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TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 APPLICATION 2.0 THEORY OF MEASUREMENT 2.1 Depth of Investigation and Vertical Resolution 3.0 CALIBRATION 4.0 LIMITATIONS, OPERATIONS AND PRESENTATION 4.1 Limitations 4.2 Operation 4.3 Presentation 5.0 TOOL COMBINATION 5.1 Tool types available 6.0 LQC AND CORRECTIONS 6.1 Log Quality Control and Interpretation 6.2 Environmental Corrections 6.3 Associated Mnemonics 6.4 Typical Log Readings 7.0 ADDITIONAL READING TOP 1.0 APPLICATION The Induction log was introduced to measure the formation resistivity in fresh or oil-based mud and is used to detect the presence of hydrocarbon bearing zones. The tool was developed from mine detector technology developed during the Second World War. By analysing resistivity measurements, we can differentiate between formations containing conductive and non-conductive fluids. Conductive fluids in the formation usually consist of water or mud filtrate and non-conductive fluids consist of oil and gas. Using equations such as the Archie formula shown below, we can establish the relative proportions of hydrocarbons and water resident in the formation: Rt = aRw /(PHIm Sw2) Where:Rt = Formation Resistivity Rw = Formation water resistivity Sw = Percentage of water in pore space (Water Saturation) F = Formation Factor = a/PHIm PHI = Formation Porosity n = 2, Saturation component a and m, experimentally determined constants where a is close to 1 and m is close to 2 TOP 2.0 THEORY OF MEASUREMENT

Most resistivity logs measure from 10 to 100 ft3 of material around the sonde, however the micro-resistivity log measures only a few cubic inches of material near the borehole wall. Resistance (R-Ohms) is related to current (I-Amps) and voltage (V-Volts) according to Ohms law and is described by: V= IR Resistivity (R) can be defined as the property of a material that resists the flow of electric current, and is the voltage required to pass one amp through a cube with a one meter square face area. The unit of measurement is Ohm-meter2/meter (ohm m2/m or ohm m). If two pieces of material were placed end to end they would still have the same resistivity but twice the resistance. Resistivity = RA/L = KR = KV/I Where:R = resistance A = cross sectional area L = length K = Geometric constant The Induction logging tool determines resistivity by measuring the formation conductivity. The Induction tool induces and focuses an electromagnetic field into the formation adjacent to the tool by generating an alternating current source in the primary coil. This induced electromagnetic field will produce a measurable current and potential in the receiver coil of the tool proportional to the formation conductivity. The primary and secondary windings of a common transformer are a simple analogy. The measured voltage in the receiver coil is then used to determine the formation conductivity and thus the formation resistivity. Conductivity is the inverse of resistivity (1/resistivity) and has the units of mho/m. Formation resistivity is computed using the following formulae:RILD = 1000/CILD where:RILD= Resistivity (ohmm) CILD= Conductivity (mmho/m) The Direct Coupling signal is the 'In'phase or X-Signal and the Formation Signal is the 'Out' of phase or R-Signal

