Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

Five Points by Lee ‘Red Oak’ Johnson Runeskandt by Michelle Du Plessis Being Pagan by Christa Martin Nemetona, She of the Sacred Grove by Helen Schuck Pagan Child by Carina Venter Fantasy Photography by Michelle Du Plessis She Watches by Christa Heysen There Really is a Monster Under the Bed by Dan Graham Alban Arthuan: The Midwinter Fires by Damon Leff The Stang and Roebuck by Lee ‘Red Oak’ Johnson Island Healing by Carina Venter Pagan Freedom Day, 2009 by Christa Martin Your Horoscope by Anastacia Sampson Die Eeerste Fabel by Michelle Du Plessis Witchcraft: A Study in Bias, Prejudice and Discrimination in South Africa by Damon Leff 3 9 19 21 26 27 28 29 32 35 39 40 41 49 53

Cover Image Model: Natalie Rose Photographer: Nathalie Rose Michelle Du Plessis 082 564 8060 Damon Leff Lee ‘Red Oak’ Johnson Anastacia Sampson Dan Graham Helen Schuck Carina Venter

DISCLAIMER: All opinions contained within this periodical are the opinions of the respective authors and not necessarily that of Red Path Publications or its staff. COPYRIGHT: Copyright of writings and artwork within this publication remain that of the respective writer, author or artist. The published work is the copyright of Red Path Publications in accordance with the Copyright Laws of South Africa. RPP will not be held responsible for any copyright infringements by the authors or artists who’s works appear in this periodical. ADVERTISING: If you wish to advertise in this publication, please contact or visit for more information and advertising rates. PUBLISHER: Red Path Publications ISBN: 978-0-9814347-0-4 Issue 1 Samhain 2009 1

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

Editor’s Letter
Welcome to the launch issue of the new South African Pagan Periodical. To kick off this new publication we have a variety of excellent articles and poetry from the likes of Damon Leff, Michelle Du Plessis, Helen Schuck, Anastacia Sampson, Dan Graham, Carina Venter, Christa Martin and of course, myself. We trust you will enjoy the works that have been put together between these pages. If you have comments or if you would like to pose a question about this peridocal, the articles found herein or just something general, please write to us, we would love to hear from you. You can contact Pathways on If you would like to contribute to future issues of Pathways, please send in your submissions, we would love to put them into our pages and let the world read or view your art. Remember that all contributors get a mention with their details on the opening page, so it is in many good and free advertising. If on the other hand you would like to place an advert, black and white or full colour, there is a fee/rates guide that can download from the Red Path Publications site, or just email me to get the information. Check out the rates, they are highly competitive. We would also like to start a classified/personal ads section. If you have a notice that you want to send out, or something to sell (providing it is not a business advertisement, i.e. it must be something second hand that you are selling, or possibly a free service). These placements will be free. Of course we reserve the right to reject any personal ad. So now, on to the reason why we are here, to provide excellent works of a Pagan nature, all from a South African source. “Let the show begin!” The Editor Lee ‘Red Oak’ Johnson

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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

Five Points
By Lee ‘Red Oak’ Johnson Excerpt from The Reality of Things
The pentagram is a symbol that is found widely in all Occult fields. Its earliest appearance is said to have been in 3000BC, found in writings from Mesopotamia. The star form can also be found in early inclusions of the runic alphabet, and one of its most important links is to that of the Pythagoreans and Greeks. Apart from the pentagram glyph that was found on cave walls in the Italian Alps and other diverse locations in the Southern Alps (which actually date back to between 6000 – 800 BC) in association with runic symbols, there was also the lined star wheel format that can be found in some systems. These star figures were more in line with Ogham script, as you can see in the image. Each one had a different number of lines projecting from the centre with a different configuration of staves on the ends. The one pictured here is symbolic of Wurda, which is a Proto-Germanic word (sometimes spelt *wurda-n) meaning “word”, or in the Old Norse language translating to orð which can mean “rede”. A rede itself is actually an instruction, a manner in which to live your life by, and not to necessarily be taken as gold and the absolute law, but something to consider basing your life upon, and so it is “the Word”. There is much Lore surrounding the Pentagram from its Traditional Pagan inclusion in the story of Jack and the Beanstalk. If you read the story carefully (and you might need to get the original version), you will find that when the old man sells the beans to Jack, he asks, “How many beans make five”, and Jack replies, “Two in each hand and one in the mouth”. What this alludes to is actually one in each hand, one on each foot and one in the mouth, forming the pentagram. There is much more to this riddle than just this, but I won’t ponder on that here. It is also for the willing person to decipher, so I will leave you with it for now anyway. The Greeks used the pentagram quite extensively. It is often found on coins in its inverted form, and the Pythagoreans used it, also preferably in its inverted form, calling it ύγιεια (Hugieia). This name itself corresponds with the word “health” and the name of the Greek Goddess of the same attribute, i.e. the Goddess of health. Now this is where I tend to get excited and out of hand, so bear with me for a short while. Issue 1 Samhain 2009 3

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical The Pythagoreans placed the Greek letters of the name on the points of the Pentagram. These letters are, starting from the single point (in this case down as the Greeks used the inverted form), and moving clockwise, ι (Iota), υ (Upsilon), ει (a combination of Epsilon and Iota), γ (Gamma), and α (Alpha). When we arrange these letters into the form of the name Hugieia, we get the following – ύγιεια, as is the actual name. If you start at the point assigned to Upsilon and follow the letters as per the name, then you will see that you form the unending lines making up the pentagram. We therefore trace the lines as Upsilon to Gamma to Iota to Epsilon/Iota to Alpha and finally back to Upsilon where we started. Amazing hey? No? Well hang in there, we are getting to the really good part. The key here, to the user of the Modern English (ME) language, are the words that each letter starts with and their associations. Anyone who has seen the associations of the elements upon the points of the pentagram will obviously see the connection. However, the first thing to bear in mind here is that the combination letter ει is the first two letters of the word έιλή (heile, meaning heat), whereas all other letters are singular in there instances. So, what we have is the following: • • • • Upsilon = ύδωρ (udor, sometimes transliterated as hydor or hudor (hence the name Hugieia instead of Ugieia), which means Water) Gamma = Γαια (Γ being the capitalised γ, and is the name Gaia, meaning Earth) Iota = ίδέα (idea which means idea in ME, or “the divine thing” and refers to Spirit) Epsilon/Iota = έιλή (heile meaning heat as mentioned above. However, the Greeks may have also used the combination as Theta, as the two letters adjacent to one another can resemble Θ. In this instance Theta is the first letter of the word thermos which also means heat and refers to Fire) Alpha = άήρ (aer, which literally means Air) Now let us depart from the Greek association for a moment and look at the Hebraic and the associations given, as can be found in the manuscripts of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. The name of God (or G-d as is often written by Initiates of the Order) is said to be YHVH. These letters are of the Hebrew Yod, Heh, Vau, Heh (Final) or (remember that Hebrew is written from right to left so reading this from left to right as we do in English would literally be
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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical HVHY). These letters put together form what is called the Tetragrammaton and spell the name Yaveh (Yaweh), Yahoveh, or as we may better know it, Jehovah. What then takes place is that the Tetragrammaton is turned into the Pentagrammaton with the inclusion of the letter Shin

X which stands for the Son. This creates the name Yod, Heh, Shin, Vau, Heh (YHShVH) or HWXHY which is the name Yeheshua, the Christ Child. These

five letters then form the points of the pentagram. Of course to tie in with this discussion we would need to attribute the letters to the elements. In this respect we find the attributions to be as follows: • • • • • Yod/Father/Fire Heh/Mother/Water Shin/Child/Spirit Vau/Son/Air Heh(final)/Daughter/Earth

Now to try and get all of this to tie together, that being the Greek with the Hebrew. So, let’s turn the Greek one around and put them side by side. Can you see it?

Now you might have a few questions in mind at this point, such as, “Isn’t the Inverted Pentagram a symbol of evil?” and possibly, “What does Christ and the Name of God have to do with a symbol associated with Witchcraft?”. Interesting questions with interesting answers. Let’s start with the last one. Before the cross became the official symbol of Christianity, wait for it, the pentagram was the definitive glyph. It was found to be adorning the jewelry of many women and in Mystical terms represents the five wounds or stigmata of Christ. In a romantic Arthurian text, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, in which the pentagram appears on Sir Gawain’s shield, the five points represent various things, those being: • • • • the five senses the five fingers the five wounds of Christ the five joys that Mary had of Jesus, being the Annunciation, the Nativity, the Resurrection, the Ascension, and the Assumption) Issue 1 Samhain 2009 5

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical • the five virtues of knighthood which Sir Gawain hoped to embody, being noble generosity, fellowship, purity, courtesy, and compassion

There is also the association of the pentagram with Christ being the “Universal Man”, as seen in the drawing from the Hieroglyphica (1556) by Valeriano Bolzani. The cross itself is not altogether a Christian symbol to begin with. The equal armed cross can be found in many locations and has been used as a symbol for passing between the worlds and also protection for a very long time. The only thing that happened to it was that one of the arms was lengthened and associated with the Crucifix of Christ. There is nothing wrong with this, as long as nobody claims outright ownership of a symbol. Many of the same symbols and glyphs can be found all over the world and throughout history, such as the swastika, fylfot or sun wheel, which we will get to. However, glyphs have been found to mean something of great importance to people who have discovered them, and those people will hold on to them, whether they discovered them through divine intervention or through coming across a pre-existent culture that used the glyph. As long as the glyph is doing its proper job, this is all good. And so, back to the pentagram. Now to the first question that we asked above, “Isn’t the Inverted Pentagram a symbol of evil?”. Quite simply, no it is not. Most widely, the Inverted Pentagram is found to be associated with Satanism. The main reason for this is because it is a path that follows the Left Hand Path (LHP), whereas the Upright Pentagram is used within the Right Hand Path (RHP). The difference between the two is very simple, although many people try to interpret it in so many different ways, and those interpretations are usually based on outdated definitions from a Victorian Era where things of a “non-Christian” nature were seriously frowned upon. The difference, to put it into very basic terms for now, is that the RHPers put Spirit above, moving upward into the Heavens, putting the Spirit before the Flesh and chasing that specific ideal, whilst the LHPers place the Spirit beneath, moving down into the Earth and so placing the Flesh before the Spirit. Again, we find many false interpretations of this. Many will try to convince you that chasing the Flesh is to delve into the sinister acts of sexuality and other morbid pursuits that do not involve evolution or Enlightenment. Wrong again. In order to move upward to the Godhead, we first need to move downward into ourselves. We need to go into the Dark Places within the Inner Worlds and discover Self, and eventually find, and place our hands on the Graal which shines like a Light in the Darkness. Once we have the Graal, the union of the Lower and Higher Self can then be sought as the Marriage of the Son and Daughter is complete and the Child born, moving us up and beyond the Creative Void. This may all seem like jargon and useless words at this point, but as you move on, it will make more sense as the pages of the book fall one after the other, and the story becomes clear to you. We should not be seeking to use only the left hand or the right hand, we should
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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical be seeking to use both hands together. How does that old adage go? “What is the sound of one hand clapping?” Well now I hope you know. The interesting thing about the statement in the above paragraph, where I mention “out-dated definitions from a Victorian Era where things of a “non-Christian” nature were seriously frowned upon”, is that if we go back into history the Knight’s Templar associated the Baphomet with that of Christ. They were later shut down by the Catholic Church when it decided that this association wasn’t making them money and they didn’t have enough power over the dominions, but it is there, the Inverted Pentagram allegory with that of Christ. To explain further, when you view a Pentagram associated with Satanism, you usually see the Baphomet or Goat-Head God drawn within, the horns forming the two upper points, the ears forming the two outer points and the goatee beard forming the single point facing down (fig. 6). The image of the Baphomet that is most well known is that which was drawn by Eliphas Levi (fig. 7), who you may find an interesting character in relation to this discussion. In the Foreword to The Book of Splendours [ISBN 0-87728-674-0], pg. 11, the following is mentioned: “Alphonse Louis Constant, to give him his real name, was bon in Paris in 1810, the son of a poor shoemaker. As a boy both his aptitude for learning and his religious fervor were apparent, so that he was considered an ideal candidate for the priesthood and at the age of fifteen commenced a ten year seminary education during which he first began to develop his unorthodox ideas. In 1835 he was ordained Deacon, but he had realized that he could not accept the condition of celibacy and abandoned his calling before he was made a priest. Even so, the priesthood retained its hold upon him, and his ambivalent attitude to the Catholic Church seems to indicate a yearning for his lost vocation.” What you will also often find with images of the pentagram is a circle encompassing it, which is then referred to as a Pentacle. This is not to be confused with the Pentacle as a magickal tool, which happens to be a wax or clay (or possibly wood) disk with symbols on it and used to place items on for consecration on the altar. In the case of the encompassed pentagram, the circle is symbolic of the Cosmos, the pentagram is symbolic of the physical world, and quite often the human being, or you. When viewing the pentacle the pentagram is usually within the circle, but sometimes it is drawn overlapping the circle. When it is within the circle it is the person being represented as being within the Cosmos and filling the Cosmos. However, some aim further, and the pentagram that overlaps the circle is therefore the person aiming to extend themselves beyond the Cosmos. Issue 1 Samhain 2009 7

