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-Old Order (Ancien Regime), involved a monarchy with a King and Queen (King Louis XVI and MarieAntoinette), and three Estates under them First Estate: Roman-Catholic Clergy, 1% of the population. They paid no taxes. Nobles paid tithe, or 10% of their income, directly to the Church. Second Estate: Nobles, 2% of the population, 25% of the land. Paid no taxes. Third Estate: 97% of population, split into three classes: Bourgeoisie: middle class, bankers, merchants, doctors Artisans: shoemakers, carpenters Peasants Other Reasons for Revolution: -Enlightenment ideas push revolution: If the United States could have a revolution, surely France could as well -Natural Causes-Drought, hailstorms, snowstorms, increasing population, etc. -French financial crisis -Bankers refuse to pay the king when he asks for it -King asks nobles and clergy to pay the taxes, they refuse. -Proves there is no such thing as an absolute monarchy. Revolution Begins -The King, wanting to place taxes on the nobles, calls the Estates General -Each Estate has one vote, the Third Estate calls for new method: one man, one vote, the King says no -Third Estate decides to do it anyway, the King locks them out. They regroup and meet at an indoor tennis court, where they make the Tennis Court Oath, to not leave until they had written a new Constitution. June 17, 1789- proclaim themselves the National Assembly, write a new Constitution -King finally agrees to one man, one vote, Third Estate refuses, saying its too late. The King calls his troops to Paris (his troops are made up of the Third Estate) July 14, 1789- BASTILLE DAY! The Bastille prison is stormed for weapons by the people of Paris, then Commander decides to open doors to negotiate, they kill him and take the weapons. Revolution -All dues are eliminated for the people, the nobles agree to be taxed -Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen is written in August 1789; Enlightenment ideals are promoted, such as freedom of speech, press, religion -The King denies all the reforms October 1789- The Womens March- where women protested lack of food -The King goes to Paris, and stays there in the palace in a sort of house arrest. -The new government drafts the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, which makes the clergy public employees that most swear oath to the government 1791- Replace the National Assembly with the Legislative Assembly. It had one house (unicameral) -Concepts of left and right views were formed, as the conservatives sat on the right, the liberals sat on the left, and the moderates did not go to either side. June 1791- the King flees his palace and is caught -The rest of Europe begins to get worried -France declares war on Austria and Prussia in July 1792 -In August, the monarchy is officially abolished. -Formation of the First French Republic and a new Constitution. It forms a new government, called the National Convention, controlled by the radicals. -They create Frances first democratic Constitution. Allowed universal male suffrage. 3 factions form: Girondists: conservatives, still supported some kind of monarchy Jacobins: radical group, very liberal Plain: Swing voters that voted with different parties on different issues. Reign of Terror Begins Jean-Paul Marat- radical, advocate for violence, one of the leaders of Sans-Culottes George Danton- popular, second leader of Sans-Culottes

Maximilien de Robespierre- the ringleader, the bloodiest, leads reign of terror -King is tried December 1792, found guilty, killed by guillotine. -Regicide (the killing of a king or monarch) angers Europe. Great Britain, Spain, Sardinia, Austria, and Prussia declare war on France. -France forms the Committee of Public Safety, run by the Jacobins. -Forms series of Revolutionary Tribunals, courts where people could be tried if they were against the republic -Vendee, a very conservative city, wants a monarchy again (constitutional monarchy) -Robespierre sees this as a threat, starts collecting Girondists to kill them -Neighborhood Watch Committees handed people over to the Tribunals -Robespierre wanted to create a Republic of Virtue -All churches closed and reopened as Temples of Reason -Robespierre creates the Cult of the Supreme Being (belief in a God, not a particular religion, close to deism) July 1794- Robespierre guillotined -This leaves an opening in France, form a new government, the Directory Government. This government was weak and corrupt Napoleon Bonaparte -Born in Corsica (which belonged to France) -Military success, wins number of battles against the monarchists. -Sees himself as an emulation of Alexander the Great, sails to capture Egypt -Wins Egypt, but British attack his fleet and destroy it in the Battle of the Nile -Napoleon gets in a boat, sneaks past the British blockade, returns to France as a hero (leaving his army in Egypt) -Coup dEtat- Napoleon overthrows the government. Creates Consulate government -3 Consuls, Napoleon Bonaparte is #1 among them, wanted to emulate Romes consul system. -Napoleon brought stability and order -1802-Napoleon declares himself Consul for life through plebiscite -Calls the Pope to the Notre-Dame to crown him Emperor, places the crown upon his own head, appeared as if the Church supported it and God had appointed him -1802-Signs the Treaty of Amiens with Great Britain -Revolt in Saint-Dominique (present day Haiti and Dominican Republic) breaks out, malaria hits Napoleons troops and many of them fall sick, Napoleon retreats and sells the Louisiana Territory -Britain blockades ports in France and in Spain -1805-Huge naval battle between British and French +Spanish in Trafalgar, Britain wins -Napoleon creates the Continental System-economic warfare against Great Britain, system fails because of smuggling -The Continental System leads to the Peninsular War with Portugal -Napoleon marches across Spain to get to Portugal, Spanish see it as an invasion -1812-Great Britain, Portugal, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire are fighting against France Napoleons Mistake June 1812- Napoleon decides to invade Russia -Czar invokes a Scorched Earth Policy and burns everything in front of Napoleon, so he cant feed his troops. -Winter also helps the Russians, Napoleons troops were unprepared for it because he had thought he would win by then -Napoleon takes Moscow, but it is deserted and in flames. -Napoleon retreats, Russians start attacking - By the time he gets back to Prussia, there are 94,000 troops left, Napoleons allies leave him -Paris is taken, Napoleon is captured and exiled to the island of Elba -France finds a king to put on the throne: Louis XVIII, brother of the late Louis XVI -March 1815, Napoleon returns to France, promising that he does not mean to conquer any more of Europe, takes control for the Hundred Days. -Napoleon marches to Belgium and fights the Battle of Waterloo, defeated by Great Britain Napoleon at Home -Had a strong central government

-Concordat of 1801 between the Roman Catholic Church and Napoleon, Napoleon pays the church and offers its workers salaries, the Church all swear allegiance to Napoleon -Created the Bank of France, which got rid of corrupt tax collectors -Reconstructed laws in the Napoleonic Code, generally put the states rights over the individuals -Education- created a free public school system in France Congress of Vienna Napoleon is taken to the island of St. Helena and dies there in 1821 -The Congress restores order and stability -The Congress was organized by Metternich from Austria, Czar Alexander I of Russia, and Frederick William III of Prussia Buffer States- a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which is thought to prevent conflict between them Alliances Quadruple Alliance- between the United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, becomes the Quintuple Alliance after France joins Holy Alliance-(also called the Grand Alliance) - a fourth coalition of Russia, Austria and Prussia created in 1815

Mercantilism- governments restrict trade to protect their own industries, and to limit foreign competition through tariffs -The only thing that counted as wealth was tangible money -Laissez-Faire- the government has limited involvement in business, it was first proposed by Adam Smith of Scotland in the Wealth of Nations, about the individual, not the nation -Smith advocates free markets and individual welfare -Proposes Trickle-down Economics- If money is given to businessmen, they will reinvest that money and will create jobs and other opportunities for the lower classes -Also creates concept of the Invisible Hand- competition and a free market system guide resources to their most productive use Thomas Malthus- also a laissez-faire capitalist, says population will always be an issue David Ricardo- the Iron Law of Wages-when there are higher wages, there will be population increase, leading to more people that need jobs, so wages fall and the population decreases Utilitarianism- leader Jeremy Bentham- the rightness or correctness of any action, law, or political institution should be measured by its usefulness John Stuart Mill- argues that the distribution of wealth is done by laws and social custom, rejects laissezfaire completely -By the mid-1800s, businessmen are the ones who have money and power. This shift of wealth leads to Capitalism Socialism- created as a reaction to capitalism, is the opposite of capitalism because everything is shared equally Book Definition: Society or government should own property and control industry, for the good of all. Mr. Brodman Definition; The government controls SOME property and industries--the KEY industries, for the good of all -The first recorded example of socialism was created by Robert Owen, in New Lanark, Scotland. Owens company town was a success -Owen tries taking it to Indiana in the U.S., creates a town called New Harmony, which fails -Socialism fosters Utopianism, the idea of creating utopias (perfect societies) Communism- introduced by Karl Marx, a German -Marx and Friedrich Engels write The Communist Manifesto -Explains that there are four stages of European economic life: 1. Primitive Hunter-Gatherer: works for himself, does work himself 2. Slavery: work is done by others for you 3. Feudalism: work is done for a king 4. Capitalism: work for factory owners -Says the ruling class should be those who produce, calls the working class the proletariat

-Under communism, there is no money, no government -Marx doesnt understand that people are self-interested, and that communism is likely to fail as there becomes no incentive to work

Revolution of 1830
-Louis XVIII restored by the Congress of Vienna in a constitutional monarchy -Some nobles want to go back to full monarchy, called Ultraroyalists -Louis XVIII dies in 1824 of natural causes, his brother is an ultraroyalist, changes his name to Charles X -Passes a bill to compensate the aristocrats for the land that was taken from them, the people become outraged. The legislature passes a vote of no confidence -Charles X suspends the legislature and holds new elections, the legislature is even more liberal than the first -In response the king passes the July Ordinances to take the new legislature out of power, limit freedom of the press, and limit voting to only the wealthy. -The people start a revolution, the king abdicates -Louis-Philippe had a far more limited constitutional monarchy, and liked the support of the middle class. He preferred the title of Citizen King -However, power corrupts Louis-Philippe, and he begins to limit the peoples rights -1848 is the Year of Revolution, with revolutions all over Europe, including France -Louis Philippe abdicates Second Republic of France -A new constitution is created, and a president is elected, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte -Napoleon is limited to a four year term, but wants to serve longer, so he uses the military to organize a coup and take control -Calls a plebiscite and is elected as Emperor The Second Empire of France -Louis Napoleon changes his name to Napoleon III -Prime Minister of Prussia Otto von Bismarck wants to unify the 39 German states into Germany, manipulates Napoleon III into declaring war on Prussia -Prussia defeats the French, and Napoleon III is caught in battle and surrenders -The legislature in Paris deposes Napoleon, creates the Third Republic of France -The Prussians march on Paris and the Third Republic is forced to surrender -The Germans force France to pay 5,000,000,000 Francs to Germany as an indemnity for the cost of war -Alsace-Lorraine territory is surrendered to Germany -Commune of Paris- small revolt in France over the situation, quickly defeated -1875-a new constitution is written and the Fourth Republic of France is formed Dreyfus Affair -French begin to suspect that someone had sabotaged them -The blame is placed on Alfred Dreyfus because he is Jewish, Dreyfus is sent to Devils Island off the coast of South America -Significant example of anti-Semitism-hate or discrimination towards Jews and Arabs (Semites) -Though Dreyfus is convicted, he is cleared in 1906 by Theodore Herzl -Herzl begins Zionism, which supports the creation of a Jewish homeland in Israel Latin America (South America, Central America, and the Caribbean) -Change occurs in Latin America from tensions because of enlightenment -Colonies in Latin America were for resources, slavery used for agriculture -Controlled mostly by Spain and Portugal, also U.K., France and Dutch -The Catholic Church want to change indigenous people First Revolution -Saint Domingue is the first to break away from France (Saint Domingue is modern-day Haiti and Dominican Republic) -The main exports of Saint Domingue are sugar and coffee -The Haitians try to apply Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen -Mulattos-mix of African and European descent (French), they drive the revolution

