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SEE ALSO:Gode Cookery Table of ContentsUPDATES:A Word from the CookRECIPES & COOKERY:A Boke of Gode CookeryMedieval Recipe TranslationsGentyll manly CokereA Renaissance Cookery BookRecipes from A Newe Boke of Olde CokeryIncredible Foods, Solteties, & EntremetsIllusion FoodsByzantine RecipesThe Historical Cookery Page17th Century English RecipesModern Recipes for BeginnersAll Gode Cookery RecipesGlossary of Medieval Cooking TermsARTICLES ON COOKERY:A Chaucerian CookeryRegimen Sanitatis SalernitanumHow to Cook MedievalMesse it ForthAn Elizabethan Dinner ConversationThe Cockentrice - A Ryal MeteCoqz Heaumez - A Helmeted CockMedieval GingerbreadIn the Pursuit of VenisonThe Kitchen of MirthFEASTS & DINNERS:Gode Cookery's Latest FeastFeasts Within the SCAAlabama Renaissance FaireIMAGES:A Feast For The EyesTacuinum SanitatisRESOURCES:Gode Cookery BookshopThe Merchants PageBoke of Gode LinksGode Cookery Selected Site of the MonthGode Cookery Awards and Site ReviewsGode Cookery Discussion GroupWEB NAVIGATION:The Gode Boke RingThe Medieval & Renaissance Cookery Webring
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RECIPES MAY BE FOUND IN:A Boke of Gode CookeryMedieval Recipe TranslationsGentyll manly CokereA Renaissance Cookery BookRecipes from A Newe Boke of Olde CokeryIncredible Foods, Solteties, & EntremetsIllusion FoodsByzantine RecipesThe Historical Cookery Page17th Century English RecipesModern Recipes for BeginnerA Chaucerian CookeryThe Cockentrice - A Ryal MeteCoqz Heaumez - A Helmeted CockMedieval GingerbreadFeasts Within the SCAAlabama Renaissance FaireAll Gode Cookery Recipes
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PLEASE VISIT:The Gode Cookery BookshopMedieval Cookery Books for sale at the Bookshop!From a now out-of-print publication called Early Period, issue #5, written and published by Rebecca and David Wendelken, original date unknown (circa late 1970s - early 1980s).Warning: The information from the Early Period journal is based partly on the work of a modern author, Nicholas Tselementes (Greek Cookery. Divry, Inc.: New York, 1977). Tselementes provides no documentation for any of the recipes in this book. Readers desiring authenticated Byzantine recipes must keep this in mind.
yzantine FoodsUnlike the Romans or earlier Greeks, Byzantine cookbooks seem to be rare indeed. In fact, only very tempting references to Byzantine cooking are found tucked into diplomatic reports and biographies of the Imperial family. We know that the Empress Lupicina of the Danube Valley was a cook, and that Theodora, wife of Justinian, imported cooks from Persia, India, Syria and the Greek mainland to serve at her court.In the 10th century Liutprand of Cremona, an ambassador to the Imperial Court, made disparaging remarks about resined wine and dishes cooked in oil, although he enjoyed some of the sauces and was impressed by the food at the Imperial table. He especially liked the roast kid stuffed with garlic, leeks and onions and dressed with "garon" sauce (probably a variety of the Roman "garum," that notorious fermented fish sauce).What did their food taste like? We have a number of earlier Greek cookbooks, such as Gastronomia by Archstratus (5th century BC), and we know what Greek cooking is like now. To tie them together we have the work of such scholars As Nicholas Tselementes, who traced back to earlier times such dishes as Keftedes (meatballs made with grain), Dolmades (grain and/or meat stuffed into vegetables or plant leaves and cooked), Moussake (a layered dish of meat, cheese and pasta or grain), Yuvarelakia (meat and/or grain dumplings cooked in broth), and Kakavia, the Greek version of Bouillabaise. He also traced back to the ancient Greeks the making of white sauce - using flour and fat to thicken a broth or milk mixture. Although some of these dishes are now known to the world by Turkish or European names (even the Greeks call white sauce "bechamel"), their origins are Greek. We know they ate three meals a day - breakfast, midday and supper. They had many fast days. While the lower classes made due with what they could get, the upper classes were served three courses at their midday and supper meals consisting of hors d'ouvres, a main course of fish or meat and a sweet course. They ate all kinds of courses of fish or meat and a sweet course. They ate all kinds of meats including pork, and numerous types of fowl. They ate large amounts of fresh fish and seafood. There were many types of soups and stews and salads were popular. They liked a variety of cheeses and fruits were eaten both fresh and cooked. Fruits included apples, melons, dates, figs, grapes and pomegranets. Almonds, walnuts, and pistachios were used in many dishes as well as being eaten by themselves.The recipes given here were created by taking modern Greek ones, removing or replacing non-period ingredients and attempting to reconstruct cooking methods. They are the types of dishes that would have been served by the common people or middle classes rather than to the Imperial household.