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical There is so much about the pentagram that can be discovered, but it would be less interesting if I gave you all of the answers here, and quite frankly there is probably a great deal that I myself have not discovered yet. So, have a look around, even have a look at flags, you find the pentagram. Oh, and do a search for the Golden Ratio, or Psi, you may find that very interesting *wink*. Lee lives in South Africa with his beautiful wife and daughter. Although he had been interested in the supernatural from his early years as a boy living in Coventry, England where he was born, he actively started practicing and studying Magick and Witchcraft from the year 1995. Although he has a strong leaning toward Anglo-Saxon Heathenry on a religious front, mostly because of his roots, his spiritual and philosophical leanings encompass many paths that people may consider to be diverse. Lee has always been a believer that each path and religion has common beliefs, finding that it is merely the language or interpretation that alters slightly between them. These bridges can be formed and Truth revealed, and Lee hopes that some of those Truths will be revealed within his books.

Books by Lee

The Reality of Things – Part One in the ORP Series

Francis Barrett’s The Magus – Part of the Classic Occult Collection

Hermes Trismegistus Collected Works – Part of the Classic Occult Collection

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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

By Michelle Du Plessis
1. Ken jy die skrif, Ken jy die woord? Ken jy die plek Waar mites en legendes Saam hoort? Ken jy die stories Geskryf eeue terug... Waar feë en towerkrag Saam, hand aan hand, Stap oor verbeeldings brug? Kom, ek vat jou saam, Want ek ken jou naam, Dan wys ek jou Die land van groen en blou Waar jy woorde in jou Hand kan hou. Deur jare heen uitgekerf in hout en steen, Daar vir altyd, Daar vir nou, Kom, ek gaan wys vir jou. Maak toe jou ogies, Vat my hand, Dan reis ons na die anderkant, Waar tower vure Lank reeds brand, In die land van Runeskændt. Reis ons deur ‘n bos Waar takke jou nie wil los, En Boggelses koekeloer Van onder die blare vloer, Dan weet ons een ding, ja Ons is amper, amper daar. Issue 1 Samhain 2009 9

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical Stap ons langs ‘n silwer stroom, Sit Nimfies op lelies en droom... Op mos klippe sit Mosklipsies; Hulle laat jou nies, Of tande pyn in jou kies! Oeps! Pasop daar! Amper, ja, sowaar, Kyk, dis ‘n Doedoeblaar! Ag, is jou ogies swaar? Dit is Doedoeblaar se gevaar... Slaap maar eers ‘n rukkie... Foei tóg, eers ‘n water slukkie? En ‘n Doedoe-drukkie? Toemaar wat, liefie-ding, Daar’s ‘n Wiekieliekie Wat vir jou gaan sing... Klaar geslaap? Kyk waar’s ons nou... Tussen spinnerakkie-dou Waar Spikkelsies gate grou, Om vir jou ‘n kasteel te bou. Môre is dit nog ‘n dag, As jy so lank kan wag, Dan sien ons die begin Van die eerste sin, Die eerste letter Van die tower taal... Ons noem dit runeskrif Wat ons vir jou gaan haal. 2. Wakker word! Klaar gedroom? Van silwer bome by donker strome? Ja, en van Klokkelklome! Kom, eet eers suikelsome, Gemaak deur Frommelfome... Net vir jou! Kom, vat my hand, Ons gaan oor na die anderkant; Daar waar Drommels,
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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical Op jou hand beland. Kom, droom kind van my... Ons gaan vir jou runeskrif kry. 3. Kyk, hier is ons by Mimir se fontein, Is die waters skoon en rein, Hier het Odin ook gedrink, Waar ‘n adelaar se oë helder blink. Hier het hy wysheid verkry, Vir nege dae lank hier gebly, Teen honger en dors gestry... Bome het van hul hart hout gegee, Om die runes op uit te snee Runeskrif wat wysheid en stories gee Het Odin vir ons saam gesmee. Die es boom, Yggdrasil, altyd groen, -Takke wat die hemele soen, Wortels diep in die aarde gewortel, Met nimfies en dalk ‘n Drigskortel Aan die oer-boom verbondDrup heuning na die grond. Hier, by die boom wat kennis bied Waar lewe, tyd en plek Reg laat geskied, Het runeskrif na die mens gekom. Nou, liefie kind, kan jy kom leer, Hier’s vir jou ‘n penne-veer, Geskenk deur ‘n Kwakkelkyf Vir jou om mee te skryf. Sal ons nou begin? Met die eerste sin? Elke simbool is ‘n woord Waar betekenis saam hoort; Groepe van agt is ‘n aett, Meervoud is aettir, Gesê soos Zuffelsettir, Wat daar vir jou loer! 4. Fehu is die begin, Bring rykdom in een sin, Issue 1 Samhain 2009 11

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical Omgedraai op sy kop sal al jou skatte stop. 5. Is daardie dalk ‘n oer-os? Saam met Uruz in die bos? Energie, krag en spoed Geluk bruis in sy bloed! Merk staaf dalk siekte of geweld, Dalk foute gemaak deur ‘n held. 6. Reus of doring is Thurisaz, Verandering onder die boom se bas. Verkeerd om spel dit gevaar Leuens wat by iemand skaar. 7. Ansuz praat van Odin en Mimir, Waarheid, woorde geskryf deur Kikir, Anders om is verveling en misverstand Dalk waar jy kan beland. 8. Reise, vakansies op ‘n ander plek, Spel Raidho op die hek; Swart kant sê daar’s ‘n krisis, Of iemand vir wie jy vies is. 9. Kenaz is lig en lewe, Inspirasie jou gegewe. Merk staaf vertel van verlies En staan met jou tong in kies. 10. Vra jy dalk ‘n fluit as geskenk? Dit gee Gebo sonder end; Merk staaf kan Gebo nie, Kan net in die ander se pad in vlie. 11. Wunjo is pure geluk, Vriende, laggies, stuk vir stuk. Verkeerd om, glo vir my, Is die pret dalk net verby!
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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical 12. Dit is dan Freya se aett, Oor lief en trou is sy die wet, Om haar nek dra sy Die goue snoer, Brisingamen, Gemaak deur ‘n goudsmit dwerg, Diep onder die grootste berg. 13. Eers moet ons oor die reënboog brug, Bifrost, gemaak uit druppeltjie lug, Dan verby Heimdall, die brug bewaker, Vadertjie van lig en sy aett. Lig jou koppie op en kyk nou rond, Orals speel lignimfies rond en bont, Kleertjies geweef deur ou Fiffelfleur Uit lig en druppeltjies kleur. 14. Oeps! Oppas! Hier kom Hagalaz! Hael en reën gaan ons nou was. Die rune is baie hardekwas. Storms, reën, wind en hael, Los jou sommer vaal, Bring verkoue en griep, Of sommer net piep. 15. Nautiz vertel van nodigheid, Van wil en vasberadenheid; Merk staaf keer dit jou Om nie te maak nes jy wou. 16. Land van ys en sneeu, als so kil;! Isa hou jou voete stil. Wag en luister na jou hart, Al voel jy dalk verward. Isa sterk die ander runes in hul taak, Kan jou help bewaak. Helder soos kristal Wys jou waarheid, Male sonder tal. Issue 1 Samhain 2009 13

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical 17. Jera is die woordjie jaar, Wanneer die oeste begin vergaar. Jera is die tyd wat verby snel, Wat van jou harde werk vertel. Tyd van vrede en van rus, Van bedjies sag en knus. Plante groei en word so groot, Met tyd saam gee dit vir ons brood. 18. Eiwaz is die taksisboom Wat van lank gelede droom. Probleme van lankal terug Word opgelos met ‘n sug. Hierdie rune beskerm jou, As jy op sy krag vertrou. Krag en spoed is altyd daar Al raak joune klaar. Omgedraai word jy kwaad Vir iemand wat jou wil skaad. Wees net sterk, is sy raad, Voeg woord by daad. 19. Perthro fluister van geheimenis, Van ‘n ma wat haar kindjie sus. Die rune is ‘n vrou se krag, Sterk, maar tog ook sag. Verkeerd om is Perthro kwaai, Vertel van skade, groot lawaai. Iemand wat vir jou jok, Wag, Tyd kry hul voor stok! 20. Algiz lyk soos ‘n takbok kroon Waar hy in die vleie woon. Jy word beskerm, na gekyk Terwyl Knorrels voor jou wyk. Maar, pasop! Omgekeer Het jy geen verweer.
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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical Netnou kry jou hartjie seer. Dalk eet ‘n Knorrel jou beste peer! 21. Sowilo is die son se kleur, Bring somerson keer op keer. Gesondheid en energie Het nou geen keer nie. Geluk en blydskap bring dit jou Verdryf die winter en die kou. Tog, as iemand nie van jou hou, Kan jy hul rerig nie vertrou. 22. Ver het ons sovêr gestap, Goed geleer, Poppe-lap. Rus sal ons nou eers, hier, Waar die Stampionietjies fees vier. Hulle giggel en spring so hoog Stamp hulle koppies in ‘n boog! Eet nou eers ‘n stukkie Ning Terwyl Fladdertjies vir jou sing. Slaap maar eers, as jy wil. Sjuut, Stampertjies, moenie so gil! Liefie ding wil nou slaap, Kyk, sy sit en gaap. Mos en varingblaar Het om haar geskaar. Kyk, sy slaap so sag... Môre is nog ‘n dag. 23. Wakker word! Opstaan tyd! Rek jou armpies wyd. Wikkel jou tone, klap jou hande. Hier’s ‘n mentibossie vir jou tande. Poffelpap vir ontbyt, Aangedra deur ‘n Bytietyt. Brammelbessie-sap in ‘n glas Op ‘n skinkbord gemaak van bas. Vandag leer ons die laaste deel Issue 1 Samhain 2009 15

