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Additional mathematics project given task in 2009. Entitled as Circles In Our Daily Life

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ADDITIONAL MATHEMATHICS 2009

Circles In Our Daily Life

Ahli Kumpulan : 1. Muhammad Muhsan b. Mohd Mashor

2. Teoh Kok Siang

Guru Pembimbing : Pn. Chan Siew Thoe

Sekolah Menengah Sains Tun Syed Shahabudin

2

-Content-

No. Contents Page

1 Introduction 3 - 4

2 Part 1 5 - 8

3 Part 2a 9 - 10

4 Part 2b 11 - 12

5 Part 3 13 - 16

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-Introduction-

A circle is a simple shape of Euclidean geometry consisting of those points in a plane which

are the same distance from a given point called the centre. The common distance of the points of

a circle from its center is called its radius. A diameter is a line segment whose endpoints lie on

the circle and which passes through the centre of the circle. The length of a diameter is twice the

length of the radius. A circle is never a polygon because it has no sides or vertices.

Circles are simple closed curves which divide the plane into two regions, an interior and an

exterior. In everyday use the term "circle" may be used interchangeably to refer to either the

boundary of the figure (known as the perimeter) or to the whole figure including its interior, but

in strict technical usage "circle" refers to the perimeter while the interior of the circle is called a

disk. The circumference of a circle is the perimeter of the circle (especially when referring to its

length).

A circle is a special ellipse in which the two foci are coincident. Circles are conic sections

attained when a right circular cone is intersected with a plane perpendicular to the axis of the

cone.

The circle has been known since before the beginning of recorded history. It is the basis for

the wheel, which, with related inventions such as gears, makes much of modern civilization

possible. In mathematics, the study of the circle has helped inspire the development of geometry

and calculus.

Early science, particularly geometry and Astrology and astronomy, was connected to the divine

for most medieval scholars, and many believed that there was something intrinsically "divine" or

"perfect" that could be found in circles.

Some highlights in the history of the circle are:

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• 1700 BC – The Rhind papyrus gives a method to find the area of a circular field. The

result corresponds to 256/81 as an approximate value of π.[1]

• 300 BC – Book 3 of Euclid's Elements deals with the properties of circles.

• 1880 – Lindemann proves that π is transcendental, effectively settling the millennia-old

problem of squaring the circle.[2]

2

Part 1

There are a lot of things around us related to circles or parts of a circles. We need to play with

circles in order to complete some of the problems involving circles. In this project I will use the

principles of circle to design a garden to beautify the school.

Wheel of a bicycle Circles on water surface School park

Fish pond Round table at school compound

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Before I continue the task, first, we do have to know what do pi(π) related to a circle.

Definition

In Euclidean plane geometry, π is defined as the ratio of a circle's circumference to its

diameter:

The ratio C/d is constant, regardless of a circle's size. For example, if a circle has twice the

diameter d of another circle it will also have twice the circumference C, preserving the ratio C/d.

Area of the circle = π × area of the shaded square

Alternatively π can be also defined as the ratio of a circle's area (A)

to the area of a square whose side is equal to the radius:[3][5]

These definitions depend on results of Euclidean geometry, such

as the fact that all circles are similar. This can be considered a

problem when π occurs in areas of mathematics that otherwise do not involve geometry. For this

reason, mathematicians often prefer to define π without reference to geometry, instead selecting

one of its analytic properties as a definition. A common choice is to define π as twice the smallest

positive x for which cos(x) = 0.[6] The formulas below illustrate other (equivalent) definitions.

History

2

The ancient Babylonians calculated the area of a circle by taking 3 times the square of its

radius, which gave a value of pi = 3. One Babylonian tablet (ca. 1900–1680 BC) indicates a

value of 3.125 for pi, which is a closer approximation.

In the Egyptian Rhind Papyrus (ca.1650 BC), there is evidence that the Egyptians calculated the

area of a circle by a formula that gave the approximate value of 3.1605 for pi.

The ancient cultures mentioned above found their approximations by measurement. The first

calculation of pi was done by Archimedes of Syracuse (287–212 BC), one of the greatest

mathematicians of the ancient world. Archimedes approximated the area of a circle by using the

Pythagorean Theorem to find the areas of two regular polygons: the polygon inscribed within the

circle and the polygon within which the circle was circumscribed. Since the actual area of the

circle lies between the areas of the inscribed and circumscribed polygons, the areas of the

polygons gave upper and lower bounds for the area of the circle. Archimedes knew that he had

not found the value of pi but only an approximation within those limits. In this way, Archimedes

showed that pi is between 3 1/7 and 3 10/71.

A similar approach was used by Zu Chongzhi (429–501), a brilliant Chinese mathematician and

astronomer. Zu Chongzhi would not have been familiar with Archimedes’ method—but because

his book has been lost, little is known of his work. He calculated the value of the ratio of the

circumference of a circle to its diameter to be 355/113. To compute this accuracy for pi, he must

have started with an inscribed regular 24,576-gon and performed lengthy calculations involving

hundreds of square roots carried out to 9 decimal places.

2

Mathematicians began using the Greek letter π in the 1700s. Introduced by William Jones in

1706, use of the symbol was popularized by Euler, who adopted it in 1737.

An 18th century French mathematician named Georges Buffon devised a way to calculate pi

based on probability.

