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Int. J. Aviation Management, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2012

Advanced air traffic management technologies: the ADS-B impact over ATM concepts. The case for Portugal Cláudia V.C. Rodrigues, Jorge M.R. Silva* and Kouamana Bousson
Department of Aerospace Sciences, University of Beira Interior, 6200-358 Covilhã, Portugal Fax: + 351-275-329-768 E-mail: clou360@gmail.com E-mail: jmiguel@ubi.pt E-mail: bousson@ubi.pt *Corresponding author
Abstract: ADS-B is a very useful system to solve surveillance precision problems mainly if installation, operation and maintenance costs of alternative ones are too expensive when they are based on air traffic figures. This paper begins with some remarks about ADS-B technology, precisely to introduce the case study of Azores archipelago within Santa Maria FIR, in Portugal. On the basis of real scenarios of Pescara, Trabzon and Rhodes, and using EMOSIA model, a study is conducted to understand costs and return on investment on such equipment in Azores area. Finally, the paper concludes with some highlights of future research. Keywords: automatic dependent surveillance broadcast; ADS-B; CNS/ATM; Santa Maria FIR; Portugal. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Rodrigues, C.V.C., Silva, J.M.R. and Bousson, K. (2012) ‘Advanced air traffic management technologies: the ADS-B impact over ATM concepts. The case for Portugal’, Int. J. Aviation Management, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp.162–180. Biographical notes: Cláudia V.C. Rodrigues joined the University of Beira Interior (UBI) in 2004. She has a graduation on Aeronautical Engineering since 2008 with specific knowledge on aerodynamics, flight mechanics, aircraft project, propulsion, and gas dynamics. Also, she has an MSc on Aeronautical Engineering since 2010 with a dissertation about the impact in Portugal of the automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B). Jorge M.R. Silva was Merchant Marine Officer in Sociedade Portuguesa de Navios-Tanque, Lisbon in 1979–1988, Aeronautical Telecommunications Technician in Aeroportos e Navegação Aérea, Lisbon in 1988–1995, Lecturer in 1995 and Assistant Professor since 2005 in the Department of Aerospace Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal. He has a graduation on Marine Systems Engineer for Electrical and Telecommunications from Escola Náutica Infante D. Henrique, Oeiras, Portugal in 1993, MSc on Operational Research and Systems Engineering from Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon in 1996, and PhD on Transportation from Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon in 2005. His main interests include air transport management and economy, aircraft operations, air transport safety and security. He is a member of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).

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Porto. His current research activities include trajectory optimisation and guidance. These separations are applied and verified by air traffic controllers (ATCs) using different control methods as procedural or non-procedural. Figure 1 Different types of surveillance sources . and has been a Professor in the Department of Aerospace Sciences at the University of Beira Interior. This paper is a revised and expanded version of a paper entitled ‘Advanced air traffic management technologies: the ADS-B impact over ATM concepts. In this context standard values between aircraft were established and called separation minimum. Also. France. from 1993 to 1995. multilateration or automatic dependent surveillance (ADS) systems (Figure 1). MSc in Computer Science with emphasis on artificial intelligence from Paul Sabatier University in 1989. Portugal. Covilhã. e. 6–9 July 2010. The case for Portugal’ presented at 14th Air Transport Research Society World Conference (ATRS). secondary surveillance radar (SSR).. 163 1 Introduction As air traffic is always growing the need to avoid collisions between aircraft became each day and even more a very important issue. all in Toulouse. and PhD in Control and Computer Engineering from the Institut National des Sciences Appliquées (INSA) in 1993. analysis and control of uncertain dynamical systems. He was a Researcher at the LAAS Laboratory of the French National Council for Scientific Research (CNRS) in Toulouse. optimal flight control systems.g. using primary surveillance radar (PSR).Advanced air traffic management technologies Kouamana Bousson received his MEng in Aeronautical Engineering from the Ecole Nationale de l’Aviation Civile (ENAC) in 1988. since 1995. these methods are used to avoid collisions between aircraft themselves on the ground or between aircraft and other vehicles within the manoeuvring area of the aerodrome.