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical Van die runeskrif in geheel. Niks het jou sovêr verveel, Nie eers die Skoffelkeel. As jy klaar is, kan ons gaan... Nee, nie na Moeder Maan! Ons gaan leer van Tyr en sy aett; Jy sal sien, dis baie pret. 24. Wie is Tyr? Vra jy nou. Die seun van Odin, Wat die runes hou. Tyr is baie lief vir blou. Hy het die wolf, Fenrir, Vasgeketting, stewig vas. Hy’s die broer van Thor, met die hamer wat netjies pas. 25. Tiwaz is Tyr se rune simbool, Lojaliteit, geregtigheid en leierskap, Leer jy in die Rune skool. Tiwaz weet hoe om sukses vas te trap. Tiwaz op sy kop, Laat vrede omdop; Jy sukkel om te vertel, Hoekom Loggels so vreeslik skel. 26. Berkano is die berkeboom, Lente en vrede by die waterstroom. Nuwe dinge, die begin van als, Self feë-kinders leer van wals. Merk staaf vertel van baklei, En families wat daaronder lei. Dalk net iets wat jy verloor, Of as jy nie mooi hoor. 27. Ehwaz is ‘n perd of dalk ‘n ponie, Kyk maar self as jy my nie glo nie. Gaan jy dalk op reis? Na ver lande, vol van ys?
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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical Selfs al val Ehwaz op sy kop, Verandering gaan jy nie stop. Oorhaastig moet jy ook nie weesJy val dalk net op jou neus! 28. Mannaz dui op jou eie self, Hoe jy in jou eie hart en kop rond delf. Vriende, familie en wie jy is; Dit als vertel Mannaz, gewis. Merk staaf vertel jy staan alleen, Geen vriende om jou heen... Miskien het selfsug of gierigheid Almal versprei, wyd en suid. 29. Lagu is water, mere, see. Bring lewe vir alles mee. Vertel van drome, geheime en fantasie, Reise oor waters, nie uitgesluit nie. Merk staaf waarsku oor besluite; Dink mooi, dan’s daar nie verwyte. Miskien is jy net deurmekaar, En kom jou werk nie klaar. 30. Ingwaz fluister van ‘n droom, Warmte in jou hart se soom. Ing vertel van vrede en van rus... Van geen probleme is jy bewus. Merk staaf kan dit nimmer, Net die ander runes hinder. Harder sal jy dalk moet werk, Om ook te maak jou lewens merk. 31. Othala is jou ouerhuis, Hier’s jy immer altyd tuis. Na al jou reise, hier en daar, Is jy hier waarlik tuis, sowaar. Othala is die liefde in jou hart, Al was jou dag ook donker swart. Issue 1 Samhain 2009 17

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical Jou skuiling teen gevaar Waar jy jou in liefde skaar. 32. Elke dag, as die son opkom, Sien jy Dagaz, as die son so blom. Dis ‘n nuwe dag, ‘n nuwe begin, Nuwe hoofstuk, nuwe sin. Dagaz wens jou voorspoed Met die oggendgloed. Mag al die runes jou saam behoed. 33. Kleinding, nou moet ons terug, Oor die reënboog brug. Jy’t soveel geleer, gesien Jy’t waarlik jou vlerkies verdien! Groet nou eers al jou vriende, tog, Ja, almal, ook die Truffeltrog! Vat eers weer my hand, Dat ons op jou bedjie kan land. Sal ons weer gaan? Ja, as die tyd weer stil staan! Reise sal daar altyd wees... Jy kan mos nou Runes lees. Oeps! Wat is in jou hand? Hoe’t die Doedoeblaar daar beland? Ag, wat toemaar tog! Slapies dan maar nog...

Once upon a time... the most amazing words ever written. The beginning of another and yet another story. Each photo tells a story. A tired little faery riding on a snail, on her lap the magic potion that she must deliver to a very ill pixie friend. A sleepy little faery peeping out from her nutshell house, filled with feathers. Angels playing on clouds, faeries with arcane rune tattoos, dragonfly faery playing in a stream, glittering and beautiful. Each one as special as the next one, the possibilities are limitless. Fantasy plays such a big part in my life. Writing stories, painting and photography, all mediums to express the fantasy world in. Macro photography creates the perfect background for the creation of a fantasy photo with a special someone as the main character in a story.
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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical Words tell stories, in rhyme, in one short little story or in books too heavy to lift. New worlds are created with words, nymphs, dryads, pixies and the other world kin all come to life with words written or spoken. Myth, long forgotten, comes back in a story for children. This is my world. I am in the privileged position to be a stay at home mom, to write, to paint and to take lots of photos! Living close to nature and practicing my craft is also very important to me. I am truly a blessed child of the Great Mother. Michelle Du Plessis

Being Pagan
By Christa Martin
With all the literature on offer about Neo-Paganism and Wicca, on everything from meditation to "How to Turn Your Ex-Boyfriend into a Toad", Ye Olde Religion has become somewhat of a "whatever blows your hair back" kind of philosophy. Interested parties are encouraged to pick and choose what they believe and how they practice, to the extent that the most sacred of arts, spellwork, has hit a commercial high with "spells inna box" (just add water!). Movies like "The Craft" and TV series like "Charmed" have distorted and popularised the mystical and commodified the arcane. Neo-Paganism in general has chosen to accept this turn of the tide with as much intellectual depth as a tea-tray, offering derived words of comfort to the occassional horrified outcrier, ("it's a very personal thing, and you must do what feels right to you"). There is no mention of the ethical ambivalence in offering courses (How To Become a Witch in 8 Easy Steps), and no mention is made of the charging of money for said courses, either. It appears that in an attempt to make it more accessible to the masses, Neo-Paganism and Wicca have been broiled down to the lowest common denominators: the simpler aspects of spellwork, the popularity of any jewel-encrusted accessories, (just in case anyone was wondering), and the Hogwarts uniform. Whilst riding the Gothy Vampire-Slayer-ism of the Wiccan image bandwagon, how many of our youngsters will learn the true essence of what it is to be Pagan? To respect the Mother Earth with their thoughts, words and actions, to show empathy for all living things and not only to talk but to act in accordance with that very emotion? To show Issue 1 Samhain 2009 19

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical kindness and generosity, not only when it suits them but at all times, and to remember the Rede first and foremost in their minds and think about its implication. “An' ye harm none, do what thou wilt.” This is not a quick fix to a conflict in one's personal belief system; it is a rule to live by and consider with each decision one makes every day of one's life.

Books by Christa

Earth Baby An independent guide for South African men and women, to the most affordable and regularly available cruelty-free and eco-friendly products in current South African markets, making it easier for you and your baby to live in harmony with the Earth. And a little bit more.

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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

Nemetona, She of the Sacred Grove
By Helen Schuck

The more I experience the energies of Nemetona the more intrigued I become about this enigmatic Celtic, Gaulish and Brythonic Goddess. She announced herself early last year, when the labyrinth that I was creating was in the final stages of completion. In an instant I experienced a powerful connection to my ancient past: as if the sacred grove of antiquity had been transported from mystic Celtic shores in to this particular, sun- kissed garden that housed the labyrinth. Nemetona stood in silent appraisal, encircled by a variety of colourful birds in full-throated melody, and her ceremonial dress perfectly appropriate in the spiralling form of the labyrinth. According to sources Nemetona has been depicted as seated and surrounded by three hooded figures and a ram. The three figures represent the Triple Goddess and the ram is a male fertility symbol often linked to Cernunnos, the horned God.

Louis le Brocquy’s illustration of My experience was very different: she was dressed in silken, corncoloured robes that flowed around her bare feet, milky white and edged The Morrigan with delicate pink nails. She was of medium height with a slender frame and held a graceful pose. Upon her finely sculpted head was a garland of pale white flowers and her raven black hair that fell softly around her shoulders, was in deep contrast. Her eyes were sea green and penetrating and her refined, rose-coloured lips, edged by a gentle and pensive smile. There was an aura of solemnity around her and, although this vision was fleeting, it was as detailed as if I had seen her in a painting. Issue 1 Samhain 2009 21

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical For a moment I was a little mystified by my lack of surprise because Nemetona’s appearance seemed to me to be completely in order and perfectly natural. What’s more, her gentle presence confirmed what I had secretly hoped – that this labyrinth, whose foundations lay within a magical grove, would be protected and blessed by Nemetona’s energies and offer a complimentary sanctuary for all to share.

I have worked with Nemetona’s energies ever since, calling forth her presence on many occasions, even when away from the permanent labyrinth and sacred “Nemeton” named in her honour. She willingly clears and purifies any space in preparation for meditation and ritual, oversees all the ceremonies in which I am involved, bestows protection and blesses all of my sacred spaces. My connection grows ever stronger as I celebrate and honour her divine and supportive Presence.

Goddess Nemetona

Known throughout the Celtic world as, Goddess Nemetona, ‘The Goddess of the Sacred Grove’, she is the guardian deity of all sacred places such as circles and magical groves. Her name is found inscribed in various parts of Germany and France, and there is an altar dedicated to her in Aquae Sulis (Bath) England, with the following inscription

The English translation is:

"Peregrinus, son of Secundus, citizen of the Treveri, for Loucetius Mars and Nemeto:na, willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow." (RIB 140; altarstone)
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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical This inscription indicates that she was recognised in the Moselle Valley in Gaul, where the Treveri originated. Also there is evidence to suggest that Nemetona was worshipped by the Nemetate of northern Spain, and the Nemetes, a Germanic tribe around the Rhine.

Her Associations

Mars Loucetius

Morrigan Stone statuette

Nemetona was often paired with the Roman god Mars Loucetius, her divine consort, and has been associated with Nemain, one of the Irish triple goddesses of war, also known as The Morrigan.

Sacred Groves

Llanidan Church, Anglesey

Llanbadrig Church, Anglesey

The root of the name Nemetona is nemeton meaning sacred place or sanctuary and the Welsh or Cymric equivalent is Llannerch (wooded enclosure) from which Llan is derived, the name for a church enclosure, and the basis of many place names in Wales. It has been said that “Groves of Trees were our first temples”, thus the Goddess Nemetona’s ancient presence can be felt in many of these sacred places and perhaps her protective energies may be experienced in each church enclosure and place name beginning with Llan. Issue 1 Samhain 2009 23

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical The word “Nemeton” is synonymous with sanctuaries of peace and intimate spaces, yet this connection can be experienced anywhere we find ourselves, whenever we feel entirely safe and at peace. This has been demonstrated to me often during my quiet times of re-connection, especially when I am in nature or walking the labyrinth. The Sacred Goddess Labyrinth of Nemetona The paths of the Labyrinth are created out of brick pavers and at its centre I have laid both rose quartz and clear quartz crystals. As I walk towards the centre I sense the energetic hum created by the crystals and often the vibration is such that I feel as though I am floating. When I visit the Sacred Goddess Labyrinth of Nemetona, whether I walk its spiral paths or sit quietly within the intimacy of “the sacred grove”, I am consistently able to find my personal Nemeton. It is here, within my inner temple, where I can feel my true connection to the earth and nature, experience balance and feel touched by the reassuring energies of Nemetona. The Sacred Goddess Labyrinth of Nemetona is open for individual walks and sacred ceremonies such as those celebrated at Full Moon, Solstices and Equinoxes.

"Hamba Endleleni Engcwele" Presents "Past Life Regression through the Labyrinth!" Sunday May 10th, 2009 during "The Wesak Full Moon"
All our history is lodged in the cells and DNA of our bodies and buried deep within the subconscious mind. Our decisions, judgments, old patterns and beliefs about what we deserve are a result of past programming. By understanding who we were in a past life we may: *Free this negative programming from the past! *Release disease and body problems that may have been carried over! *Understand our current relationships with loved ones! *Uncover abilities and talents that we have never previously discovered!
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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

When we clear blocked energy fields, we heal our life, become more accepting and loving, and experience less fear of death and dying.
During this workshop you will experience: *An opening ceremony and a journey through the labyrinth . *Time travel through an inner dimensional door to connect to the ancient past. *Past-life regression to bring forth a talent, ability or quality from the past into the present. *A Journey to an island of healing, where you will meet and communicate with your spiritual guides. *Closing Ceremony, Labyrinth Walk and Angel Meditation. Venue: Krugersdorp - only 30 minutes from Johannesburg, nestling close to the peaceful Sterkfontein rural valley and the Cradle of Humankind Cost: R750.00 Time: 9am – 4pm Contact Helen Schuck 041 368 3006 / 082 802 1799 or Jane Elliott 0835585579 Issue 1 Samhain 2009 25

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

Soon to be published is Carina’s marvelous book of poetry, The “L” Book. It is a truly an inspiring and inspired work that I highly recommend. Keep your eyes on the site for more information, we will be taking pre-orders within the next week or two.

