual definition is that when a new concept arrives in the life of the speakers it is usually taken over together with its name. In looking at how societies interact. creating new words and phrases in the Romanian language. the very rapid modernization in the 19th century has produced in Romanian a clear stratification. and calques based on misunderstanding were the rule. who are easily influenced by the television.ARGUMENT The paper tries to answer the question posed in the title . they are highly polysemantic. its name. Arguments in favour of anglicisms include pragmaticism. or the influence could go so far as to instate numerous changes in an already well established language. do many anglicisms in the 16 languages covered by DEA deviate lexically from their English source words Ŕ either subtly. Advertisements abounded in English elements. i. I think that there are some historical explanations for what can seem a paradoxical attitude (in a context of other nationalistic and traditional discourses inherent to the transition period): first of all. Later the foreign word is naturalised. movies. many new ‘false friends’ have been created. 19th century purism was associated with a claim for modernization (that privileged the second term of the opposition East/West).
Language attitudes are investigated using a press language corpus and a collection of debates on various Internet forums. but very intensely criticized for completely different issues (the acceptation on some popular. in spite of (or maybe: due to) the refusal to bring in legislation to deal with this phenomenon. parodied and finally rejected. nearly unanimously ironized. the language symbolizes less the national identity. a campaign against doubling in Romanian the English cartoons. one can notice that.present-day Romania. and more a personal instrument for access to modernity: it is a means of social affirmation and prestige. there is a return to the original form even for already adapted forms) and the pronunciation (minimally and unconsciously modified) is associated with an inevitable morphological adaptation (necessary for the inflection) and sometimes with semantic transformation. a new edition of a normative orthographic and morphological dictionary. This attitude clashes with the linguistic (grammatical) constraints. there are many signs of spontaneous auto-regulation: many recent loans already have related loan translations . dominant in the Romanian orthography) and even in the morphology (through a new tendency to reducing inflection. introducing many anglicisms. All these factors produce some important changes in the writing system (as it contradicts the phonological principle. "uneducated" variants). by using invariable forms). the contradiction appears in hybrid formulas of adaptation: a strong tendency of conserving the English orthography (modification of which is perceived as a stigma for uneducated people. I will also deal with some recent cases: a project for "defending the Romanian language". On the other hand. as well as some answers to special questionnaires.