Nevertheless. So remote areas. The transponder signal. The idea behind the implementation of an automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) system is that several safety and efficiency benefits can be attained without previous radar coverage (Howell et al. In summary. esteems aircraft position (NAV Portugal. This happens mainly because aircraft flying speeds are much smaller in the vicinity of an aerodrome than when en-route. small islands or oil rigs. Consequently.2 seconds). is received by at least four sensors placed in the vicinity. the amount of traffic using the same airspace at a given moment is small which contributes to flight operations inefficiency: departure and arrival trajectories. Also both PSR and SSR need heavy infrastructures and requiring to be placed where there are no considerable obstacles in quite large vicinity to assure a 360º line-of-sight with aircraft. So they can assure that an aircraft is at a safe distance either from land or from other aircraft. Comparing among three receivers/sensors the arrival time of data processor calculates 2D position of the aircraft which thus can be used for monitoring ground manoeuvres within an airport. and thus they can fly closer to each other. The main processor based on the calculation of related time difference of arrival (TDOA). Terminal radars cover a much smaller area. There are different radar types accordingly to the area to be covered. Maintenance is also a key issue too as these systems have a large number of moving mechanical components. Nowadays. the large majority of control units (area traffic control centres and towers) uses surveillance sources (rather than procedural methods based on pilot reports to estimate the aircraft position) with less accuracy getting information from PSR and/or SSR. So as PSR tracks only represents targets when they reflect radio waves this means that there is a large number of limitations with this technology. The aeronautical authorities established separation standards to ensure a safe navigation in controlled airspace. increased holding times. En-route radars have a low update rate (approximately 12 seconds) but cover a large geographic area. 2010) as key (technical) elements of the surveillance are the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and the aeronautical . transmitted in 1. small time differences in the signal reception by the involved sensors. To get the third parameter (altitude) it is necessary to have at least four sensors thus getting 3D position of the aircraft.C. yet have a much higher update rate (approximately 4. In practice for surveillance either on ground or in flight more than three antennas are used to get bigger redundancy and to allow monitoring simultaneously several aircraft. in general only the airport and nearby ones.V. This means more aircraft in the same volume of space so that ATC needs to implement a more precise surveillance system and radar displays needs a higher update rate of refreshments.090 MHz and as a result of a set of interrogations of at least one emitting antenna obligatorily existing in the area to be covered. or to leave the ones with headwinds or turbulence) are just some examples. the total cost of these infrastructures is quite considerable which makes its installation and operation worthwhile only when air traffic volume is justifiable.. flight level changes (whether is to reduce fuel consumption.164 C. Rodrigues et al. to fly at levels with more favourable winds. despite having some traffic may not justify installing such a costly system. 2007). In these scenarios surveillance is based on procedural methods with large separations of the aircraft to maintain safety levels. that is. the SSR uses the transponder replies to obtain information about aircraft position and identification. Multilateration is a surveillance technique where the signals emitted for an aircraft or vehicle on the ground is received by several ground sensors in its vicinity.

and thus avoiding collisions.Advanced air traffic management technologies 165 telecommunication network (ATN) (Oliveira et al. The CDTI gives information of relative altitude. 2 Automatic dependent surveillance (ADS-B) 2. Broadcast data has at least the following five information (Eurocontrol. Its principle is to send as many reports as possible to a greater number of receptors able to capture its signal. This is the equipment where ADS-B data is displayed to the pilots (Figure 3). Concerning onboard avionics the most remarkable improvement is the cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI). 2009). aircraft barometric altitude. for example: it uses the 1090 extended squitter (1090ES) technology in use already by Mode S transponder. The conclusion is that the system will produce major benefits as all aircraft. speed and intentions in the Mode S signal. and it get some improvements impacting directly on its ground infrastructure (Garcia and Gilbert. Studies about onboard surveillance applications show that CDTI . 2010).1 Technical remarks In this context we introduce the ADS-B. or a TCAS when installed onboard. since voluntary (giving advantage to those ones who are just equipped) till mandatory phases. To fight against those mentioned inefficiencies the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has embarked on a broad-reaching effort called the next generation air transportation system (NextGen) which seeks to transform today’s aviation airspace management and to ensure increased safety and capacity precisely using ADS-B technology as an important tool (Boci et al. dependent because data broadcasted is based on onboard equipment (like SSR depends on onboard transponders). are equipped with ADS-B avionics. There are some reasons to believe in the broad acceptance of this system as. The technology adopted for ADS-B data transmission in Europe is the 1090 MHZ extended squitter.. and broadcast because data is sent without previous interrogations either by air traffic controller or by any other partner. This surveillance system is based on the ability of the aircraft to periodically and automatically broadcast a set of data. 2010). The implementation plan for this system is ongoing with a collaborative participation of many stakeholders from air navigation service provider (ANSP) to airline operators. These data can be received either by an ADS-B ground station (ADS-B OUT application) or by an aircraft (ADS-B IN application). 2008a) packages: aircraft horizontal position. a part of Mode S transponder. aircraft identification. and ‘IDENT’ – a special position indicator (SPI). ADS-B exchanging of data does not interfere with TCAS information too. Figure 2 represents the capabilities enabled with this system. When equipped with 1090ES aircraft transponders are able to receive and broadcast a set of data such as position. urgency/emergency indicator. without any interrogation by a SSR on ground. traffic identification and track. Nevertheless as aircraft non-equipped with transponders cannot be detected by traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS). If an aircraft is broadcasting ADS-B data but traffic in signal range is not properly equipped. It is automatic because there is no need of human (crew member) intervention. this means that this is not able to receive and process the related data. Thus. or those in a large percentage.. as with ADS-B system.