Figure 1: Induction Measurement Principle

Figure 2: Borehole mud invasion profile

The deep measurement ILD uses a different transmitter/receiver spacing to that of the medium measurement ILM enabling two different depths of investigation into the formation. The standard Induction tool (known as 6FF40/28 series) uses a total of 6 coils, which are used in pairs to improve focusing and thus vertical resolution of the Induction measurements. The deep measurement receives no signal from the first 40 inches surrounding the tool with a transmitter/receiver spacing of 40 inches. The medium measurement has a transmitter/receiver spacing of 28 inches. Ideally the deep measurement will read primarily the uninvaded zone resistivity depending upon diameter of invasion and the medium measurement will read more of the transition and some flushed zone resistivity depending upon diameter of invasion. Usually a small focused laterolog measurement is incorporated in the Induction tool to measure the flushed zone resistivity depending upon diameter of invasion. These measurements require corrections for borehole and invasion effects. This will be described in Section 6.0. MWD logs have less invasion effects since they measure the formation immediately after drilling before the mud cake is formed and invasion has ocurred. Figure 3: DILTool The process of giving greater emphasis tothe coils at the centre of the tool in preference to those coils either side is termed deconvolution. Modern Phasor Induction tools use the dielectric or X-signal to make a non-linear deconvolution correction. This X-signal was ignored in earlier tools. An Array Induction tool measures 28 independent signals from 8 arrays. Figures 4 and 5 show the percentage of tool signals at various distances into the formation. 100% of the AT10 signal for example is aquired within the first 30 inches from the AIT Tool. The AT90 signal measures 50% of its reading within the first 90 inches into the formation, the remainder of the AT90 signal is aquired beyond 90 inches and therefore has a deeper depth of investigation than the AT10 signal. The depth of investigation is considered to be at the 50% point.

Figure 4: Standard DILTool 2.1 Depth of Investigation and Vertical Resolution Halliburton DIL Tool Deep (ILD) Medium (ILM) Shallow (LL3) Vertical resolution 60 inches 54 inches 30 inches 6 inches 14 inches IDPH 72-84 inches IDER IDVR Depth of investigation 65 inches Schlumberger DIT-E Tool ILD Vertical resolution Depth of investigation Schlumberger AIT Tool 3 Vertical resolutions 12, 24 and 48 inches 72-84 inches

Figure 5: AIT Tool

36 inches 9-24 inches

Deep 90 inches Medium 40 inches

5 Depths of investigation 10, 20, 30, 60 and 90 inches TOP 3.0 CALIBRATION The Induction tool is calibrated regularly using a precision resistor of known conductivity in a loop placed around the tool, in a nonconductive environment. A 'zero' measurement is initially made with the precision resistor removed from the loop, thus measuring any sonde error or conductivity contributed from the tool itself. A wellsite internal tool resistance check is performed before and after each logging suite to ensure the tool was operating the same during logging as it was when it was calibrated. TOP 4.0 LIMITATION/OPERATION/PRESENTATION 4.1 Limitations The Induction tool is design to accurately measure formations less than 20ohmm (50mmhos). Accuracy is reduced up to 200ohmm (5mmhos) and large corrections and errors occur above 200ohmm (5mmhos). Often the sonde error itself is 34 mmhos and if this is removed from a 200ohmm (5mmhos) raw signal, a correction of close to 100% is required giving less and less confidence to the recorded data. The principle operation of the Induction tool is to actually measure the formation conductivity. As the formation conductivity is reduced (and formation resistivity is increased) the Induction tool will measure more of the relatively conductive mud. A Phasor Induction tool will overcome some of the problem. The Induction tool therefore operates best in high resistivity drilling mud (ie fresh water), oil based drilling mud and also in air. The placement and polarity of the receiver coils effect the depth of investigation and the vertical resolution of the tool.

The Induction tool is preferred over the Laterolog tool typically when the following conditions apply: 1. The Rmf/Rw ratio is greater than 2.5 2. When the formation resistivities do not exceed 200 ohmm 3. The bed thickness is greater than 10 ft. When the porosity is below the Rw line but Rmf/Rw is still above 2.5, eddy currents are not able to be induced as efficiently and the Laterolog tool rather than the Induction tool could alternatively be used. Figure 6: Conditions for running Laterolog vs Induction logs Skin Effect Each Inductance coil is not independant of other coils in the Induction tool. Additional voltages are induced not only from neighbouring coils but also from the coil itself. This is known as mutual-inductance and self-inductance respectfully. The is that the strength of the field is reduced resulting in a higher Figure6a:SkinEffectCorrection than true resitivity reading. Skin is a inversely proportional to the formation conductivity, magnetic permeability and the transmitter frequency. Thus the higher the transmitter frequency, the less skin effect. Correction for skin effect is usually only performed on the deep measurement. The medium measurement is usually less than 1% as a result of the shorter coil spacing. 4.2 Operation The logging speed is approximately 6000 ft/hr but is usually run at 1800 ft/hr when run in combination with other logging tools. Standoff sizes are critical for determining the amount of borehole correction to be applied. In holes above 8.5 inches, the tool is run eccentered with 1.5 inch standoffs along the tool. The following table gives recommended standoff sizes. Hole Size <6.5 inches Standoff Distance 0.5 inch