2

Part 2 (a) Q

C

A

P R

B

d1 d2

10 cm

Diagram 1 shows a semicircle PQR of diameter 10cm. Semicircles PAB and BCR of diameter d1

and d2 respectively are inscribed in PQR such that the sum of d1 and d2 is equal to 10cm. By

using various values of d1 and corresponding values of d2, I determine the relation between

length of arc PQR, PAB, and BCR.

Using formula: Arc of semicircle = ½πd

**d1 d2 Length of arc PQR in Length of arc PAB in Length of arc BCR in
**

(cm) (cm) terms of π (cm) terms of π (cm) terms of π (cm)

1 9 5π ½π 9/2 π

2 8 5π π 4π

3 7 5π 3/2 π 7/2 π

4 6 5π 2π 3π

5 5 5π 5/2π 5/2 π

6 4 5π 3π 2π

7 3 5π 7/2 π 3/2 π

8 2 5π 4π π

9 1 5π 9/2 π ½π

Table 1

From the Table 1 we know that the length of arc PQR is not affected by the different in d1 and d2

in PAB and BCR respectively. The relation between the length of arcs PQR , PAB and BCR is that

2

the length of arc PQR is equal to the sum of the length of arcs PAB and BCR, which is we can get

the equation:

SPQR = S + SPAB BCR

Let d1= 3, and d2 =7 SPQR = S + S PAB BCR

5π = ½ π(3) + ½ π(7)

5π = 3/2 π + 7/2 π

5π = 10/2 π

5π = 5 π

Q

E

C

A

P R

(b) d1

B

d2

D

d3

10

2

d1 d2 d3 SPQR SPAB SBCD SDER

1 2 7 5π 1/2 π π 7/2 π

2 2 6 5π π π 3π

2 3 5 5π π 3/2 π 5/2 π

2 4 4 5π π 2π 2π

2 5 3 5π π 5/2 π 3/2 π

SPQR = SPAB + SBCD + SDER

Let d1 = 2, d2 = 5, d3 = 3 SPQR = SPAB + SBCD + SDER

5 π = π + 5/2 π + 3/2 π

5π = 5π

bii) The length of arc of outer semicircle is equal to the sum of the length of arc of inner

semicircle for n = 1,2,3,4,….

Souter = S1 + S2 + S3 + S4 + S5

c) Assume the diameter of outer semicircle is 30cm and 4 semicircles are inscribed in the outer

semicircle such that the sum of d1(APQ), d2(QRS), d3(STU), d4(UVC) is equal to 30cm.

**d1 d2 d3 d4 SABC SAPQ SQRS SSTU SUVC
**

10 8 6 6 15 π 5π 4π 3π 3π

2

12 3 5 10 15 π 6π 3/2 π 5/2 π 5π

14 8 4 4 15 π 7π 4π 2π 2π

15 5 3 7 15 π 15/2 π 5/2 π 3/2 π 7/2 π

let d1=10, d2=8, d3=6, d4=6, SABC = SAPQ + SQRS + SSTU + SUVC

15 π = 5 π + 4 π + 3 π + 3 π

15 π = 15 π

Part 3

a. Area of flower plot = y m2

y = (25/2) π - (1/2(x/2)2 π + 1/2((10-x )/2)2 π)

= (25/2) π - (1/2(x/2)2 π + 1/2((100-20x+x2)/4) π)

= (25/2) π - (x2/8 π + ((100 - 20x + x2)/8) π)

= (25/2) π - (x2π + 100π – 20x π + x2π )/8

= (25/2) π - ( 2x2 – 20x + 100)/8) π

2

= (25/2) π - (( x2 – 10x + 50)/4)

= (25/2 - (x2 - 10x + 50)/4) π

y= ((10x – x2)/4) π

b. y = 16.5 m2

16.5 = ((10x – x2)/4) π

66 = (10x - x2) 22/7

66(7/22) = 10x – x2

0 = x2 - 10x + 21

0 = (x-7)(x – 3)

x=7 , x=3

8.0

Y/x

7.0

c. y = ((10x – x2)/4) π

6.0

y/x = (10/4 - x/4) π

5.0

x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

y/x 7.1 6.3 5.5 4.7 3.9 3.1 2.4

4.0

3.0

2.0 2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

X

When x = 4.5 , y/x = 4.3

Area of flower plot = y/x * x

= 4.3 * 4.5

= 19.35m2

d. Differentiation method

dy/dx = ((10x-x2)/4) π

= ( 10/4 – 2x/4) π

0 = 5/2 π – x/2 π

5/2 π = x/2 π

x = 5

Completing square method

2

y= ((10x – x2)/4) π

= 5/2 π - x2/4 π

= -1/4 π (x2 – 10x)

y+ 52 = -1/4 π (x – 5)2

y = -1/4 π (x - 5)2 - 25

x–5=0

x=5

e. n = 12, a = 30cm, S12 = 1000cm Tn (flower bed) Diameter

S12 = n/2 (2a + (n – 1)d (cm)

T1 30

1000 = 12/2 ( 2(30) + (12 – 1)d) T2 39.697

T3 49.394

1000 = 6 ( 60 + 11d) T4 59.091

T5 68.788

1000 = 360 + 66d T6 78.485

**1000 – 360 = 66d T7 88.182
**

T8 97.879

640 = 66d T9 107.576

T10 117.273

T11 126.97

T12 136.667

2

d = 9.697

2

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