C. in the same display of TCAS it is possible and it is not confuse for pilots if were used distinguished symbols (Lester and Hansman.V. 2007). Rodrigues et al. with relatively easy installation procedures and little maintenance works . for example: • small ground stations.166 C. Figure 2 The ADS-B system Source: Lester and Hansman (2007) Figure 3 Cockpit display of traffic information Source: Lester and Hansman (2007) Some important advantages are expected when compared with others surveillance systems (Figure 4) as.

) relatively cheap solution to provide a good surveillance system in areas where the high price of installing a SSR/PSR equipment do not justify it.5 seconds. much higher than conventional radars 167 no significant changes concerning actual avionic sets (using Mode S transponders extended squitter) no problems as the conventional radars ones (silence cones and areas. (2007) 2.2 Applications ADS-B has different applications depending on what it is used for and where it is supposed to be implemented. and the general public – due to lower CO2 emissions. Thus. • All the above mentioned benefits will impact directly on: the airline operators – who will be able to provide better services achieving better flight profiles. as it derive directly from onboard systems (GPS-based ones) update rate of approximately 0. interferences. Figure 4 Expected improvements and benefits with ADS-B Source: Adapted from Song et al. the ANSPs – who will be able to provide better services at a lower cost per airspace user. and reducing fuel consumption. Ground surveillance is related with ADS-B data received by ground stations (ADS-B OUT) and can be divided in: ADS-B NRA. there are two main applications: ground surveillance and airborne surveillance. or where there is already a surveillance source but some redundancy is still necessary ecological benefits by reducing CO2 emissions. garbling. for non-radar .Advanced air traffic management technologies • • • • • data is very precise. as ADS-B allows easy and fast flight level (FL) transitions to those where fuel consumption is more efficient. etc.

data derived from aircraft is to be used by ground tools (e. for flight operations when the equipment is installed onboard.C. a huge amount of data will support the production of certification standards and guidance material for flight crews. ATSA AIRB.. Figure 5 ADS-B applications in Europe Source: Adapted from Rekkas (2009) . As main outcomes one expects a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the benefits. among several others. for operations on the airport surface. In this context the European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) define the CASCADE programme (Co-operative ATS through Surveillance and Communication Applications Deployed in ECAC – European Civil Aviation Conference) which coordinates the implementation of ADS-B applications in Europe (Figure 5). and ATSA VSA. and ADS-B ADD. Within CASCADE there are several initiatives named co-operative validation of surveillance techniques and applications (CRISTAL) which provide data from validation trials testing this new technology both in simulators and in real scenarios with a special attention in the so called ‘pocket areas’ where operational needs are increasing. Airborne surveillance is related with ADS-B data received from other aircraft (ADS-B IN) and this application is called air traffic situational awareness (ATSAW) too.168 C. selected altitude. for visual separation operations. ATCs. and aeronautical industry partners. airspace. Rodrigues et al. for radar airspace. ATSA ITP. climb rate). effectiveness and safety resulting from the introduction of ADS-B in ATC scenarios. The related main actors are local ANSPs. Thus. airline operators. ADS-B APT.g. ADS-B RAD.V. for IN-Trail procedures. for airport surface. maintenance staffs. This is divided in: ATSA SURF.