-Led by a man named Toussaint LOuverture, who is a hero in Hispaniola -1802-LOuverture signs an armistice between the revolutionaries and France, the French trick and capture him -The revolution begins again, the Haitians defeat the French and drive them out Mexican Revolution -Spain in control of most of South America, Portugal controlled Brazil -Spain treated the indigenous Mexicans and slaves as inferior beings -The population was broken down into four social classes (from highest to lowest): Peninsulares- Both parents are white and Spanish, and born in Spain Creoles- Both parents are white Spanish, but are born in the colonies Mestizos- One parent was white and Spanish, the other was indigenous Slaves/Indigenous- Were treated as the same level. -Colonists (mostly white Creoles) want to achieve equal rights to those of Europeans Father Miguel Hidalgo is the father of Mexican independence -September 16, 1810 makes first public call for Mexican independence from Spain -Captured and executed shortly by Spanish authorities, considered hero and martyr Jos Maria Morelos - Takes over from Hidalgo, is a Creole priest and a strong military leader. -Forms Mexican Congress and gets representatives from all over Mexico -Captured, found guilty, and executed Agustin de Iturbide -Creole general, ordered by the Spanish government to crush the revolution -Liberal revolution in Spain; worried that Spain would become a republic and he would be replaced -Attempts to change sides to join the Mexican revolutionaries -In exchange for the support of him and his soldiers, he proposed three conditions: 1. Mexico will be ruled by a monarch 2. Creoles and Peninsulares would have equal rights 3. The Catholic Church would be in charge and become the official religion of Mexico -The revolutionaries accept these terms, and Mexican independence is achieved -Agustin becomes Emperor, but is later deposed Smon Bolivar- The Liberator -Born in Venezuela, known as the GW of South America, Bolivia is named after him -Defeats Spanish armies in Venezuela and other northern SA nations -Attempts to form the Confederation of the Andes and unite all the South American nations, but they dont want to do it and the Confederation fails -Is able to form Gran Colombia: Venezuela, Panama, and Ecuador -Becomes president of Peru Jos de San Martin -Born in Argentina, fought for independence in Southern South America -1816-declared independence for Argentina, moved on to Chile -Secret discussion with Bolivar led to resignation, leaving Bolivar to take the credit -San Martin returned to Europe where he lived until his death in 1850 Brazil -When Napoleon had invaded Portugal in 1807, the Portuguese monarch King John VI fled to Brazil, where he lived with his family for over 10 years -John named Rio de Janeiro the capital of the entire Portuguese empire -1820- Revolt in Portugal, John VI returns to Europe and leaves son Pedro to rule -Brazilian colonists begin fighting for independence from Portugal, came very smoothly and without violence -Pedro is soon afterwards is crowned Emperor Pedro I of Brazil

-Italy has not been united since the Roman Empire, which fell in the 400s -Nationalism drives the unification of Italy

-Elements of Nationalism: Culture, Religion, Language, Geography, History -Some of Italy is under the control of foreign powers--Austria controls Venetia and Lombardy, while France controls the Kingdom of Two Sicilies Leaders of Italian Unification: Count Camillo di Cavour- the BRAINS Giuseppe Mazzini- the HEART Giuseppe Garibaldi- the SWORD Giuseppe Mazzini- writer that comes to symbolize Italian Unification, forms a secret organization called Young Italy -June 1848- revolution in Sicily sparks uprisings up and down the Italian peninsula -King Charles Albert of Sardinia- happy about the revolts, gets support from other nations (Naples, Tuscany, and the Papal States), attacks Austria for V + L - Pope Pius IX withdraws from their allies, possibly to retain land and power over Italy; Naples pulls out as well, and Sardinians are not able to defeat the Austrians -Small Republic forms in Rome, led by Mazzini, the Pope flees -Louis-Napoleon sends an army to attack the republic and defeat it -Charles Albert dies, replaced by son Victor Emmanuel II -Count Camillo di Cavour is the brains behind Italian unification, and the PM to Victor Emmanuel II, writes a newspaper called Il Risorgimento -Cavour secretly offers France a deal--if Napoleon supports him in a war with Austria, France would receive Savoy and Nice -Napoleon asks Cavour to make Austria attack first, Cavour starts revolt in Lombardy -France have an army on the border, help Sardinians, take heavy casualties -Napoleon makes a deal with the Austrians to pull out of the war in return for Sardinia receiving Lombardy -Cavour still wants Venetia, so he refuses to give France Savoy and Nice -Tuscany, Parma, Modena, and Romagna join Sardinia for unification -Cavour feels better and turns over Savoy and Nice -Giuseppe Garibaldi- leader of the Red Shirts, joined Young Italy in 1833 -Garibaldi leads a revolt in Sicily, defeats the Kingdom of Two Sicilies -Cavour convinces him to turn over Kingdom to unify an Italian monarchy -Italy sides with Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War, receives Venetia afterwards -When France retrieves its troops from the area, Italy marches in and takes Rome -The Pope is left with a mile square, Vatican City is formed -People in Southern Italy are agricultural and poorer, Northern Italy is industrial and richer, the South is looked down upon by the North

-The German Confederation is used to facilitate interactions between the 39 German states, especially Austria and Prussia; they form a legislature called a Diet -Austria resists unification, Prussia wants unification -Most German states have a monarch, but the power is with nobles called Junkers -1834-the German Confederation becomes Zollverein, creates a standard currency -1862-King Wilhelm I of Prussia names Otto von Bismarck Prime Minister -Went by a philosophy of Realpolitik, the right of a nation state to pursue its own advantages by any means, including war and repudiation of treaties -Said that the only way to success was blood and iron (war and industry) -Wanted to increase funding to military, dismisses Parliament and taxes the people -King Christian IX of Denmark declares Schleswig and Holstein Danish territories - Germans in area complain, ask Prussia to help, Prussia + Austria destroy Denmark -Schleswig goes to Prussia, Holstein goes to Austria -Bismarcks sets up the coming war between Prussia and Austria -Seven Weeks War (Austro-Prussian War)-Bismarck begins by removing potential allies from Austria: -Russia: Bismarck helps the Russians quell the Polish rebellion

-Italy: Bismarck promises to give them Venetia if he wins -France: Bismarck pays Napoleon III to not help the Austrians -Great Britain: very secluded, dont get involved -Bismarck makes an incursion into Holstein, Austrians declare war and are defeated -The German Confederation is dissolved -Bismarck forms the North German Confederation; Southern Germany doesnt trust Bismarck because the North is Protestant while the South is Catholic -Franco-Prussian War- Bismarck needs all the German States to work together -Alters the Ems Telegram to France, Napoleon is angered and declares war -However, France is defeated, forced to pay indemnity, loses Alsace and Lorraine -King of Prussia becomes Kaiser Wilhelm I, forms the Second Reich -Bismarck passed laws limiting the influence of the Catholic Church in Germany, this struggle was known as Kulturkampf -Germany used reparations to build railroads and expand businesses -German socialists protested against harsh factory conditions -Two assassination attempts were made on the emperor, Bismarck blamed socialists -Bismarck passed reforms so the socialist movement would be reduced -1888-Wilhelm II becomes Emperor, dismisses Bismarck as Prime Minister Austria-Hungary -The Hapsburgs had been Austrian rulers -Emperor Franz I now rules Austria, PM is Klemens von Metternich, a reactionary -Metternich enacts the Carlsbad Decrees to limit universities and censor the media -1820-Congress of Troppau- agreements formed that if a rebellion breaks out in a nation, other European nations would help with military intervention -1848-Year of Revolution- Metternich is forced out, Emperor Franz I abdicates, Franz Joseph I takes power -The Hungarians (or Magyars) are the largest group in Austria-Hungary -Francis Deak is the leader of the Hungarian nationalist movement, Franz Joseph agrees to give them more power -Ausgleich (a compromise) forms Dual Republic of Austria-Hungary -Franz-Joseph is the Emperor of both, though they have individual legislatures Ottoman Empire -In decline- by the early 1800s, the Ottomans can no longer defend against independence movements, Empire becomes the Sick Man of Europe -Crimean War- Ottomans choose the French Roman Catholics to represent the holy areas, the Russian Orthodox Church is angered -The Russians go to war over this, and because they need more warm water ports -The war is fought in the island of Crimea in the Black Sea, Russians lose -Bismarck calls Congress of Berlin to split up the Balkans and keep Russia blocked -Independent nations formed, areas like Bosnia are given to Austria

-Huge and diverse, 60 nationalities, 100+ languages -Czars: Alexander I -> Nicholas I -> Alexander II -> Alexander III -> Nicholas II -Agricultural society, far behind in industry compared to the rest of Europe -Many serfs, servants considered part of the land kept in their place -Napoleon brings enlightened ideas to Europe, infects people in Russia -Czar Alexander I, Czar during Congress of Vienna, dies -Leads to the December Revolt of 1825, officers wanted to bring reform to Russia -The new Czar, Nicholas I, crushed the rebellion, and the rebels are sent to Siberia -Nicholas I creates secret police, imprisonment without trial, censorship of the media -Czar Alexander II industrializes Russia, ends serfdom, known as Czar Liberator -Gives serfs the right to own land, but not individually, as a community, or Mir -Zemstvos - elected assemblies dealt with local matters, wealthy had more votes

-Limits secret police, eases press limits, expands education, lowers military service -1881- Alexander II is assassinated by Peoples Will, who wanted more changes -Replaced by Czar Alexander III, who becomes reactionary, revokes all changes -Supports Russification, made Russian the official language -Causes intolerance of non-Russian people, specifically Jews, violent mob attacks called Pogroms, Jews are forced to live in the Pale of Settlement -1894- Alexander III dies, replaced by Czar Nicholas II, the last Czar of Russia -Fairly weak autocrat, his wife, Empress Alexandra, holds the real power -Builds the Trans-Siberian Railroad -The Japanese want Russian and Chinese lands, wage Russo-Japanese War, first time a colored society defeats a white society -Mensheviks- believed there had to be a large group of industrial workers to revolt -Bolsheviks- believed only a small group of revolutionaries was needed to revolt -Bolshevik leader- Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov - Lenin -Revolution of 1905- Father Gapon leads a march of 200,000 poor to the Czars palace in St. Petersburg, the Czar cuts them down, known as Bloody Sunday -The people revolt, the Czar is forced to pass the October Manifesto, a promise to reform and make Russia more democratic, creates a legislature (called a Duma) -1906-the Czar disbands the Duma

Imperialism- the process of one people or nation controlling another, 1800-1914 Rationales: Markets- the British would use the colonies to purchase goods from them Raw Materials- the colonies provide raw materials for the mother country Military Bases- needed naval bases, coal stations, gas stations, etc. Nationalism- Having colonies proved that the nation was strong Social Darwinism- it was their job, as the fittest civilization, to spread their superior culture and force more primitive societies to adhere to it -White Mans Burden by Rudyard Kipling- wrote about influence of white society Religious Reasons- wanted to bring Protestant Christianity to the heathens Types of Imperialism: Colony- Going in and controlling everything Protectorate- Controlling the economy, military, and foreign affairs; local matters controlled by the original country Sphere of Influence- Controlling the law in an area of the country

-Mughal Empire in decline, Portuguese come in, followed by the British East India Company and the French East India Company -Battle of Plassey, between the BEI and the FEI, the BEI win, kick the French out -The BEI introduces a new education system based on the English language, begin passing laws that ban Indian customs such as Sati -Part of the attempt to Christianize India, was largely unsuccessful -Sepoys are Indian soldiers that fought in the BEI Army -1857-Sepoy Mutiny, rebellion sparked when they were forced to bite cartridges they thought were covered in cow grease -Revolt lasts one year, BEI leaves, British government takes control of India -India becomes known as the Crown Jewel of the British Empire, represented by a Viceroy during a time period known as the Raj -The British could not control India by themselves, not enough white people, relied on the Indian Civil Service, where educated Indian people would work -Frustrated by lack of control and discrimination, Indians begin to vie for more power -British control also helped Indians as education became much more available

-Build roads, railroads, and canals to move goods and troops -British began using India for cotton, lead to famine as it replaced food production 1820s- Ram Mohan Roy puts forward ideas to form an independent India -After Sepoy mutiny, Indians are allowed a little local participation in government -Two political parties in India: the BJP (conservative), and the INC (liberal) -Swadeshi - boycott of British goods, British concede and give Indians more power -Another nationalist group formed based on the Muslims, the Muslim League

