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SHORTENING OF WORK PERIOD BY EMPLOYING NEW CONSTRUCTION METHODS RESERVOIR GNLBP LE PLUS GRAND DANS LE MONDE REALIZE PAR LA TECHNOLOGIE DE POINTE— TECHNOLOGIE DE REDUCTION DE COUTS ET DUREE DE CONSTRUCTION PAR L’IMPLANTATION DE NOUVELLES METHODES
Takeyoshi Nishizaki, Motohiko Nakatani, Koichi Miyagawa, Naoshige Kubo Engineering Dept., Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. 1-2, Hiramomachi 4-Chome, Chuo-ku, Osaka, 541-0046, Japan Fumio Kamada Obayashi Corporation Shinagawa Intercity Tower B 2-15-2, Konan, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8502, Japan Minoru Okudate Obayashi and Konoike J.V.,Obayashi Corporation 4-33, Kitahama-higashi, Chuo-ku, Osaka, 540-8584, Japan Kazuyuki Nakagawa Toyo Kanetsu K.K. 19-20, Higashisuna 8-Chome Koto-ku, Tokyo, 136-8666, Japan Shinsuke Odahara Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. 12, Nishiki-Cho, Naka-ku, Yokohama, 231-8715, Japan
ABSTRACT In October 2000, Osaka gas completed construction of a large-scale prestressed concrete (PC) LNG storage tank at the Senboku LNG Terminal II. Given its capacity of 180,000 m3, this tank will be the world’s largest aboveground LNG storage tank, realized by using the latest technology to increase the capacity, and reduce the cost and work period. For the first time in the world, high-strength self-compacting concrete (SCC) has been adopted for the entire PC wall (10,000 m3). To place as much as 1,000 m3 of concrete at a time, the company developed manufacturing, construction and quality control techniques in advance. This paper presents the advanced cost-saving and work-period-reduction technologies, with focus on the effectiveness of high-strength SCC and technologies established in relation to it.
Pour la paroi déversoir en BP. Dans cet article. il est le plus grand du monde en modèle au sol. 10 000 m3 de SCC (béton auto-compactage) à haute résistance sont utilisés entièrement en mettant le compactage ultérieur inutile. PS6-4. Dans ce cas. La capacité de ce réservoir étant 180 000 m3. Il sera construit en utilisant la technologie de pointe de grande capacité et des technologies de réduction de coûts et durée de la construction. d’exécution ou de contrôle qualité ont été étudiées pour bétonner une grande quantité de SCC à haute résistance (1 000m3/ fois). des méthodes de production. nous présenterons les dernières technologies de réduction des coûts et de la durée de construction et principalement les techniques assurant l’effet maximum du SCC à haute résistance.RESUME OSAKA GAS est en train de construire un grand réservoir GNL en BP (béton précontraint) dans le deuxième atelier de l’Unité de Senboku pour achever en automne 2 000.2 .
Osaka Gas has undertaken the development of a new type of storage tank with prestressed concrete (PC) outer tank which achieves increased capacity while ensuring higher safety and reliability. which is a major management resource in Japan.000-m3-capacity LNG tank is in progress at Himeji Terminal. 2.LARGEST ABOVEGROUND PC LNG STORAGE TANK IN THE WORLD. After years of R&D efforts in PC tanks. Consequently. To cope with seasonal fluctuations in natural gas demand and to maintain stockpiles.1 Abstract of the development In developing a large-capacity tank.000 m3. THE DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PC LNG STORAGE TANK WITH INCREASED CAPACITY(180. Consideration should also be given to higher safety measures for the rare event of a leakage. Osaka Gas completed construction of a 180. At the time Osaka Gas began using LNG. Because it is necessary to store large amounts of LNG for these purposes. The scale merit brought about by a larger-capacity tank reduces the overall costs and also enables more effective use of land. Osaka Gas completed a 140. and the establishment of large capacity storage technology including the development of inner tank material. Self-elevated scaffolding and other technologies have been developed to achieve a substantial work period reduction. One way to reduce the costs of LNG tank construction is to increase the capacity of each tank. Osaka Gas stores LNG in LNG tanks.000-m3-capacity LNG tank at Senboku Terminal II.3 . which commenced in March 2000. from materials and structure to construction management and quality control. INTRODUCTION Osaka Gas uses LNG as the raw material for almost all of its natural gas supplies.000 m3. Moreover. a high degree of reliability needs to be ensured in every aspect. an additional reduction is expected in construction cost per unit volume. the largest above-ground LNG tank in the world. the construction of another 180. Osaka Gas has made continuous efforts to achieve this. INCORPORATING THE LATEST TECHNOLOGY— CONSTRUCTION COST REDUCTION AND SHORTENING OF WORK PERIOD BY EMPLOYING NEW CONSTRUCTION METHODS 1. expenditures for the construction of the tanks account for a major portion of the terminal's overall construction costs. tank capacity was 40. then to 140. reducing LNG tank construction costs is one of the most important topics for lowering the costs of LNG terminal construction. The company later increased this to 80.000 m3. PS6-4. The advanced cost-saving and work-period-reduction technologies are presented in this paper. with focus on the effectiveness of high-strength SCC and technologies established in relation to it. Therefore. owing to these technologies.000-m3 PC LNG tank in 1993. Another approach to reduce LNG tank construction costs is to develop various technologies that enable the efficient design and construction of tanks. Such technologies not only reduce construction costs but also shorten the construction period. In October 2000.000m3) 2.