ADS-B is a good investment producing several benefits if correctly used. a quite small portion of the entire airspace around Azores archipelago. But the use of ADS-B data onboard has a positive impact on pilots so that investment on onboard CDTI is strongly recommended to improve their situational awareness showing a better picture of the surrounding traffic and thus reducing effort and stress to make decisions safely. For pilots main benefits with ADS-B IN applications are: enhanced flight operations with better identification of dangerous situations. 2008b) can be summarised as follows: • For both ATCs – the main users of ADS-B data in radar and non-radar airspace. • • • • 3 Case study 3. Responsibilities and prerogatives from each part should be maintained too. 2007a. this one still under installation too. the opinions are quite positive. . Airspace under Portuguese control is divided into two flight information regions (FIR).Advanced air traffic management technologies 169 2. and better execution of ATC clearances.1 Airspace under Portuguese control In Portugal. Also surface operations are improved as there is a better understanding of the movements in the airport surface. Lisbon and Santa Maria. and pilots – who will benefit from enhanced on-board situational awareness. Also radio frequency occupation is reduced. this one including Santa Maria terminal manoeuvring area (TMA). Both ATCs and pilots agree that clear procedures should be produced to mitigate misunderstandings or errors when using this new kind of information. a set of nine islands in North Atlantic Ocean (Figure 6). For ATCs main benefits with ADS-B OUT applications are those concerning enhanced capacity for detecting conflicts with the same level of workload thus conducing to a more efficient use of airspace. Besides visual separation procedures and flight level changes are easier and better as more data from surrounding traffic becomes available. The main ATCs concern is that pilots can start to make their own air traffic control based only in CDTI data. NAV Portugal is the Portuguese stakeholder at CASCADE programme and CRISTAL initiatives. the first ADS-B-related procedures will be implemented in Azores where a ground station is to be installed close to a wide area multilateration area (WAM).3 ATCs and pilots opinion CRISTAL initiatives allowed listening opinions from several actors about ADS-B systems performance. ATCs and pilots are among those actors and their opinion (Eurocontrol.

. Rodrigues et al. São Jorge. Santa Maria FIR and TMA Source: Adapted from AIP Portugal (2008) These nine islands are divide in three groups accordingly with their proximity: west (Corvo and Flores islands). Pico. central (Faial.V. Iberia Peninsula-North America and Europe-Azores. Graciosa and Terceira islands).C. a regional operator. and east (Santa Maria and São Miguel islands). The main traffic axes operating in Santa Maria FIR are: Europe-Caribbean.170 Figure 6 C. Regional traffic comprises inter-islands one and almost 90% is operated by SATA.

2025/2005 (see online version for colours) Source: Eurocontrol (2006) To achieve this goal. where radar coverage does not exist or is unreliable.g. and SSR – in operation since October 2006. West group is completely out of radar coverage. several problems are noticed on air traffic control (NAV Portugal. Also it can be used either as a transition technology to ADS-B or to add redundancy in surveillance data after full implementation of ADS-B. e. . This results in the application of TMA separation standards. But this rate may not be achieved unless the above mentioned inefficiencies are mitigated or enhanced. In Azores. ground delays. vertical flight inefficiencies. in order to enhance surveillance in the central group. which are significantly higher than radar separations. an ADS-B ground station has to be implemented joining WAM – still under installation. and increased holding times. in this particular since radar coverage is possible. The single radar antenna in Santa Maria covers east and central groups although in this one there are a lot of gaps due to islands mountains. with a procedural control based on flight plan tracks updated by position reports (either by voice or ADS-C) complemented with a wind grid. 2007) precisely due to such poor surveillance coverage: departure and arrival flight trajectory inefficiencies in some islands of the central group. Thus. Accordingly with Eurocontrol (2006) in the 2005–2025 period air traffic in Santa Maria FIR is expected to grow between 3% and 4% (Figure 7). WAM ground stations to cover the above mentioned area are those shown in Figure 8.Advanced air traffic management technologies 171 The airspace outside TMA is called oceanic. Multilateration (WAM) system is a quite cheap solution to provide surveillance data without major avionics investments or procedures changes. TMA control is a mix of procedural and radar.. Figure 7 Air traffic average annual growth rates in Europe.