-Saw the Europeans as barbarians, and China as the center of the world -Qing Dynasty - 1644-1911 -British wanted tea, silk, and porcelain, China only wanted silver -The only entry the Europeans are allowed to use is Canton/Guangzhou -British sell opium, an addictive poppy plant, to China -People get addicted, Chinese repeatedly ban it, but it continues to be smuggled -By the late 1700s, it is estimated that 10% of Chinese were addicted to Opium -1829- Lin Zixin burns the opium, leads to Opium Wars, Chinese are massacred -British force China to sign the Treaty of Nanjing, opens five new ports -Extraterritoriality- European laws applied in their areas of control -Many felt that the Emperor had lost the Mandate of Heaven -Hong Xiuquan - The leader of the Taiping Rebellion - believed he was the brother of Jesus Christ, argues that he will bring the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace -Self-Strengthening Movement forms, stating that China needs to modernize, to educate, to industrialize; traditionalists and eunuchs (castrated servants) opposed - Sino Japanese War: China loses to Japan, Japan saves Korea by capturing -Europeans solidify their control through spheres of influence -Cixi - Empress, very power-hungry, kills her husband and children -Cixi supports the Boxer Rebellion - The Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists attempts to rid areas of China from European control -European troops remove the siege and sack the Summer Palace outside Beijing -Sun Yixian - leader of the United League or Guomindang Party, argues that China needs to be taught democracy before it is ready to wield it -Had three basic principles: Nationalism, Democracy, and Peoples Livelihood (equality in land ownership) -1908- The Empress dies, leaving two-year-old Pu Yi in power -October 1911 Revolution successful revolt against the Qing Dynasty -Sun Yixian is forced out; the First President of China is General Yuan Shikai

-Medieval Tokugawa Clan ruled Japan from 1603 to 1867 -1852- U.S. President Millard Fillmore sends Matthew Perry to Edo Bay in Japan, began to negotiate the Treaty of Kanagawa, opens up Japan to trade -In Japan, the power was in the hands of the Shogun, the head of the military -Emperor Mutsuhito dissolves shogunate, takes more power -Becomes known as Meiji Emperor, or Enlightened Ruler -Under Meiji, Japan advances to a world power in 60 years -Meijis slogan for the country - Rich Country, Strong Military -Sends Iwakura Mission, to see how the U.S. and Europe worked in their society -Institutes free education, helps industrialize at a very fast pace -Japan takes no foreign loans, as they realize how it leads to failure like in China -Much military success: Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War

-In the 1600s and 1700s, the Dutch had controlled the spice trade, began to grow sugar and coffee on their plantations in the Southeast Asian colonies -In the 1800s, the British begin to compete with the Dutch in Malaysia - French conquered part of Indochina. French missionaries and traders were active in Vietnam -The ruling Nyugen Dynasty saw French as a threat, tried to stop their missionaries -Napoleon III sends fleet to Vietnam in response, defeats them in the Mekong Delta, forces the

Vietnamese ruler to sign the Treaty of Saigon -France also annexes Laos and Cambodia, area known as French Indochina -Diponegoro-a Javanese prince who opposed the Dutch colonial rule in the East Indies, played an important role in the Java War -Only independent nation in Southeast Asia is Siam, buffer between GB and France

-The Europeans had no respect for Africa, saw Africans as sub-humans and slaves -1815 - British ban slavery, but still use Africa for raw materials -By 1914, every African nation except Ethiopia and Liberia is colonized -Technological and scientific advances allow this to happen: Quinine (a medicine against malaria), guns, railroads -French invade North Africa, Ottoman territory where Berber pirates reside -A resistance is led by Abd-al-Qadir, but eventually Algeria is a French colony

-Egyptian leader Muhammad Ali sees himself a pharaoh, takes loans from GB and France to build large structures -De Lesseps- the French engineer who was contracted to build the Suez Canal -1882- British government steps in to protect their interests with the Suez Canal, makes Egypt a protectorate -1898- GB advances into Sudan, defeat the Sudanese in the Battle of Omdurman -The British come into conflict with the French in the village of Fashoda -Through negotiations, GB gets Sudan, France is allowed to take Morocco -Italy wants colonies, so it takes, Libya, a barren desert

South Africa
-Dutch settlers arrive in 1652, form a city called Cape Town as a base -When British come to Africa, they call the Dutch Boers, derogatory term for farmers -The Dutch call themselves Afrikaners/Afrikaaners -The British seize Cape Colony and try to abolish slavery, Afrikaners disagree and leave in the Great Trek to the Orange Free State and Transvaal -Later, gold is discovered in these two states, and British entrepreneurs flock to them, leads to Boer War as Dutch restrict them -The British win in 1902 and take South Africa, create the Union of South Africa, consisting of the Orange Free State, Transvaal, Cape Colony, and Natal. -In 1912 the South African Native National Congress (SANNC) is created and helps work for black rights, their name is later changed to the African National Congress (ANC).

Belgian Congo
-Leopold II, king of Belgium, hires Henry Morton Stanley to explore Belgian Congo and claim it in his name -Leopold calls it his Private Plantation and wreaks havoc, European leaders tell him to stop, he sells Congo to Belgium African Resistance- generally doesnt work -A tribe named the Zulu, led by a man called Shaka and later his descendant, Cetshwayo, are defeated when the British move north to claim gold -Other resistance by the Malinke tribe, led by Samory Toure, also defeated -Italy invades Ethiopia, which was modernized under Menelik II, so Italy was defeated in Battle of Adwa

The MAIN causes: Militarism - Generals had big armies, big weapons, wanted to use them.The British had enormous ships called dreadnoughts. Armies came from conscription, forcing soldiers to serve Alliances - Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary form Triple Alliance 1882. Britain forms the Entente Cordiale with France 1904, Russia joins 1907, forms Triple Entente. These nations had to help each other when threatened. Imperialism - Competition between nations for colonies, Germans and Italians were behind in colonies

and angry about it, France and Germany had wanted Morocco, but France got it Nationalism - Serbian nationalism wanted Bosnia to form Serbia, employed concept of Pan-Slavism, which is all Slavs in one nation. France also wanted Alsace-Lorraine back and wanted revenge on Germany after the Franco-Prussian war June 28, 1914- Austro-Hungarian (AH) Archduke Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo (capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina), dont want to be AH. Gavrilo Princip from the terrorist group, the Black Hand, kills Ferdinand AH is mad, tells Serbia they would enter their nation to investigate murder or there would be war, Serbia declines, Russia comes to their aid. Wilhelm II and Nicholas II are cousins, send Willy-Nicky telegrams to each other to avoid war, doesnt work, everyone declares war on each other, alliances suck other nations in. Germans form Von Schlieffen Plan, decide to go through Belgium to France, this brings Britain into the war, who had an alliance with Belgium. Allied Powers - France, Russia, Great Britain, Belgium, Serbia Central Powers - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Ottoman Empire Russians are defeated and stalemate occurs between both sides at the Battle of Tannenberg Both sides race to the sea, where stalemate occurs again and leads to trench warfare, with trenches, which suck because of rats, flooding, trenchfoot Modern weapons appear, like machine guns, railway guns, tanks (first used in the Battle of the Somme, called the Devils Wagon by the Germans, disguised as water tanks by the British), poison gas (its use was banned after World War I) Planes are used, begin an air war, they suck at first Anthony Fokker designs interrupter gear to stop machine guns from firing when the propellor blade is in front of it Aces - pilots that had five kills, such as the Red Baron British called the Germans Huns Battle of Verdun - meat grinder, Germans inflict heavy casualties on French Germans use U-boats (submarines), but dont follow the laws of war, unrestricted submarine warfare Reasons for United States entering the war in April 1917: -Zimmermann Note- German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann sends a telegram to Mexico, asks them to attack the United States in exchange for territories in America, Mexico refuses -sinking of the Lusitania -unrestricted submarine warfare November 11, 1918 at 11:11 AM, an armistice (ceasefire) is established, Treaty of Versailles is signed. The Big Four of the negotiations at Versailles were Georges Clemenceau (France), Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (Italy), David Lloyd George (Great Britain), and Woodrow Wilson (United States). At the meeting Wilson puts forward the Fourteen Points, his attempt to achieve world peace, which were rejected by the other nations -27 nations were present at Versailles, excluding any of the Central Powers or Russia. The purpose was simply to punish Germany Results: -Punitive peace treaty is formed -Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire are dissolved, Germany is forced to pay enormous reparations, which it fails to do within a year or two -Through the War Guilt Clause, Germany is humiliated, the Rhine is demilitarized -League of Nations is established, though the United States did not join as it was unconstitutional -Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Ukraine achieve independence -Empires dissolved: German Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Russian Empire (now the USSR), Ottoman Empire -Mandates - German and Ottoman land are given to the British and the French so they could develop and become self-sufficient with the two countries help, ended up becoming basically colonies -Overall, 9 million soldiers died in WWI. 13 million civilians died, the first time more civilians than soldiers. The total casualties, including those injured, totaled 30 million, which had never occurred in a war before.

-An entire generation of men was lost, the Lost Generation -Colonial unrest and Communism continues to grow

Russian Revolution Economic conditions in Russia are bad. Russia was unprepared for WWI, they had a weak infrastructure, little industry, not enough weapons, and the weapons they did have were outdated. The war begins to spark patriotism. Czar Nicholas II takes charge and leaves his palace in St. Petersburg Protest occurs in St. Petersburg by the people, the army is called to put it down, some refuse and join the protesters. Nicholas II, seeing that he is losing power, abdicates, gives the throne over to his brother, who refuses and leaves -The power vacuum is filled by Alexander Kerensky (a Menshevik), a member of the Duma, takes power in the Provisional Government -An opposing power forms, the Petrograd Soviet, made of Bolsheviks and hardcore Mensheviks. The two groups exist together for some time -Kerensky agrees to continue fighting the war, though his army is weak -Meanwhile, after the revolution, Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks, had been arrested and sent to Siberia, and then kicked out of Russia. He went to Switzerland, where German representatives went out to meet him and offered to return him to Russia, which he accepted. The Germans purpose was to make Russia leave the war, so they would not need to fight on two fronts -Lenin begins a campaign for the Bolsheviks, with the promise to bring Peace, Land, and Bread to Russia -October 1917 (actually November in our calendar) - Armed Bolsheviks called the Red Guards attack the Provisional Government and overthrow it -An election is held, the Bolsheviks win 225 seats in the legislature, with 420 seats being won by a separate party, the Social Revolutionaries. In response, the Bolsheviks shut the legislature down. -Leninism spreads- Lenin begins by redistributing land, turning over factories to the workers -Lenin sends Leon Trotsky to Germany, where the treaty of Brest-Litovsk is signed. Under the treaty, Russia left the war, and gave up Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, and Ukraine to Germany, Lenin was not worried as he believed he would get those territories back soon enough -Civil War occurs between the Reds (Communists) and the Whites (everybody else). There are more Whites than Reds, but the Whites cant work together -War lasts from 1917-1920, the Bolsheviks win -1922- Lenin puts forth the New Economic Policy, infuses capitalist ideas into his communist system, never sees to see his ideas in action as he dies in 1924, although the economy does not move forward very much -The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) is formed -Joseph Stalin exiles Trotsky, takes full power. He was incredibly paranoid, and in 1940 sent his secret police to kill Trotsky, who was in Mexico. -His ideas were different from Marx, didnt want to expand communism outside of the Soviet Union. -Uses Five-Year Plans to rebuild the economy and modernize Russia -Focuses on central planning; all business is completely decided in Moscow -Focuses on heavy industry, consumer goods considered less important -Takes back land from the peasants in collectivization, the opposite of what Lenin did, this fails -Sends people to Siberia or kills them if they do not support him -Kulaks were rebellious peasants, were sent to labor camps called Gulags, these were controlled by the Cheka (predecessors to the KGB) -Stalin has complete power, but is extremely paranoid. He goes through with the Great Purge, killing and exiling people. A doctor had treated him and he had almost died, so he went after doctors. Later, he thinks the military will take over, so he kills people in the military. Interwar China -1917- China joins WWI, they are worried about Japans activities -May 4, 1919 - series of student protests in China, want China to stand up for themselves and be rid of