000m3 PC LNG storage tank 2. while the outer tank roof is fixed on the upper section of the PC liquid retaining wall. 1) Fig. as mentioned above. Such efforts have resulted in the development of the 180. the PC liquid retaining wall. In the event of an LNG leak. PS6-4.4 .1 Overview of 180. they constitute a double-integrity structure. Together. the largest above-ground LNG tank in the world. such as a sharp temperature decrease or thermal stress.2 The structure of the PC LNG storage tank The structure of the 180. The 180. will contain all of the leaked LNG for safety. an outer tank and a cold insulation material filled between the inner and outer tanks.000-m3capacity PC LNG tank.000-m3-capacity PC LNG tank Information on recent technological developments for the reduction of LNG tank construction costs is summarized in Fig. which was completed in October 2000.Various engineering analyses have been conducted in relation to large-capacity storage technology. (Fig.000-m3 PC LNG tank is shown in Fig.000-m3 above-ground doubleintegrity metal tank.2.000-m3-capacity LNG tank. The inner tank is made of steel with 9% Ni for high strength and toughness in low temperatures.3. with its low-temperature liquid-proof performance.000-m3 PC LNG tank occupies a site with an area that equals the installation site of a 75. 2.3 Newly-developed technologies applied to 180. It consists of an inner tank. The inner wall and the bottom surface of the PC liquid retaining wall are fitted with a cryogenic resistance cushioning material that minimizes the adverse effects to the retaining wall caused by contact with LNG. The construction cost per unit volume of the 180. demonstrating that the new tank utilizes land about two-and-half times more effectively than a conventional tank. The inner tank that stores the LNG features a dome roof that offers excellent resistance to earthquakes.000-m3-capacity LNG tank built at Senboku Terminal II is 10% lower than that of the previous 140.
000-m3 –capacity PC LNG tank PS6-4. Structure of 180.5 .000m3 PC LNG storage tank Reduction in number of shell plate Reduction in concrete placement and workers Self-compacting concrete no need for compaction Widened shell plate Reduction in prestressing tendons Enlarged prestressing tendons Reduction in thickness High-strength concrete PC LNG Tank Thick inner tank material Reduction in piles 1353 1293 Reduction in concrete weight with concrete high-strength Inspection technology for thick inner tank Technology for capacity expansion Technology for further cost reduction Fig. 3 Performance gained by cost reduction technologies applied to 180.800 800 Thick50mm Insulation Steel liner ‚ f ‚ k Fig. 2.
A detailed explanation will be given in Section 3. a number of strength and toughness tests were performed. the number of circumferential tendons was reduced by 1/3. due to the mass effect of the blocks during heat treatment. This results in a reduced number of workers and a shorter work period. we had to produce a 9% Ni steel plate which was thicker than anything that had been used before. This would cause a decline in toughness of the anchorage blocks in cryogenic temperatures. 40 mm thickness for the 140. 4 Property comparison between normal concrete and self-compacting concrete (2) Enlarged PC tendons (Technologies for reduction in construction cost and period) About 100 circumferential prestressing tendons (prestressing strands and anchorages) are installed in the PC outer tank. the size of anchorage blocks inevitably became larger. The strength and toughness of the thick 9% Ni steel were enhanced by introducing the latest technologies in steel production.6 . for the 180. PS6-4. self-compacting concrete (Technologies for reduction in construction cost and period) Self-compacting concrete differs from conventionally used normal concrete in that it requires no compaction at the time of concrete placement (Fig. Since the inner tank wall becomes thicker as the tank capacity expands.000 m3 tank. which helped to improve the heat treatment process and reduce impurities. thick 9% Ni steel has made it possible to increase the capacity of LNG tanks.000 m3 class tanks. In order to prevent this decline. <Normal concrete> <Self-compacting concrete> Fig. 30 mm thick plates had been used for 80. toughness tests were carried out and Ni-Cr-Mo steel was selected as a material for the anchorage blocks. As a result of increased strands. in order to ensure the material’s safety for use in a large-capacity tank.(1) High-strength. further cost reductions can be achieved by increasing the strength of the self-compacting concrete. Moreover. By increasing the number of prestressing strands of each tendon and thereby increasing the induced compression force of each tendon. including a low-temperature fracture test. (3) Development of inner tank material (Technology for increasing capacity) Nine percent Ni steel is used as the inner tank material because it has superior strength and toughness even at temperatures as low as –160°C. In commercializing the thick 9% Ni steel. 50 mm thick plates were used.000 m3 tank and. The development and establishment of new technology for a 50 mm. 4).