• Keftedes - meatballs of beef and herbs, dredged in barley flour and fried in olive oil.
• Dolmades - a dish of baked chicken and stuffed grape leaves.
• Avgolemono Sauce - a sauce of egg yolks, lemon juice, and boullion.
• Moussaka - beef, Feta cheese, and zuchinni baked in a white sauce.
• Yuvarelakia - meatballs of lamb and herbs, simmered in broth.
• Kakavia - a fresh fish and seafood soup.
• Pastfeli - a honey and sesame seed candy.
• 1 lb. lean beef or veal, ground• 1 medium onion, grated• 1 clove garlic, crushed• 1 egg, beaten lightly• 2 slices of bread, crusts removed, soaked in water and squeezed dry• 3 Tbs minced parsley• 2 sprigs fresh mint• 1/2 tsp. ground cinnamon• 1 Tbs red wine• 2-3 Tbs water, if necessary• salt• 1 cup of barley, powdered in the blender• olive oil, enough for a frying depth of 1/2"
In the original recipe, the meat would probably be pounded or minced instead of ground. You can run your meat through a food processor for a more period texture. Mix all ingredients except barley and olive oil, season & refrigerate for an hour. Pinch off small pieces the size of walnuts, form into a ball and dredge in the barley flour. Heat the oil to a smoking point and fry the meatballs until crisp, turning constantly. Remove and drain on absorbent paper.
• 3/4 cup of olive oil• 1/2 onion, chopped• 8 scallions, chopped fine• 2 lg. cloves of garlic, chopped• 1 cup natural barley• chopped fresh dill to taste• 1/2 cup parsley, chopped• juice of 1/2 lemon• salt to taste• 1 cup hot water• 1 one pound jar grapevine leaves• 3-4 pound chicken, cut in quarters
Heat 1/2 cup of oil in a skillet and add the onion and scallion and cook until soft. Add the garlic and cook for a few more minutes. Add barley, and brown slightly, stirring frequently, then add dill, parsley, lemon juice, salt and remaining olive oil. Stir well and add hot water. Cover and let simmer for five minutes. remove the grapeleaves from the jar and rinse. Line an enamel pan with a layer of leaves and set aside. To stuff the leaves, put a leaf on the work surface with the rough side up and the stem end toward you. Place a teaspoonful of barley mixture near the stem end. Using both hands, fold the part of the leaf near you up and over the filling. Then fold the right side of the leaf over the filling and then the left side and roll tightly and away from you, toward the pointed end. Place in the prepared pan with the seam side down. Continue until you have used all the ingredients. Place an inverted plate on top of the dolamades and add enough water to come up to the edge of the plate. Rub the chicken with additional lemon juice and garlic and place on top of the plate. Bring to a boil and then cover the pan, reduce the heat, and simmer for 1 1/4 hours. Check to see that the barley is tender and the chicken cooked. Remove, cool and chill. Serve with sour cream or Avgolemono Sauce.
• 2 large egg yolks• juice of 1-2 lemons, strained• 1 - 2 cups hot broth or boullion
Beat the egg yolks for two minutes. Continue to beat and gradually add the lemon juice. Beat in the hot broth or boullion. The amount of liquid depends on how thick you want the sauce.
• 1 1/2 cups natural barley• salt• 3/4 cup Feta cheese, crumbled• 1 lb. ground beef• 1 onion, finely chopped• bread crumbs• 4 zucchini, sliced• 3 cups medium white sauce:
• 2 Tbs olive oil• 2 Tbs flour• 1 cup of warm milk• pinch of salt
Cook the barley in salted water until done. Drain & set aside. Brown the ground beef and onions together. Sprinkle the zucchini with salt and let stand 10 minutes. Squeeze out the excess moisture. Add the zucchini to the beef and onions and saute a few moments longer. Mix half of the Feta cheese and the beef mixture with the barley. Oil a 9 x 12 x 3 baking pan with olive oil and spread the barley mixture over it. Make the white sauce by heating the olive oil in a heavy skillet. Stir in the flour and add the 1 cup of warm milk, stirring steadily to make a smooth sauce. Add the pinch of salt. Add the rest of the Feta to the sauce and stir. Pour the sauce over the barley, top with bread crumbs and bake at 350° F for 30 to 40 minutes. Remove and let stand 10 mintues before cutting.