spheres of influence -The Guomindang was still in power, led by Jiang Jieshi -Their rival was the Communist Party, which formed in 1921, they offer to help Jiang Jieshi get rid of the warlords that controlled areas of China. Jiang Jieshi really hated the Communists. -By 1925, most of the warlords are gone, the capital is moved from Beijing (then Peking) to Nanjing -1927 - Jiang attacks the Communists, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War -The leader of the Communists was Mao Zedong -The Communists flee to Jiangxi. Mao focuses his spread of communism on peasants, builds up support among them -1934- Long March- Mao leads the Communists in a march from southeastern China in Ruijn to northwestern China in Yanan. He starts with 100,000 followers, and ends with 8,000. These became the central core of his attempts to unseat the Guomindang -Meanwhile, Japan invades China and takes Manchuria. Mao offers Jiang to end the Civil War to fight Japan, Jiangs advisors tell him to agree, but he refuses. His generals capture him until he agrees, which he eventually does. -Japan starts WWII with China in 1937 Interwar India -800,000 Indians had served in WWI for the British, saw this as payment for their deserved independence, but Britain refuses, and instead passes the Rowlatt Acts of 1919, which make it extremely difficult for Indians to protest, as they would be jailed for it -The British deal harshly with Indian nationalists. In April 1919, a protest is scheduled in Amritsar, where the British open fire on the peaceful protesters, kill 400 of them, 1200 wounded -Mohandas Gandhi, an attorney, was a loud voice for Indian independence -Gandhi puts forward ideas for nonviolent resistance: Ahimsa - non violence towards living things Satyagraha - truth force, describes the concept of civil disobedience, when one violates a law that one deems to be immoral or illegal, with the purpose of changing that law -Gandhi comes to be called Mahatma, meaning great soul -Leads the Swadeshi (the boycott of British goods in India) as his first movement -The Spinning Wheel becomes the representation of the movement, as the Indians began to make their own clothing as a result of the boycott -The Salt March - Gandhi walks 240 miles from his home to the sea to pick up one grain of salt and eat it, protesting the British monopoly on salt. It inspired many Indians, and many joined him on his march. The British would not let them pass, so they would take beatings again and again to reach their goal -British pass the Government of India Act in 1935, giving a limited degree of control in their own government, including local and provincial elections -1936- in an election, 7 out of 11 provinces are won by the Hindu party, the INC (Indian National Congress). The other 4 are won by the Muslim League, who saw that they were the minority. -The Muslim League calls for an independent Muslim State, this movement is led by Mohammed Ali Jinnah -The leader of the INC was Jawaharlal Nehru Interwar Turkey -The Treaty of Sevres was signed at the Versailles Conference after WWI - the Ottoman Empire was dissolved and a small nation was formed, much smaller than Turkey today. Many of the land was meant to be allocated to Greece, but the Turks rise up against the Greeks -Through the leadership of general Kemal Mustafa the Greeks are defeated, and the Republic of Turkey formed in 1923 -Mustafa was the leader of a Turkish nationalist group, the Young Turks. He became the first president of Turkey and seeks to modernize Turkey -Changes his name to Kemal Ataturk, moves the capital from Istanbul to Ankara, separates church and state, which was unusual for a Muslim society. He also builds roads, hospitals, better education, adopts the Latin alphabet and the metric system Interwar Persia (becomes Iran)

-Reza Khan overthrows the Shah (king) of Persia in 1925, assumes the title of Shah Reza Pahlavi, modernizes Iran using Turkey as a model -1930s- Pahlavi hears that Hitler is promoting the Aryan race, which Persians are, Pahlavi allies with Hitler, who agrees as he wants the oil in Iran -1941-The British and Russians convince Pahlavis son Mohammed Reza Pahlavi to depose his father Interwar Middle East -Husayn bin Ali - Middle-Eastern nationalist, promotes uniting all Arab nations in the concept of PanArabism -Both the Arab nationalists and Jewish Zionists want Palestine -The British offer the Jews support in creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine in the Balfour Declaration, in exchange for military support in defeating the Ottoman Empire . They then make the same offer to the Arabs in the White Paper. Both groups help the British, the Ottomans are defeated. The British go back on both negotiations and instead take it for themselves and the French in the Sykes-Picot Agreement -1921- The British give Transjordan to Husayns son, Abdullah, becomes the first king of Jordan -Husayns other son Faisal is given Iraq, which he keeps until a coup overthrows him, led by Saddam Hussein Interwar Africa -Colonial troops that died in WWI gave African nations the idea that they deserved independence, British and French refuse -Pan African Congresses - conferences that met for the purpose of African independence, did not achieve much -Egypt is granted limited independence in 1922, in 1936 they are granted full independence except for the Suez Canal, in 1939 it is taken away again when WWII begins -Kenya resents the British; 45,000 Kenyans died in WWI, given nothing in return -Harry Thuku, a Kenyan nationalist, leads a protest movement against Britain, they exile him from Kenya as a warning to other nationalists -Jomo Kenyatta - negotiates with Britain, manages to convince them to give Kenya independence eventually INTERWAR JAPAN -Japan had been growing militarily and economically, after WWI they become a very strong world power, and are given Germanys pacific islands as mandates -Though they are powerful, Japan believes they are not being seen as equals in the eyes of Westerners -Economic problems arise - strikes, layoffs, peasants and lower classes realize they havent been sharing in Japans prosperity -Tariffs limit market availability -Population expands from 35 million in 1872 to 60 million in 1925 -Creation of Zaibatsu occurs, which are holding companies that own other businesses and create monopolies. The government works with these Zaibatsu, push economic growth -Japan is a constitutional monarchy, ruled by Emperor Hirohito -The Emperor is very distant from the people, when he issued the surrender in WWII, 95-99% of people had never heard his voice before -Democracy was growing, young people were becoming more Westernized. Growth of unions and socialism also occurs. -The military grows very powerful, doesnt like democracy, wants a unified Japan ruled by themselves -1927- Japan has an economic crisis, the Japanese lose faith in the government, only the military is still seen as strong, the military begins to point fingers at the West -Washington Naval Treaty- the world powers agree to cut back on production of naval ships and weapons, Japan only gets three, while Britain and America are allotted five, Japan sees this as racist -1924- the U.S. passes a law to ban Japanese immigration, the Japanese see it as final proof that every nation hates them -Japan focuses on production of soldiers rather than technology, because it cant compete there with other nations -Remove the words surrender, retreat, and defeat from all training manuals

-Numerous assassination attempts, some successful, on their own Prime Ministers -1930-Manchurian Incident - Japanese military fakes that Chinese soldiers had attacked them while they were building a railroad, take Manchuria in response, Prime Minister never knows about it or gives consent until it was done, asks the military to stop, they refuse -Japanese military places Pu Yi in charge of the new independent nation, Manchukuo -The conflict between Japan and China leads to the Second Sino-Japanese War, the most famous battle of which took place in Nanking/Nanjing. The Japanese went on a murderous rampage, raping, torturing, killing, in the Nanjing Massacre/Rape of Nanking Italian Fascism -The first fascist was Benito Mussolini. He called himself Il Duce. He was born in 1883 and was a socialist, later became a fascist. -1919- forms the political party, the Fasci di Combattimento (National Fascist Party), named after the Fasces, a bundle of wooden sticks with an axe blade emerging from the center, representing the strength of the state. -Fascism puts the good of the nation over the individual. It is basically a means of totalitarianism. Another definition: A political philosophy of glorification of the state, a single party system, a strong ruler, and aggressive nationalism. -By 1922, there is unrest in Italy, as they are upset over the outcome of WWI; two of their largest markets are gone, their economy cant expand -A fear of communism begins to spread throughout Europe. -Mussolini plays both sides: He convinces peasants that he would make them stronger and give them a voice, but also tells the middle class and the upper class that he will keep the peasants under control. -Mussolini had his own private army, the Black shirts -Mussolini starts a march on Rome in October 1922, but himself waits in Milan in case something goes wrong. The king is worried that people will side with Mussolini, so he meets with him and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister -Italy becomes a totalitarian state, Mussolini makes a strong connection to Roman heritage, wants to return Italy to the grandeur of Rome. -He bans all other political parties. Nationalism begins to grow in Italy, they try to take Ethiopia again, this time succeeding in the invasion. Haile Selassie, leader of Ethiopia, pleads his case to the League of Nations, who place economic sanctions on Italy in ammunition, which didnt work as Italy produced its own ammunition Germany -1919-1933- Germany is governed by the Weimar Republic, an unpopular government because it is forced to pay reparations. By 1923, Germany couldnt pay these reparations. As a result, France takes control of the Ruhr Valley -Inflation occurs, they begin to print more bills, which make it worse, the German mark becomes almost worthless -Adolf Hitler had served in the army in WWI. After the war, he joined the Nationalist Socialist Party ( Nazi Party). He had a great talent for public speaking and leadership. -October 1923-Hitler attempts to overthrow Germanys government, he fails and is thrown in prison for a short time. In prison, he writes Mein Kampf (My Struggle), describing his political ideas. -Germanys economic crisis helped his cause, as they needed a strong leader. Hitler told them they were the master race, or Aryans, and gained many supporters as a result. -1933-Hitler is appointed as chancellor of Germany, begins to crush all opposition. He calls himself der Fhrer (the Leader) and rebuilds the German military, as well as works to improve the economy through strict wage control and massive government spending on public works programs -The key component of the Nazi party was Anti-Semitism against Jews, who were blamed for Germanys problems, including the loss of WWI. Many laws are passed in the 1930s against Jews, such as prohibiting them from marrying Germans. -1935- passes the Nuremberg Laws, creating a separate legal status for German Jews, taking away their citizenship, voting rights, civil and property rights. Whether one was Jewish was determined by ancestry, not religion. -November 9 and 10, 1938- the Nazis encourage anti-Jewish riots across Austria and Germany, this

becomes known as Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass). Nearly 100 Jews are killed, thousands of Jewish businesses and synagogues are destroyed

World War II
Road to War: Europe - Lebensraum (Living Room) - Hitler saw slavs as less than human, decides to go eastward first -Hitler rebuilds Germanys military, the French, British, and Russians secretly help him, telling the British and the French that he wanted to get rid of the Communists. At the same time, he fed Stalins paranoia, telling him that the British and French were against him -Step 1 - Starts with the Rhineland, where no troops were allowed as of the Versailles treaty, Hitler sends troops there in March 1936 to test if the British and French would act, they do nothing. Hitler knew they would do anything to avoid war -Step 2 - The Nazis take over Austria, to make it part of Germany, in a move known as the anschluss (annexation) -The Austrians ask the British and French to help, they do nothing, March 1938 the Germans invade Austria -Step 3 - The Germans want the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia (the only real democracy in Europe) -9/12/38 - Hitler demands that Sudetenland would get self-determination -9/15/38 - Hitler meets with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain -9/22/38 - Chamberlain comes back, allows Hitler to take the Sudetenland, Hitler adds a new demand -9/29/38 - A conference in Munich between Hitler and Mussolini vs. Daladier (France) and Chamberlain, they sign the Munich Pact, an appeasement (where nations would give up anything to avoid conflict) -In the pact, Hitler received the Sudetenland, agreed to not conquer any more nations or land in Europe, Chamberlain calls it Peace in our time -3/15/39 - Hitler takes the rest of Czechoslovakia -In Spain, a republican government was formed, very liberal, almost socialist (remove Catholic Churchs influence from education and redistribute land), the Spanish Civil War takes place, with the republicans vs. the conservative Nationalists, Hitler supports the Nationalists -Hitler wants to strengthen relations with Mussolini, wanted Iron ore, a place to test out weapons, and a new fascist state -Guernica is a village that is bombed in the Spanish Civil War -Spain becomes a fascist state in March 1939 -Anti-Comintern Pact, forms Axis Powers of Germany, Italy, Japan -Stalin worried, British and French become worried as well, Stalin tries to make a deal with them, they refuse -Stalin and Hitler formulate the Nazi Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, which split Poland between themselves, the USSR got the spheres of influence from Finland to Romania, both know it wont last WWII Europe -September 1, 1939, the Germans invade Poland in a blitzkrieg (Lightning War), a new tactic where troops just keep moving forward, takes about three weeks to defeat them -GB and France declare war September 3, cant do anything to help -Russia takes part of Poland for itself, doesnt help the Polish -Nothing happens from October to April, called the sitzkrieg (sitting war) -April 1940 - Germans take Norway and Denmark so the British cant blockade them like they did in WWI -Advance of Germans is very similar to the Schlieffen Plan -May 1940 - France is invaded, go through Belgium and Ardennes to get to Dunkirk, completely avoid the Maginot Line, an extremely fortified series of bunkers with cannons pointed at the Germans, they went around it -The German Air Force, the Luftwaffe, choose to bomb the British instead of use infantry -British evacuate 300,000 troops from Dunkirk, using 850 vessels, across the English Channel -June 22, 1940, France surrenders -Germans occupy France - close to the sea -The southern part of France at that point was called Vichy France, it was a puppet state, led by a