Pagan Child
By Carina Venter
Alone I stand gazing out, far away over fields swaying gold with wheat my body falters, then begins to sway an ancient rhythm begging to meet begins throbbing in my heart though divided I feel light-headed, about to take flight shaking myself I have to be reminded I'm a soaring spirit, a child of the light nothing I can do can ever be dark or mistaken the loving sunlight reminds me carressingly I will, throughout eternity, never be forsaken the lazy wind whispers softly blessing me I feel my feet rooting in the dark brown earth connecting with our abundant mother The feeling is a crackling fire in a loving hearth and the perfume upon a freshly cut flower My eyes get dazzled with the brilliance of living I start shivering as the rhythm connects with me I'm a pagan child of nature, always giving from a bountiful source with no limits to be this living, breathing knowledge within me, acknowledged as pure and good and true whatever life and karma can throw, verily this knowing will for all eternity carry me through The ancient rhythm pulses deep and strong matches my heartbeat in a perfect dance In nature, dancing, free, unfettered, I belong leaving life in the fast lane to that myth called chance

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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

Fantasy Photography
By Michelle Du Plessis Issue 1 Samhain 2009 27

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

She Watches
By Christa Heysen

Christa is the author of Earth Baby, under the name Christa B. Martin. You will find the book on the Red Path Publications website in the Book Shop under the section Health and Well-Being. Go to
28 Issue 1 Samhain 2009

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

There Really is a Monster Under the Bed
By Dan Graham
Once upon a time, a young boy was convinced there was a monster in his loo, just waiting to nab him for breakfast, lunch or perhaps dinner. He was so convinced of this that he regularly used a different loo in the house as he really didn't want to become a tasty snack for this monster. He decided that he really needed to see if he could appease the monster, so he put a cookie in the loo. After several days, it was untouched. He thought that, perhaps, though unlikely, the monster didn't like cookies, so he left cheese instead. Still more days and the cheese was not eaten. In a fit of bravery, he left pimento flavored bologna, knowing that the monster would like that if not a cookie nor cheese. Still, after several days, the meat was untouched. Finally, the lad decided that if the monster was uninterested in bologna, he might be safe in his loo, so used it without fear. Now, the question we should ask is this: Was there really a monster in the loo, or was it his imagination. Most adults will tell a child afraid of a monster under the bed, or wherever it is, that the monster is not real and they needn't fear a figment of their imagination. But, back to our question. Was there really a monster in the loo for this young chap? His reality said there was. Many children's realities say there is a monster in the loo, or under the bed, or that they have companions that only they can see. Is this a "real" reality, or just the product of a childish imagination that simply needs "educating" to learn the truth. The first half of the 20th century saw the rise of a new science called quantum physics. It challenged many of the long held beliefs of classical physics and many scientists were very uncomfortable with it because it ran contrary to their logic, but mostly, because it ran contrary to their common sense. Quantum physicists discovered something they found very disturbing, and still are reluctant to admit to this day. They discovered that reality is variable. They discovered that what we think of as "real" depends on how we view things. In fact, the very act of observing something changes it. Issue 1 Samhain 2009 29

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical This caused their dinners to sour in their stomachs. Albert Einstein, famous father of the Theory of Relativity, hated the new concepts and argued against them with gusto. However, experiment after experiment showed that it was true. Reality was completely dependent on the person making the observation. When Christopher Columbus approached the island now called Hispañola in the Caribbean, the native inhabitants of the island did not see his ships. The ships were there, but they so violated the expected reality of the natives who had never seen such things, that their minds refused to admit them into their reality. It took a local shaman who was more ready to see the unexpected to point out that there were big things sitting in the ocean. Why then could the shaman see the ships but the other natives could not? Were the ships there for the shaman, but actually not there for the rest of the population? The shaman was used to alternate realities. Anyone having studied shamanic practice knows that one of the first things you learn is that there are many realities, and one must be open to the unexpected, the bizarre and even the seeming impossible. Once the local shaman told the island's inhabitants there were objects in the waters off their shore, they could see them, but not before. Their reality had not contained the ships before, but once "enlightened", they could see Columbus' ships. This example and the results of the quantum physics experiments suggests something that is both fascinating and rather disturbing, depending on your perception, and that's the point; reality depends on our perception. The young lad fully believed there was a monster in the loo. His reality was that the monster was real. Once he tried to feed it and failed, his reality shifted to allow that either there was no monster, or it was not going to eat him. Adults are in the regular habit of telling children that the monsters and, to them, invisible beings the children see are only imagination. They are partly right. They are products of the imagination, or may well be, but does that make them any less real? The results of 70 years of quantum physics experiments say yes, both realities can exist simultaneously. Does that then mean that each of the 7 billions of people on our planet has their own reality? Yup, it does. The reason we don't see 7 billion different things is simple. Most of us have agreed with the majority and decided on what Jung called the "consensus reality." As adults, we have decided that the monster under the bed is not real, so for us, it certainly is not. But, the child has not been indoctrinated into our consensus reality, so sees the monster. That monster is as real as the keyboard I'm typing this on. The reality is the child's and it is every bit as "real" as any other reality. If you think about this a bit, you soon realize that it explains why so often, people can have what we might think of as the same experience, but see so many different things. Take, for example, a traffic accident. There can be 20 witnesses, but each will have a somewhat different, if not radically different story. Psychologists explain this as different points of view. The truth is more interesting, however. Each person seeing the accident
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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical can only see it from the viewpoint of their own reality. They see exactly what happened, but they see it as part of their personal reality, not the reality of the person standing two meters away. Can we, then, choose our own reality? The simple answer is yes, we can. The next obvious question is then, why can't I create my reality to win the lottery tonight? Ah, there's the beast of individual realities again. Everyone else who bought a ticket is doing the same thing. They are also creating their reality to be a winner. Since there can be only one winner, all but one of those realities will fail. But, hang on there. Can there be only one winner? Again, we run into that critter of consensus reality. We believe that there can be only one winner, so that is exactly what happens. Can we believe something differently? In theory, we can. Consensus reality, though, has a very firm hold on us and just saying we do not believe it doesn't necessarily make it true. Deep in our mental constructs, we still believe that there can be only one winner, so that happens. Just so, deep in our minds, we, as adults, believe that there really is no monster in the loo or under the bed, so no matter how hard we look, the space is empty. We may not be able to alter the consensus reality of the lottery so we win R3 million, but we can take a lesson in the understanding of what reality is. Next time a child insists there is a monster under the bed, agree with that reality and give them a cookie to appease the beast so they can sleep soundly. Don't laugh, their reality is no less valid than yours and what a disservice we perpetrate on our kids by insisting they conform to the realities we were forced into as we grew up. We might smile indulgently and say the monsters or companions are real to the child, but that's only because the child has not learned about "reality". Could it be that the child's reality is every bit as "real" as ours, just different? If observation alters the universe, if it brings things into existence merely by the act of observing, and it does, can we really say the invisible friends or monsters are unreal? As adults, we have agreed with a reality that most people subscribe to; one that says there are no monsters under the bed. But, the child's reality says there is. So, a parent and a child can both look under the bed, one will see a shadowy monster, the other sees just dust bunnies. Which is right? Can it be that they are both right? Can it be that both realities exist at the same time? A very unfortunate byproduct of society is that it tries to insist that everyone subscribe to the same reality. It is a wonderful thing that some do not, else we would not have magnificent works of art, wonderful music or even spacecraft peering at other planets. Yes, there really is a monster under the bed. Issue 1 Samhain 2009 31

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

Alban Arthuan: the Midwinter Fires
By Damon Leff
It is said that fire was jealously guarded by our most ancient ancestors, and with good reason. Domestic fires were never permitted to go out except at ritual rekindling ceremonies, events of great spiritual significance. For most of our ancestral families the main illumination on winter evenings, as well as the principal source of heat and means of cooking, was the kitchen or hearth fire. At Christmas in the nineteenth century those who could afford it added to their hearth an additional log of wood, usually oak, sufficient to burn through the entire day. In Wales a little of it was burned in the embers overnight between each of the Twelve Days. Folklorists have called the log the Yule log. The word Yule means wheel, and refers naturally to the cycle of the seasons and the ever cycling sun as it makes its way across the heavens from summer to winter and back again. The summer and winter solstices are the two great turning points in the sun’s apparent course through the heavens and our Pagan ancestors have always considered it appropriate to kindle fires on earth at these times when the fire of the great luminary in heaven began to wane or wax. In modern Christianity the ancient Pagan fire-festival of the winter solstice has survived in the custom of the Yule log. The custom was widespread in Europe but flourished especially in England where the Yule log was kindled indoors instead of in the open air on account of the inclement weather of the season. In Cornwall, Devon and Dorset the Yule log was called the Christmas Braund. In Wales it was referred to as Y Bloccyn Gwylian (the Festival Block). In the Scottish highlands it was called Yeel Carline (the Old Christmas Wife) and in Ireland Bloc na Nollaig (the Christmas Block). Clergyman Robert Herrick first recorded the tradition of the Yule Log in Britain in the 1600’s who portrayed it as being brought to the farmhouse by cheering lads whom the farmer’s wife rewarded with a drink. The presence of the log was thought to bring prosperity and it was lit to music, with the remnant of the previous year’s log. The latter was believed to protect the house from evil. The custom is believed to have descended from an Anglo-Saxon fire ceremony of the winter solstice. Sir James Frazer suggested that the log custom represented a part of a Pagan religion essentially concerned with agricultural fertility and the veneration of vegetation spirits.

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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical Until the middle of the nineteenth century the rite of the Yule log was still celebrated in parts of Germany where a heavy block of oak was fitted into the door of the hearth. When the new log was laid the following year, the remains of the old one were ground to powder and strewed over the fields during the Twelve Nights to promote the growth of crops. In France the custom of the Yule log or trefoir was denounced as superstition in the seventeenth century for “…the belief that a log called the trefoir or Christbrand, which you put on the fire for the first time on Christmas Eve and continue to put on the fire for a little while every day till Twelfth Night, can, if kept under the bed, protect the house for a whole year from fire and thunder; that it can cure the cattle of many maladies; that if a piece of it be steeped in the water which cows drink it helps them to calve; and lastly that if the ashes of the log be strewn on the fields it can save the wheat from mildew.” In parts of Montgomeryshire, according to historian Ronald Hutton, the ashes of the log were sprinkled on cereal fields to fertilize them. In England customs surrounding the Yule log were similar to those in Germany and France. On the night of Christmas Eve, says the antiquarian John Brand, “our ancestors were wont to light up candles of an uncommon size, called Christmas Candles, and lay a log of wood upon the fire, called a Yule-clog or Christmas-block, to illuminate the house, and, as it were, to turn night into day.” The old custom was to light the log with a fragment of its predecessor which had been kept throughout the year for the purpose. It has been conjectured that the Yule log was originally designed to sympathetically assist the labouring sun of midwinter to rekindle his seemingly expiring light. A distinctive local alternative to the Yule Log, in Devon was the ashen faggot, a bundle of ash stakes tied around with bands of bark. Unlike the log it was burned on one evening only, which could be any from Christmas Eve to Twelfth Night. The largest recorded were twelve feet long; the bands could be of willow, ash, or hazel bark and included anything from one to fifteen faggots. A fresh round of drinks was served and a toast made every time a band broke in the fire. The faggot was usually made by farmworkers and farmers usually provided the drink. Hutton suggests the custom formed a centrepiece of a classic reciprocal relationship. The Yule Log vanished steadily from the late nineteenth century due in part to the disappearance of the old-fashioned open hearths. One of the most important aspects of the Yule season in eighteenth century England was saining, signifying rituals intended to safeguard people and property against misfortune and evil. In Shetland, it began on ‘Tul-yas-e’en’, seven nights before Yule Day, when farmers would put a straw cross at the entrance to the cornyard, hang a plait of hair from all beasts on the croft over that of the byre, and carry a burning peat through the outbuildings. On the 20th, Tammasmas or Tundersmas E’en (St Thomas’s Eve), all maintained silent vigil, avoiding either work or games. On Yule Eve itself the house was cleaned and all locks polished, after which an iron blade was left inside the main door to scare off trolls, and a light burned all night. The following morning the trolls were defied again, as each person in a home drank a dram of whisky with the words, “Yule gude an’ Yule gear. Follow da trow aa da year.” Issue 1 Samhain 2009 33