6.5-7.75 inches 1.0 inch 7.75-9.5 inches 1.5 inch >9.5 inches 4.3 Presentation The deep Induction log is presented in track 3-4 (logarithmic) by a thin dashed line with the mnemonic ILD. The medium Induction log is also presented in track 3-4 (logarithmic) by a thin dotted line with the mnemonic ILM. The shallow focused resistivity log (alternatives are the Short Guard) is presented in track 3-4 (logarithmic) by a thin continuous line with the mnemonics SFLU or some variation of this. The scale typically ranges from 0.2 to 2000 with the units in Ohmm. 2.0 inch

Figure 7: Typical Induction Log Presentation TOP 5.0 TOOL COMBINATIONS The Induction tool can be run alone but is usually run at the bottom of the Sonic tool with the open hole Gamma Ray tool at the top. The resistivity service is usually the first logging run since the tool is cheaper, usually centered and has no radioactive sources.

5.1 Tool types available DIT-D - Standard Dual Induction Tool containing 6 coils for focusing signals to improve vertical resolution. DIT-E - Phasor Dual Induction Tool. The Phasor tool also measures the in-phase (resistive) and the quadrature (dielectric) signals. AIT - Array Induction Tool. The AIT measures 28 independent signals from 8 arrays. The single transmitter operates at 3 different frequency and the in-phase (resistive) and the quadrature (dielectric) signals are measured. The AIT measures signals AIT10 (10 inches into the formation), AIT20 (20 inches into the formation) etc up to AIT90. A combination of these is used to compute an Rt value, however if one of these readings is affected by micro annulus the computed Rt can be inaccurate. TOP 6.0 LQC/CORRECTIONS 6.1 Log Quality Control and Interpretation Permeability can be indicated by the separation of the resistivity readings for ILD, ILM and SFLU. This occurs when the higher-pressure borehole mud invades into the formation displacing the original formation fluid. Ideally SFLU measures the invaded zone (Rxo fully flushed by borehole mud), ILM measures the transition zone (partially flushed by borehole mud) and ILD measures the un-invaded zone (virgin formation fluid). The Rxo < ILM < ILD profile will exist if Rw > Rmf or the profile ILD < ILM < Rxo will exist if Rw < Rmf. If no permeability exists and therefore no mud invasion, as typically is the case with shales, the deep, medium and Rxo measurements will overlay unless environmental corrections still need to be applied. While logging check that SP deflections are normal (to the left if Rxo > Rt) and not noisy. Check that resistivity readings do not flat top in high resistivity beds and that the deep and medium measurements remain symmetrical and on depth. The measured formation resistivity is a function of: 1. The formation water resistivity 2. Lithology changes 3. Porosity changes 4. Changes in the mud-filtrate resistivity, which often occurs between logging runs. Solid rock and hydrocarbons will have an extremely high resistivity. A good rule of thumb is that hydrocarbons are indicated where the RILD > RILM > RSFLU profile exists.

The Resistivity can be used as an indicator of clay content. The percentage of rock that is considered clay and not rock matrix can be estimated by: VRT = (Rsand RT) / (Rsand - Rclay) In practice this equation is modified and multiplied by 4*Rclay/RT to avoid giving erratic readings. VRT is usually much too high except when high resistivity formations are present. Since clays are conductive, an Rsand minimum value helps to fix the zero VRT point.