V.C.172 Figure 8 C. Rodrigues et al. With the introduction of an ADS-B system the expected covered area will be that of Figure 9. Figure 9 Expected covered area with both ADS-B and SSR systems . Some of them will act just as receivers while others will act simultaneously as receivers and transmitters thus permitting to receive ADS-B reports as well as transponder data. WAM ground stations in Azores Source: NAV Portugal EPE (2010a) Eleven antennas are planned for Azores.

But a more direct route (SOMUL) can be possible after ADS-B system implementation.Advanced air traffic management technologies 173 This solution will allow changes from procedural separations to radar-like ones in a non-radar area. Actually. There are several expected saving gains as for example: 3 minutes of ground delays. at an average speed of 150 knots. Simultaneously. vector separation possibility and shorter routes to initial approach fix. So in the next future routes just in use. SOLGI). This procedure means to save about 3.5 NM or 1. it is longer due to Pico’s island mountain which compels traffic to divert to the darker route signalled in Figure 11 thus making a 76. Traditional methods just in use will be maintained until ATCs gain confidence in ADS-B surveillance data. which causes the inefficiencies pointed out above. Precisely. With ADS-B surveillance a more direct route (lighter route) will be possible resulting in a smaller trajectory of 73 NM. Figure 10 shows actual route from Santa Maria and São Miguel islands to Faial island (TIMTO. SOLGI) and future (SOMUL) São Miguel/Santa Maria routes to Faial Source: Adapted from AIP Portugal (2008) Another example is related with route from Faial to Terceira islands. Figure 12 represents both actual and provisional scenarios around Pico’s island mountain. 3 minutes of holding times.5 NM trajectory from Faial to Terceira. Figure 10 Actual (TIMTO. and 10 NM of flight trajectory. due to shorter horizontal separation than procedural one.5 minutes per fly. fly safety will be maintained or even enhanced. Besides the improvement of air traffic controller’s situational awareness more direct routes and lower holding times will impact too in fuel consumptions and thus in CO2 emissions thus reducing the environmental impact per flight. can be changed to more direct ones. .

C. Rodrigues et al. Figure 11 Actual (NOTMA) and future (SOLGI) Faial routes to Terceira Source: Adapted from AIP Portugal (2008) Figure 12 Scenarios around Pico’s island mountain (see online version for colours) 3.2 Future expansion Depending on the performance of this implementation another ADS-B ground station can be installed in Flores island thus resulting.V. together with WAM/ADS-B systems in central .174 C.

almost reaching surveillance coverage. all of them have to implement some sort of surveillance system to accommodate the growing amount of traffic expected for the next future.3 Costs and returns on investment We based our cost analysis on data obtained from three examples: Pescara (Italy). of New York FIR (Figure 13). for Greece the objective is to improve surveillance source for Rhodos and to replace procedural control for Kos and Karpathos areas. both Trabzon and Pescara goal is to replace procedural control.2% to 2. .8% to 2. Besides the airspace characteristics of those examples are similar than that of our case study: Trabzon and Pescara have similar airspaces without radar surveillance source and therefore using procedural separation methods.25% for Rhodos. can provide us an overall scenario of the global costs for the Azorean initiative.0% to 2.Advanced air traffic management technologies 175 group and SSR radar in Santa Maria island. although yet not validated.5% for Trabzon and 2. at FL300. Figure 13 Coverage with both ADS-B ground stations and SSR radar Source: Adapted from NAV Portugal EPE (2010b) These examples can provide a good scenario for initial and reocurrent costs for Azores too where there is a mix of all situations in addition with WAM system (not included in the present study). Rhodos (Greece).0% for Pescara. in the next future the volume of air traffic in each those places can be estimated using the average of such rates. that is: 2. Of course there are other places where ADS-B was applied but these ones already have a published cost-benefit report which. 2.8% in Trabzon. Thus.5% in Rhodos – against 3% to 4% in Santa Maria FIR. and Trabzon (Turkey). in a full coverage of Santa Maria TMA. 2. Also based on Eurocontrol (2006) statistics in the 2005–2025 period air traffic annual growth rates for these examples are expected to vary between 1. 3. and 2.2% in Pescara. on the other hand Rhodos has surveillance radar for FL155 and below but needs to increase their surveillance accuracy.

as shown in Figure 15. as well as for Azores (this one at an average annual growth rate of 3. Trabzon and Rhodos.176 C. Figure 14 displays air traffic growth forecasts calculated for Pescara. Operators and ANSPs. Trabzon.C. initial and reocurring divided by two entities.V. Figure 14 Air traffic growth forecasts. Rhodos and Azores Figure 15 Initial and reocurring costs for operators and ANSPs Source: Adapted from Lester and Hansman (2007) . Costs are mainly of two types. Rodrigues et al. calculated for Pescara. 2025/2008.5% – as mentioned in the text and shown in Figure 7).

