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# Waves Revision Wavelength is the distance from one peak to the next.

. Frequency is how many complete waves there are per second. Frequency is measured in hertz; 1hz is 1 wave per second. Amplitude is the height of the wave (from rest to crest). You can increase or decrease the amplitude of a wave by changing the height. The Period is the time it takes for one complete wave to pass a point. E.g. a wave with period 0.002s has a frequency of 10.002=500 Hz. Frequency=1 Time period F=1T Most waves are Transverse: >Light and all other EM waves >A slinky spring wiggled up and down. > Waves on string >Ripples on water Some Longitudinal waves are: >Sound and Ultrasound >Shock waves e.g. some seismic waves >A slinky spring when you push the end. In Transverse waves the vibrations are at 900 to the direction energy is transferred by the wave. In Longitudinal waves the vibrations are along the same direction as the wave transfers energy. All waves carry and transfer energy in the direction theyre travelling in. E.g. microwaves in an oven make things warm up- their energy is transferred to the food youre cooking. Sound waves can make things vibrate or move. Waves can also be used as signals to transfer information from one place to another- e.g. light in optical fibre, or radio waves travelling through the air. Wave Speed (m/s)=frequency (Hz) x wavelength (m) V=f x

The infrared radiation given out by objects can be detected in the dark of night by night-vision equipment. The equipment turns it into an electrical signal, which is displayed on a screen as a picture, allowing things, which would otherwise be hidden in the dark to be seen. Infrared is also used for remote controls for television sets and DVD player and cameras to detect water pipes. Visible light can be used for communication using optical fibres-which carries data over long distances as pulses of light. Optical fibres work by bouncing waves off the sides of a very narrow core. The pulse of light enters the fibre at a certain angle at one end and is reflected again and again until it emerges at the other end. Optical Fibres are increasingly being used for telephone and broadband Internet cables, replacing the old electrical ones. Optical fibres are also used for medical purposes to see inside the body without having to operate. Visible light is also used for Photography. Cameras use a lens to focus visible light onto a light-sensitive film or electronic sensor. The lens aperture controls how much light enters the camera. The shutter speed determines how long the film or sensor is exposed to light. By varying the aperture and shutter speed (also sensitivity), a photographer can capture as much or as little light as they want in their photograph. Visible light is also used for iris scanner. Ultraviolet is used in Fluorescent lamps. Fluorescence is a property of certain chemical, where ultraviolet radiation (UV) is absorbed and then visible light is emitted. Thats why florescent colours look so bright (they emit light). Fluorescent light use UV radiation to emit visible light. They are safe as it is absorbed by a phosphor coating on the inside of the glass, which emits visible light instead. Fluorescent lights are more energy-efficient than filament light lamps so they are used everywhere because theyre need for long periods. UV radiation is also used for security marks, detecting forged notes and disinfecting water. X-Rays are used to view the internal structure of objects and material e.g. our bodies and are useful in medicine. To produce an X-ray image, X-ray radiation is directed through the object or body onto a detector plate. The brighter bits are where fewer X-rays get through. This is negative image as the plate starts of all white. In hospitals, Radiographers take x-ray photographs to help doctors