Figure 8: VRT Clay Indicator 6.2 Environmental corrections The resistivity measurement for the formation (Rt) of interest will be influenced by three unwanted elements; the resistivity of the bore hole (Rm), the mud filtrate invasion (Rxo) and the adjacent bed (Rs). The resistivity of the rock unit of interest (Rt) maybe greater or less than that of the measured resistivity ILD and ILM. The mud resistivity, the invaded zone resistivity and the true formation resistivity are considered as parallel conductivities. Figure 3 shows a simple electrical circuit representing the conductivities of the borehole mud - Rm, the invaded zone - Rxo and the uninvaded zone - Rt. If the Induction is run in a fresh mud, it is evident that the contribution from Rm and Rxo is small compared to the true formation resistivity Rt. Figure 9: Induction Electrical Circuit The effect of the mud and invaded resistivities must be removed to estimate the true formation resistivity. The following corrections are applied, and should be performed in the order shown. The Induction log needs to be corrected for:SFLU Borehole corrections- mud resistivity and borehole size (See Figure 10) Borehole corrections - mud resistivity and borehole size (See Figure 11) Tool standoff corrections (See Figure 11)

Bed thickness and Shoulder bed corrections (See Figure 12) Invasion corrections - mud invasion (See Figure 13)

Figure 11: Figure 10: Induction Borehole and Stand-off SFLU Borehole Correction Chart Correction Chart

Figure 12: Bed Thickness Correction Chart

Figure 13: Induction Invasion Correction Chart

Skin effect occurs when ground loops create their own fields, which interfere with the signal being measured. The Skin effect becomes more pronounced as conductivity increases. Modern tools use the X-signal is used to make the required correction. 6.3 Associated Mnemonics Although logging companies have many tool mnemonics, most are internal tool measurements used to calculate the standard formation readings like ILD, ILM, SFLU. Petrolog will automatically select those mnemonics that are formation readings and can be used for log analysis. DIL Dual Induction Log ILD Induction Log Deep measurement ILM Induction Log Medium measurement IDPH Induction Deep Phasor measurement SFLU Spherically Focused Log Uncorrected LL3 Laterolog-3 (similar to the SFLU) LL7 Laterolog-7 SN Short Normal N16 16 inch Normal N64 64 inch Normal MLL Micro Laterolog

IMPH Induction Medium Phasor measurement MSFL Micro-Spherically Focused Log

Figure 14: Example of AIT Mnemonics

Figure 15:

Figure 16:

Example of Dual Induction Generic names 6.4 Typical Log Readings

Example of Dual Induction Generic long names

Resistivity values depend upon the amount of water and its salinity in the pore space of the rock. The water can be either formation water Rw or the invaded mud filtrate Rmf. Typically formation rock, oil and gas are considered infinite resistance and any drop in resistivity is from the conductive water or conductive shales. The Induction tool is design to read up to 200 ohmm (5mmhos). TOP 7.0 ADDITIONAL READING 1.Rt Determination in the Eastern Hemisphere, P.Souhaite, A. Misk, and A.Poupon, Schlumberger Technical Services, Paris, France SPWLA Sixteenth Annual Logging Symposium, June 4-7, 1975 2. Introduction to the Digital Dual Induction Tool, T.D.Barber, Schlumberger Well Services, SPE 12049 3. A new fully digital, Full Spectrum Induction Device for determining accurate Resistivity with enhanced diagnostics and data integrity verifications D.Beard, Q.Zhou and E.Bigelow, Paper B in 37th Annual Logging Symposium Transactions: Society of Professional Well Log Analysts, 1996. 4. Rapid well-site 2D inversion of Full Spectrum Array Induction data, M.Frenkel, D,Beard, A.G.Mezzatesta and K.M.Strack SPE-36505, Society of Petroleum Engineers, p111-118 5. Development of the Multi-Frequency Array Induction Logging (MAIL) Tool T.Sato, K.Osato, S.Takasugi and T.Uchida, 1996 Society of Professional Well Log Analysts, Japan Chapter, 7p