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical Bitter and astringent herbs such as Juniper featured prominently in saining customs. The purifying element of fire and smoke was also employed to sain boats. In 1714 the kirk session at Inveravon in Banffshire passed an act against ‘clavies’ – a basket, and referring to pots or torches of fire carried around cornfields and byres of livestock at this season to bless them. It should be mentioned that the act of saining was once widespread and can certainly be said to have come down from prehistory. In modern Pagan custom in the southern hemisphere the Yule bonfire is lit on the eve of Yule, June 20. The fire-festival may include the act of jumping the fire to banish evil and misfortune, and smudging participants in the fire ceremony with not only the smoke of acrid herbs such as sage, juniper, fennel and cedar, but also marking the body with ash from the fire to sain the body against ill health. A human effigy representing the power of the darkness of winter is set alight on the bonfire and participants dance against the sun (widdershins) to banish the winter. Ritual includes the welcoming of the sun on its return voyage by dancing with the apparent motion of the sun (deosil) to conjure the return of its heat and light. The Yule log is a symbol of health and fertility, and a sympathetic tool for conjuring the sun’s return. The ashes of burned logs tied in a cloth and kept for a year serve as a charm of protection, fertility, strength and health. If you do not have access to a hearth large enough in which to burn a log at Yule, bore three holes into the top of a small log of pine large enough to hold green or red candles and use this as a centrepiece on your festival table or altar. References: The Golden Bough - J.G. Frazer The Stations of the Sun - R. Hutton The Sabbats - E. McCoy

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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

The Stang and Roebuck
By Lee ‘Red Oak’ Johnson
In many of the Witchcraft traditions and paths you will see mention of the ritual tool called the Stang, but not all consider the Stang to be of the same thing or making. Many will consider a staff or rod to be a Stang, one that is made of a straight branch with no fork. What I have come to know the Stang to be, is from a more Traditional Craft perspective, and such a Stang has a forked end with two tines. One of the stories I remember hearing some years back was the use of the two pronged pitchfork as a sort of “Stang in disguise”. When times were not as tolerant as the ones we find ourselves in now, the common folk of the low lands and farms would use the two tined pitchfork for their work, being a necessary tool to do their farming. When nobody was watching however, they would turn it around, plant the stick in the ground and use the pitchfork as a ritual tool and altar. The two tines of the horns is largely representative of the Horned God, but can also represent the World Tree with branches facing up, planted into the ground and hence its roots penetrating into the ground. There is a third element however, and it is because of this that some also consider the three tined pitch fork or trident, to be a traditional Stang. This third element comes into play as the Divine Child atop the shoulders of the Horned Master, and together with the two tined Stang it is represented by a candle or some form of flame. The flame bewixt the horns is the Child who is the bringer of Knowledge and Illumination to the Path. If we consider this in terms of the Kabbalah, then we can clearly see the sephiroth of Binah (Understanding) and Chokmah (Wisdom) to the left and right as the points of the horns and the Light and Dark Child as Da’ath (Knoweldge), being the flame between the horns. We could also take a much wider swing and consider the story of St. Christopher carrying the child across the water, placed upon his shoulders. The child ended up being Christ, the Morning Star, Divine Child and Bringer of the Light (a lucifer in fact), Knowledge and Illumination. The length of the Stang can vary in size, but usually of a length of six feet. The placing of it in the ground during ritual, to reside over the ritual itself is considered to be the same as having the Horned God’s presence in the Sacred Space used. It is mostly used as an altar although it can replace the wand or staff and is sometimes used to inscribe the circle of the Compass Round. Placement may vary from it being in the center as a focal point, especially during a ritual such as Treading the Mill, or at the Northern Quarter to guard the Gate. In Northern Tradition the Northern Quarter is considered to be the entrance to Yggdrasil and the World of the Gods. In some of the traditions that follow the teachings of Robert Cochrane is may also be placed in the north to hold the north star, the star itself acting as the Flame betwixt the Horns. The Stang is sometimes considered to be a portal to the unseen worlds, so gazing between the horns could have some interesting effects (something I am still to experiment with). Issue 1 Samhain 2009 35

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical " 'It is an altar', which is correct as far as it goes, but the witches' stang in a coven sense is much more than this … Always mounted at the northern compass point of the circle's edge, it represents the Old Horned God/King of the forest glade. The returning of the Old Year King reincarnated back into the body of the Young Horned God/Child born of the Goddess in her aspect of Diana of the Greenwoods and sired by the Old Horned God himself. When placed at the edge of the gateway to that circle, the stang becomes the symbolic guardian of the gateway to that circle, the link between the Old Gods and that of the working ring. The stang is always mounted in the north of the four great Sabbats of the ritual year; Candlemass, May Eve, Lammas, and Hallowe'en..." -- Robert Cochrane aka Roy Bowers Because times have changed somewhat since those bygone eras when farmers had to disguise their ritual tools in the form of working implements, some people will take a staff and mount horns to the one end, although the use of a naturally forked branched is also very acceptable, some would even consider it more acceptable. The horns however are usually goat horns in representation of the Goat God, or sometimes deer antlers. I would love to see the effect if someone mounted stag antlers. These horned beasts hold obvious mythological context and Lore, but there is another that I have been rather fond of for some years, one that has for some reason (until it recently became clearer), touched me and spoken to my heart of hearts. This particular horned beast I speak of is the Roebuck. Such a dainty and beautiful creature that beast in its usual context may seem harsh, but I speak of beast in the context of a Familiar, a Fetch, a Guide and Guardian in the Underworld. Mention of the Roebuck can mostly be found in writings pertaining to Robert Cochrane/Roy Bowers and the 1734 Tradition, as well as the Roebuck Tradition of Dave and Ann Finnin. In The White Goddess by Robert Graves, he mentions that the Roebuck “hides the Secret”, whereas the Dog “guards the Secret” and the Lapwing “disguise(s) the Secret”. The question is, what is the Secret (and it has nothing to do with that movie)? But not a question we are to answer in this particular discourse. "To find the Roebuck, you must search the Thicket. To find the Thicket you must not be misled by the Lapwing, and to approach the Thicket you must Master the Dog. The Roebuck is hidden where the Lapwing's deceptive path originates, just as the true path through the Thicket lies just beyond the Dog." And so it is the Roebuck that sits in the thicket beneath the Tree, hiding (and possibly keeping) the Secret or Hidden Mysteries from the profound. To know the Mysteries, you must seek the Roebuck. And it is because of this that the Roebuck has become such a central icon within my Craft, and even more so since December when we had a very good friend come from the UK on holiday and brought me a roebuck skull with horns.

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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical Up to now you may have been wondering why I am writing about the Stang and the Roebuck in the same article. Quite simply, the Stang that I have created for my Craft has the Roebuck (who I like to call Jack, because he built the house) mounted atop. The staff I used was a eucalyptus branch that I acquired on a walk through some hills a few years back and had been using as my staff ever since. It is quite a potent staff in itself as it is somewhat of a fetishé in that it is connected to the spirit of a Dragon…long story that I won’t get into now and somewhat personal. Anyway, I started by modifying the staff, all instructions from Jack the Roebuck, by first forming the bottom end into a spike. I don’t have power tools for the job and even if I did, I would have preferred to do it with the hand tools I had in my possession. The principal of adding blood, sweat and tears (all three were present) to the making of the Stang had great appeal. If you have ever tried to file a eucalyptus branch into a spike, you will realize how hard this particular wood is. After a few evenings of trying to shape the spike with a rough rasp, I ended up taking the jigsaw and hacksaw (needless to say, both broke in the process) to it and cutting a wedge. From there I rasped it into a wedge-like spike which very nicely plunges into the ground quite securely. The mounting of the roebuck skull was the most interesting part, and thanks to Jack, works pretty well. I obviously didn’t want to permanently mount the skull and horns to the staff as it would require some modification or methods of attaching (gluing perhaps) of the skull, which would ruin it. I also place the skull on my indoor altar when not in use as the Stang, so it was very important to create a method which I could mount the skull when needing the use of a Stang and demount it when not. What I ended up doing was taking a short piece of dowel that is tapered on the one end (it was actually an old paint brush), drilling an angled hole at the top of the staff, wedging the tapered dowel into the hole and voila, I had a neck. The cavity where the base of the spinal column would normally go simply slips over the dowel and the skull is mounted. To get the candle between the horns, I took a screw to the top of the staff and snipped off the head, the candle can then be plunged onto the headless screw and it is all in place. Issue 1 Samhain 2009 37

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical The finished product is quite spectacular. I will be using the full colour image on the cover of my new book, Into the Black Kingdom, so watch out for it, it is marvelous…of course Jack likes to show off.

38 Issue 1 Samhain 2009

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

Island Healing
By Carina Venter
I worry about you, my lover of ages I need to get through to you I promised the sages You have to let me be there when you are in need like this It's no good to hide it you know I see it like it is I can still help you to get this over with I can absorb the pain you're overflowing with It is what it is, you tell me in a whisper but I am here and I'm going to share It is what it was It is what it is It is what it will be forever it is so that having been cleared let me be there, to ease your fears do it now, I'll show you how meet me on the island in an hour we'll have a waterfall shower I'll dry your pain-riddled body in the sunlight Leave you to soak up the fresh air a while treat you with oils and fragrances to delight ease the pain, kiss you alive again you'll fall asleep on the soft grass next to the river the water will flow and heal you forever I'll lie down next to you carrying the damaged rest of you off to never again pester you I will comfort and cover you I will be the lover of you to take I will discover you, when you awake free and whole and healed again and then you can be you and I can be me again Issue 1 Samhain 2009 39

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

Pagan Freedom Day, 2009
Proudly Pagan in 1000 Hills Hacienda By Christa Martin
Fey Fand and co. organised another Pagan Freedom Day celebration this year, which was held in the beautiful gardens of the Hacienda Pub, in Monteseel, in the Valley of a Thousand Hills, KZN. The Festivities kicked off around ten in the morning and featured a rite (performed by Fey) for the Mother Earth, a fantasy fancy dress competition for the kids, as well as a lucky draw offering several esoteric prizes. An interesting addition to the line-up was a display of self-defence techniques in the Mixed Martial Arts style by members of the local Shuriken Dojo, which drew quite a crowd. Other events during the day included a poi demonstration, open mic, a drumming/ didgeridoo/ accoustic music circle and tribal dance by the Kalaya Dance Company. There were stalls selling everything Pagan, from witchy clothing and altar cloths, uniquely crafted wooden furniture and jewellery, to organic products, dream catchers and handmade ornaments in a riot of colour and an atmosphere of camaraderie. Families from all walks of life were to be found, strolling the grounds and examining the various items on sale. Circle attendance for the rite was optional and there were more than a few curious onlookers when Fey began to cast the circle, since the Hacienda is a popular destination for those who enjoy a drive out into the countryside. However, this unusual scene was met with friendly fascination and a general air of tolerance, in keeping with the spirit of Freedom Day. From late afternoon into the evening, there were braai fires, and the melodic strains of three local bands - The Meditators, Toi Toi Toy and The Rolling Thunder Review - was enjoyed by all. On the whole, it was a very pleasant way to enjoy being in the company of like-minded people, an opportunity for little ones to run rampant in a safe and friendly environment, and some of the proceeds went to the Domestic Animal Rescue Fund, which was the cherry on top for this writer.

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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

Your Horoscope
By Anastacia Sampson May – July 2009
“God is playing marbles With his planets and his stars Creating havoc through my life Through his influence on Mars That's why I'm stumbling down the highway On my boots of steel I should be rolling down the skyway On my cosmic wheels” ~Cosmic Wheels (Donovan) If you would like to ask any specific astrological questions, please email them to and they will be forwarded to Anastacia Sampson. A selection of such questions and answers will appear in the next issue of Pathways.

