BIOAO2 Module 3 - Ecology

DATE LECTURE TOPIC TEXT CHAPTER Tues. Mar. 12 - Lecture 1 Biology of Animal Behaviour 1 39 Thurs. Mar. 14 – Lecture 2 Biology of Animal Behaviour 2 39 Fri. Mar. 15 Lecture 3 Population Ecology 1 44 Tues. Mar. 19 – Lecture 4 Population Ecology 2 44 Thurs. Mar. 21 – Lecture 5 Population Interactions 45 Fri. Mar. 22 Lecture 6 Community Ecology 45 Tues. Mar. 26 - Lecture 7 Tree of Life – Fungi 23 Thurs. Mar. 28 - Lecture 8 Ecosystem Ecology 1 46 Fri. Mar. 29 Good Friday – no lecture Tues. Apr. 2 Lecture 9 Human Impacts on Bio Systems 1 48 Thurs. Apr. 4 - Lecture 10 Human Impacts on Bio Systems 2 48 Fri. Apr. 5 Lecture 11 Tree of Life – Conservation Bio and the Importance of Biodiversity 47

Igenome: A Journey From Microbes to Genes Laboratory-based experiential learning opportunity Date: Mon August 26 to Fri August 30. 2013 Ecology from the Ground Up Field research experience at the Koffler Scientific Reserve at Jokers Hill Date: Mon August 19 to Thu August 22.docx Deadline to apply: June 1.docx Deadline to apply: July 2. 2013 Prerequisite: BIOA01H and BIOA02H Cost: Free Enrolment: Maximum 24 students For more information and the Application form: Igenome advertisement and application. housing and meals Enrolment: Maximum 18 students For more information and the Application form: Ecology_Ground_Up. 2013 Cost: $100 to cover transportation. 2013 Or see the Department of Biological Sciences home page for more info 2 .

2013. April 18. 2:00-5:00pm (see blackboard for room allocations) . but topics that were not covered in lecture will not be on the final exam) -there will also be between 15-20 multiple choice synthesis questions covering “tree of life” (eg. phylogenetic pathways.there will 50 multiple choice questions based on Module 3 (topics covered in lectures. or evolutionary pathways showing the evolution of different animals though their form and function) & overall biological principles as they apply across organisms (such as adaptation. please use the textbook as a reference. natural selection.BIO A02 Final Exam Thursday. etc) 3 .

in part. including ability to communicate with people • Experiments show that dogs are better at reading communication signals from people than other animals. (presumable to aid in hunting) Genetic behavioural and morphological evidence indicates that dogs originated from wolves and that there was probably more than one domestication event 4 • • .Dogs • Domestication appears to have been based.P. such as chimps or wolves (interspecific communication appears to have been strongly selected for during the domestication of dogs) Among first animals to have been domesticated. perhaps by 15000 years B. on their social behaviour.

42.Atlantic Salmon • Farmed fish are larger and more aggressive than wild stock.1 . threatening their genetic survival 5 Fig. and they mature later • Intensive fishing reduced natural stocks in some areas to brink of extinction • Aquaculture operations in Nova Scotia produced 35 000 tonnes of Atlantic salmon in 2006 • Aquaculture can have negative impacts – Escaped fish thought to interbreed with local species.

ostriches (for meat. molluscs (mainly for pearls) 6 Fig. hide.21 . crocodiles (ranched for hides and meat). 48. feathers and eggs).Pearls • People cultivate many species that have not been domesticated because there is no evidence of selective breeding • Examples are mushrooms.

Lecture 11 Tree of Life Conservation Bio and the Importance of Biodiversity (Textbook chapter 47) 7 .

47.Extinction • A species is extinct when there are no living representatives known on Earth • Conservation organizations: A species is extinct when it has not been seen or recorded for 50 years • Background extinction rate: Expect species to disappear at some low rate (suggested that on average 10% of species go extinct every million years) Altberosaurus 8 Fig.2 .

potentially largest of all. including most dinosaurs. occurring now as result of human degradation of environment • 9 .5 mya – Dinosaurs had begun their decline 8 million years earlier and persisted for another 40 000 years after impact – This extinction took place over tens of thousands of years and some organisms survived (eg.ginko trees. disappeared – believed to have been caused by an asteroid impact – Dust clouds blocked sunlight for photosynthesis – Chain reaction of extinctions began with microscopic organisms and finished with dinosaurs (as well as many birds and mammals) – Dinosaurs disappeared about 65.Mass Extinctions • Permian most severe – More than 85% of species alive at time disappeared – coincided with a major glaciation and a decline in sea level • At end of Cretaceous: – Half of species on Earth. horseshoe crabs) Sixth mass extinction.

The Impact of Humans • • Know most about extinctions resulting from human activities Records relatively recent and accessible Vulnerable Species Species (particularly flightless birds) confined to islands often have small populations and are unaccustomed to introduced terrestrial predators (such as cats and dogs). 47. this makes them vulnerable to extinction when human populations settle and expand Example: Dodo birds on the Island of Mauritius – were hunted for food by both humans and introduced predators As a consequence of the extinction of the dodo. is the extinction of the Mauritian calvaria tree that evolved along with the dodo and required the dodo to pass the seed through the digestive tract as a requirement for germination 10 Fig.5 .

8 .Introduced and Invasive Species • Humans cause extinction through hunting and by introduction of other species • Moving species from one part of the world to another can have serious impacts t the invaders . may outcompete resident species and wipe out species and ecosystems • Arrival of zebra mussels in Great Lakes is the main reason for decline of now endangered eastern pond mussels 11 Fig. once arrived and established. 47.

only a few individuals survive in protected areas in Africa • In less than 30 years. populations in wild were reduced to 3.11 . the species was almost exterminated in wild • In 1960. 47.500 • Today.Demise of the Black Rhinoceros Poaching • By 1987. black rhinos were one of “big five” on list of big game to shoot as trophies (estimated 60 000 in the wild in 1960) • Other “big five” • African lion • African elephant • Cape buffalo • leopard 12 Fig.

Dramatic Reductions of Barndoor Skates By-catch • Nontarget species often caught in nets: are “by-catch” • Victims of by-catch include other species of fish as well as sea turtles and marine mammals • Removing species from ecosystems or depleting their numbers can also affect many other species in the ecosystem Fig.14 13 .15 Fig. 47. 47.

14 . ® "WWF" and "living planet" are WWF Registered Trademarks.Conservation Development • First step – Development and adoption of objective. databased criteria for assessing risk posed to different species – Process developed on several fronts around the world • World Wildlife Fund (WWF) – Trademark of panda demonstrates how associating a cause with an icon can be very successful © 1986 Panda symbol WWF-World Wide Fund For Nature (also known as World Wildlife Fund).

recognizes six categories for assessing species at risk: • Extinct: A wildlife species that no longer exists • Extirpated: A species no longer existing in one location in the wild but occurring elsewhere • Endangered: A species facing imminent extirpation or extinction •Threatened: A species likely to become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed •Special concern: A species that may become threatened or endangered because of a combination of biological characteristics and identified threats •Data deficient: When available information is insufficient either to resolve a wildlife species’ eligibility of assessment or to permit an assessment of its risk of extinction 15 .Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) – Like IUCN.

25 . 47.Empathy for All Species • Humans can have great empathy for their fellows • We need to extend this concern to other species with whom we share the planet 16 Fig.

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