French General Petain -Charles De Gaulle, a French General, goes to Britain, led the free French troops -Chamberlain resigns, replaced by Winston Churchill -Churchill makes the famous Blood, Toil, Tears, & Sweat speech -Battle of Britain - airwar between the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the Luftwaffe, Germans attack air fields -Hitler begins to focus instead on the cities, this is a mistake, the British defeat the Germans -June 22, 1941, the Germans invade the USSR, Stalin surprised because he hadnt believed the British and U.S. -Russia uses the Scorched Earth Policy again, but their best ally is the winter, the Germans cannot defeat them -The U.S. had been neutral -Pass the Neutrality Acts of 1937, cant sell weapons to belligerent states -Instead of selling, the U.S. trades 50 destroyers in exchange for bases in Bermuda and Canada -Develops the cash and carry program - if the British paid cash up front and carried the goods themselves, in British ships, they could have American supplies -Congress passes the Lend Lease Act, where they could lend bullets and weapons to those nations whose existence was important to America, thousands of supplies are sent to the British and the USSR, FDR starts calling Stalin Uncle Joe to make people like him -June 1940 - Italy declares war on France, one day before they surrender -Italy attacks eastern North Africa in 1940, the British begin beating them, Germany sends reinforcements, in the form of the Afrika Korps, under General Rommel, or Desert Fox -The British appoint Bernard Montgomery to commander, key supplier of weapons, stop the German advance in Africa and reverse it in the Battle of En Alamein in October 1942 -Stalin wants a second front at Northern France to draw German troops away from Russia, Europe rejects it, instead invade western North Africa in Operation Torch, led by Dwight D. Eisenhower, and under him, Commander Patton -May 1943 - the Afrika Korps are forced to surrender -Leningrad had been put under siege for over 900 days, winter helped them as well -Battle of Stalingrad was key, Stalin told his troops that there would be no surrender, the Germans are surrounded in 1942, Hitler tells his troops the same thing, but in January 1943, the Germans surrender, this is the turning point of the war. -D-Day (operation Overlord) - Eisenhower in command, scheduled for June 5th, actually happened June 6th because of weather -Deception campaign - set up a fake army called the Fifteenth Army, with rubber tanks and trucks, Patton had been in charge of it, leaked fake plans to Mexico, who told it to Germany -The Germans expected an attack at Pas de Calais, actually happened in Normandy -Hitler thinks its a feint, doesnt send reinforcements, Patton smashes through, reaches Paris August 25th, Christmas Day Hitler launches a massive counterattack called the Battle of the Bulge, it is snowing heavily, airpower inhibited -Bastogne - market town held by U.S. paratroopers, surrounded by Germans, tell the U.S. to surrender, they say Nuts and refuse, Patton comes in from the north, January 4th 1945 the Germans are crushed -April 1945 - Soviets take Berlin -Hitler supposedly commits suicide, the Soviets take the body, Germany surrenders -May 8th is VE Day (Victory Europe Day) WWII Pacific -Tripartite Pact September of 1940 had required Germany, Japan, Italy to help each other -1941- the Japanese take Indochina -U.S. bans oil to Japan and freezes Japanese assets, this is considered by the Japanese as tantamount to war, they plan an attack on the U.S. -Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto is in charge, says the Japanese would win if they could defeat the Americans in 6 months, because the Japanese couldnt compete industrially -The Japanese target Pearl Harbor, attack it on December 7, 1941 -Key: no carriers in Pearl Harbor that morning, none sunk -The U.S. is very upset, Congress declares war on Japan

-F.D.R. wants to declare war on Germany and Italy, Congress doesnt want to, but then Germany and Italy declare war on the U.S.A. on December 11, 1941 -Japan is victorious across Southeast Asia: Malay, Singapore, Dutch East Indies, Burma, Hong Kong, Guam, Wake all conquered -Attack the Philippines, which are defended by U.S. General Douglas Macarthur -Bataan Death March - the Japanese take Filipino prisoners of war and put them into prison camps -The Navy is very important in the war - in the Battle of the Coral Sea, the U.S. and Japan each lose one carrier, which are key -June 1942- Battle of Midway Island - the Americans suspected an attack on Midway Island, but to confirm that it was the correct one, they had to figure out the Japaneses code word for it. They sent out an uncoded radio transmission, that reported that the desalination plant had broken in Midway, to see whether Japan would use the same word as before to discuss it. They did, and the U.S. organized its troops in response. The U.S. wins the battle, 4 Japanese carriers are sunk. This is considered the turning point of the Pacific war (led by Admiral Chester Nimitz) -Island Hopping - Japanese bases were on different islands, some strong, some not, the U.S. would avoid strong bases entirely, and attacked the weak ones. As none of the islands were self-sufficient, the stronger bases would eventually run out of food and supplies -The U.S. takes Guadalcanal -The Battle of Leyte Gulf - major naval battle in the Philippines, with the first use of Japanese Kamikaze (Divine Wind, named after a typhoon that had come in medieval times and blew away a Chinese invasion), where Japanese pilots were only taught how to take off, not to land, so they committed suicide to destroy carriers, but it did not have much impact. -The U.S. needed air bases close to Japan, they take Iwo Jima and Okinawa -The estimated casualties if they tried to take Japan was 1,000,000 soldiers wounded or dead. Rather than risk the men, President Harry Truman decides to drop the atomic bomb. -There were two - the Fat Man and Little Boy -July 26, 1945 - the U.S. asks Japan to surrender, they refuse. -August 6, 1945 - one plane flies over Hiroshima, drops one bomb, kills 70,000 people instantly -U.S. asks for surrender again, again refused -August 9, 1945 - the second bomb is dropped on Nagasaki RESULTS -Much of Asia/Europe is in ruins -Extreme casualties (pg. 862 in textbook for those curious) -Large civilian deaths -Two conferences - Yalta Conference- in April 1945, the Allies make plans to split Germany into four zones for each Allied Power, FDR gets Stalin to join in against Japan the day before the Pacific conflict ens, asks him to have elections in the areas controlled by the Soviet Union, and to join the newly created United Nations -Potsdam Conference - Truman, Attlee (replacement for Churchill), and Stalin get together, there is little agreement, nothing really gets done

-1932- 9 million Jews in Europe -1945- 3 million Jews in Europe -The Jews were easy scapegoats, they had been persecuted throughout history. The Nuremberg Laws were passed to limit Jewish rights -Emigration was not an option for Jews. At first, when Hitler allowed them to leave, other nations would not take them, due to economic depression and anti-Semitism -Some Jews manage to escape--Einstein, Freud, etc. -Hitler devises a Final Solution to deal with the Jews. Forms ghettos, to crowd large numbers of Jews together in small areas closed off from the rest of society, the most famous being the Warsaw Ghetto, with 400,000 Jews -Concentration Camps were created, where slave labor and medical experiments were conducted, as

well as death camps to just kill Jews, some infamous ones being Birkenau and Mauthausen -Mobile killing units went to villages, rounded Jews up, and killed them -September 1941- Mass killing of Jews at Babi Yar -The Germans held the Wannsee Conference, created death camps such as Auschwitz -Used gas chambers filled with Zyklon B, a pesticide, to kill people -Hitler targeted Poles, Slavs, Homosexuals, and Romany (Gypsies) as well as Jews -A War Refugee Board was formed in the United States, Jews ask them to bomb the railroads into camps, they do not because of apathy, anti-Semitism, and because it was not a high priority war target

Europe Helmut Kohl- first chancellor of unified Germany since before 1945. Reunified in 1990. Josef Stalin- Mean guy from Russia o Resisters sent to Gulags o Great Purge- sends people to Gulags Nikita Khrushchev- took over after Stalin o DeStalinization and loosening of the more drastic economic and political restrictions of Stalins era would lead to him being termed more liberal than Stalin. o Most liberal AT THE TIME. o Removed from power after Bay of Pigs Poland o USSR appoints Gomulka o Solidarity movement and Lech Walesa a leader. Karol Wojtyla later becomes Pope John Paul II. They are driving forces for revolution. Gorbachev- Mr. Teardownthatwall o After Brezhnev o Glasnost and Perestroika=openness and restructuring o Liberal, doesnt give up Soviet Republics. Popular ONLY in west. Rich people and military dont support him. o Coup tries to take over. o Tries to create Commonwealth of independent states w/ former republics. Doesnt work out. Leonid Brezhnev- Leader after Khrushchev. He had to struggle with Kosygin o Via the Warsaw Pact, he invaded Czechoslovakia to stop Prague Spring o More conservative o Limit intellectuals, dissidents Refuseniks=general term Writers Solzeithyn and Sakharov Brezhnev Doctrine: maintain communism and keep out democracy, etc. Boris Yeltsin-reformer. o Starts as mayor of Moscow, becomes President of Russian Republic. Saves Gorbachev Czechoslovakiao Last area taken by soviets o Novotny was leader. Economic stagnation means replacing with Dubcek J o Soviets invade, Dubcek. o Velvet Revolution, 20 years later=Vaclav Havel. 1992 split: Czech Republic is industrial, Slovakia is agricultural. Alexander Dubcek- Slovakia. Led the Prague Spring. Beloved. Nicolai Ceausescu- tried to stop violent Romanian revolution. Tried and shot.

Yugoslavia o Tito in charge. Many ethnicities. When he dies, danger. o Serb v Croat. o Nationalists win elections, this exacerbates pain o Bosnia independent, but Serbians in Bosnia want Yugoslavia, which sends troops. o Ethnic Cleansing: Serbs v Bosnian Muslims o UN tries to set up safe zone, but Serbs kill guards. o Transition to NATO control. o Dayton Accords=agree on different regions for different groups o 1999 spring: Serbs v Albanians in Kosovo, Muslim Albanians in Serbia. Forced removal. NATO bombs capital of Serbia, and Kosovo is independent. Serbia + Bosnia (Yugoslavia) Ok so for most of the 20 century, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, and Macedonia existed as a unified state named Yugoslavia (pretty much the left side of the Balkan peninsula) Tito was able to keep this all together, but when he died shit started to break down Bosnia declares independence in 1992this angers the Serbians because Serbia wanted Yugoslavia to stay togetherugly war Milosevic is leader of Serbia Izetbegovic is leader of Bosnia Serbians execute Ethnic Cleansing to Bosnian Muslims (Serbs are Catholic) [an example of what the Serbs did was that they raped Bosnian females to prevent them from marrying] It ends up being Serbians v. Muslims Dayton Accords end the Bosnian warceasefire Kosovo (southern Yugoslavia) conflict between Serbs and kosovars (ethnically Albanian) Kosovars kicked out. Kosovo declares independence in 2008. Eric Honecker- built Berlin Wall. East German leader. Ireland- Most of Ireland was free & also Catholic. o Protestant Northern Irelanders formed Irish Republican Army b/c want Northern Ireland. Political part called Sinn Fein. 1995 cease fire. Chechnya- in SW Russia, considered to be a part of Russia. When Chechens decided to break away, there was bloody fighting that still happens today. They are Islamic. Armenia- Azerbaijan: fought over Nagorno Karabagh people. May died fighting. European Economic Community-Coal and Steel Community this=aka Common Market. Regional free market to rival USA Hungaryo Harsh rule and complaints to Soviets put less of a dictator in charge o Imrae Nagy leads revolt, west does nothing. Soviets retake control o Withdraws from Warsaw Pact. USSR replaces Nagy with Kadar.