At the time of the winter season you have ample energy to achieve what you begin to do. Your feelings are set in the right direction along with your actions. The intensity of your intentions may be so great so as to perhaps lead to accidents. The intensity has you in a rush. Loved ones may expect you to be more impatient than usual when it comes to emotions. As June arrives, your attitude alters, perhaps to your loved ones’ relief. You begin to be more dedicated to your environment. You are more active and constructive. It may be that the colder temperatures are needed to balance your ruling planet, Mars? Indeed Mars is travelling through the sign of Taurus during the month of June and partly July. Taurus is a reliable sign and this should ensure stability in your assets and finances during the Winter Solstice for you. As July comes into forceful appearance you should expect greater chances to communicate and transmit your knowledge. Try not being duplicative in your actions. You may find that while you’re highly motivated to interact you may develop feelings for more than one person. If you can communicate energetically with anyone there’s bound to be a force of attraction. Your mind though should keep you aware that you have a loving home and to lose it will risk your comfort. Your partner should let your energetic ideas and thoughts permeate into your love life. As July passes by your home and love life may be areas of highlighting importance. Winter is passing and spring is nearing. You have the energy to rile up your family to notice. Let your actions reflect your thoughts! Communication is a strong pursuit you take part in and with it you can achieve much. The power of action is yours to use, to begin awareness, collaborate and transmit ideas. Issue 1 Samhain 2009 41


Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

As winter begins you’re stubbornly safe-guarding yourself. You take measures to place up barriers, you feel threatened in a way. This applies to your emotions, even though you seem distant, it is not the cold icy manner; no it’s a snappy impulsive withdrawal. You may be feeling that you haven’t applied enough to stabilize your situation and cement your relationships. This leaves you angry yet eager to do so. Your habit is to be stubborn and by June you’re being highly vigilant on carrying out what needs to be done. During the Winter Solstice you’ll not be too eager to change plans or disrupt your routine. You’ll probably perform as you did during previous habitual planned events. You see no need to alter anything and are secure in your relationships. If your partner wants excitement and unexpected reactions, you’re keen to rather be the reliable solid type and adhere firmly to your ways. The only chance of possible change in your life may well be outside factors, such as your friends and the seasons progressing. Yet even though you may favour believing you can set things and make them lasting like a boulder, your obstinate feelings and actions are and do evolve. As July brings the near ending of winter you begin to expand and open up to others. Your actions and feelings become friendlier. You may take up social events and begin to act to display your thoughts. You’re safe and secure when you communicate. Your communication is loving and caring, you take up more of a parental or maternal mind-set and this is displayed through your communications. If anyone should pass an insult this does hurt your sensitivity. Your home is proud of you and you’re proud of your home. Try not letting this get to your head. All that grandness is still part of the earth.


Friends have you on call and stand-by! You’re the highlight of parties, gettogethers and clubs. Any friend needing an ear to hear them, a shoulder to cry on or some easy talk can get hold of you! You’re up for it. There may be the risk of explosions though, as we know you like banter. When you do ‘dish out’ the latest, do try not ‘dishing out the dirt’ on your friends to other friends. Yet probably you won’t as you have this passionate desire to want to help your friends. If there are flare-ups and bangs then they were purely mistakes. In your rush to make a friend more at ease you may say something or express an onion innocently yet it may lead to drama. The drama won’t be long, it is short-lived and you have the quick sense to recover the topic and repair the damage. Generally your energy is high as winter begins and you can depend on your friends to defend you, just as you’re standing to defend them. It is during the Winter Solstice that you have a deeper comprehension of matters. Your actions are sturdier and your emotions are well-rooted. Although you can be frivolous, your feelings are not during the heart of this winter. You act with less thought but more reliability. You may not be taking advantage of situations presented to you as you tend to place emphasis on a set way of behaviour. The behaviour you adopt is productive yet a bit obstinately blind to better prospects. Your communication though is in top form and you have the ability to begin a rapport with anyone! Where you are there is movement and stimulation, especially in July. You may be a bit self-centred, not selfishly, acting and behaving to improve social connections. Your connections are vital
42 Issue 1 Samhain 2009


Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical and you maintain them by keeping a constant door open to any invites to meet new and old acquaintances. You have affections for anyone who is keen to talk with you.

Your career is of priority! If there’s a chance of romance at work now may be the time it takes effect. Then again any of your emotional relationships are in for a spike. You’re being motivated at work and you take more action than usual. You’re more concerned about withdrawing as first, as winter starts, but you’re still keeping the communication lines open. You know there’s unfinished business, probably connected with friends. Your mind is apt to solidify friendships. All the tasks at work may stress or upset you. The brusque and hard-core attitude you display does not mix well with your sensitive side. You really may be acting out of character but yet you’re doing it for your career. You know what needs to be done and while feeling energetic you jet out to do it. To source comfort you may seek ‘comforting’ foods. Ensure that you have less meat and more grains. At times of higher activity your protein digestion can be affected. It’s definitely supportive to watch your stomach. As June comes about you spend less energy on work. There’s a source of reassuring comfort from your friends. You need the security they provide and you equally give them as much care as you can. As the Winter Solstice passes you’re feeling more affection for friends. Friends are dear yet they’re not all as sensitive as you are! If anyone passes a remark out of innocence yet in your mind insulting; this does have a hurtful smash. You may then withdraw. If asked to go out and socialise you’re keen to do so yet may feel threatened. You even act defensively yet you’re apt to be communicating. At least by doing this you may realise your friend did not mean what you perceived. Feelings may alter and you’re quicker to adopt and mingle your emotions. In your thoughts your home is your pride and joy. You shine at home and display your family home with the care and the love it deserves. You wish for your possessions to reflect your generous and loving nature.


If there’s a time for travelling afar now is the time as winter begins. You’re probably even attracted to anything or anyone exotic, check for romantic adventures! Your energy levels should be high up and there might not be any winter glooms as your feelings are bound to have a zestful zing. Even though work may be on your mind, it’s predictable and seems sturdy! You love being in the limelight and if you can travel with work-related trips you’re more than ready. Packing for trips should not be a bother. Yet in your haste do take care not to make mistakes. Confirm bookings, do not rush for the nearest available option. All this initiation may set up new relationships and you need these relationships. You have a generous nature, granted it can be pompous, yet you know what you want. With June, it is your career that takes up more of your attention. To take those trips, you probably need a career to finance them. You realise this and begin to work. Dedicated and reliable, you take up an exemplary role at work. This affects your emotions. You may seem solid and fixed during the Winter Solstice. Your actions are predictable; your ways have a purpose of building up your status. If you find that your co-workers and boss need time to recognise your greatness you begin to spend more energy where you can receive Issue 1 Samhain 2009 43


Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical applause. The sound of applause never bores you; it’s like the chatter of birds for nature lovers to the auditory sensors. To make your friends take note you take an active dive into socializing in the month of July. You’re pulled between opposing or conflicting social engagements and friends. Your actions speak louder than words and you act the star part regardless of where you are! It can be at work, in the shop, at home, you’re fitting in and taking up the admiring glance or shall we say looks? At the end of July you wish to be more show-full and appear to have grand thoughts of self-worth. That is great, share it and encourage it among your friends.

Why so aggressive? Fair enough you’re hiding out but still what’s up? Has someone attacked you? Probably you feel you’ve been through a tumble with your emotions. A relationship, a close one, has knocked you down senseless. You’re not the aggressive or fighting type but you’re sure not to get caught off guard again. That’s why you’re hiding behind the column with a fighting stance. There’s one problem you see red in haste and attack anyone, even an innocent passer-by. Not everyone is out to get you and is ready for battle. You’re a natural worrier and when on guard duty the combination of battle and worry is bound to be a hassle. You may feel uneasy and unwell as winter progresses. Try realising that the battle is not on for everyone. At least your mind is clearly attuned to your environment. You can sense all movement around you! You’re being slightly obstinate in your mind set and this does progress to your emotional life. You take up a sturdy stance and act like you have to comply with a set routine, which you do. However it’s to improve your communication and understanding of far off places. Perhaps you feel if you have dependable feelings and actions you can better prepare for far off approaching people and events. You sense the foreign people and places more than you may care to realise. Of course with all that worry in your head you find you need details and precise forecasts! As winter transverses into July you begin to ease up. Not at home, too tense at home! At work, co-workers can expect a more talkative you. You may participate in their group acts and feel the need to mingle at work. Deep attachment is felt towards your work. Friends provide comfort and if they work with you then they see another side of you, a more social, at ease person. Your pride was hurt before you may claim defensively. As winter ends you’re on the road to knowing you need space to value yourself without others clouding your analysis.


If anyone is having a rumble tumble, it is you. You’ve expanded and still expand a great deal of energy in your partnerships. Your emotions have been given a jump start and if there’s one thing you dislike, well there are many things actually, it is rashness. You may notice as winter swings into force that your partners are open to arguments. You end up taking part more than you would and yet it is to your benefit. You’re an air sign and a storm of any sought clears up the air. You can get pretty smug in your colour co-ordinated home with ado over your accessories. Seriously sometimes you need a waking up, a jiggle to shuffle you about. If everything was set what a bore, you want excitement as much as another in your relationships and when it does happen you fumble for the pause button. You can not press it! What do you do? During the Winter Solstice you feel an alignment to the
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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical environment, you’re committed to sustaining it. Yet your actions and feelings are distant. You may have emotions of a loss; the storm you went through in your relationship did not leave you with a loss. You feel it and may need time to act alone. Try not become set in your ways, yet as July stumbles pass you may feel more balanced. See change can be beneficial. Your actions are focused on improving your communications with others, to comprehend other people. You display a social love for learning and the way you learn is not alone with study material. It is by interacting with people by communicating. Your loved ones can expect you to be more outgoing! You may find that all the social activity is a bit unsettling though. You have a keen sense of balance. Your mind is on your career; at work you have better intuition. Use it to achieve what you desire, to accomplish tasks. A stronger friend may request you to socialise more and check things out as July ends. You can, you’re well adjusted to communicate!

It has been work that has had you all worked up. Yes you’ve had feelings of taking active care for your health. As winter starts you may find your health being a factor. Possibly bouts of sudden headaches or other quick appearing symptoms may reflect you need a break. At work you should slow down and not be too quick to jump the gun. However you should be achieving much with your creative energetic approach. At work there’s passion to do what needs to be done and you should have a smiling boss or co-workers. If you’ve become arrogant, in your impatience with others who have not been ‘on the ball’, you may have a working environment filled with minor accidents and mistakes. Mishaps due to impatience are a waste of time. Remember a job well done requires as much time as proper dedication. Allow time to progress to translate your tasks into successful completion. You don’t want to re-do it and end up being even more irritable at the slow or delayed completion. Your relationships may seem predictable! Oh how you dislike that! Mystery and secrecy are utterly desirable yet you are able to have solid relationships. You may be really committed to your partner as long as there’s a tint and element of surprise. As the Winter Solstice happens you’re firm and solid in your relationships. Your partner is as solid as a rock. Then as July passes by you may need a break, not necessarily from your partner! It just means you spend more energy on communicating generally but with a sense of distance it appears. You love mystery and only you would like to communicate with a veil. How much more fun it is to have a conversation in the dark or without anyone knowing where you’re at while you interact. Your partner, if there’s trust, should take your secrecy flavoured behaviour with a pinch of salt. All will be revealed, or so we hope, in your behaviour after you feel your game is won.