self-compacting concrete A comparison between the mix proportion for a prestressed concrete high dike with a design concrete strength of 60 N/mm2.5 Comparison of several mix proportions 3. the thickness of the PS6-4. A slight difference in the amount of high-range water reducing agent results in only a small variance in the cost of concrete material.5 times as large as that of the existing tank.7 . and the mix proportion of the self-compacting concrete used for closing the temporary construction opening of the existing PC LNG storage tank is shown in Fig.1 Abstract of high-strength. Air Chemical admixture Cement f'ck=40N/mm 22 Air – entraining and water – reducing agents Existing PC LNG storage tank 22 f'ck=40N/mm (Example of new . for the PC liquid retaining wall was intended to reduce wall thickness through the use of high-strength concrete. The use of SCC.000-m3-capacity LNG tank completed in October 2000 at Senboku Terminal II. 3. 1. When the same concrete strength as that of the existing PC LNG storage tank (f’ck=40 N/mm2) is applied. and to save labor and shorten the work period by omitting compaction work. Both types of concrete contain almost the same amount of powder with a difference only in percentages of fine and coarse aggregates by volume. self-compacting concrete (SCC) was used for the 180. Water Normal concrete 2 f'ck=24N/mm Powder Fine Agg.5. and membrane stress is set at the same level. Limestone powder Fig. SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE (SCC) High-strength.2 Performance (1) Reduction of materials Increased concrete strength makes it possible to reduce the size of structural components and the quantity of materials.(4) Enlarged shell plates (Technologies for reduction in construction cost and period) By expanding the width of each plate on the inner shell by 1 meter and thus reducing the number of shell plates. the number of welding on the inner tank was reduced by 10%. slump 24cm Existing PC LNG storage tank ( HPC for closing the temporary construction 2 opening ) 2 f'ck=40N/mm New PC LNG storage tank (High – strength and self – compacting concrete 22 f'ck=60N/mm Limestone powder [SPA] Expansive adm.RC) 22 f'ck=60N/mm . USE OF HIGH-STRENGTH. 3. Coarse Agg. it was confirmed that uniformity is maintained throughout the plate in terms of the material performance and dimensional accuracy. It was then decided to construct the high dike with self-compacting concrete. 60 N/mm2 in design concrete strength. In employing large size 9% Ni steel plates.
from 13.6 Concrete placement workers PS6-4. no need for temporary workers who are required only for concrete placement. Foreman Every day Steeple jack Smith & Constr. and to a minimization of the impact of human factors on the quality of concrete structures. other Pumping operator Plaster The day of concrete placement (Existing PC LNG storage tank) Compacting and supporting Adjustment of form work and equipment. no temporary workers are required and experienced workers alone can manage the concrete placement operation. Desired concrete quality is obtained by simply inspecting at the point of receiving the readymixed concrete to confirm whether the concrete is self-compacting or not. (2) Reduction in worker numbers Labor savings are possible in concrete placement if there is no need for compaction. This leads to a large percentage of the workforce compared to the normal workforce (Fig.500 m3. and the number of foundation piles is reduced 4. while the thickness for 140.6).000 m3 to 9.293 piles. As a result. Concrete engineers should accompany the whole concrete placement process to constantly provide guidance. if SCC is utilized.8 . This leads to great savings in manpower. (vibrator compaction required) entailed mobilization of temporary workers on the day of concrete placement only. On the other hand. the performance of compaction carried out by temporary workers is a determining factor in the quality of the concrete high dike.000 m3 is 90 cm. that is. other 0 50 Workers (persons) 100 Fig. The thickness of the wall can be reduced to 80 cm if the strength of the concrete is increased up to f’ck=60 N/mm2.000 m3. concrete volume is reduced 27%.prestressed concrete high dike would be 110 cm for 180. worker Form worker Temporary workers near future The day of concrete placement (New PC LNG storage tank) Confirmation of compacting Adjustment of form work and equipment. monitor and confirm that careful compaction has been carried out from start to finish. the realization of durable and reliable concrete structures depends on extensive site management.4% from 1. Labor for concrete work on the previous PC LNG storage tank. prestressing force and thermal stress due to low temperature.353 piles to 1. This causes an increase in self-weight. Also. Therefore if normal concrete is used.