Cold War
Potsdam Conference: Allies divide Germany into 4 zones of occupation-USSR, US, France, and Great Britain. Also divide Berlin, and work to eliminate the Nazi Party from Germany -Nuremberg trials: Allied military courts tried more than 200 Nazi and military officials-few were sentenced to death for their roles in the Holocaust and war crimes -Soviet leaders want a buffer zone of friendly governments in Eastern Eruope: Stalin promises to respect rights of people in E. Europe to choose their own governments: Americans and British leaders believed Stalin wanted to establish pro-Soviet Communist governments

-Tension and hostility: Cold War-propaganda, military, and economic aid issues Cold War begins -Struggle for power and control between capitalist democracy and Communism -Soviet troops help establish pro-Soviet Communist governments: Satellites, except for Yugoslavia, which was also led by Communist dictator Tito -Tension between Soviet Union and western democracies continue to grow: worsened by Soviet failure to remove troops from northern Iran -President Truman: Another war is in the making. -British PM Churchill gives iron curtain speech to show sharp division of Europe as a result of Soviet actions West Resistance -47: Soviet-backed Communists threaten Greece and Turkey (US government has missiles here) -Truman Doctrine: pledge to provide economic and military aid to oppose the spread of communism-sent hundreds of millions of dollars in aid to Greece and Turkey -Marshall Plan: Provided $13 billion for rebuilding Europe-helped preserve political stability -Both the Doctrine and the Plan show Wests policy of containment-resisting Soviet aggression in order to contain spread of communism -Confrontations and tensions begin to increase Berlin Crisis -47: West wants to make an independent democratic German nation from the zones of occupation-Soviets oppose their plan -Soviets block all land, rail, and water routes into West Berlin-Berlin Airlift: West effort to supply West Berlin by air -Western zones form Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) -East zone (Soviet) forms German Democratic Republic (East Germany) -NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is created to counter Soviet power in Europe -Warsaw Pact: Communist governments of Eastern Europe form their own alliance Korea War -Allies have control of Korean Peninsula after Japans surrender -USSR and US had temporarily divided it in half at the 38 parallel-Soviets establish Communist government in northern half of Korea led by Kim Il Sung -US establishes non-Communist regime in southern half led by Rhee -UN forms military force with troops from 17 nations (Creation of the UN Army) when North Korea attacks Southern to try and unite under Communist government -Significance: Shows that Cold War Rivalry could lead to conflict far from US/Soviet Union-led to struggles for influence in countries around the world (Also the Communist scare in Vietnam which leads to the Vietnam War)

Arms Race (For details and weapons go to section I) -Threats of Nuclear war draws closer-US and USSR start developing powerful new weapons-rivalry between the worlds 2 superpowers -Both sides had to change their military tactics-instead of relying on conventional forces like troops and tanks, they increased stockpiles of nukes-Deterrence strategy -Impact on the public: Many people built bomb shelters, American schools hold air-raid drills to prepare students for possible Soviet attack -Movies, books, comic books center around dangers of radiation and nuclear war (1984 by George Orwellincredible book so you should read it k.) -Red Scare: Americans feared possible Communist influence in the 40s and 50s -Berlin Wall: Slowed flight of East Germans to West Germany (to escape Communism) symbolized brutality of the Communist system Cuba -Rebels under leadership of Castro overthrow the dictator, Castro establishes a economy and Communist dictatorship-close ties with the Soviets centrally planned

-Bay of Pigs Invasion: US government trains invasion of Cubans who had fled Castros regime-fails -Cuban Missile Crisis: Installation of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba? 2 week standoff, Soviets remove missiles after US removes missiles from Turkey Other conflicts caused by the Cold War -Egypt angered the West by controlling Suez Canal-after Britain, France, and Israel attack, USSR threatens to fight on Egypts side-US is afraid of war and demands West to halt attack -Africa-final years of European colonial rule creates power struggles-Belgium Congo becomes DRC, US and West support dictatorship because they believe he would be a good ally against Soviet Union -Angola Civil War- both sides support the conflict -Central and South America-US supported efforts to overthrow Communist regimes-support opposition to Chilean leader Allende (Socialist) -Nonaligned nations: Neutral nations who refuse to support either side Efforts to repair the damage -President Nixon seeks a dtente: reduced tension between superpowers -SALT (Strategic Arms Limitations Talks)-limit number of nuclear weapons held by each side -President Reagan and Gorbachev begin arms reduction talks-Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces- can the relationship be repaired? Soviet Union is led by Khruschev, de-Stalinization -Revolts in East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia -Eventually falls: led by Yeltsin who begins to alter the economy and basic structure: starts shifting towards a capitalist economy -Ethnic unrest and new governments

Middle East
Israel Creation of Israel -Jewish Nationalism called Zionism led to the creation of Israel -After World War I, League of Nations gave Britain mandate of Palestine and required Britain to make preparations for a Jewish homeland there -After World War II, Jewish leaders in Palestine pressed Britain to create a Jewish State -Jews form a group called the Haganah, an underground army -Some believed the Haganah was not forceful enough and formed the Irgun and Stern Gang -The Irgun blow up a corner of King David Hotel and was led by Menachem Begin -The Holocaust resulted in the national community to be sympathetic to the Zionist cause -The UN proposed to partition, or divide, Palestine into a Jewish and Arab state with Jerusalem under international control -Jewish leaders accept the partition and Arab leaders reject it -Despite Arab objections, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution supporting the partition as valid -David Ben-Gurion, the first Israeli Prime Minister declared the birth of democratic State of Israel on May 14th 1948 War -The day after Israel declared its independence armies from Arab countries of Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Transjordan, and Iraq invaded Israel, launching the first Arab-Israeli War -The war lasted from May to December 1948 -The Arab nations, although allies, did not time their attacks with each other -If the Arab nations attacked at the same time, they would have blew Israel out of the water -In the end Arab armies were soundly defeat and they negotiated cease-fire agreements but would not sign permanent peace treaties -One result of the war was that the Arab state proposed b the UN did not come into existence -Egypt controlled the Gaza Strip

-Transjordan controlled West Bank -The war also caused massive refugee problems -700,000 Palestinian Arabs became refugees Arab-Israeli Conflict -1964- Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is formed, with the purpose of destroying Israel and forming a Palestinian state -1969- Yassir Arafat comes to leadership of the PLO -In 1967 Egypt demanded that the UN remove its troops from Gaza and the Sinai Peninsula -Egypt began to close off the Gulf of Aqaba, Israels route to the Red Sea -Israel launched air strikes against Egypt, Syria, and Jordan, destroying most of the their airplanes on the ground -Israeli ground troops then moved in and rapidly defeated Arab forces in what was known as the Six-Day War -Israel took control of Golan Heights, Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, West Bank and East Jerusalem -Nasser needs a military victory before he can concede to peace. -1970- Nasser dies, replaced by Anwar Sadat -1973- Yom Kippur War- it was both Yom Kippur and Ramadan, no one expected an attack. Egyptian forces cross the canal into the Sinai area, push the front back about ten miles. The same happens in the North from Syria. Israel pushes back. The USA sends a massive amount of military supplies to Israel. Israel punches through Egyptian lines, threaten Cairo, and a ceasefire is created. Peace -Sadat contacts Menachem Begin in Israel, calls for Arab acceptance of Israel and an end to hostility -The two meet at Camp David in Maryland with President Jimmy Carter -March 1979- Camp David Accords created, all three men receive Nobel Peace Prizes -Sadat is assassinated in 1981 by the Muslim Brotherhood for creating peace with Israel -Sadat is replaced by Hosni Mubarak, who stays in power from 1981 to 2012 Palestinian Unrest -Tension continues to grow in Gaza and the West Bank, two groups begin to have influence as terrorists: The Hezbollah from Lebanon, and the Hamas from Palestine -1978- Israel goes into Lebanon, stops an incursion it happens again in 1982, Israelis go all the way up to Beirut -1987- First Intifada - series of protests from Palestinians. Israel responds with non-lethal force: rubber bullets, tear gas, etc. -1993- The Oslo Accords are signed, the Palestinians recognize the state of Israel, and in return Israel would give up parts of Gaza and the West Bank -1994- Jordan achieves peace with Israel -Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin assassinated by an Israeli religious man -2000-The Hamas begins to use suicide bombers -Israel stops Palestinians coming in from the West Bank, begin building a wall around the West Bank -2004- Arafat dies -2005- Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon withdraws from Gaza -Current leaders: ISRAEL: Benjamin Netanyahu PALESTINE: Mahmoud Abbas Egypt -Egypt had gained its independence in 1922, but British troops occupied Suez Canal -Egypts loss in the first Arab-Israeli war discredited King Farouk I -This leads to a military coup led by Gamal Abdel Nasser Suez Crisis -Nasser refused to join Baghdad Pact, the US led alliance against communism in the Middle East -Nasser requested that western countries to sell him arms and was refused

-The Soviet Union signed an arms deal and paid for Egypts Aswan Dam on the Nile River -In response to the US and Britain refusal for funding Egypt, Nasser decides to nationalize Suez Canal -This act was celebrated by the Arabs as an act of defiance against European imperialism -The British and French were outraged -In October 1956 Britain, France, and Israel invaded Egypt -Dwight Eisenhower is angry since US did not support these actions -US government pressured Britain, France and Israel to withdraw -Oil Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) is formed- an oligopoly/cartel on oil. OPEC calls for an embargo against nations that help Israel, gas prices in those nations skyrocket. -Works as a tactic in many places- African nations that supported Israel turn against them Iran -Mohammad Reza Pahlavi became shah of Iran in 1941 -Iranian nationalists were determined to take control of the countrys oil resources, reduce the power of the shah, and establish a constitutional monarchy -Nationalists were led by Mohammad Mosaddeq -Was named prime minister by Iranian parliament in 1951 and voted to nationalize Iranian oil industry -Great Britain calls for boycott on Iranian Oil -Military were unhappy of Mossadegh's reforms and a coup supported by US and Britain put the Shah back into power -After returning to power the shah began an ambitious program of reform -Land reform and increased literacy -Industry,education and health care improved -Womens employment and education opportunities improved -The shah continued to rule with a secret police called SAVAK -Many Iranians felt threatened by this rapid change -In 1978, Iranians began to protest against the shahs rule, led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a Shia leader -Unable to calm the unrest, the shah fled Iran in 1979 -During the Iranian Revolution Iran became an Islamic republic with Khomeini as its leader -Under Khomeinis regime, the government suppressed political opposition and enforced strict social and religious values -In 1979 Iranian revolutionaries seized the US embassy in Tehran and took 66 Americans hostage -The Iranians demanded that the shah be returned to Iran to stand trial -The shah left the US shortly after -Iranians continued to hold hostages until January 1981 Iraq Iran-Iraq War -In 1980, Iraq attacked Iran because of border disputes and because Irans new government called for revolution among Iraqs Shiite population -Iraq used chemical weapons -Resulted in a stalemate and ceasefire after 8 years Persian Gulf War -After the cease-fire Saddam Hussein continued to build up Iraqs military -In 1990 Iraq accused neighboring Kuwait of drilling into Iraqi oil field and stealing oil -Hussein used this excuse to invade Kuwait -In an effort to end Iraqi occupation of Kuwait, the UN passed economic sanctions against Iraq, but they failed -US forms a coalition against Iraq -Operation Desert Storm-The U.S invades Kuwait and drive the Iraqis out in weeks -UN continued economic sanctions and insist that Iraq destroy its chemical and biological weapons, but Iraq refuses inspection

Iraq War -Following the attacks of 9/11, some US leaders believed that Saddam Hussein posed a great threat to US -George W. Bush forms a new coalition in 2003 and invaded Iraq, quickly forcing Hussein out of power Kurdistan -Religious and ethnic tensions in Iraq, Shia, Sunni, and ethnic group called the Kurds are at odds. The Kurds want their own nation (which they basically have today), Kurdistan -Iraq forms constitution, creates Islamic federal democracy Jordan -Hussein I is king, stays pro-west