• 1 lb. ground lamb (may be pounded if you like)• 1 grated onion• 2 cloves of chopped garlic• 6 Tbs natural barley (crush it coarsely in the blender of food processor)• 3 Tbs chopped parsley• 2 Tbs mint or basil (fresh)• 1 Tbs dried oregano or thyme• salt• 1 egg slightly beaten• 5 cups stock• 1 onion, chopped• 1 stalk of celery, chopped• 1 carrot, chopped• juice of 1 lemon
Combine lamb, grated onion, chopped garlic, barley, chopped parsley, fresh mint or basil, dried oregano or thyme, salt and the slightly beaten egg. Mix well and knead for a few minutes. Shape into walnut-sized barrel or egg shapes and set aside. Bring the 5 cups of stock to a boil with the chopped onion, celery, and carrot. Add salt to taste. Add the "barrels" and simmer, covered, for 30 minutes. Add the lemon juice and serve.
This is a fresh fish soup, which is improved by having as many different varieties of fish as possible. You can make it with salt or fresh water fish, but you will need at least 3 or 4 varieties for the best results.
• 1 cup scallions or leeks, sliced• 1/2 cup olive oil• 1/2 stalk fennel, sliced• 3 sprigs of parsley• 1 bay leaf• 1 tsp thyme• 2 cup dry white wine• 4 cups water• 4 pounds of fish (3 or 4 different types)• 1 pound shrimp• 1 pound mussels or scallops in the shell (well scrubbed)• thick slices of home made bread
Saute onions in oil until soft. Add fennel, herbs, wine and water and bring to a boil. Season with salt and simmer for 45 minutes. Pour stock through a sieve and squeeze out the juice from the vegetables and discard the fibers. Return to the pot and bring to a boil. (For a richer stock, ask the fishseller for the heads and bones from your fish and add them to the water for the initial boiling. Remove when you strain out the vegetables. Or you could add a bottle of clam juice instead of some of the water). Lightly salt the fish and let stand for 10 minutes, then rinse and lower into the boiling liquid. Lower heat and simmer 10 minutes. Add shrimp and scallops or mussels and simmer an additional 10 minutes. Taste and adjust the seasonings. Toast the bread slices and place them in large soup plates or bowls. Place a variety of fish and some of the broth in each dish. You may also serve the Avgolemono Sauce with this.
Here is something sweet to round out the meal.
• honey• sesame seeds• orange flower water
Use equal weights of honey and sesame seeds. In a heavy skillet bring the honey to a very firm ball stage (250° to 256° F). Stir in the sesame seeds and continue cooking until the mixture comes to a bubbling boil. Spread the mixture 1/2" thick on a marble slab or tray moistened with orange flower water. Cool and cut into small diamonds or squares.
• Chantiles, Vilma Liacouras. The Food of Greece. Avenel, 1979.• Diehl, Charles. Byzantium: Greatness and Decline. Rutgers University Press, 1957.• Haussig, H.W. A History of Byzantine Civilization. Praeger, 1971.• Rice, Tamara Talbot. Everyday Life in Byzantium. Dorset, 1967.
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Gode CookeryByzantine RecipesByzantine Recipes © Rebecca and David WendelkenThis page © 1997-2009 James L. Matterer Gode Cookery
17th Century English Recipes Modern Recipes for Beginners All Gode Cookery Recipes Glossary of Medieval Cooking Terms ARTICLES ON COOKERY: A Chaucerian Cookery Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum How to Cook Medieval Messe it Forth An Elizabethan Dinner Conversation The Cockentrice - A Ryal Mete Coqz Heaumez - A Helmeted Cock Medieval Gingerbread In the Pursuit of Venison The Kitchen of Mirth FEASTS & DINNERS: Gode Cookery's Latest Feast Feasts Within the SCA Alabama Renaissance Faire IMAGES: A Feast For The Eyes Tacuinum Sanitatis RESOURCES: Gode Cookery Bookshop The Merchants Page Boke of Gode Links Gode Cookery Selected Site of the Month Gode Cookery Awards and Site Reviews Gode Cookery Discussion Group
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