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repeated habitual actions adverbs of frequency : always, usually, often, sometimes, occasionally, seldom, rarely, hardly ever, never, generally, every day/week/month/year, once, twice, 3 times a day 2. natural, scientific, eternal truths e.g. Birds fly. 3. after HERE and THERE e.g. Here he comes. 4. by radio commentators e.g. Jones passes the ball to Hunter – he shoots – it’s a goal! 5. expresses a future action as part of an official plan, of a fixed timetable or programme e.g. The train leaves at 5:30. We come back on the 6th of June. 6. expresses future in the constructions: a) TO BE ABOUT TO = être en train de/a fi pe punctul de a e.g. I am about to leave for Paris. b) TO BE TO = devoir (instruction, order) e.g. You are to go and see him now! c) TO BE DUE TO = to be supposed to (see 5) e.g. The holidays are due to begin on the 15th of June. 7. it has a future meaning in a time clause and ‘if’ clause e.g. I’ll be there when you arrive. I’ll buy that car if you want me to. I. PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS 1.action in progress at present adverbs: now, just, at the moment 2. temporary habits which include the present adverbs of indefinite time: this year, tonight, today, these days e.g. He is writing another novel this year. 3. an action often repeated that it becomes irritable causing a strong feeling in the speaker adverbs of frequency: always, continually, constantly, perpetually, for ever e.g. They are always complaining. 4. Pre-arranged future actions (less personal intention) adverbs expressing future: tomorrow, this week, in May. e.g. He is taking his exam tomorrow. 5. expresses refusal e.g. 1st person: I am not doing it again. (=I refuse to) 2ne and 3rd person: You’re not using my pen again. (=I won’t allow you to) 6. TO BE GOING TO a) personal intention, usually premeditated e.g. I am going to buy a house. (=I intend to) b) probability based on present evidence e.g. It’s cloudy. It’s going to rain. adverbs: soon, right away, in just a minute 7. verbs that cannot be used in the continuous aspect a) verbs of perception: notice, observe, recognise, b) non-conclusive verbs: know, forget, suppose, care, seem, own, belong,
recently.g.g. I’m smelling the flower. e.g. HAVE e.g.g. FEEL e. e. I’ve never seen such a beauty. e.g.g. seldom.g. TASTE. She’s expecting a baby. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS 1. Past finished action with no time definition or: adverbs indefinite: already. (to possess) IDIOMS: have fun/a party/trouble/lunch/a good or a bad time II. action begun in the past and continued up to the present II. The flower smells good. wish. (= Object) SEE e. this week.g.g. (=to wait) BE e. (=meet.g. action begun in the past and still continuing in the present (since & for) e. I think you’re right. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE 1.g. verbs which can be used both in the continuous and simple aspect but assuming different meanings SMELL. visit) THINK e. I’ve been playing tennis for 2 hours. just. every day e. I see you very well. lately. She expects you to help her. She hears our conversation. He is a good person. (=meditate) EXPECT e. (=temporary behaviour) HEAR e. want 8. He’s being silly today.g. never. so far. The jury is hearing the witness. I’m seeing my dentist tomorrow. I’ve been cooking all morning today. e. yet. 2. a past action whose duration is stressed. (=opinion) e.g. often.understand.g. 2. I have 2 brothers. .g. e. I’m thinking about my childhood. today adverbs of frequency: ever. e.
(punctual verb) we have been here. the day before yesterday. Have you seen the film? 6. just now. She was sleeping when I entered the room. long ago. 4. 4. then. While I was crying she was laughing. an action in progress at a given past moment e. BE/ STAY/ LIVE + Present Perfect after SINCE: e. 3. on/before/after the 1st of March.g./ all day yesterday. an action going on at a time when something else happened e.g. an action which took place in the past but can be repeated in the present (see III. at that time. before. He went in and sat down next to me. events that happen quickly one after the other adverbs (order of actions): first. I cannot see well because I’ve broken my glasses. expresses consecutive past actions (tense of narration) e. next. future perfect meaning in a time clause e. 3.g. then. at noon. 3. He has been ill since Monday. past action with result in the present e.g. (I could meet him again) 5.SINCE: the point of time the action began: Since when? FOR: the whole period of duration: How long? e. past finished action adverbs definite: yesterday morning. We have been working hard since we came here. finally e.g. PAST TENSE SIMPLE 1.3) . 2. III. First he climbed the stairs then he opened the door.g.g. parallel actions (going on at the same time) e.g.g. (durative verb) III. He has written many poems. 7. 3. She’ll tell me the news after I’ve finished dinner.g. in spring 2.g. PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS 1. + Past Tense Simple Present Perfect Simple in the subordinate clause after SINCE e. second.5) e.g. an action in progress filling up a whole period of time in the past e. It was raining during the meeting. last night. (see I. 5. (He still writes) I’ve met him twice. She was watching TV at 4 o’clock/ at this time yesterday. almost immediately. I’ve known him for 2 years.g. after. to open a conversation e. It’s 2 years since I’ve been married.