0030 0. 2008d) Reocurrent 0.0100 0.0080 0.0050 1 Medium 0.2880 0. and Rhodos. total costs related to our three examples (Pescara.0120 0.1000 0.0000 0.0150 0.0040 0.1550 0. 2008d) Costs for Pescara.0050 0.026 0.008 In this context there is a European model just for analysis of strategic ATM investments called EMOSIA. incorporating on EMOSIA both estimated air traffic movements and initial/reocurrent costs the returns on investment calculated (Eurocontrol.0100 3 Source: Adapted from Eurocontrol (2007b. ATCs and technical staff training. installation and commissioning of all infrastructures. Trabzon and Rhodos Source: Based on Eurocontrol (2007b.036 0. 2008d) for 12 years (a general well accepted temporal scenario for investment purposes) for Pescara.363 Source: Adapted from Eurocontrol (2007b.733 0. Trabzon. Therefore.0020 0. installation and commissioning of all infrastructures. It uses as inputs the above mentioned variables – purchase of the equipment.0100 0.0075 2 High 0. 2008c. based on Table 1 (costs per item). Trabzon.0080 0.0050 0. Table 1 Costs per item. 2008c.0750 0.0040 0.Advanced air traffic management technologies 177 Within this paper we used estimated costs for the following variables: purchase of the equipment. in € millions Initial Pescara Trabzon Rhodos 0. 2008c.1920 0.0050 0. Figure 16 RI calculated (12 years) for Pescara. and annual maintenance – as well as expected movements. 2007b. 2008c.2400 0.0030 0.0050 0.689 0.0080 0. ATCs and technical staff training.1250 0.0200 0. 2008d) .0060 0. Trabzon and Rhodos are those of Figure 16. to calculate the return on such investments (RI). in € millions Low ADS-B equipment purchase ADS-B equipment maintenance (p/year) Maintenance staff (p/year) Technical staff training ATC training equipment ATC staff training CWP Software update HMI Communications equipment Ground ADS-B stations (number of) Table 2 0. and annual maintenance. Thus. and Rhodos) are those of Table 2.1000 0.

.002 million for those of an antenna-ADS/B) it is clear that since the beginning ADS-B alternative has lower total cost than those of an antenna-radar and aiming at the same goal: to improve surveillance in Azores central group.C. If it includes additional benefits as environmental ones and safety improvements the overall outcome can be even better. Figure 17 Return on investment calculated for 12 years for Azores This result can be interpreted as a major return for a minor investment.733 million whereas the reocurrent ones will be between €0. having in account: a b c an annual (2008–2025) average growth rate of air traffic of 3.160 million) than the acquisition ones of an antenna-ADS/B (€0.59 M Trabzon Movements RI (3) = That is: ( RI Rhodos * Azores Movements) = €6. and since our three examples have similar characteristics of Azores air traffic patterns. equipment required.178 C. and since the maintenance costs (€0.008 million – €0. based on the above mentioned EMOSIA model results we esteemed the RI for our particular case as follows: RI (1) = RI (2) = ( RI Pescara * Azores Movements) = €7. Therefore.V. Based on the above mentioned data we can calculate the return on investment (RI) for the Azorean case also taking into account several variables as airspace characteristics. Since acquisition costs of an antenna-radar are higher (€4.31 M Rhodos Movements RI Azores = RI (1) + RI (2) + RI (3) 3 Thus. and human resources involved. as mentioned above) will be that of Figure 17.5% within the area the installation of one antenna-ADS/B human resource costs. (Airservices Australia. So surpassing for the Portuguese case we can esteem (within a low cost scenario) that costs for the implementation of a similar surveillance system with only one receiving antenna will be between €0.94 M Pescara Movements ( RI Trabzon * Azores Movements ) = €3. 2007).363 million – €0.036 million.210 million) of an antenna-radar are also higher (less than € 0. the return on investment for Azores for 12 years (a general well accepted temporal scenario for investment purposes. Rodrigues et al.100 million).