4m concrete high dike was reduced to 10 lots.4 m was obtained as an optimum value. 7 have been developed for the construction of the 180. with SCC. On the other hand. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCTION IN CONSTRUCTION COST AND PERIOD 4. Lateral pressure along the formwork. The number of lots required for a 38. and also through the reduced number of concrete lots. the utilization of information technology (IT) on the construction site will also be described. a placement height of 4. 4 lots less than in previous practice. with trade-offs being taken into account in relation to the structures of formwork and shoring and the frequency of reuse. The designed height is about 1. the technologies shown in Fig.000-m3-capacity LNG tank. which commenced in March 2000 and is in progress at Himeji Terminal. which has conventionally been restricted by compaction work. however. A placement height that will minimize costs exists in practice.(3) Reduction of work period SCC shortens the work period through the increased placement height of each concrete lot.9 . as it is not restricted by the compaction work. This tank is scheduled to be completed in August 2003. In conventional construction. may increase up to the hydrostatic pressure of the concrete. the concrete placement height can be chosen as desired. Under a construction plan based on the assumption that the lateral pressure of concrete during placement would be identical to the hydrostatic pressure. 7 Technologies for Reduction in Construction Cost and Period Applied to the 180. The self-lifting scaffolding is explained below. the placement height of each concrete lot may not exceed 3 m for the vibrating operation.5 times the previous placement height.1 Abstract Aiming at further reductions in cost and work period.000-m3-Capacity PC LNG Tank under Construction PS6-4. In addition. This resulted in shorter construction period of 4 months. Reduction in thickness of outer tank liner Inner tank roof plates reduced in thickness Use of PC for base PC LNG tank Self-lifting scaffolding Use of long piles Fig. 4.
1 week per lot (1. 8). Construction costs for the PC liquid retaining wall are cut approximately 10%. 8 Self-lifting scaffolding Fig.9 m) Period of PC liquid retaining wall 12 months 6 months construction Cost reduction ∆ approx. the entire scaffolding and formwork around the liquid retaining wall are lifting at once. In building the PC liquid retaining wall of the tank currently under construction.3 m) Approx. each segment being lifted up by a large crawler crane. large scaffolding and formwork for the construction of a lot are divided into 36 segments. They are lifting and reused for the construction of the next lot. The work period needed for building a PC liquid retaining wall is reduced to half of that required by the conventional method. PC liquid retaining wall is built stage by stage in a vertical direction.4. Scaffolding and formwork are such that their size is sufficient for the construction of each lot. This is made possible by supporting the scaffolding and formwork by hydraulic jacks on rods provided in the building frame (Fig. 9 Lot construction procedures Table 1 Comparison of PC liquid retaining wall construction methods Existing PC LNG tank PC LNG tank under construction Size of scaffolding 12m 10m Scaffolding Large crawler crane Jack elevation method Placement cycle Approx. 1 month per lot (4. 10% (PC liquid retaining wall construction cost) PS6-4. Owing to this contrivance. 9.2 Self-lifting Scaffolding In general. it takes only one week to complete the construction cycle of each lot. Concrete placement Scaffolding and formwork lifting after removing forms of last lot Tendon sheath installation 1-week cycle Placing of reinforcement Fig.10 . These improvements are summarized in Table 1. consisting of the procedures shown in Fig. On the conventional construction site of a PC liquid retaining wall.
000-m3capacity LNG tank recently completed and for the one with the same capacity under construction in comparison to the costs and time required for previous tanks. ASP enables users to share information without the need for constructing an extra network among those placing orders and contractors.11 . is used as the information sharing system. as has been shown above. photos. This strengthens site management. as well as bringing benefits including a speed up or improved efficiency in work and support to engineers at distant locations. Temperature-dependence and stress-strain behaviors of PC building frame PC LNG tank Ready-mixed concrete suppliers • Material input record • Mixer load currents Quality management Measurement management/control Remote-controlled camera Work/inspection manuals. • • Technology for increasing capacity: Ø Development of inner tank material Technologies for reduction in construction cost and period: Ø High-strength. A summary of the reductions in costs and work periods is shown in following. 10 Conceptual diagram of electronic information sharing system 5. As a benefit of a service offered on the Internet. and process schedules Use of ASP (Shared information) Checking and giving directions Contractor k (construction site) Contractor j (construction site) Design documents Contractor j (design) Person placing order (site) Contractor k (design) Person placing order (headquarters) Fig.3 Application of Information Technology (IT) on Construction A system is built on the construction site so that the person placing the order and contractors can share various site information in electronic form (Fig.4. inspection records. self-compacting concrete Ø Enlarged PC tendons Ø Enlarged shell plates Ø Self-lifting scaffolding PS6-4. which was recently introduced into Japan as a new service in the information and communication industry. logs. CONCLUSION Lower costs and shorter work periods have been achieved for the 180. The Application Service Provider (ASP) for construction. 10).
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