Latin America
Central America
-Central Highlands-ideal place to live in Latin America: good weather for crops, near the port cities -Panama Canal: Construction begins by Ferdinand de Lesseps-his company gets ill after getting malaria -US finish construction, but the canal is proved to be inefficient because most of its military vehicles cannot fit through, Panamas government does not have the money nor the infrastructure to rebuild it. -Mestizos: Mixed raced Latin Americans -Roman Catholicism is the dominant religion here -Liberation Theology: Church should be active in struggle for economic and social equality -Catholic Church criticizes this -Cash crops: corn, tobacco, sugar -Industrialization and urbanization Cuba: -Revolution caused by social and economic trends, as well as heavy US influence -US business owned huge sugar/tobacco plantations-valuable exports -Was one of the richest/developed Latin American countries -Business interests by US government to support corrupt dictators in Cuba -Batista: Anti-Communist dictator who seized power through a military coup-Rich country with too many poor people. -Discontent & Nationalism among the poor -Castro: Lawyer who leads an unsuccessful attack on Cuban army-arrested and imprisoned -Returns with revolutionaries and launches guerilla war-Batista flees-Castro takes control -Goals: Restructuring the economy, society, government, and foreign policy -Communist Cuba-threat to US security -US creates Organization of American States: Organization of countries in the Americas that promotes economic and military cooperation-anti Communist -Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis, Naval blockade-unsuccessful in overthrowing Castro -Benefits of Cuban Revolution-Good health care/education -Disadvantages of Cuban Revolution-restricted freedoms, one-party system, government jails dissidents -Cuban economy suffered after fall of the USSR and US economic embargo Guatemala: -Arbenz: President who used land reform to redistribute land (Socialist/Communist) -CIA intervenes in a coup dtat to overthrow president-replaced with military dictator -Peasants joined rural guerilla forces-Civil War between guerrillas and government troops -Still an unstable nation Mexico: -Unlike other Latin American countries, Mexico experiences political stability in the second half of 1900s -PRI ruled Mexico-industry dominated by foreign companies-debt increases -Oil prices fall-North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is signed with US, Mexico, and Canadaeliminated tariffs on trade between the 3 countries

Nicaragua: -Ruled by members of the Somoza family-Anti-Communists-US in favor -Corruption/violent repressive tactics -Anti-Samoza movement by Nicaraguans-Somoza flees -Sandinistas (Revolutionary Group) take over-Castro style campaign -Reagan administration cuts off financial aid-US trains and funds rebel group Contras to carry out violence in Nicaragua-guerilla warfare -Rely on Communist governments for funding -Sandinistas lose to party of moderate government led by Chamorro Costa Rica: -Stable nation-great tourist sites El Salvador: -Military dictatorships keep power through unfair elections/repression -Archbishop is gunned down -Civil War between Communist guerilla groups and army -Death squads-killing civilians -Political turmoil-violence continues Panama: -Noriega: Communist dictator-used country as a base for drug smuggling-Panama Canal was under control of US and was scheduled to be handed over to Panama -US sends troops to Panama City to arrest Noriega-sent to prison in FL on charges of drug trafficking -Democratic society

South America
-Andes Mountains go through Chile-Amazon Rainforest is on the East -Roman Catholicism is dominant here as well -Pampas: Argentinian plains-Gauchos or cowboys are prevalent here -Fertile land for farming Chile: -Allende: Chilean president (Marxist) who improves life of the working class, spends money on housing, education, health care -Industrial/farm production falls-US government wants to remove him -CIA provides secret funding and military training to opposition groups -Coup by military -Pinochet: Military general appointed by Allende becomes president -Disbanded congress, banned opposition, censorship-disappeared people. -Government used violence-thousands of Chileans fled into exile -Capitalism and exports grew Peru: -Maoist/Capitalist government -Poor economy-Guerilla group known as Shining Path terrorizes Colombia: -Coffee is the main cash crop (though in all seriousness its actually crack J) -Drug Cartels are common-the OAS supports it: Cali and Medellin Cartels were the biggest chain of drug cartels -Colombia is also a huge oil export-joins OPEC Brazil: -Dictator dies in 54, Brazil begins free elections -Modernization bankrupts the economy -Industrial exports, farming, mining -Living standards decline-dissidents of government were kidnapped, tortured, killed -Hyperinflation -Rapid urbanization and rainforest destruction Argentina: -After WWII, Argentina saw a rise of dictatorships -Pern: Rose to power following military coup -Populist: Supporter of rights of common people

-Eva Pern: Juans wife, in charge of labor and social programs -Remarries Isabel Pern: Exactly like Eva -Tries to boost industrialization-lack of resources -One-party state-dictatorship -Dirty War: Soldiers seized suspected dissidents from their homes and took them to centers to torture and kill -Falkland Islands War: War between Argentina and UK -Dispute over Falkland Islands, east of Argentina -Argentine forces invade and occupy, British send naval task force -74 days and ended with Argentine surrender -Hastened the downfall of Argentine military government Venezuela: -Chvez: Popular among the poor-wanted to eliminate poverty -Rejected aspects of capitalism-limited success -dictatorship?

Geography and Culture North Africa: - Sahara: North of the Sahara=Arabs; South of Sahara=blacks and a lot of AIDS problems o Bedouin/nomadic culture - Mostly Islamic - Low population because of unfavorable conditions Central Africa: - Jungle - Rainforest - Lots of people believe in animism the belief that nature has a soul - Family/clan/tribe o Family = immediate family o Clan = extended family o Tribe = your association of people and cultural background Sub-Saharan: - Savannah mostly east Africa like Tanzania and Mozambique - Mineral wealth Countries with minerals are wealthier? - Wildlife lots of animals? - Great Rift Valley = geographic trench that runs from northern Syria to central Mozambique/Madagascar o It runs through Kenya from north to south Colonialism/independence/political turmoil: Kenya - 1947 Jomo Kenyatta comes to power as leader of the Kenya African Union (KAU) - Kenyatta is arrested because of the connection between the KAU and the Mau Mau (freedom fighters for the Kikuyu tribe; seen as a terrorist organization by whites) Nigeria - Nigeria is home to 395 different languages and over 250 different ethnic groups - The Ibo ethnic group is not comfortable under Nigerian rule so they create the separate state of Biafra (southeast Nigeria) - Civil War 1967-1970 between Biafra and Nigeria - 600,000 die of fighting, 2 million die of hunger, war ends 1970 and Biafra is reintegrated back into Nigeria - Early 1970s oil is found off the Nigerian coasteconomic growth until the world oil surplus in

1980s when the value of Nigerian oil decreases Algeria - The French tried to keep their colonies and form a French community - French give Morocco and Tunisia independence b/c they cannot afford them, but they keep Algeria - National Liberation Front (FLN) is a nationalist group formed to attack the French - French retaliate by placing the Muslims in concentration camps and torture them - FLN is defeated in 57 at Algiers but since the country is still unsafe, the settlers ask for help from Charles De Gaulle (Paris) o De Gaulle realizes he cant win so he gives Algeria independence (self-government), but France still controls the economy o FLN wants full independence and gets its in 1962 o De Gaulle surrenderswhat a surprise gg the French suck Libya - Qaddafi is the leader of Libya after independence in 1947 - Military dictator - Is removed during Arab Spring Congo - Belgium withdraws in 1950 and the nation of Congo is formed - Dictator Joseph Mobutu comes to power in 1965 and changes his name to Mobutu Sese Seko - Changes the name of Congo to Zaire - Eventually he is forced out and Laurent Kabila renames is to DRC Rwanda - Ethnic tensions between two clans Hutu and Tutsi - At first the Tutsi are a minority but have power - 1962 Rwanda receives independence and the Hutu begin to take back power - 1994 plane is shot down with a Hutu man inside it, Hutu blame Tutsi for his death, massacre occurs, ~1mil Tutsi killed - Nobody labels this as genocide bc they dont want to go in and help South Africa - Nationalist Party gets power in 1948 and create Apartheid Laws (means Apartness in Afrikaans) segregation similar to Jim Crow o Blacks had to carry passbooks without which they would be arrested o 3 classes of citizens: white, colored/azn, black - 2 and 3 class have limited rights (travel, public facilities, interracial marriage, ownership of land/business, etc.) o Blacks lived in homelands within SA o Townships towns right outside white cities that blacks had to live in - The African National Congress (ANC) tries to reform these apartheid laws o Nelson Mandela = leader of ANC o ANC leads demonstrations in Sharpeville against white minority govt o Military wing called the Umkhonto we Sizwe Spear of the Nation - Nelson Mandela leaves SA without approval and then when he returns he is found guilty of treason and is placed in prison on the Robben Island - F.W. de Klerk (last apartheid-era president of SouthAfrica) realizes they need to end Apartheid laws and legalizes the ANC, releases Nelson Mandela - Elections takes place, ANC takes political power, Nelson Mandela elected President of South Africafirst black president of SA
nd rd

Japan Rebuilding After WWII - US gives massive economic aid to Japan to rebuild economy and help with Korean War - That along with high tariffs and protectionism (high tariffs prevent imports so they only have exports) allows them to rebuild economy - Article 9 in constitution prevents offensive militarythey spend less time on the military and more time on rebuilding economy MacArthur - Leads the occupation of US troops in Japan post WWII - Runs the Supreme Command Allied Powers (SCAP) with goals of demilitarization and democracy Reorganization of Government - Now a weak constitutional monarchy with a parliament (diet)power in prime minister - New constitution to focus on rights - Article 9 no offensive military Hirohito - Emperor seen as a living god before surrender in WWII - Divinity is removed upon surrender and weak constitutional monarchy made Akhito - Current Emperor of Japan, son of Hirohito Economic Dominance - Powerful economy because of post WWII reconstruction - Focuses on electricity Korea Korean War - June 1950 North Korea (Kim Il-Sung) attacks South Korea (Syngman Rhee) - U.S. seeks help of security council and UN army is createdmostly of US troops - North Korea gets down to Pusan Perimeter, where a landing at Inchon turns the tide of the war - UN army crosses border under circumstances that they will reunify Korea - North Korea retreats, UN army crosses border until they get to the Yalu River - Chinese troops attack and send UN army back to the border (38 parallel), no land gained as result of war - 4 million deathsends in 1953 38 Parallel - North Korea (DPRK-Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea) separated from South Korea (ROK Republic of Korea) at the 38 parallel Kim Il-Sung - Great Leader - Il-Sung Jong Il Jong Un - Communist - Economy worsens, North is less agricultural so they have trouble feeding famine Douglas Macarthur - Leader of UN army - Suggests nuking Beijing and Truman fires him China Major Regions, Rivers, Mountains - Rivers: Huang He River, runs from the yellow sea o Chang Jiang
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- Mountains: Himalayas o Mount Everest near the border of Nepal Chinese Civil War - Jiang Jieshi leads the Nationalists and Mao leads the communists - Civil war between nationalists and communists - Mao uses posters and propaganda to win support of people - Nationalists flee to Taiwan in 1949; Mao wins Chaing Kai-shek - Another name for Jiang Jieshi - Leader of Nationalist Party (Kuomintang/Guomindang) Mao Zedong - Joins Communist Party in 1921 - Wanted to give communism a Chinese face (squinty eyes?) and says that communism needs to be driven by peasantsuses guerilla war to achieve revolution - Discourages religion and redistributes land - Collects enemies of the state that spoke out against communism and sent them to labor camps or killed them - Gets aid from the USSRproblem with USSR is that they focus on industrial workers and China focuses on peasants - Wanted to bomb Taipei, but Russians refuse - Great revolutionary, lousy administrator - Has the Red Guard to do his dirty worksee Cultural Revolution - Dies 1976 and replaced by Hua Guofeng The Great Leap Forward - A program Mao conducts in which he combines farms into communes - Disastrous and causes famine20 million die - Mao is told that sparrows are eating grain so he orders everyone to kill sparrows, leading to an increase in insects so the famine problem only gets worse The Cultural Revolution - Pragmatists want capitalism, Radicals (led by Jiang Qing aka Maos wife) want communism - Mao wants to get rid of the Pragmatists so he orders a cultural revolution - Orders people to destroy old Chinese culturemusic, art, and other old stuff is banned - Kids turn in parents bc so devoted to revolution - Carried out through the Red Guard, Maos bitches (the youth) o They carried around the Little Red Book all the time with quotations from Mao - Red guard burns books and destroys stuff, Mao loses control and then brings army in to stop it Tiananmen Square - Students want Chinese democracy so they protest - Soldiers massacre students in square - China receives no penalty for this because they are such a vital trading partner - Struggle to see if Xiaoping will support Li Peng or Zhao Ziyang, chooses Li Peng who supports the massacre Deng Xiaoping - Leader of Pragmatists in china (capitalists/reformers) - Takes power from Hua Guofeng (leader after Mao dies) and leads China with pragmatists - Arrests and kills gang of four (radical leaders including Jiang Qing) - Approved of the massacre at Tiananmen square Taiwain