Your love life is roaring with fire! Flames are bright yet hopefully you’re watching those flames. Your energy is up. Some water may be needed to cool down your emotions and behaviour. If you’re the creative type then you should be using the beginning of winter to implement your passionate zeal into the work you do. Regardless of what work you do you feel upbeat and need to burn off your energy. Playing with children is apt to be jovial! The one aspect you should watch is your tendency to take for granted that all is well. You still may need to safety Issue 1 Samhain 2009 45


Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical lock doors or ensure the stove is properly switched off. The shop isn’t going to always check your groceries or change. Check sell-by dates. You probably dislike the word responsibility. The whole idea may have you galloping over the hills. However your children and partner have your heart tied to them and you feel much love towards them. At the time of the Winter Solstice you are focused on your work. The environmental approach of your daily activities has you acting reliably. Your feelings towards your work are predictable while you find security in your work. Relationships shout for attention as July enters and passes by. You may find your partner more talkative, this does excite you. Ideas always interest you, while you have the drive to perform and achieve. The element of communication may take a greater aspect. You could drive a long distance to communicate any time! There are such things as phones yet the option of travel is appealing. Your partner may be prone to talk anywhere but you specifically can rather opt for an adventurous outing. To talk at home or while out some place else, you choose the latter. Ensure the stimulation on the mental level between you and your partner is not only frivolous.

Why, you may ask is there always drama on the home turf? Perhaps your serious minded attitude needs to relax. When you’re so concerned about being responsible you forget home can be a relaxing place. Imagine a home where there is a light-hearted fun ambience. You want that but still your family tends to throw in the odd or often tantrum! That’s fine you know there’s a line, and you dislike anyone crossing it. However your family life is prone to have its ups and downs and with you steering the ship they’ll remain on course and reach the destination. During the beginning of winter, your home life is in for a ruff and tumble. Everyone is eager to reach somewhere, accidents occur, protests are made and the need for your serious direct responsible solutions are eargently required. When you’re dealing with your family don’t take on all the responsibility! Other family members have to take responsibility and you’re liable to make mistakes yourself – you are not that old and wise! By being the way you are, you should have a stable Winter Solstice with relationships being firm. Your creative side may be stifled; it’s predictable in a way yet always fruitful. There’s ample room for growth in your creative pursuits. Try something new! Definitely not, you rather prefer having cemented feelings and your behaviour is solid. If anyone needs committed action you’re suitably capable of successfully achieving it. With July you may find that communication at work takes on a significant role. There may be one decision and then another, with you left waiting to hear what has been decided after much discussion. Conversations and transmissions are taking up more time; your behaviour is highly sociable at work. You may be feeling less stern and more stimulated with a need to interact with others in the work place and all areas pertaining to your daily tasks.


You’re highly defensive in your behaviour; it transfers to your interactions. Your manner of communication is about a fight. We’re not all sure what you’re fighting about? There’s a challenge you feel you’re set to stand for. Yet once you take it up you become a tint aggressive towards everyone.
46 Issue 1 Samhain 2009


Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical That is how winter begins with you. You may expect a short fuse when it comes to your emotions. If others can’t see your point of view straight away you lash out to convince them. However if anyone still fails to agree you take up a war-like approach to stand your ground. In your keen impatient communication you can expect headaches or grammar mistakes. Halt, your love life can be presenting difficulties. Well with the way you’re acting there’s little surprise regards that! Have some time alone to see the humorous side and take another as of yet unthought-of of approach. During the Winter Solstice you may be frustrated with the predictable way of your home life and family. They’re set in their ways and you have great notions yet they refuse to try, let alone listen properly. You can at least have a stable home yet you need to share your inspiring thoughts. Even though your family may use some of your ides they toss out most and you do need the stability of a sound home. As winter progresses as July comes into force you try another approach. This time you decide to transmit your ideas more directly to your children and into your love life within a creative manner. If they won’t listen, you’ll create! Whatever you spend your time on you’re able to transmit ideas. This does stimulate you. If you’re not working on anything creative then spend time in the kitchen. Preparing meals to stimulate happy family conversations at get-togethers is helpful. Afterwards suggest and try a time of creative projects such as craftwork.

There’s a bounty of excessive enthusiasm lately over your territory. You’re keen to go to great lengths to stand up and defend what you posses. It’s not a matter of keeping things to yourself or being selfish. It’s a matter of defending what needs to be defended. Your intuition is revved up and when you do get revved up you may end up doing things in an over-board manner. You may want to give more stuff away and when you do it’s with so much fighting passion that hardly anyone really does want to oppose. You give generously with conviction and the threat of fighting to do what you need. The fighting type isn’t you but when it comes to assets you’re able to act like a toddler throwing your toys out the cot. You do it with laughter and when you throw everything out you must admit that you can go over-board. However you’re needed to help others and use your weeping eyes to feel empathy, or act for the benefit of others. There are times you need to communicate firmly. Although your emotions can be like the snowball effect, they grow while rolling down the hill, you are reliable in your behaviour during the Winter Solstice. Your feelings are solid and you should feel more connected to the earth. Then if anyone wishes to persuade you to do something you may place up some resistance. Friends and family know you’re easily influenced yet there are times you can put your foot down. At home you should enjoy greater communication as the depth of winter begins to fade in July. Emotionally sociable, you can have deeper levels of interaction with your family members. They may be pulling you this way and that way, well before you act that way and that way, have a thought. You’re eager to please everyone so you walk the talk of whoever you’re with but you need to be true to yourself. Anastacia Sampson qualified via the International Plaskett College. She practices and consults with patients and clients, as she is a Nutritional Medicine Practitioner, Iridologist and Slimming Consultant. Freelance journalism is one of her interests, Issue 1 Samhain 2009 47


Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical and she has been the health writer for regional newspapers. She had her story ‘An owl’s knowledge’ for children published. You may contact her or read more on healthy living through her website at

Books by Anastacia

An Owl’s Knowledge

A Calendar of Nutritional Tidbits and Nourishing Plants

48 Issue 1 Samhain 2009

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

Die Eerste Fabel
By Michelle Du Plessis
Luister jy met hierdie oor of met daardie oor? Weet jy hoe om met al twee ore te luister? As jy met al twee jou ore kan luister, sal ek vir jou ‘n storie vertel. Soms vertel iemand vir jou ‘n storie. ‘n Storie wat net ‘n storie is, en soms vertel iemand vir jou ‘n storie wat meer as net ‘n storie is. Hierdie stories noem ek fabelagtige fabels. So ‘n fabel is aan my vertel deur ‘n wyse ou man. Soms het hierdie ou man krom geloop, soms regop; partykeer het hy met homself gepraat, en partykeer met die mense om hom. Hy was vol plooie en rimpels, met grys hare wat nie te grys was nie, en ‘n baard wat baie grys was. Sy wysheid het soms reguit geloop, en soms moes jy tussen die kinkels die wysheid loop soek. Al op die kronkel spore van die storie moet jy die wimpel-strompel van die waarheid-wysheid loop soek. Hierdie fabel wat ek nou vir jou gaan vertel, het hy een oggend terwyl hy op sy klip gesit het, aan my vertel. Hierdie storie word die eerste fabel genoem…. En jy sal nou-nou verstaan hoekom…

Die Eerste Fabel
Reg in die begin, toe die aarde nog plat was, en daar nog plek was om af te val, het daar ‘n mens orals rond gedwaal. Haar voetspore het deurmekaar geraak met die spore van al die diere. In daardie dae was die aarde nog aan mekaar – al die land was saam land en die water was orals saam water. Behalwe soutwater het bymekaar gebly en varswater het bymekaar gebly, in groot riviere en mere en panne en damme. Die son het aan die eenkant van die aarde opgekom en het aan die anderkant onder gegaan. Die maan het kort op die hakke van die son gevolg…om en om het die son en die maan gegaan, al om die plat aarde. Die mens het die son en die maan gesien, en die diere wat oor die hele aarde rond geswerf het, en sy was eensaam. In al haar omswerwinge het sy nie nog een mens soos sy gesien nie, en alles om haar het maats gehad. In die water, op die aarde wat plat was, in die lug wat rondom alles was, het alles maats gehad….net sy nie. En sy was alleen. Issue 1 Samhain 2009 49

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical Deur woude het sy geswerf, oor berge, deur groen vallei vol wonderlike diere, deur riviere – van die eenkant van die plat aarde tot by die anderkant waar sy amper afgeval het. Deur groot woestyne…tot reg in die middel van die groot, plat aarde. Anders as wat almal dink, was hierdie mens nie primitief en dom nie. Sy het vuur gehad om warm te bly, en sy het baie dinge geweet. Sy het ook die vonk van lewe gehad. Vandag word hierdie oer-oue vonk, siel genoem. Hierdie eerste mens het so baie van hierdie vonk gehad, dat haar hele lyf rooi gegloei het. In die sonlig, in die maanlig, in die mis, in die sneeu- sy het lewe gehad. Ook het sy, anders as wat geleerde wetenskaplikes vandag glo en verkondig, die vermoë gehad om te dink. Nie net oor elke dag se goed nie, maar ook vêrder, oor dinge wat ons abstrak noem. Logika en abstrakte denke was die mens s’n. Emosies was ook nie vreemd nie; hartseer en alleenheid, vreugde oor die kleinste goedjies, en ook liefde vir alles om haar. Maar sy was alleen…. Of was sy, alleen? Die Groot Skepper wat die plat aarde gemaak het, en die ronde hemel, en die son en die maan en die sterre wat in die maantyd geskitter het, wat al die diere en goggas en blomme, bome, alles gemaak het, het op die eensame mens neer gekyk, en haar alleenheid gesien. Alleen in die wêreld, net soos wat die son deur die maan gejaag word, het die Groot Skepper vir die eerste mens die towerkrag van skepping gegee. Maar het die alleen mens dit geweet? Sy het nog net soos altyd gegloei, en sy was nog steeds alleen. Aan die einde van elke sontyd-dag het die mens met twee klippe vuur gemaak. Eers het sy droë grassie en takkies bymekaar gesit, en met die twee klippe teen mekaar gekap om vonkies op die droë gras te laat spring. Dan, as die gras smeul, het sy liggies daarop geblaas dat dit kon brand. Groter houtjies is op die vuurtjie gegooi, en nog en nog…tot dat die vuur helder en groot gebrand het. Elke aand, dieselfde ding oor en oor het sy gedoen. Die ritueel was deel van haar lewe. Sy het twee dinge gehad wat sy elke dag dieselfde gedoen het: sy het vuur gemaak, en sy het elke oggend, as die son sy neus oor die aarde se plat rand gesteek het, haar arms wyd gestrek om die son terug te verwelkom. Met die son en die maan as haar metgeselle, was sy nie so vreeslik alleen nie… Nou, jy vra, waar was die see en die seisoene dan? Die aarde is mos nie plat nie! Nee, die aarde is nie méér plat nie, en die seisoene het eers saam met die aarde se ronding gekom…Maar ons kom daarby, wag nou eers! Die eerste aand, nadat die Groot Skepper vir die eerste mens die towerkrag om te skep en te maak gegee het, het sy weer, soos altyd, haar grassies en stokkies bymekaar gemaak om vuur te maak. Soos altyd, maar.
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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical Soos die son weg raak, en Moeder Maan haar silwer lig oor die aarde se plat rand gooi, het die eerste mens haar vuurklippe gevat, en teen mekaar gekap… Die eerste vonk, die eerste mens se maat… In die gemengde lig van die weggaan son en die opkom maan, het die vonk van die twee klippe uit vuur en lig ‘n maat vir die eerste mens geskep. Sy was verwonderd, en het weer die twee klippe teen mekaar gekap, en weer en weer….en weer…. Mense, soos die maat van die eerste mens, het is geskep uit die vonk van die eerste mens. Die maat van die eerste mens, die tweede mens, geskep uit die vonk van die eerste, het langs die eerste mens gestaan. Hulle was gelyk aan mekaar: mens, en haar maat. Sy, die eerste mens, het uit haar eie vonk, meer mense, net soos sy, geskep. En hulle het haar Agai genoem. Agai en haar maat, die eerste twee mense, het na al die ander mense om hulle gekyk. Elkeen dieselfde, maar tog almal anders. ‘n Mengelmoes van kleur: hier was mense met rooi hare, wit hare, swart hare, bruin hare…mense met wit velle, bruin velle en swart velle. Almal dieselfde, maar tog verskillend. Elke een van hulle het ‘n maat gehad. Vrou en man. Agai, wat orals oor die aarde heen gegaan het, het na al die mense gekyk en sy het geglimlag. Niemand was meer alleen nie. Sy, wat die eerste vonk met haar saam gedra het, het deur haar skeppings towerkrag vir almal van die vonk gegee. Hulle kon lag, en dink en lief hê. Hulle kon huil en seer kry en dood gaan. Hulle kon kinders kry, en so het hulle oor die wêreld versprei…na alle uit-hoeke toe. Agai en haar maat het in die middel van die plat aarde gebly. Die middelpunt van haar towerkrag skepping. Daar was water naby haar, en bome en vrugte van alle soorte. Die wilde diere het naby haar gebly, want sy was Agai. Soos die son die maan en die maan die son deur die ronde hemel gejaag het, het daar donkerte en lig en donkerte en lig oor die aarde gekom, en Agai het saam met die son en maan gejuig oor die mense. Agai het na alles gekyk en die Groot Skepper het saam met haar geglimlag. Die mense het meer en meer geword en Agai het geweet dat die aarde sou moes verander. Woede en ontevredenheid het gegroei soos die mense meer geword het. Baie het van die Groot Skepper en Agai vergeet. Hulle het van die vonk in hulle vergeet, en hulle het die plat aarde begin verniel. Vir hulle was niks meer goed genoeg nie. Groot Skepper en Agai het hartseer geword. Die mense het die diere en mekaar begin doodmaak. Daar het ‘n tyd van oorlog op die plat aarde geheers, en almal was bang en kwaad. Agai het onder haar groot boom gesit en sy het gehuil oor die verwoesting. Omdat sy geweet het sy het die towerkrag om te skep en te maak, het sy geweet sy moes iets doen Issue 1 Samhain 2009 51