Grupo Central dos Açores. (2010) ‘Estimating the en route efficiency impacts of ADS-B surveillance in regions without radar’. and Operations (ATIO) Conference.0. Eurocontrol (2008d) ‘Cost benefit analysis for ADS-B implementation at Pescara airport’. References AIP Portugal (2008) ‘ENR 6. it will be necessary to conduct a survey on operational and economic impacts of the Azorean ADS-B system over all air operators acting as clients. Also. . Sarkani. Version 1. Amsterdam. Paull. and Hansman. Eurocontrol. After an expected set of tests based on Faial ADS-B station already deployed and taking into account overall benefits obtained it will be necessary to conduct a study for the implementation of a second antenna in the area to improve surveillance just close the New York RIV in the vicinity. But is necessary to conduct studies to accommodate properly related procedures and rules as the use of ADS-B system is growing and becoming more and more attractive for all involved stakeholders and its practical implementation is becoming a global reality. Edition Number 2. Amsterdam. and Gilbert. (2010) ‘ADS-B mops updates & impact on surveillance & broadcast services system (SBSS)’. T. ICAT-2007. Washington. S. G. D.0. Volume Engineering Design. (2010) ‘An introduction to model-based ADS-B service’. and Mazzuchi.Advanced air traffic management technologies 179 4 Conclusions The application of an ADS-B system in Azores reflects itself in several gains facing air traffic growth estimated for that region in the next future: since the improvement of flight safety – by introducing (or improving) electronic surveillance in some particular areas of the entire Archipelago. Estudo de Viabilidade Técnica.A. Eurocontrol (2008b) ‘Flight crew guidance for flight operations in ADS-B only surveillance airspace’. Eurocontrol (2007a) ‘CRISTAL-ATSAW final report’. ADS-B impact over the workload of both ATCs and pilots on duty is not relevant and can even improve their performance. J. Boci. Edition Number 1..0. Integration. Amsterdam. Cambridge. Amsterdam. Eurocontrol.0. Airservices Australia (2007) ‘Project atlas cost-benefit analysis’.. Integrated Communications Navigation and Surveillance Conference (ICNS). T. Howell. J. Eurocontrol (2007b) ‘Cost benefit analysis for ADS-B implementation at Trabzon Airport’. Lisbon. Eurocontrol (2006) ‘Long-term forecast: IFR flight movements 2006–2025’. Melbourne. Eurocontrol (2008a) ‘CASCADE validation report’. Version 1. Edition Number 1. Amsterdam. Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Amsterdam.5-1’. Eurocontrol. and Kihng.. Eurocontrol. 25 September 2008. till the return on investment highly promising. Access Economics Pty Limited. NAV Portugal EPE.0. Edition Number 1. Fort Worth. Report No. Eurocontrol. Integrated Communications Navigation and Surveillance Conference (ICNS). Eurocontrol. M. Version 1. NAV Portugal. Washington.0. Eurocontrol (2008c) ‘Cost benefit analysis for ADS-B implementation at Diagoras airport’. E. (2007) ‘Benefits and incentives for ADS-B Equipage in the national airspace system’.0. MIT International Center for Air Transportation. E. Lester. Eurocontrol. Amsterdam. 10th AIAA Aviation Technology. Garcia. Version 1. Lisbon. NAV Portugal (2007) ‘Wide area multilateration’.

I. Lisbon. H. (Eds. A. and Oliveira. L.177–214. Amsterdam. Barros. 11. pp. Kim. K. Eurocontrol.V. Bakker. IGI Global. Cugnasca. NAV Portugal EPE (2010b) ‘Multilateration and ADS-B program/activities’. in Weigang. II série.180 C. (2009) ‘A case study of advanced airborne technology impacting air traffic management’. No..): Computational Models. L. Automation and Systems. C. NAV Portugal EPE... J. Oh. and Kim. . Hershey... Software Engineering and Advanced Technologies in Air Transportation: Next Generation Applications. (2007) ‘Preliminary implementation of ground-to-ground surveillance test-bed based on ADS-B concepts’. NAV Portugal EPE. International Conference on Control. S. Camargo. I. Jr. Vismari. J. Í. (2009) ‘ADS-B deployment plans in Europe ATC global’.C. B. Oliveira. Song. Seoul. P. Rodrigues et al. ISBN: 978-160566-800-0. NAV Portugal EPE (2010a) ‘Navegar’. and Blom.. Lisbon.. Rekkas.

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