- Nationalists flee to this country in 1949 after their defeat by the communists Hong Kong - British give it back to Chinese in 1997 - Is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) not part of mainland China, but still under Chinas control Tibet - Western portion of China that wants to be an independent nation ever since they were invaded in 1953 and annexed by China - Led by Dalai Lama face of Tibetan independence movement

Southeast Asia
Ho Chi Minh - Leader of Vietnamese independence - Communist/Nationalist - Declares independence for Vietnam in 1945 while France was not in power; France takes back control - Begins a guerilla war against the Frenc ; guerilla forces called Viet Minh - Controlled North Vietnam Dien Bien Phu - French are defeated by Viet Minh Geneva Settlement - French agree to leave Vietnam - Korea is split at the 17th parallel - North controlled by Ho Chi Minh, south by USA? Domino Theory - Eisenhowers idea that if Vietnam falls to communism, the rest of Southeast Asia will fall to it as well Viet Cong - Communists in South Korea that supported the North and fought against the South - Are hurt badly after the Tet attack by North Vietnam Vietnamization - Nixons plan to end war; gradual withdrawal of US members so that the ARVN took over fighting (ARVN) = Army of Republic of Vietnam) in 1969 Richard Nixon - Bombs the Ho Chi Minh Trail, which does nothing because people can just walk right by itits a trail - Trail runs through Cambodia and Laos Cambodia Incursion - US forces disrupted the supply of North Vietnam by going into Cambodia Boat People - Refugees who tried to flee their native country by boatleft Vietnam by boat MIA - Missing in ActionAll the troops that were missing after the Vietnam War Cambodia Kampuchea - Communist group Khmer Rouge oust Lon Nol in 1975 - New leader is now Pol Pot (real name Saloth Sar) - Name of country changed to Kampuchea Killing fields - Number of sites in Cambodia where large numbers of people were killed and buried by the Khmer Rouge regime Philippines Ferdinand Marcos - 10th president of Philippines; dictator - Held elections - Removed by People Power Corazon Aquino

- Benito Aquinos wife (he ran against Marcos but was shot and killed) - She just took over bc Benito was killed US Military Bases - Subic Bay Philippines was unhappy with US bases and closed them Southeast Asia: Vietnam: Ho Chi Minh -nationalist/communist -leader for Vietnamese independence -1945 declares independence -Starts a guerilla war against France, leads the Viet Minh (north communists) Dien Bien Phu -new French base thought the Vietnamese couldnt get to it they do -French defeated Geneva Settlement -meeting held in Geneva French give Vietnam independence -split country at 17th Parallel -north communist under Ho Chi Minh -south not communist under Ngo Dinh Diem (appointed by US, anti-communist) -say they will hold elections never do US knows Ho Chi Minh would win Domino Theory - if Vietnam became communist the rest of Southeast Asia would follow Viet Cong -southern communists -fight along side Viet Minh (north communists) -Viet Minh decide they wont share and throw them under the bus at Tet -Tet only actual battle but only against Viet Cong US beat the shit out of Viet Cong -loses public support this war is unwinnable 17th Parallel -split country at this line Vietnamization Richard Nixon -bombs the Ho Chi Minh trail which goes through Cambodia and Laos -its a trail so bombing it does nothing Cambodian Incursion -Ho Chi Minh trail runs through Cambodia -Nixon bombs the trail Boat People MIA EXTRA: Ngo Dinh Diem -appointed by US to lead South Vietnam (not communist) -military coup killed -US send advisors (troops) Gulf of Tonkin Resolution -US tries to drop of spies in North Vietnam (Tonkin Gulf) -North Vietnam fires at their destroyer -US passes Gulf of Tonkin Resolution give President LBJohnson power to do anything he sees necessary to deal with this -takes US into war 1973 peace treaty and US leaves Cambodia Kampuchea -New name of Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge Khmer Rouge -communists who began a Civil War in the country, killing

more than three million people -Communists oust Nol 1975, new leader Pol Pot Pol Pot -leads Khmer Rouge, gets rid of Lon Nol -Vicious leader of Khmer Rouge troops Killing Fields - a number of sites in Cambodia where large numbers of people were killed and buried by the Khmer Rouge regime EXTRA: -Monarch Norodom Sihanouk, becomes prime minster -Coup occurs 1970 Lon Nol takes charge, supported by the US -then Khmer Rouge and Pol Pot Philippines Ferdinand Marcos -1st independent leader Corazon Aquino -wife of Benigno Aquino -wins elections US Military Bases -end military bases EXTRA: Benigno Aquino -wants to run against Marcos -takes 2 steps off plane and is shot INDIA: GEOGRAPHY: Monsoons -Indias climate is dominated by monsoons -strong, often violent winds that change direction with the seasons Major Rivers: Indus River -longest and one of the most important rivers in South Asia -Originating in the Tibetan plateau near Lake Mansarovar, the river runs a course through Kashmir in both India and Northern Areas in Pakistan, and in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the city of Karachi Jhelum River -Originates in the southeastern part of Kashmir, in a spring at Verinag -Itlows into the Wular Lake, which lies to the north, and then into Baramula. -Between Baramula and Muzaffarabad it enters a deep gorge cut by the river in the Pir Panjal range Chenab River -Originates from the confluence of two rivers, the Chandra and the Bhaga, which themselves originate from either side of the Bara Lacha Pass in Lahul Ravi River -Originates near the Rotang pass in the Kangra Himalayas and follows a northwesterly course -turns to the south-west, near Dalhousie, and then cuts agorge in the Dhaola Dhar range entering the Punjab plain near Madhopur Himalayas -A mountain system of south-central Asia extending about 2,414 km (1,500 mi) through Kashmir, northern India, southern Xizang (Tibet), Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan. -include nine of the world's ten highest peaks, including Mount Everest. Hindu-Kush -A mountain range that is in Afghanistan, and Northern Areas of Pakistan.

-It is the westernmost extension of the Pamir Mountains, the Karakoram Range, and the Himalayas Khyber Pass -A 53-kilometer (33-miles) passage through the Hindu Kush mountain range -connects the northern frontier of Pakistan with Afghanistan -At its narrowest point, the pass is only 3 meters wide -On the north side of the Khyber Pass, rise the towering, snow-covered mountains of the Hindu Kush -one of the most famous mountain passes in the World -one of themost important passes between Afghanistan and Pakistan Deccan Plateau -Region in India, extending south of the Narmada River to the Nlgiri and Palni hills, and bordered by the Western and Eastern Ghats mountain ranges -has an undulating terrain, with elevations averaging about 600 m CULTURE: Hinduism reincarnation -Reincarnation known as Punarjanma it is one of the core beliefs of Hinduism that is generally accepted by many of its practitioners -Reincarnation is the natural process of birth, death and rebirth -Hindus believe that the Jiva or Atman (soul) is intrinsically pure. Howevever, because of the layers of Iness and My-ness, the jiva goes through transmigration in the cycle of births and deaths -Death destroys the physical body, but not the jiva. The jiva is eternal. It takes on another body with respect to its karmas. Every karma produces a result which must be experienced either in this or some future life. As long as the jiva is enveloped in ignorance, it remains attached to material desires and subject to the cycles of births and deaths (Samsara). -There is no permanent heaven or hell in Hinduism. After services in the afterlife, the jiva enters the karma and rebirth system, reborn as an animal, a human or a divinity -This reincarnation continues until moka, the final release, is gained Dominance -dominant in India Caste System -Brahmin Priests and scholars -Kshatriya - Soldiers -Vaishya Professionals and merchants -Sudra peasants/workers -Untouchables meat handlers -Made illegal by Nehru but still used today Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama -beliefs and practices of buddhism largely based on his teachings -commonly known as the Buddha, meaning "the awakened one" -lived and taught in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE -recognized by Buddhists as an awakened or enlightened teacher who shared his insights to help sentient beings end their suffering (dukkha) through the elimination of ignorance (avidy) by way of understanding and the seeing of dependent origination (prattyasamutpda) and the elimination of craving (tah), and thus the attainment of the cessation of all suffering, known as the sublime state of nirva Reactions against Hindus/Caste -The Buddha rejected caste system and taught that a person's place in life depends on the person not the person's birth and that anyone can attain enlightenment -introduced the idea of placing a higher value on morality and the equality of people instead of on which family or caste a person is born into -did not believe in Hindu deities, accepted the existence of Vedic gods but did not believe they were superior to man, disputed the authority of the Vedic scriptures and criticized brahim priests -There was a strong rivalry between Buddhism and Hinduism

Islam Role in Indian Political Development -When India is trying to get independence, there is a conflict between Muslims and Hindus -Muslims Muhammad Ali Jinnah - Muslim League -India is partitioned into E/W Pakistan (Muslim) and India -Jammu and Kashmir = Muslim majority but controlled by a Hindu prince part of India POLITICS Mohandas Gandhi -Hindu nationalist leader who believed in pacifism and protest methods of civil disobedience; assassinated on Jan. 30, 1948 -Voice of Indian independence nonviolent resistance -Ahimsa nonviolence -Satyagraha civil disobedience -Did not support partition -Shot by another hindu because the other hindu thought that Gandhi supported the partition -Mahatma great soul Nehru -First Indian Prime minister of independent India -Bans castes, creates support for the poor, rights to women -Wants a democratic path to socialism -nonaligned doesnt align with west (US) or east (communist) -Dies and replaced by Indira Gandhi (his daughter) Mohammed Ali Jinnah -leads the Muslim League -wanted a separate Muslim state Indian National Congress -major political party in India -nation's leader in the Independence Movement -The more liberal of the two political parties in India - Lead by Nehru (first) and now lead by Dr. Manmohan Singh (PM) -Two major parties are INC and BJP (Bharatiya Janata party) *INC is more pop Muslim League -Headed by Mohammed Ali Jinnah -demanded separate Muslim nation Partition of 1947 -East and West Pakistan (Muslim) -India (hindu) -Gandhi did not want this and is assasinated -Great Migrations 1 million killed, people moving to new areas, some didnt want to -Sikhs in India Indira Gandhi -becomes PM after Nehru dies (her father) -convicted of corruption creates state of emergency to stay in power -re-elected -Golden temple sikh militants go into this temple holiest sikh/hindu temple, brings in trops to stop them, 100s killed and outraged -Sikh bodyguards kill her Rajiv Gandhi -the sixth Prime Minister of India (19841989) -took office after his mother's assassination on 31 October 1984 -was assassinated on 21 May 1991 -became the youngest Prime Minister of India when he took office at the age of 40 Kashmir -Both India and Pakistan want this area - Controlled by a Hindu prince decides to make it part of India despite the Muslim majority -China claims it belongs to them they lose

-ceasefire and elections that never happen Sikhs -In India -separate religion EXTRA -economic growth mostly agricultural -customer service -IT Bharatiya Janata Party PAKISTAN: Civil War of 1917 -East and West seperated by language and geography -very different places but share same religion -East = smaller and poorer -East declares independence India backs them -East wins and becomes Bangladesh -Bangladesh is very poor, densely populated and famine Benazir Bhutto -female PM -corruption so military steps in -Flees from military, returns in 2008 to run for elections and assassinated by Al Qaeda Kashmir Dispute -Both India and Pakistan want this area - Controlled by a Hindu prince decides to make it part of India despite the Muslim majority -China claims it belongs to them they lose -ceasefire and elections that never happen Bangladesh -East Pakistan wins civil war and becomes Bangladesh -Bangladesh is very poor, densely populated and famine -Mohammad Zillur Rahman current PM Sri Lanka: Tamils -Hindu -minority -Tamils Tigers radical group, defeated, first modern suicide bombers Sinhalese -buddhist -majority Buddhism -see above buddhism section EXTRA -nationalistic and religious conflict