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical om die aarde en die mense te red. Die Groot Skepper het na haar gekyk, en geweet dat dit wat sy sou doen, goed was. Agai het haar twee vuurklippe uit haar sak gehaal. Die maan het die son oor die rand van die plat wêreld gejaag, en in die gemengde lig van die rooi son en die silwer maan, het Agai haar vuurklippe teen mekaar gekap, en sy het met haar skepping towerkrag die aarde verander…. Die plat aarde het begin buig, en die mense was baie bang. Die plat het in ‘n bal verander. Groot stukke land het uit mekaar geskeur, en die water het die gate opgevul. Die see het gekook en die skeurende aarde het gekreun. Agai het haar klippe gekap en vonke het die lug gevul. Haar maat het by haar gestaan en toe haar arms moeg was, het hy haar gehelp om hulle teen mekaar te kap. Die vuurbal van die son het gesug, en die silwer maan het gedraai. Dit was ‘n donker nag vol wilde woelinge en vrees, verandering van ‘n plat aarde na ‘n ronde bal wat geluidloos deur die hemelruim geswerf het. Die aarde was nie meer die middelpunt van die heelal nie. Die son het die middel geword…die aarde en die maan sou vir ewig om die son moes draai. Agai se towerkrag skepping het die mense se lewes heeltemal verander. Op die plat aarde was daar nie seisoene nie. Net altyd dieselfde dag oor en oor. Skielik was daar nou lente, somer, herfs en winter. Sneeu en reën, droogte en vloede, warrelwinde en vulkane het deel geword van die ronde aarde. Mense het geleer om te plant, te oes en te bêre vir die dag van môre. Mense het ander tale gepraat; op die plat aarde het almal dieselfde taal gepraat- op die ronde aarde het elke land sy eie gebruike en tradisies ontwikkel. Maar tog, hulle was eerste almal kinders van Agai se skepping. En wat het van Agai en haar maat geword? In die vreeslike wilde nag het Agai en haar maat verander. Saam het hulle in die oer boom in die middle van die aarde verander. Vir ewig en altyd in mekaar verstrengel. Om daar te bly vir altyd. Die Bewustheid van Altyd. Die Boom van die Aarde, het die mense dit genoem. Vandag nog, as jy die middle van die aarde kan vind, sal jy die oer boom vind. Miskien sal jy wysheid en so ‘n bietjie towerkrag ontvang. Agai, die oer moeder, het Gaia geskep: Moeder Aarde, ons planet soos wat ons haar nou ken. Nou kan ek jou vra: Het jy al die fabel van te vore gehoor? Ja, ek weet…mense vergeet baie dinge. As dit nie vir die wysheid van een ou man was nie, sou ek ook nie geweet het nie. Nou weet ek: Gaia is ons almal se wêreld. Die nalatenskap van Agai…ons ronde aarde.

52 Issue 1 Samhain 2009

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical

Witchcraft: a study in bias, prejudice and Discrimination in South Africa
By Damon Leff
Part One On 15 December 2008 Jacob Zuma, President of the African National Congress (ANC), addressing thousands of ANC supporters in Dan Qeqe stadium in Zwide, Port Elizabeth (Eastern Cape), called the leaders of the newly formed rival political party, the Congress of the People (COPE), Witches. The National Post and the Star reported Zuma as saying, “It is better when you have an enemy that you don't know. If you know the enemy, then it is more difficult. In Zulu we refer to a form of witchcraft called ukuphehla amanzi, where your enemy would mix dirt from your body in a calabash and stick a spear into the mixture to cause you sharp body pains. When the witch is a family member, we know that it's more dangerous than an enemy from outside." [1] The Star concluded its report, “In Bloemfontein, Lekota told delegates that the ANC's response to the formation of COPE had left sections of society paralysed with fear akin to the terror that gripped the nation under apartheid leaders, John Vorster and PW Botha.” [2] Terror Lekota’s statement may prove to be an exaggerated response to political intimidation by ANC cadres intent on discrediting ex-ANC members now disillusioned with the ANC. Indeed, the election tone of the ANC’s 2008/9 campaign, like no other campaign before it, has largely focused on verbally abusing and denigrating the dignity of defecting ANC members, many of whom have chosen to join COPE, by publicly vilifying them, referring to them as traitors, dogs, snakes and baboons. In an interview with Al Jazeera, Themba Ndaba the chairperson of the Sedibeng ANC Youth League branch secretary told an interviewer, “People like Terror Lekota and all those people who want to destroy the history of the organisation (ANC), they behave like cockroaches and they must be destroyed”. [3] When asked what was meant by the word destroyed Ndaba responded, “We must kill them.” Independent Democrat President Patricia de Lille cautioned the ANCYL secretary against using hate speech against COPE by reminding him “of the use of the word cockroaches by Hutus to describe Tutsis in the months before the Rwandan genocide.” [4] Issue 1 Samhain 2009 53

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical Here one must pause and consider the influences and consequences of emotionally charged bias on a political platform with unfettered access to the media. In a country struggling to come to terms with opposition to the status quo, the unthinkable curse of almost every African democracy on the continent looms ominously on the rainbow horizon. The African National Congress, which considers itself the rightful heir to power in South Africa for having delivered the country from apartheid in 1994, is terrified by COPE. [5] The divisive figure at the centre of this new counter-revolution is Jacob Zuma, and its generals in waiting are ANCYL President Julius Malema and Cosatu secretary general Zwelinzima Vavi, both of whom have publicly pledged to kill for Zuma. “Let us make it clear now: we are prepared to die for Zuma. Not only that, we are prepared to take up arms and kill for Zuma.” Julius Malema [6] In an ongoing attempt by Zuma supporters to protect their party’s President from facing 16 corruption and fraud charges, including racketeering, corruption and money laundering [7] Kwazulu-Natal Cosatu secretary warned South Africans that if Zuma is tried on corruption charges “there will be blood all over in the country”. The almost cult following of the populist Zuma has drawn sharp criticism from politicians. When Ace Magashule, the ANC's Free State chairperson claimed that “Zuma had been persecuted like Christ” [8] , Patricia de Lille demanded the ANC “stop using Jesus Christ, the Bible and Christianity in general to garner votes from the poor and the vulnerable.” [9] At an early election rally in Polokwane, Limpopo Province, in November 2008 Zuma had referred to those who had left the ANC to join COPE as being "like the donkey on which, according to the Bible, Jesus rode into Jerusalem." Zuma said, "The people were waiting for the Son of Man who was on the donkey. The donkey did not understand it, and thought the songs of praise were for him." According to Zuma, the donkey later tried to return to Jerusalem on its own in order to once again experience that moment of glory, but the people chased it away. In the same way the Congress of the People (COPE) leaders will find they are nothing without the ANC, Zuma said. [10] Bushbuckridge Mayor, Milton Morema [11] is reported to have said to a crowd of supporters at a rally, "I am here on behalf of the ANC to remind you of election time. There is only one party that led you from the hands of the Pharaohs in Egypt to Canaan. Since van Riebeeck landed here in 1652 the whites have oppressed the blacks. White people took away our land. The ANC has led the politics of resistance and many people have died in the struggle. The ANC follows the teachings of Jesus Christ. When Jesus walked the streets of Jerusalem he identified with the poor. That is what the ANC does. Jesus Christ suffered because he wanted to see people sheltered. The ANC provides Bushbuckridge with houses. Jesus Christ would have loved to see people living in healthy situations. The ANC provides clinics and food parcels. Jesus fought poverty and suffering in his preaching. The ANC provides grants to stop people from suffering. Like the Pharaohs, God did not support the Apartheid
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Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical government. That is why they did not last. But God supports this government. It does what Jesus does. It will rule till Jesus comes back." [12] As the model custodian of the Moral Regeneration Movement, Jacob Zuma has assumed the position of High Priest in the minds of former liberators and according to his followers, he can do no wrong. Is our constitutional democracy, under a Zuma government, preparing to shed the principles of equality and dignity in which leaders are elected to serve and protect the constitution, for an all-inclusive ANC Christian hegemony? We can only hope that all this bluster is merely bluff, but one would be foolish to ignore or dismiss the depth of racial, ethnic and religious bias fueling this rabid fervor. Where there is substantial bias, there is always the potential for prejudice to evolve into discrimination and violence, especially when strong and positive leadership is absent. Incidences of intimidation and violence have already started between ANC, COPE and Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) supporters. [13] "For many observers of this slowly unfolding count-down to South Africa’s 2009 elections the ANC’s aggressive election campaign is a reflection of deep-seated anxiety among the ruling elite and ordinary citizens are beginning to feel the consequences of this political insecurity. In every region of the world, it seems that human rights are being rolled back. Frustration and bitterness are fuelled by economic policies which make the rich richer and the poor poorer. And governments seem unwilling or unable to do anything about it. … But they are prepared to go to great lengths to cover up their crimes." Pierre Sané, Amnesty International Secretary-General Read the rest of this study in bias, prejudice and discrimination here: _prejudice_and_discrimination.pdf
[1] Zuma calls COPE leaders Witches War of words hots up Published Monday 15 December 2008 Split threatens South Africa's ruling ANC party Peter Goodspeed, National Post Published Tuesday 16 December 2008 [2] War of words hots up [3] ID’S Patricia de Lille slams ANC and COPE for Hate Speech 26 November 2008 [4] Ibid. [5] Can South Africa's ANC COPE with real opposition? Clare Byrne - Africa News Published 16 Dec 2008 [6] Julius Malema is a child of the ANC [7] Jacob Zuma corruption charges reinstated Issue 1 Samhain 2009 55

References (Part One):

Pathways – A South African Pagan Periodical [8] Zuma 'persecuted like Christ' Henry Cloete 30 November 2008,,2-7-12_2435071,00.html [9] ID’s Patricia De Lille Slams Anc For ‘selective Use Of Christianity To Further Political Goals’ 1 December 2008 [10] Cope like Jesus's donkey - Zuma Carien du Plessis Beeld Published 19 November 2008,,2-7-12_2429417,00.html [11] DA: Suspend Morema immediately Published 22 April 2008 [12] The ANC and Religion Gareth van Onselen Published 1 December 2008 [13] Election intimidation and violence ANC, IFP tensions boil over Published 1 February 2009,,2-7-12_2462543,00.html Cope members say ANC using intimidatory tactics on them Rochelle de Kock The Herald Online Published 7 February 2009

56 Issue 1 Samhain 2009

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