it is used in descriptions (=imparfait) e.4. for/since…. I hadn’t read it before. expresses a period of time in the past. before. She was always biting her nails as a child. she had been teaching for half an hour. (I couldn’t meet him again) 6.g.g. he would swim. adverbs indefinite: already. (after completion of the action) When they arrived we had sat down to lunch. IV. an action begun before a past moment and continuing in that past moment adverbs and time clauses: by…. before e. The snow was falling over the city. climb the trees and sing. She had been praying every 5 minutes until I arrived. how long./ for three days last week. a past action which took place before another past action e. It rained from Monday to Wednesday last week.g.g. b) AFTER/ AS SOON AS e. He wrote many poems. Another action + : a) BY THE TIME e. I went out as soon as I had finished lunch. WOULD + punctual verbs (in a succession of actions. an action which took place in the past but cannot be repeated (see II. After I had finished lunch I went out. a recurrent habit) e. I was angry because she had left without a word. (he doesn’t write any more) I met him twice this morning.g. When they had arrived we sat down to lunch.g. PAST PERFECT SIMPLE 1. a past habitual action: USED TO + durative verbs. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS 1. which began and ended in the past (from… to…/ for…) e. regularly e. by that time. c) WHEN e. after e.g. when. By the time mother arrived we had finished our homework. I read the book last week. . He used to play tennis when he was 10.4) e.g. (already) e. 5. By the time I entered the classroom.g. 6. IV. a habitual action within a time period adverbs of frequency: every 10 minutes. He would spend his holidays in the mountains.g.g.g. 2.
4. NOT UNTIL. when the narrator looks back on earlier actions from a certain point in the past . e) UNTIL e.g. Once he had left her. b) continuing up to that moment e. She didn’t understand until I had explained.g.d) BEFORE e. BARELY. ONLY WHEN + inversion. f) HARDLY. NO SOONER. They arrived before we had sat down to lunch. an action begun before a past moment and: a)still continuing at that moment e. 2. They returned before they had found the child.g.g. ONCE e. I had waited for her for 2 hours before she came. He had been home for 2 hours when I entered. SCARCELY.g. he came to me. indicates that an action has been prevented before it as completed e. 3.g.
adverbs definite: tomorrow morning. universal truths e. The BBC will be showing highlights from the match this evening. What is she doing? She’ll be doing her homework. next week. I’ll go to the library twice a week. speculation.g. V.g.g. (= He must be home now) 7.g. at 10 o’clock e. assumption about the future (THINK. So am I. then.3) e. the day after tomorrow. 5. 6. request for information (polite) (see FTS.g. EXPECT. Have you seen him? He’ll be home now. I’ll give her a lift home. 2.V.g. Next time you come here I’ll set my dog on you! I’ll keep in touch with you.g. in a month.g.3) e.V. (= She must be doing it) . opinion. habitual actions.g. threat or promise e. I doubt if you’ll be able to read this book. A flower will die without water. offer or request for action (see FTC. This time next week I’ll be lying on the beach in Italy.g. future fact or prediction e. SUPPOSE. 3. sudden decision e. strong probability (modal) e. FUTURE TENSE CONTINUOUS 1. Mary is leaving now. 5. You’ll make a very good teacher. Will you bring your boyfriend to the party? Shall I give you a hand? 4.V. in a few minutes/2days’ time 2. an action filling up a whole period of time in the future e.g. FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE 1. 3.g. PROBABLY) e. soon. an action in progress at a particular moment in the future adverbs: at this time tomorrow/next week. an anticipated action which will happen as a matter of course e. Will you be bringing your boyfriend to the party? 4. strong probability (modal) e. We’ll be sleeping all day tomorrow because we’re tired.
by the time e. You’ll have known the results by next month. VI. b) another action: when. FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE 1. before.g. You’ll have finished your homework when I’m back./before I’m back.VI. I’ll have been home for 3 hours by the time you’re back.g.g. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS 1. an action already completed at a given future moment. it can be limited by: a) adverbs indefinite: by this time tomorrow. By next year I’ll have been working here for three years. . a year from now e. by then. an action begun before a future moment and still continuing into that future moment 2 time markers: for… (duration) by… (end point) e.
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